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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 107 (1996), S. 405-421 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Primary afferent depolarization ; Presynaptic inhibition ; Muscle afferents ; Nerve crush ; Spinal cord ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the anesthetized cat we have analyzed the changes in primary afferent depolarization (PAD) evoked in single muscle spindle and tendon organ afferents at different times after their axons were crushed in the periphery and allowed to regenerate. Medial gastrocnemius (MG) afferents were depolarized by stimulation of group I fibers in the posterior biceps and semitendinosus nerve (PBSt), as soon as 2 weeks after crushing their axons in the periphery, in some cases before they could be activated by physiological stimulation of muscle receptors. Two to twelve weeks after crushing the MG nerve, stimulation of the PBSt produced PAD in all MG fibers reconnected with presumed muscle spindles and tendon organs. The mean amplitude of the PAD elicited in afferent fibers reconnected with muscle spindles was increased relative to values obtained from Ia fibers in intact (control) preparations, but remained essentially the same in fibers reconnected with tendon organs. Quite unexpectedly, we found that, between 2 and 12 weeks after crushing the MG nerve, stimulation of the bulbar reticular formation (RF) produced PAD in most afferent fibers reconnected with muscle spindle afferents. The mean amplitude of the PAD elicited in these fibers was significantly increased relative to the PAD elicited in muscle spindle afferents from intact preparations (from 0.08–0.4 to 0.47-0.34 mV). A substantial recovery was observed between 6 months and 2.5 years after the peripheral nerve injury. Stimulation of the sural (SU) nerve produced practically no PAD in muscle spindles from intact preparations, and this remained so in those afferents reconnected with muscle spindles impaled 2–12 weeks after the nerve crush. The mean amplitude of the PAD produced in afferent fibers reconnected with tendon organs by stimulation of the PBSt nerve and of the bulbar RF remained essentially the same as the PAD elicited in intact afferents. However, SU nerve stimulation produced a larger PAD in afferents reconnected with tendon organs 2–12 weeks after the nerve crush (mean PAD changed from 0.05-0.04 to 0.32-0.17 mV). The results obtained indicate that the PAD patterns of the afferent fibers reconnected with muscle spindle and tendon organ afferents are changed after crushing their axons in the periphery: stimulation of the bulbar RF appears to produce larger PAD in fibers reconnected with muscle spindles, and stimulation of cutaneous afferents produces larger PAD in fibers reconnected with tendon organs. It is suggested that these alterations in the patterns of PAD of muscle afferents result from central changes in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory influences acting on the segmental pathways mediating the PAD. Although the functional role of these changes has not been established, they may reflect compensatory changes aimed to adjust information arising from damaged afferents.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 88 (1992), S. 106-116 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Bulbo-spinal inhibition ; Presynaptic inhibition ; Primary afferent depolarization ; Inhibition of PAD ; Spinal cord ; Brain stem ; Frog
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. In the isolated spinal cord and brainstem of the frog, stimulation of the brainstem (BS) with trains of 3–4 pulses at 60–400 Hz produced dorsal root potentials (DRPs). The lowest threshold sites eliciting DRPs were located at the level of the obex up to about 2.5 mm rostrally, 0.5–1.2 mm laterally, between 0.5 and 1.6 mm depth. This region corresponds to the bulbar reticular formation (RF). 2. Stimulation of the RF with strengths below those required to produce DRPs, very effectively inhibited the DRPs produced by stimulation of a neighboring dorsal root (DR-DRPs) as well as the DRPs produced by antidromic stimulation of the central end of motor nerves (VR-DRPs). The inhibition was detectable 20 ms after the first pulse of the conditioning train, attained maximal values between 50 and 100 ms and lasted more than 250ms. 3. Stimulation of the bulbar RF increased the negative response (N1 response) produced in the motor pool by antidromic activation of motoneurons. The time course of the facilitation of the N1 response resembled that of the reticularly-induced inhibition of the VR-DRPs and DR-DRPs. 4. The present series of observations supports the existence of reticulospinal pathways that are able to inhibit the depolarization elicited in afferent fibers by stimulation of other afferent fibers or by antidromic activation of motor axons. This inhibition appears to be exerted on the PAD mediating interneurons and is envisaged as playing an important role in motor control.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 95 (1993), S. 261-270 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Bulbo-spinal inhibition ; Inhibition of PAD ; Spinal cord ; Brainstem ; Frog
