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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 7 (1991), S. 971-979 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The nucleotide sequence of a 1558 bp DNA fragment from the right arm of chromosome III of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains an open reading frame of 954 nucleotides with coding potential for a protein with high similarity to the ubiquitous cyclophilins which are both peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases and cyclosporin A-binding proteins. It should, therefore, represent the third gene (SCC3) of this kind from S. cerevisiae. SCC3 is present in a single copy in the genome of S. cerevisiae and results in a constitutively expressed 1·2 kb transcript during cell growth. Its putative protein product (Scc3) contains two hydrophobic cores, one at the amino terminal, 20 amino acids long, which could serve as a signal peptide, and the other one at the carboxyl end with a structure similar to a transmembrane helix. These findings suggest that Scc3 could be a secretory or, more likely, a transmembrane protein. The only cyclophilin with similar structure to that of Scc3 is ninaA from Drosophila melanogaster, a transmembrane protein which seems to be implicated in the correct folding and/or intercalation of rhodopsin in the endoplasmic reticulum of the fly photoreceptors (Stamnes, M. A. et al., Cell 65, 219-227, 1991). In addition, the amino and the carboxy regions of Scc3 and ninaA share a significant level of homology, which suggests that they have a similar function, albeit for different target proteins.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Developmental Dynamics 198 (1993), S. 284-295 
    ISSN: 1058-8388
    Keywords: Skeletogenesis ; Endochondral ossification ; Shell-less chick embryo ; Hyaline cartilage ; Extracellular matrix ; Mineralization ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Maintenance of chick embryos in long-term culture without their calcareous eggshell is a useful method for studying the relationship between calcium homeostasis and cell differentiation during skeletogenesis. Previously, we have shown that in shell-less (SL) embryos, calcium deficiency induces a cartilage-like phenotype in osteogenic tissues, such as calvaria (Jacenko and Tuan [1986] Dev. Biol. 115:215). In this investigation, we have studied the relationship between cartilage calcification and hypertrophy, and the expression of type X collagen, a specific product of hypertrophic chondrocytes. For this study, the cephalic (calcifying) and caudal (permanently cartilaginous) regions of sterna from day 18 and day 20 normal (NL) and SL embryos were metabolically labeled with [14C]-proline. Analysis of the biosynthetic products revealed significant differences in type X collagen expression in the cephalic region of sternal cartilage. In NL tissues, type X collagen production increased from 13.1% of total collagen at day 18 to 43.7% at day 20. In contrast, in SL embryos, type X collagen was not detectable until day 20, when it represented only 1% of total collagen. Comparison of the NL and SL embryos with respect to their serum calcium level and sternal calcium content and histology revealed a direct relationship between low systemic calcium and limited cartilage hypertrophy, undermineralization, and decreased type X collagen production in the sternal cephalic cartilage. Supplementation of CaCO3 to SL embryos increased their serum and sternal calcium, and restored cartilage hypertrophy, mineralization, and type X collagen synthesis in the cephalic portion of the sterna. These findings confirm that a critical relationship exists between calcium homeostasis, chondrocyte hypertrophy, mineralization, and type X collagen synthesis in the cephalic region of sternal cartilage. These results further demonstrate the importance of calcium in the morphogenetic events of endochondral ossification, in particular the transition from hyaline cartilage to hypertrophic cartilage, and eventually to bone. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 55 (1994), S. 465-476 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Xenopus laevis ; ras-p21 ; Ser/Thr kinases ; GVBD ; MAP kinase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Induction of mitosis in Xenopus laevis oocytes by hormones and the oncogenic ras-p21 protein has been shown to correlate with a cascade of phosphorylations of the Ser/Thr family of kinases. However, the exact hierarchy of enzymes and their mutual interdependency has not been fully elucidated yet. We have used the Xenopus laevis system to investigate the mechanism of activation of the Ser/Thr kinases cascade and their relationship. Comparison between progesterone-induced germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), a hallmark of mitosis in oocytes, to that triggered by ras-p21, revealed the existence of at least two independent mechanisms to activate the MAP kinase enzyme in vivo. While progesterone function is dependent of cdc2 protein kinase activity, ras-p21 is independent of this enzyme. However, both progesterone and ras-p21 converge at the MAP kinase level, and depletion of MAP kinase activity inhibits the GVBD and S6 kinase II activation induced by both progesterone and ras-p21. These results provides further evidence that MAP kinase is a critical step for regulation of the cell cycle in oocytes and a critical point where ras and progesterone signaling converge. