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  • J24  (64)
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  • 1
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: Das vorliegende Discussion Paper untersucht die Struktur und das Ausmaß der intergenerationalen Einkommensmobilität in Deutschland. Anhand der Daten des deutschen sozioökonomischen Panels ist es möglich, sowohl Vater-Sohn als auch Vater-Tochter Paare zu untersuchen. In einem ersten Schritt geschieht dies anhand einer Einkommensgleichung, die mittels OLS geschätzt wird. Für die Vater-Sohn Paare ergibt sich dabei eine Elastizität des väterlichen Einkommens von 0,17 und für Vater-Tochter Paare von 0,2. Das bedeutet, in Deutschland werden im Durchschnitt 17 % bzw. 20 % des elterlichen Einkommensvorteils bzw. -nachteils vererbt. Im nächsten Schritt erfolgt eine detailliertere Analyse der intergenerationalen Einkommensmobilität anhand einer Quantilsregression und anhand einer geschätzten Übergangsmatrix sowohl für Söhne als auch für Töchter. Die Ergebnisse belegen für Deutschland ein hohes Maß an intergenerationaler Mobilität.
    Keywords: D31 ; J24 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; Intergenerational Mobility ; Germany
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: This paper examines the potential impacts of East-West migration of talents on the innovative capital and hence the long-run growth prospects in Eastern sending countries. Complementing previous studies, we examine the impact of high skill migration not only on the formation of human capital, but also consider migration's impact on knowledge capital in the sending countries. In line with previous studies we find that in the short- to medium-term high skill migration strictly reduces national innovative capital and hence increases the gap between East and West. However, these effects might be mitigated by factors such as reinforced education of workers, productive investment of remittances, return migration and increased knowledge transfer. Given that the emigration of highly skilled affects human capital differently than knowledge capital, addressing the adverse impacts of the most talented and highly skilled worker emigration efficiently, differentiated policies are required for human capital and knowledge capital.
    Keywords: D50 ; D80 ; F22 ; F24 ; H52 ; I21 ; J24 ; J61 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; International labour migration ; skilled workers ; growth ; human capital
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Recently, the EU Council adopted a new labour migration policy instrument - the EU Blue Cards (BC) - for attracting the highly skilled workers to the EU. The present paper examines the potential impacts, which BC may cause on less developed sending countries (LDC). Our results suggest that the EU BC will reduce human capital in LDC. In addition, BC will also have a negative impact on knowledge capital. These findings suggest that without appropriate policy responses, BC makes developing country growth prospects rather bleak than blue. Therefore, we propose and analyse alternative migration policy instruments for LDC. We find that policies implemented on the demand side of the skilled labour market are the most efficient. In contrast, policies that address the supply side of the skilled labour market are the least efficient, though they might be less costly to implement.
    Keywords: F02 ; F22 ; J24 ; J61 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Knowledge capital ; human capital ; high-skill migration ; innovative capital ; economic growth
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Passau: Universität Passau, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät
    Publication Date: 2018-06-20
    Description: Die Entwicklung der Bevölkerung geriet in Deutschland infolge der gegenwärtigen Finanzkrise der öffentlichen Haushalte und der Systeme sozialer Sicherung in den Focus des öffentlichen Interesses. Die in den meisten hochentwickelten Ländern sich abzeichnende Alterung und Schrumpfung der Bevölkerung lässt in Deutschland bis zur Mitte des 21 . Jahrhunderts einen Zusammenbruch insbesondere der durch langanhaltende hohe Arbeitslosigkeit und durch die Vereinigungslasten ausgezehrten gesetzlichen Alterssicherung befürchten. Gegenstand dieses Beitrages ist die auch von Ökonomen formulierte These einer mit der Bevölkerung schrumpfenden Wirtschaft. Bei der Analyse der Auswirkungen der Bevölkerungsentwicklung ist zu beachten, dass sich die insgesamt gesehen tektonischen Verschiebungen doch in eher bescheidenen jährlichen Änderungsraten vollziehen und durch differenzierte Entwicklungen einzelner Alterskohorten überlagert werden. Auf die langen Zeitspannen bezogen wird dabei die Anpassungsflexibilität der Wirtschaft unterschätzt. Die bevölkerungsbedingte Minderung des Erwerbspersonenpotenzials kann durch Mobilisierung von inländischen Arbeitskraftreserven verringert und eine bewusste arbeitsmarkt- und wachstumsorientierte Zuwanderungspolitik betrieben werden. Mit der Erschließung von Erwerbspersonen können auch Verbesserungen der Qualität, der Produktivität und der Wachstumsdynamik verbunden sein. Das Risiko eines Schrumpfens der Wirtschaft kann durch eine langfristig angelegte Erschließung von Erwerbspersonen und eine Potenzialentwicklung im Sinne der Wirtschaftsgrundlagenpolitik (nach H. J. Seraphim) bewältigt werden.
    Description: Because of the current financial crisis and the crisis of the German welfare state, the population development has become a topic of public discussion in Germany. The aging and decline of the population which is on the horizon of most of the highly developed countries brings up fears of a collapse of the compulsory pension scheme which is leached out by the long running high unemployment and the burden of the reunification. This article deals with the assumption of an economy that declines with population, an assumption expressed by economists as well. The analysis of the impacts of population development has to consider that the altogether tectonic shifts perform in rather modest annual alternation rates and are overlaid by developments of single cohorts. In this context, the adaptability of the economy in the long run is underestimated. The decrease of the labour force potential that results from a decline of the population can be absorbed by the mobilisation of domestic labour reserves accompanied by a controlled labour market - and growth oriented immigration policy. There can also be improvements of quality, productivity and dynamics of growth provoked by the release of new labour force. The risk of a shrinking of the economy can be coped with a long-ranging release of new labour force and a economic policy supporting the resources of the economy.
