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  • Heart rate  (2)
  • [abr] HEPES; 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulphonic acid  (2)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 91 (1987), S. 397-402 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Human ; Benzodiazepines ; Triazolam ; Dose level ; Sleep structure ; Arousal threshold ; Smoke detector alarm ; Heart rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thirty-six young adult, male subjects with sleep-onset insomnia were equally divided into placebo, 0.25 mg, and 0.5 mg triazolam groups to examine the effects of the hypnotic, with particular attention to dose level on efficacy, sleep stages, and awakening to a smoke detector alarm. On nights 1 and 4 of a five-consecutive-night protocol, a standard home smoke detector alarm was sounded during stage 2, 5 min after sleep onset, in slow wave sleep (SWS), and at the time of the early morning awakening. The alarm registered 78 dB SPL at the pillow. EEG arousal latency and reaction time to a button press were studied. Failure to awaken to three 1-min alarm presentations was scored as “no response.” Both dose levels produced similar reductions in sleep latency, decreases in SWS, increases in stage 2, and increases in sleep efficiency. Both dose levels showed similar sedative effects to the smoke alarm. Fifty percent of triazolam subjects failed to awaken on night 1 during SWS, and EEG arousal and response latencies were significantly slowed. Some drug tolerance or sensitization to the alarm was seen by night 4. By morning, all subjects were easily awakened on both nights. The 0.25 mg dose is clearly an effective dose level for both sleep efficacy and sedative effects to outside noise, which in some instances could pose potantial problems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of applied physiology 63 (1991), S. 330-337 
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Human sleep ; Heart rate ; Noise ; Heat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary During sleep, in thermoneutral conditions, the noise of a passing vehicle induces a biphasic cardiac response, a transient peripheral vasoconstriction and sleep disturbances. The present study was performed to determine whether or not the physiological responses were modified in a hot environment or after daytime exposure to both heat and noise. Eight young men were exposed to a nocturnal thermoneutral (20° C) or hot (35° C) environment disturbed by traffic noise. During the night, the peak intensities were of 71 dB(A) for trucks, 67 dB(A) for motorbikes and 64 dB(A) for cars. The background noise level (pink noise) was set at 30 dB(A). The noises were randomly distributed at a rate of 9·h−1. Nights were equally preceded by day-time exposure to combined heat and noise or to no disturbance. During the day, the noises as well as the background noise levels were increased by 15 dB(A) and the rate was 48 · h−1. Electroencephalogram (EEG) measures of sleep, electrocardiograms and finger pulse amplitudes were continuously recorded. Regardless of the day condition, when compared with undisturbed nights, the nocturnal increase in the level of heart rate induced by heat exposure disappeared when noise was added. Percentages, delays, magnitudes and costs of cardiac and vascular responses as well as EEG events such as transient activation phases (TAP) due to noise were not affected by nocturnal thermal load or by the preceding daytime exposure to disturbances. Cardiovascular responses and TAP depended on the type of traffic noise and on the sleep stage during which noise occurred: motorbike noise provoked more disturbance than car or truck noise although the latter had the largest peak intensity. The TAP induced by noise were more frequent in stage 2 sleep than in other sleep stages. Cardiovascular responses were of lower amplitude in slow wave sleep (SWS) than in stage 2 sleep or in rapid eye movements (REM) sleep. These results suggested that the deleterious effect of noise on sleep depended on the type of noise (getting-up time and spectral composition) and that SWS was the least disturbed sleep stage when compared with stage 2 and REM sleep.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Keywords: [abr] ATEE; acetyltyrosine ethyl ester ; [abr] DFP; di-isopropylphosphofluridate ; [abr] HEPES; 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulphonic acid ; [abr] PMSF; phenylmethanesulphonylfluoride ; [abr] RDEB; recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa ; [abr] SBTI; soya bean trypsin inhibitor ; [abr] TAME; tosylarginine methyl ester ; [abr] TLCK; tosyllysine chloromethylketone
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Keywords: [abr] ATEE; acetyltyrosine ethyl ester ; [abr] DFP; di-isopropylphosphofluridate ; [abr] HEPES; 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulphonic acid ; [abr] PMSF; phenylmethanesulphonylfluoride ; [abr] RDEB; recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa ; [abr] SBTI; soya bean trypsin inhibitor ; [abr] TAME; tosylarginine methyl ester ; [abr] TLCK; tosyllysine chloromethylketone
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
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