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  • 1
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    Unknown
    Bologna: Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche (DSE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: This paper first exploits a "bonus" policy providing low-income workers with cash grants in Brazil to study the effect of liquidity provision on unemployment outcomes. Based on a RD Design, I find that granting unemployed workers with a bonus equal to half of their previous monthly earnings decreases the probability of exiting unemployment within 8 weeks by around 0.65%. Second, by exploiting the UI potential duration schedule, I find that granting workers with an extra month of unemployment benefits decreases the same outcome by 1.9%. Then, theoretical results from Landais (2014) are used to combine these estimates and disentangle liquidity and moral hazard effects of UI. Based on these, I estimate the liquidity-to-moral hazard ratio in Brazil to be as large as 98%, similarly to values previously found in the US. It suggests that, contrary to common belief, providing UI in developing countries with large informal labor markets may yield substantial welfare gains.
    Keywords: I38 ; J65 ; ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Bologna: Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche (DSE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: Can the potential availability of unemployment insurance (UI) affect the behavior of employed workers and the duration of their employment spells? I apply a regression kink design (RKD) to address this question using linked employer-employee data from the Brazilian labor market. Exploiting the UI schedule, I find 1% higher potential benefit level increases job duration by around 0.3%. Such result is driven by the fact that higher UI decreases the probability of job quits, which are not covered by UI in Brazil. These estimates are robust to permutation tests and a number of falsification tests. I develop a simple model to assess the economic relevance of this finding. It shows that the positive effect on employment duration implies that the optimal benefit level is higher than otherwise. More importantly, the model delivers a simple welfare formula based on sufficient statistics which can be easily linked to the data. A simple calibration exercise shows that this elasticity impacts welfare with a similar magnitude to the well-known elasticity of unemployment duration to benefit level.
    Keywords: I38 ; J65 ; ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Milano: Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza (DISCE)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-19
    Description: Can unemployment insurance (UI) affect the behavior of employed workers and the duration of their employment spells? I apply a regression kink design to address this question using data from the Brazilian labor market. Exploiting the UI schedule, I find that a 1% higher potential benefit level increases job duration by around 0.35%. This result is driven by the fact that a higher potential benefit level reduces the probability of job quits, which are not covered by UI. I develop a simple model showing that the positive effect on employment duration implies that the optimal benefit is higher than otherwise and delivers a simple welfare formula based on sufficient statistics. A simple calibration exercise shows that this elasticity affects welfare with a similar magnitude as the well-known elasticity of unemployment duration to the benefit level.
    Keywords: I38 ; J65 ; ddc:330 ; Unemployment Insurance ; Employment Duration ; Regression Kink Design ; Sufficient Statistics Welfare Analysis
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: In a slow process marked by authoritarian moments, regressive effects, bureaucratic insulation, centralized arrangements and cronyism, since the 1930s Brazil has been building its Welfare State. In the wake of struggles and political clashes for ensuring rights and reviving democracy, the Constitution of 1988 brought about an important shift, as it established economic and social rights and outlined a new legal and institutional framework for social policies. Among other provisions, the 1988 Constitution also established specific guidelines for the social assistance field (i.e., a non-contributory universal policy intended to meet basic needs based on the offer of public services and payment of income). Early in the decade of 2000, concurrently with the construction of the new social assistance system, the Bolsa Família program (PBF) was created and launched. Compared to the track record of the Brazilian social policies, PBF adopted new management arrangements, instruments and methods and has accounted for a portion of the equity gains (reduced poverty and inequality) experienced in the 2000 decade.This paper analyzes the PBF from the point of view of its political and institutional arrangement - that is, the set of rules, organizations and processes that define the way stakeholders and interests are coordinated in the implementation of a specific public policy. In particular, it considers the program from the perspective of its dynamic relationship with the social assistance field, discussing the connection between the political and institutional arrangements of these two policies “at the end” (i.e., at a local level) and on the “top” (i.e., at a federal level). To that end, it draws on the categories of administrative capabilities (associated to the dimension of effectiveness) and political capabilities (associated to the dimension of legitimacy) and gets input from interviews with officials from the Ministry of Social Development and Fight Against Hunger (MDS). [...]