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of the brainstem reticular formation on the intraspinal excitability of low threshold cutaneous and muscle afferents were studied in the frog neuraxis isolated together with the right hindlimb nerves. Stimulation of low threshold fibers (less than two times threshold) in cutaneous nerves produced short latency, negative field potentials in the ipsilateral dorsal neuropil (200–400 μm depth) that reversed to positivity at deeper regions (500–700 μm). Stimulation of low threshold fibers (less than two times threshold) in muscle nerves produced, instead, negative responses that acquired their maximum amplitude in the ventral neuropil (700–900 μm depth). These electrophysiological findings suggest, in agreement with observations in the cat, that low threshold cutaneous and muscle afferents end at different sites in the spinal cord. Intraspinal microstimulation applied within the dorsal neuropil produced antidromic responses in low threshold cutaneous afferents that were increased in size following stimulation of the dorsal or ventral roots, as well as of the brainstem reticular formation. This increase in excitability is interpreted as being due to primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of the intraspinal terminals of cutaneous fibers. Antidromic responses recorded in muscle nerves following intraspinal stimulation within the ventral neuropil were also increased following conditioning stimulation of adjacent dorsal or ventral roots. However, stimulation of the bulbar reticular formation produced practically no changes in the antidromic responses, but was able to inhibit the PAD of low threshold muscle afferents elicited by stimulation of the dorsal or ventral roots. It is suggested that the PAD of low threshold cutaneous and muscle afferents is mediated by independent sets of interneurons. Reticulospinal fibers would have excitatory connections with the interneurons mediating the PAD of cutaneous fibers and inhibitory connections with the interneurons mediating the PAD of muscle afferents. Although our results provide no direct information on whether the reticulospinal depression of the PAD elicited in low threshold muscle afferents is due to inhibition along the pathways producing PAD of muscle spindle or of tendon organ afferents, it seems likely — by analogy with what has been seen in the cat spinal cord — that these inhibitory actions are mostly restricted to the pathways producing PAD in the terminal arborizations of muscle spindle afferents. These results emphasize the specificity of the descending control of the synaptic efficacy of low threshold cutaneous and muscle afferents which could be of importance for motor performance.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 91 (1992), S. 29-45 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Presynaptic inhibition ; Primary afferent depolarization ; Baclofen ; GABA ; Spinal cord ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The purpose of the present series of experiments was to analyze, in anesthetized and paralyzed cats, the effects of (-)-baclofen and picrotoxin on the primary afferent depolarization (PAD) generated in single Ib afferent fibers by either intraspinal microstimulation or stimulation of the segmental and descending pathways. PAD was estimated by recording dorsal root potentials and by measuring the changes in the intraspinal activation threshold of single Ib muscle afferent fibers. The PAD elicited by stimulation of group I muscle or cutaneous afferents was readily depressed and often abolished 20–40 min after the intravenous injection of 1–2 mg/kg (-)-baclofen. In contrast, the same amounts of (-)-baclofen produced a relatively small depression of the PAD elicited by stimulation of the brainstem reticular formation (RF). The monosynaptic PAD produced in single Ib fibers by intraspinal microstimulation within the intermediate nucleus was depressed and sometimes abolished following the i.v. injections of 1–2 mg/kg (-)-baclofen. Twenty to forty minutes after the i.v. injection of picrotoxin (0.5–1 mg/kg), there was a strong depression of the PAD elicited by stimulation of muscle and cutaneous afferents as well as of the PAD produced by stimulation of the RF and the PAD produced by intraspinal microstimulation. The results obtained suggest that, in addition to its action on primary afferents, (-)-baclofen may depress impulse activity and/or transmitter release in a population of last-order GABAergic interneurons that mediate the PAD of Ib fibers. The existence of GABAb autoreceptors in last-order interneurons mediating the PAD may function as a self-limiting mechanism controlling the synaptic efficacy of these interneurons.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 69 (1987), S. 195-207 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: PAD ; Presynaptic inhibition ; Cutaneous fibres ; Spinal cord ; Red nucleus ; Brain stem ; Strychnine ; Picrotoxin ; Potassium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The relative contribution of specific and unspecific (potassium) components involved in the generation of primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of cutaneous fibres was analyzed in the spinal cord of the anaesthetized cat. To this end we examined the correlation between the intraspinal threshold changes of single afferent fibres in the sural nerve produced by segmental and descending inputs and the negative DC potential shifts produced by these same stimuli at the site of excitability testing, the latter taken as indicators of the changes in extracellular concentration of potassium ions. Stimulation of the ipsilateral brain-stem reticular formation and of the contralateral