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 57 (1995), S. 141-149 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Growth factors ; cell growth ; phospholipase D ; hemicholinium-3 ; phosphorylcholine ; choline kinase ; Raf-1 ; MAP kinase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Cell proliferation is regulated by an appropriate combination of intracellular signals involving activation of kinases and the generation of phospholipid metabolites. We report here that growth factors induce a biphasic generation of phosphorylcholine (PCho) in quiescent NIH 3T3 cells, resulting in an early and transient increase at 100 s and a larger and sustained increase after 3 h of stimulation. Generation of PCho at both early and late times of growth factors stimulation results from the consecutive activation of phospholipase D (PLD) and choline kinase (ChoK). Production of PCho by specific growth factors seems an essential requirement for the early signals associated to activation of Raf-1 and MAP kinases, since blockage of choline kinase completely inhibited activation of Raf-1 and MAP kinases by PDGF or FGF. Both the transient early increase and the late sustained increase in PCho are required for the induction of DNA-synthesis, besides completion of the activation of the serine/threonine kinases cascade. Thus, our results strongly suggest that generation of PCho by the PLD/choline kinase pathway is one of the critical steps in regulating cell growth in NIH 3T3 stimulated by growth factors.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 242 (1995), S. 400-410 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Lymphocytes ; Macrophages ; Antigen-presenting cells ; Elasmobranchs ; Brain ; Immune responses ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of lympho-haemopoietic tissue in the meninges and choroid plexuses of various primitive vertebrates, including the stingray Dasyatis akajei and in early human embryos. In the present study, we extend these results analyzing macrophage-lymphocyte cell clusters found in the floor of the hypothalamic ventricle of several specimens of elasmobranchs.Methods: After aseptical isolation of the brain from several specimens of smooth dogfish Triakis scyllia, cloudy dogfish Scyliorhinus torazame, gummy shark Mustelus manazo, and stingray Dasyatis akajei their hypothalamic regions were processed routinely by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy.Results: The study of serial histological sections demonstrated that the macrophage-lymphocyte cell clusters proceeded from the meningeal lymphohaemopoietic tissue, reaching the ventricular lumen along large blood vessels. In this tissue, macrophages, different sized lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, granulocytes, monocytes, and developing and mature plasma cells were closely packed among a meshwork of fibroblastic reticular cell processes. It never invaded the brain parenchyma. A cell layer of glial elements and a continuous basement membrane interposed between the lymphoid tissue and the neural elements although some macrophages had migrated across the ependymal cell layer. In the ventricular lumen very irregular macrophages with long cell processes and containing abundant engulfed material of unknown origin formed big cell clusters with neighboring lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and plasma cells, similar to those described during the immune response. Moreover, electron lucent cells which resembled the antigen-presenting cells of higher vertebrates established intimate surface cell contacts with the surrounding lymphocytes. In the third ventricle of several specimens of gummy shark, Mustelus manazo, morphologically similar cell clusters appeared but these were not connected to the meningeal lympho-haemopoietic tissue. No intraentricular cell aggregates were found in the stingray brain.Conclusions: Although we cannot rule out that these macrophage-lymphocyte cell clusters represent a permanent structure in the elasmobranch brain they rather seem to be only established after specific stimulation for preventing the entrance of noxious, foreign materials into the elasmobranch brain parenchyma. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 55 (1933), S. 279-289 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 233 (1992), S. 453-460 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The development and arrangement of the sphenomandibular ligament of 60 human embryos and fetuses were studied. Meckel's cartilage appeared as a single, continuous fibrous structure lying between the mandibular lingula and the malleus of the middle ear in fetuses of 210 mm crown-rump length (22 weeks of age) and over. This structure constitutes the malleolomandibular ligament, and two clearly differentiated portions bound by the tympanosquamosal fissure could be seen: a juxtaarticular portion, inserted on the posterior edge of the interpterygoid aponeurosis, and a tympanic portion, onto which the disc of the temporomandibular joint inserted. Some of the authors consider that if tension is applied to the sphenomandibular ligament this may injure the middle ear. The anatomical arrangement of the sphenomandibular ligament could explain these injuries. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 103 (1980), S. 77-85 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) stimulates quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells to initiate DNA synthesis and divide. Cells begin to enter the S-phase after a lag of 13-15 hr, and the rate of initiation of DNA synthesis in the population can be quantified by a first order rate constant, k. A subsaturating concentration of FGF may establish the lag phase, while the value of k is dependent on the FGF concentration present during the second half of the lag phase. Insulin and hydrocortisone enhance the effect of FGF by increasing k without changing the lag phase, and they can act when added at any time after FGF. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) causes a decrease in k and a lengthening of the lag phase, and acts only when added during the first 8 hr. None of these agents stimulate DNA synthesis in the absence of FGF.These results show that the stimulation of growth by FGF follows the same basic pattern as was previously shown with Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). However, since hydrocortisone inhibits stimulation by PGF2α when added during the first 4 hr of the lag phase, there are clearly differences in some events stimulated by the two growth factors.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 108 (1981), S. 145-153 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates the initiation of DNA synthesis in Swiss 3T3 cells after a constant prereplicative period of 14-15 hours. The final rate of initiation follows apparent first-order kinetics and can thus be quantified by a rate constant k. The value of k can be changed by later additions during the prereplicative period: When cells stimulated by a very low concentration of EGF, alone or with insulin, which results in a relatively low value of k, receive a saturating amount of EGF at 15 hours, then k is markedly increased after 4-6 hours. Insulin alone (up to 200 ng/ml) is unable to set the lag phase, but does have a synergistic effect on the value of k given by EGF. When added at 15 hours, insulin also increases k, but after a delay of 4-6 hours. In contrast, both hydrocortisone and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) inhibit the stimulation of DNA synthesis by EGF only during the first 8 hours of the prereplicative period of decreasing the value of k.Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), which stimulates DNA synthesis in a similar mode as EGF, when added with EGF has a synergistic effect on DNA synthesis. This suggests that EGF and PGF2α, nevertheless, act through different regulatory events.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 134 (1988), S. 57-66 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: An approach to the investigation how growth factors and hormones regulate mammalian cell proliferation is to study the activity of enzymes involved in DNA replication. Quiescent cultures of Swiss mouse 3T3 cells were stimulated with prostaglandin F2α insulin, and/or hydrocortisone for a time at which less than 50% of the cells had initiated DNA synthesis. Such cells were lysed with a Ca+ +-containing hypotonic buffer and incubated with a nucleotide mixture including [3H]thymidine-triphosphate for 1 hr at 37°C. The amount of radioactive label incorporated into the trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitate and the percentage of labeled nuclei correlated with the in vivo stimulation. Analysis of radioactively and density-labeled DNA in sucrose and CsC gradients indicated that the incorporation of label reflected semiconservative replication. DNA polymerase activities were assayed in supernatants from whole-cell lysates prepared with a hypotonic buffer not containing Ca+ +. Using various templates, it was shown that the increase in activity of DNA polymerase α correlated with the percentage of cells in S phase upon the different stimulation, while DNA polymerase β activity after various times of stimulation showed that this activity increased only when cells began to enter S phase, regardless of the combination of growth factor and hormones.
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