    Keywords: H53 ; H55 ; H75 ; H77 ; I38 ; O10 ; ddc:330 ; Brazil ; Bolsa Família Program ; social assistance ; state capacities ; inter-sectorial coordination and policy orchestration
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-01-07
    Description: A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis in a total of 〉100,000 subjects of European and Asian ancestries (29,880 RA cases and 73,758 controls), by evaluating approximately 10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We discovered 42 novel RA risk loci at a genome-wide level of significance, bringing the total to 101 (refs 2 - 4). We devised an in silico pipeline using established bioinformatics methods based on functional annotation, cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci and pathway analyses--as well as novel methods based on genetic overlap with human primary immunodeficiency, haematological cancer somatic mutations and knockout mouse phenotypes--to identify 98 biological candidate genes at these 101 risk loci. We demonstrate that these genes are the targets of approved therapies for RA, and further suggest that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of RA. Together, this comprehensive genetic study sheds light on fundamental genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis, and provides empirical evidence that the genetics of RA can provide important information for drug discovery.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3944098/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3944098/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okada, Yukinori -- Wu, Di -- Trynka, Gosia -- Raj, Towfique -- Terao, Chikashi -- Ikari, Katsunori -- Kochi, Yuta -- Ohmura, Koichiro -- Suzuki, Akari -- Yoshida, Shinji -- Graham, Robert R -- Manoharan, Arun -- Ortmann, Ward -- Bhangale, Tushar -- Denny, Joshua C -- Carroll, Robert J -- Eyler, Anne E -- Greenberg, Jeffrey D -- Kremer, Joel M -- Pappas, Dimitrios A -- Jiang, Lei -- Yin, Jian -- Ye, Lingying -- Su, Ding-Feng -- Yang, Jian -- Xie, Gang -- Keystone, Ed -- Westra, Harm-Jan -- Esko, Tonu -- Metspalu, Andres -- Zhou, Xuezhong -- Gupta, Namrata -- Mirel, Daniel -- Stahl, Eli A -- Diogo, Dorothee -- Cui, Jing -- Liao, Katherine -- Guo, Michael H -- Myouzen, Keiko -- Kawaguchi, Takahisa -- Coenen, Marieke J H -- van Riel, Piet L C M -- van de Laar, Mart A F J -- Guchelaar, Henk-Jan -- Huizinga, Tom W J -- Dieude, Philippe -- Mariette, Xavier -- Bridges, S Louis Jr -- Zhernakova, Alexandra -- Toes, Rene E M -- Tak, Paul P -- Miceli-Richard, Corinne -- Bang, So-Young -- Lee, Hye-Soon -- Martin, Javier -- Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A -- Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis -- Rantapaa-Dahlqvist, Solbritt -- Arlestig, Lisbeth -- Choi, Hyon K -- Kamatani, Yoichiro -- Galan, Pilar -- Lathrop, Mark -- RACI consortium -- GARNET consortium -- Eyre, Steve -- Bowes, John -- Barton, Anne -- de Vries, Niek -- Moreland, Larry W -- Criswell, Lindsey A -- Karlson, Elizabeth W -- Taniguchi, Atsuo -- Yamada, Ryo -- Kubo, Michiaki -- Liu, Jun S -- Bae, Sang-Cheol -- Worthington, Jane -- Padyukov, Leonid -- Klareskog, Lars -- Gregersen, Peter K -- Raychaudhuri, Soumya -- Stranger, Barbara E -- De Jager, Philip L -- Franke, Lude -- Visscher, Peter M -- Brown, Matthew A -- Yamanaka, Hisashi -- Mimori, Tsuneyo -- Takahashi, Atsushi -- Xu, Huji -- Behrens, Timothy W -- Siminovitch, Katherine A -- Momohara, Shigeki -- Matsuda, Fumihiko -- Yamamoto, Kazuhiko -- Plenge, Robert M -- 20385/Arthritis Research UK/United Kingdom -- 79321/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- K08-KAR055688A/PHS HHS/ -- K24 AR052403/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- P60 AR047785/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR056768/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR057108/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR059648/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR063759/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR056291/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR056768/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR057108/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR059648/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-AR065944/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01AR063759-01A1/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R21 AR056042/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- T15 LM007450/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- U01 GM092691/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01-GM092691/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U19 HL065962/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 20;506(7488):376-81. doi: 10.1038/nature12873. Epub 2013 Dec 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [4] Department of Statistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. [5] Centre for Cancer Research, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia. ; 1] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Program in Translational NeuroPsychiatric Genomics, Institute for the Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Center for Genomic Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. [2] Department of Rheumatology and Clinical immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Institute of Rheumatology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo 162-0054, Japan. ; Laboratory for Autoimmune Diseases, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; Department of Rheumatology and Clinical immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Immunology Biomarkers Group, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; 1] Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. [2] Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; New York University Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, New York 10003, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Albany Medical Center and The Center for Rheumatology, Albany, New York 12206, USA. ; Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, New York, Presbyterian Hospital, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China. ; Department of Pharmacology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. ; 1] University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. [2] Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. ; 1] Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada. [2] Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada. [3] Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2J7, Canada. ; Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 2J7, Canada. ; Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen 9700 RB, the Netherlands. ; 1] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [3] Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; School of Computer and Information Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China. ; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; The Department of Psychiatry at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA. ; 