red nucleus with 100–200 Hz trains reduced very effectively the intraspinal threshold of sural nerve fibres ending in the dorsal horn practically without producing any negative DC potential shifts at the site of excitability testing. However, negative DC potential shifts were produced more ventrally, in the intermediate nucleus and/or motor nucleus. Stimulation of the sural and superficial peroneus nerves with pulses at 2 Hz and strengths below 2×T, also reduced the intraspinal threshold of single SU fibres without producing significant DC potential changes at the site of excitability testing. On the other hand, 100 Hz trains with strengths above 2×T produced negative DC potential shifts and a proportional reduction of the intraspinal threshold of the SU fibres. The PAD of sural fibres produced by stimulation of rubro-spinal and reticulospinal fibres as well as by stimulation of sensory nerves with low frequency trains was unaffected or slightly increased, by i.v. injection of strychnine (0.2 mg/kg), but was readily abolished 5–10 min after the i.v. injection of picrotoxin (2 mg/kg). The results suggest that activation of reticulo-spinal and rubrospinal fibres, as well as stimulation of cutaneous nerves with low frequencies and low strengths, produce PAD of cutaneous fibres involving activation of specific interneuronal pathways with interposed last-order GABAergic interneurons. The potassium component of the PAD produced by cutaneous fibres becames dominant with high stimulus frequencies and strengths.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 71 (1988), S. 643-657 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Primary afferent depolarization ; Presynaptic inhibition ; Muscle spindles ; Tendon organs ; Spinal cord
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Intracellular recordings were made in the barbiturate-anesthetized cat from single afferent fibres left in continuity with the medial gastrocnemius muscle to document the transmembrane potential changes produced in functionally identified fibres by stimulation of sensory nerves and of the contralateral red nucleus (RN). Fifty five fibres from muscle spindles had conduction velocities above 70 m/s and were considered as from group Ia. Stimulation of group I afferent fibres of the posterior biceps and semitendinosus nerve (PBSt) produced primary afferent depolarization (PAD) in 30 (54%) Ia fibres. Stimulation of the sural (SU) nerve produced no transmembrane potential changes in 39 (71%) group Ia fibres and dorsal root reflex-like activity (DRRs) in 16 (29%) fibres. In 17 out of 28 group Ia fibres (60.7%) SU conditioning inhibited the PAD generated by stimulation of the PBSt nerve. Facilitation of the PBSt-induced PAD by SU conditioning was not seen. Repetitive stimulation of the RN had mixed effects: it produced PAD in 1 out of 8 fibres and inhibited the PAD induced by PBSt stimulation in 2 other fibres. Nine fibres connected to muscle spindles had conduction velocities below 70 m/s and were considered to be group II afferents. No PAD was produced in these fibres by SU stimulation but DRRs were generated in 5 of them. In 23 out of 31 fibres identified as from tendon organs group I PBSt volleys produced PAD. However, stimulation of the SU nerve produced PAD only in 3 out of 34 fibres, no transmembrane potential changes in 30 fibres and DRRs in 1 fibre. The effects of SU conditioning on the PAD produced by PBSt stimulation were tested in 19 Ib fibres and were inhibitory in 12 of them. In 9 of these fibres SU alone produced no transmembrane potential changes. Repetitive stimulation of the RN produced PAD in 3 out of 9 Ib fibres. SU conditioning inhibited the RN-induced PAD. The present findings support the existence of an alternative inhibitory pathway from cutaneous to Ib fibres, in addition to the well known excitatory pathway producing PAD. Possible functional implications of inhibitory actions of cutaneous fibres with the pathways mediating the PAD of group Ia and Ib fibres are discussed.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 85 (1991), S. 93-102 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Presynaptic inhibition ; Heterosynaptic facilitation ; Monosynaptic EPSPs ; Spinal cord ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. In the chloralose anesthetized cat, conditioning stimulation of group I flexor afferents depresses the monosynaptic potentials generated by Ia afferents in single spinal motoneurons or in populations of motoneurons without affecting the monosynaptic potentials produced by stimulation of descending fibers in the ipsilateral ventromedial fasciculus (VMF). 2. Heterosynaptic facilitation of monosynaptic reflexes was used to test changes in the presynaptic effectiveness of excitatory inputs with direct connections with motoneurons. We found that the heterosynaptic facilitation of Ia origin was reduced by conditioning stimulation of group I afferents from flexors, without affecting the heterosynaptic facilitation produced by stimulation of the VMF. 3. These results confirm and expand previous observations showing that the synaptic effectiveness of descending fibers synapsing with motoneurons is not subjected to a presynaptic control mechanism of the type acting on Ia fiber terminals, and provide further basis for the use of changes in heterosynaptic facilitation of monosynaptic reflexes of Ia origin as an estimate of changes in presynaptic inhibition of Ia fibers (Hultborn et al. 1987a).
