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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Surface and Interface Analysis 16 (1990), S. 493-496 
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The growth of Pd layers on polycrystalline Cu substrate at 176 K and 300 K was studied in an Auger system with facilities for photoelectric work function (WF) measurements and automated data acquisition. The LVV and MVV Auger transitions of Cu, as well as the corresponding MVV and NVV of Pd, were monitored in relation to Pd overlayer thickness, annealing temperature and sputtering time. The ‘local’ WF change, determined through the secondaries' cut-off shift, and the absolute photoelectric WF were also monitored.The initially linear increase in the Pd atom fraction, with only one break during deposition at 300 K, suggests a Stranski-Krastanov film growth mechanism. The simultaneously monitored Auger M23M45M45 Cu doublet at 59-61 eV changes from the very beginning of the Pd deposition into one broadened peak at 61 eV, possibly owing to a roughness effect. With sputtering, the slope of the Pd concentration at the interface decreases when the temperature of deposition and sputtering increases from 176 K to 300 K, indicating diffusion of Pd even at 300 K. By sputtering with Ar+ ions of 5 keV, a depth resolution of ∼3.2 nm was found. Annealing at T 〉 473 K causes a rapid diffusion of Pd atoms into the Cu substrate.The ‘local’ WF is affected dramatically by Pd deposition and sputtering, while the average photoelectric WF is not as sensitive.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Surface and Interface Analysis 22 (1994), S. 214-217 
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The growth of evaporated Co overlayers onto Si(100) at 350 K was studied using Auger electron spectroscopy. Cobalt 5N was evaporated at a rate of ≈0.4 monolayers/min from a filament. The amount deposited was monitored with a quartz crystal microbalance with a resolution of 0.2 monolayers. The changes in the L23VV Si as well as in the cobalt LMM and MVV Auger transitions were followed. The growth mode of Co onto Si(100) surface depends strongly on the presence of oxygen. Without oxygen a diffusion front of Co is found after deposition of ≈4 monolayers. In the presence of oxygen (5 × 10-10 mbar), Si atoms diffuse to the surface, the adsorbed oxygen acting as the driving force with possible building of CoSi and Co2Si. The admitted oxygen does not cause detectable oxidation of the Si surface nor of the Co overlayer. A thin layer of SiO2 can be formed on the Si surface by O2+ bombardment, acting as a diffusion barrier to Co overlayers.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Surface and Interface Analysis 26 (1998), S. 235-241 
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    Keywords: molybdenum oxides ; oxygen plasma ; ballistic effects ; XPS ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The oxidation of molybdenum at room temperature with oxygen plasma or a beam of O2+ ions has been studied with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Auger electron spectroscopy shows a progressive modification of the N2,3VV lineshape and the development of new features close to the intense M4,5NN Auger transitions of metallic Mo at 160, 186 and 221 eV. The effects are greater with the oxygen plasma than with the O2+ bombardment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the incorporation of oxygen into the molybdenum gives rise to the formation of Mo6+, Mo4+ and a form of Mon+ (n〈4). The (Mo4++Mon+)/Mo6+ ratio was higher after O2+ ion bombardment than by treatment with the oxygen plasma, in which case the concentration of the Mo4+ and Mo6+ oxidation states was very similar. The analysis of the O 1s and O KLL Auger spectra under the different conditions showed that whenever a high concentration of the Mo6+ species is present, the O-Mo bond is more covalent in character. To evaluate the influence of chemical and ballistic effects in the two oxidation processes, additional experiments were carried out with MoO3. This oxide was bombarded with Ar+ and O2+ until a steady-state surface composition was reached. In both cases, the formation of a considerable amount of Mo4++Mon+ (n〈4) and Mo0 species (i.e. reduction of Mo6+ initially present in the sample) was detected. These results suggest that the high concentration of Mo4++Mon+ found upon bombardment of Mo0 with O2+ is rather produced by ballistic effects, which cause the reduction of the initially formed Mo6+. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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