1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Center for Genomic Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen 6500 HB, the Netherlands. ; Department of Rheumatology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen 6500 HB, the Netherlands. ; Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Arthritis Center Twente, University Twente & Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede 7500 AE, the Netherlands. ; Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, the Netherlands. ; Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, the Netherlands. ; 1] Service de Rhumatologie et INSERM U699 Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, Paris 75018, France. [2] Universite Paris 7-Diderot, Paris 75013, France. ; Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) U1012, Universite Paris-Sud, Rhumatologie, Hopitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Le Kremlin Bicetre 94275, France. ; Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen 9700 RB, the Netherlands. [2] Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, the Netherlands. ; 1] AMC/University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, the Netherlands. [2] GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage SG1 2NY, UK. [3] University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK. ; Department of Rheumatology, Hanyang University Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Seoul 133-792, South Korea. ; Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez-Neyra, CSIC, Granada 18100, Spain. ; Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Marques de Valdecilla, IFIMAV, Santander 39008, Spain. ; Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid 28040, Spain. ; 1] Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University, Umea SE-901 87, Sweden. [2] Department of Rheumatology, Umea University, Umea SE-901 87, Sweden. ; 1] Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02115, Massachusetts, USA. [2] Section of Rheumatology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. [3] Clinical Epidemiology Research and Training Unit, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH), Paris 75010, France. ; Universite Paris 13 Sorbonne Paris Cite, UREN (Nutritional Epidemiology Research Unit), Inserm (U557), Inra (U1125), Cnam, Bobigny 93017, France. ; McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0G1 Canada. ; 1] Arthritis Research UK Epidemiology Unit, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. [2] National Institute for Health Research, Manchester Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Central Manchester University Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. ; Arthritis Research UK Epidemiology Unit, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. ; Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology & Department of Genome Analysis, Academic Medical Center/University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, the Netherlands. ; Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center for Arthritis, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94117, USA. ; Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Unit of Statistical Genetics, Center for Genomic Medicine Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; Laboratory for Genotyping Development, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; Department of Statistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE-171 76, Sweden. ; The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA. ; 1] Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [3] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [4] NIHR Manchester Musculoskeletal Biomedical, Research Unit, Central Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK. ; 1] Section of Genetic Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. [2] Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. ; Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. ; 1] Center for Genomic Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. [2] Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) program, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. [3] Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) Unite U852, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. ; 1] Laboratory for Autoimmune Diseases, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. [2] Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24390342" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Animals ; Arthritis, Rheumatoid/*drug therapy/*genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Case-Control Studies ; Computational Biology ; *Drug Discovery ; Drug Repositioning ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; *Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-24
    Description: It has been more than 30 years since the publication of the new head hypothesis, which proposed that the vertebrate head is an evolutionary novelty resulting from the emergence of neural crest and cranial placodes. Neural crest generates the skull and associated connective tissues, whereas placodes produce sensory organs. However, neither crest nor placodes produce head muscles, which are a crucial component of the complex vertebrate head. We discuss emerging evidence for a surprising link between the evolution of head muscles and chambered hearts - both systems arise from a common pool of mesoderm progenitor cells within the cardiopharyngeal field of vertebrate embryos. We consider the origin of this field in non-vertebrate chordates and its evolution in vertebrates.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Diogo, Rui -- Kelly, Robert G -- Christiaen, Lionel -- Levine, Michael -- Ziermann, Janine M -- Molnar, Julia L -- Noden, Drew M -- Tzahor, Eldad -- NS076542/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS076542/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM096032/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HL108643/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 23;520(7548):466-73. doi: 10.1038/nature14435.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anatomy, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington DC 20059, USA. ; Aix Marseille Universite, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille UMR 7288, 13288 Marseille, France. ; Center for Developmental Genetics, Department of Biology, New York University, New York 10003, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California at Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA. ; Department of Biological Regulation, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25903628" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Branchial Region/anatomy & histology/cytology/*embryology ; Head/*anatomy & histology/*embryology ; Heart/*anatomy & histology/*embryology ; Mesoderm/cytology ; Models, Biological ; Muscles/anatomy & histology/cytology/embryology ; Neural Crest/cytology ; Vertebrates/*anatomy & histology/*embryology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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