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 85 (1991), S. 103-113 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Presynaptic inhibition ; Baclofen ; Monosynaptic EPSPs ; Spinal cord ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. In cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose, population synaptic responses of motoneurons produced by stimulation of group I afferents were recorded from ventral roots with a sucrose gap or extracellularly from the motor pool. These responses were depressed, and often abolished, following the intravenous injection of 1–3 mg/kg of (−)-baclofen, a presumed GABAb agonist. 2. The monosynaptic population responses of motoneurons produced by stimulation of the ipsilateral ventromedial funiculus (VMF), the bulbar reticular formation or the vestibular nucleus, were also depressed following the administration of (−)-baclofen, but to a lesser degree than responses produced by stimulation of group I fibers. 3. Depression of the synaptic actions of Ia and of descending fibers following the administration of (−)-baclofen occurred without significant changes in the presynaptic volley recorded from the cord dorsum. However, in 3/4 experiments the intraspinally recorded Ia terminal potential was reduced following the injection of (−)-baclofen. The VMF terminal potentials were also depressed, but to a lesser degree. 4. Intracellular recordings from spinal motoneurons indicate that the (−)-baclofen-induced depression of the monosynaptic Ia- and VMF-EPSPs occurred without important changes in the time course of EPSP decay. This suggests that with the amounts used, postsynaptic changes were not contributing significantly to the EPSP depression. 5. It is suggested that (−)-baclofen depresses synaptic transmission probably by activation of GABAb receptors located at the intraspinal terminations of Ia and descending fibers. The lower sensitivity of VMF actions to (−)-baclofen would be accounted for by a relatively low density of baclofen receptors in descending fiber terminals.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 107 (1996), S. 391-404 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Primary afferent depolarization ; Presynaptic inhibition ; Muscle afferents ; Spinal cord ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The present investigation documents the patterns of primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of single, functionally identified muscle afferents from the medial gastrocnemius nerve in the intact, anesthetized cat. Classification of the impaled muscle afferents as from muscle spindles or from tendon organs was made according to several criteria, which comprised measurement of conduction velocity and electrical threshold of the peripheral axons, and the maximal frequency followed by the afferent fibers during vibration, as well as the changes in discharge frequency during longitudinal stretch, the projection of the afferent fiber to the motor pool, and, in unparalyzed preparations, the changes in afferent activity during a muscle twitch. In confirmation of a previous study, we found that most muscle spindle afferents (46.1–66.6%, depending on the combination of criteria utilized for receptor classification) had a type A PAD pattern. That is, they were depolarized by stimulation of group I fibers of the posterior biceps and semitendinosus (PBSt) nerve, but not by stimulation of cutaneous nerves (sural and superficial peroneus) or the bulbar reticular formation (RF), which in many cases inhibited the PBSt-induced PAD. In addition, we found a significant fraction of muscle spindle primaries that were depolarized by stimulation of group I PBSt fibers and also by stimulation of the bulbar RF. Stimulation of cutaneous nerves produced PAD in 9.1–31.2% of these fibers (type B PAD pattern) and no PAD in 8.2–15.4% (type C PAD pattern). In contrast to muscle spindle afferents, only the 7.7–15.4% of fibers from tendon organs had a type A PAD pattern, 23–46.1% had a type B and 50–61.5% a type C PAD pattern. These observations suggest that the neuronal circuitry involved in the control of the synaptic effectiveness of muscle spindles and tendon organs is subjected to excitatory as well as to inhibitory influences from cutaneous and reticulospinal fibers. As shown in the accompanying paper, the balance between excitation and inhibition is not fixed, but can be changed by crushing the afferent axons in the peripheral nerve and allowing subsequent reconnection of these afferent fibers with muscle receptors.
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  • 10
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-04
    Description: The effectiveness of social interaction depends strongly on an ability to coordinate actions efficiently. In large networks, such coordination may be very difficult to achieve and may depend on the communication technology and the network structure. We examine how pre-play communication and clustering within networks affect coordination in a challenging experimental game on eight-person networks. Free-form chat is enormously effective in achieving the nonequilibrium efficient outcome in our game, but restricted communication (where subjects can only indicate their intended action) is almost entirely ineffective. We can rationalize this result with a novel model about the credibility of cheap-talk messages. This credibility is much larger with freeform message communication than with restricted communication. We are the first to model this credibility and show, both theoretically and experimentally, an interaction effect of network structure and communication technologies. We also provide a model of message diffusion, which indeed predicts that diffusion will be more rapid without clustering and is consistent with our data.
    Keywords: C71 ; C91 ; D03 ; D85 ; ddc:330 ; networks ; clustering ; communication ; credibility ; cheap talk ; experiment
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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