    Keywords: J00 ; J21 ; J24 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Erwerbspersonenpotenzial ; Humankapital ; population development ; economic growth ; labour force ; human capital
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Davis, CA: University of California, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: In this paper we analyze the impact of immigrants on the type and quantity of native jobs. We use data on fifteen Western European countries during the 1996-2010 period. We find that immigrants, by taking manual-routine type of occupations pushed natives towards more complex (abstract and communication) jobs. Such positive reallocation occurred while the total number of jobs held by natives was unaffected. This job upgrade was associated in the short run to a 0.6% increase in native wages for a doubling of the immigrants' share. These results are robust to the use of two alternative IV strategies based on past settlement of immigrants across European countries measured alternatively with Census or Labor Force data. The job upgrade slowed, but did not come to a halt, during the Great Recession. We also document the labor market flows behind it: the complexity of jobs offered to new native hires was higher relative to the complexity of lost jobs. Finally, we find evidence that such reallocation was significantly larger in countries with more flexible labor laws and that his tendency was particularly strong for less educated workers.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; Immigration ; Jobs ; Task specialization ; Employment Protection Laws ; Europe
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: In 2009 the EU adopted a new migration policy instrument - the Blue Cards (BC) - for attracting highly skilled workers to the EU. The present paper examines the potential impacts, which BC may cause on the less developed sending countries (LDC). According to the adopted framework of innovative capital, the BC will reduce human capital in LDC. In addition, BC will also have a negative impact on knowledge capital. These findings suggest that the BC is not coherent with the EU’s development policy. Without appropriate policy responses, BC fade the developing country growth prospects away. In order to address the skill drain issues, we propose and examine alternative migration policy options for the LDC.
    Keywords: F02 ; F22 ; J24 ; J61 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; African sending countries ; high-skill migration ; EU Blue Cards ; innovative capital ; economic growth ; LDC
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-13
    Description: This paper estimates sibling correlations in cognitive and non-cognitive skills to evaluate the importance of family background for skill formation. Based on a large representative German dataset including IQ test scores and measures of non-cognitive skills, a restricted maximum likelihood model indicates a strong relationship between family background and skill formation. Sibling correlations in non-cognitive skills range from 0.22 to 0.46; therefore, at least one-fifth of the variance in these skills results from shared sibling-related factors. Sibling correlations in cognitive skills are higher than 0.50; therefore, more than half of the inequality in cognition can be explained by shared family background. Comparing these findings with those in the intergenerational skill transmission literature suggests that intergenerational correlations capture only part of the influence of family on children's cognitive and non-cognitive skills, as confirmed by decomposition analyses and in line with previous findings on educational and income mobility.
    Keywords: J24 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; sibling correlations ; family background ; non-cognitive skills ; cognitive skills ; intergenerational mobility
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2019-04-06
    Description: Finding a non-academic job in line with both doctoral graduates’ degree and acquired know-how can be difficult because of insufficient demand for R&D skills in public administration and private enterprise and/or because of the lack of matching between the existing demand and the Ph.D. holders’ specialization. The aim of this paper is to test whether migrating from some regions may improve job-education matching in Italy. The econometric strategy takes into account Ph.D. holders’ selfselection into non-academic employment as well as the endogeneity of the migration choice. Results demonstrate that migration seems to facilitate the possibility of finding better job opportunities. More specifically, only migration within the regions of the centre and north of Italy seems to improve jobeducation matching.
    Keywords: J61 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Ph.D. holders ; job-education mismatch ; migration
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    München: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Volkswirtschaftliche Fakultät
    Publication Date: 2019-05-27
    Description: We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it in the context of international migration. Our model predicts that the probability that a couple emigrates increases with the income of the primary earner, whereas the income of the secondary earner may affect the decision in either direction. We conduct an empirical analysis that uses population-wide administrative data from Denmark, and the results are consistent with our model. We find that primary earners in couples are more strongly self-selected with respect to income than single persons. This novel result counters the intuition that family ties weaken self-selection.
    Keywords: F22 ; J12 ; J16 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; International migration ; Family migration ; Education ; Gender differences ; Dual-earner couples ; Beauty ; Elections ; Political candidates ; Appearance ; Ideology ; Parties
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Hannover: Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät
    Publication Date: 2019-07-24
    Description: This paper estimates sibling correlations in cognitive and non-cognitive skills to evaluate the importance of family background for skill formation. Based on a large representative German dataset including IQ test scores and measures of non-cognitive skills, a restricted maximum likelihood model indicates substantial influences of family background on skill formation. Sibling correlations in non-cognitive skills range from 0.223 to 0.464; therefore, at least one-fifth of the variance in these skills results from sibling-related factors. Sibling correlations in cognitive skills are higher than 0.50; therefore, more than half of the inequality in cognition can be explained by family background. Comparing these findings with those in the intergenerational skill transmission literature suggests that intergenerational correlations capture only part of the influence of family on children's cognitive and non-cognitive skills, as confirmed by decomposition analyses and in line with previous findings on educational and income mobility.
    Keywords: J24 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; sibling correlations ; family background ; non-cognitive skills ; cognitive skills ; intergenerational mobility
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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