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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of neural transmission 104 (1997), S. 703-710 
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Alzheimer's disease ; alpha-tocopherol ; vitamin E ; cerebrospinal fluid levels ; serum levels
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We compared CSF and serum levels, and the CSF/serum ratio of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), measured by HPLC, in 44 apparently well-nourished patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 37 matched controls. CSF and serum vitamin E levels were correlated, both in AD patients and in controls. The mean CSF and serum vitamin E levels were significantly lower in AD patients, and the CSF/serum ratio of AD patients did not differ significantly between the 2 study groups. CSF vitamin E levels did not correlate with age, age at onset, duration of the disease and score of the Minimental State Examination in the AD group. Weight and body mass index were significantly lower in AD patients than in controls. These results suggest that low CSF and serum vitamin E concentrations in AD patients could be related with a deficiency of dietary intake of vitamin E.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of neural transmission 106 (1999), S. 309-315 
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Keywords: Alzheimer's disease ; selenium ; cerebrospinal fluid levels ; serum levels.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. We compared CSF and serum selenium levels, measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, in 27 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (13 females, 14 males, mean ± SD age 73.6 ± 7.4 years) without major clinical signs of undernutrition, and 34 matched controls (18 females, 16 males, mean ± SD age 70.7 ± 7.8 years). CSF and serum selenium levels did not differ significantly between AD-patient (11.4 ± 7.8 ng/ml and 28.5 ± 13.0 ng/ml, respectively) and control groups (13.3 ± 7.0 ng/ml and 22.5 ± 17.5 ng/ml). These values were not correlated with age, age at onset, duration of the disease, and scores of the MiniMental State Examination in the AD group. Weight and body mass index were significantly lower in AD patients than in controls. These results suggest that CSF selenium concentrations are apparently unrelated with the reported oxidative stress processes in patients with AD.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of neural transmission 105 (1998), S. 1245-1251 
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Keywords: Parkinson's disease ; selenium ; chromium ; cerebrospinal fluid levels ; serum levels.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. We compared CSF and serum levels of selenium and chromium, measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, in 28 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 43 matched controls. The CSF and serum levels of these trace metals did not differ significantly between PD patients and controls. CSF selenium and chromium levels were not correlated with age, age at onset, duration of the disease, scores of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale of the Hoehn and Yahr staging in the PD group. Although antiparkinsonian therapy did not influence significantly the CSF levels of selenium, PD patients not treated with levodopa had significantly higher CSF selenium levels than controls (p 〈 0.01). It is possible that increased CSF selenium levels could indicate an attempt of protection against oxidative stress. The normality of CSF and serum chromium levels suggest that these values are not related with the risk for PD.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of neural transmission 105 (1998), S. 703-708 
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ; motoneuron disease ; alpha-tocopherol ; vitamin E ; cerebrospinal fluid levels ; serum levels.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. We compared CSF and serum levels, and the CSF/serum ratio of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), measured by HPLC, in 30 patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) and 78 matched controls. The mean CSF and serum vitamin E levels did not differ significantly between the 2 study groups. These values were not influenced by the clinical form (spinal versus bulbar) of SALS. CSF alpha-tocopherol levels did not correlate with age, age at onset, and duration of the disease. These results suggest that CSF and serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations are unrelated with the risk for ALS.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of neural transmission 105 (1998), S. 497-505 
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Keywords: Parkinson's disease ; transition metals ; iron ; copper ; manganese ; zinc ; cerebrospinal fluid levels ; serum levels.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. We compared CSF and serum levels of iron, copper, manganese, and zinc, measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, in 37 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 37 matched controls. The CSF levels of zinc were significantly decreased in PD patients as compared with controls (p 〈 0.05). The serum levels of zinc, and the CSF and serum levels of iron, copper, and manganese, did not differ significantly between PD-patient and control groups. There was no influence of antiparkinsonian therapy on CSF levels of none of these transition metals. These values were not correlated with age, age at onset, duration of the disease, scores of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale of the Hoehn and Yahr staging in the PD group, with the exception of CSF copper levels with the duration of the disease (r = 0.38, p 〈 0.05). These results suggest that low CSF zinc concentrations might be related with the risk for PD, although they could be related with oxidative stress processes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of neural transmission 104 (1997), S. 1287-1293 
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Parkinson's disease ; alpha-tocopherol ; vitamin E ; cerebrospinal fluid levels ; serum levels
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We compared CSF and serum levels, and the CSF/serum ratio of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), measured by HPLC, in 34 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 47 controls. CSF and serum vitamin E levels were correlate. The mean CSF and serum vitamin E levels, and the CSF/serum ratio of PD patients did not differ significantly between the groups. There was no influence of antiparkinsonian therapy on CSF vitamin E levels. CSF vitamin E levels did not correlate with age, age at onset, duration of the disease, scores of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale of the Hoehn and Yahr staging in the PD group. These results suggest that CSF vitamin E concentrations are unrelated with the risk for PD.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of neural transmission 105 (1998), S. 479-488 
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Keywords: Alzheimer's disease ; transition metals ; iron ; copper ; manganese ; zinc ; cerebrospinal fluid levels ; serum levels.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. We compared CSF and serum levels of iron, copper, manganese, and zinc, measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, in 26 patients patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) without major clinical signs of undernutrition, and 28 matched controls. CSF zinc levels were significantly decreased in AD patients as compared with controls (p 〈 0.05). The serum levels of zinc, and the CSF and serum levels of iron, copper, and manganese, did not differ significantly between AD-patient and control groups. These values were not correlated with age, age at onset, duration of the disease, and scores of the MiniMental State Examination in the AD group. Weight and body mass index were significantly lower in AD patients than in controls. Because serum zinc levels were normal, the possibility that low CSF zinc levels were due to a deficiency of dietary intake seems unlikely. However, it is possible that they might be related to the interaction of beta-amyloid and/or amyloid precursor protein with zinc, that could result in a depletion of zinc levels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-04
    Description: The effectiveness of social interaction depends strongly on an ability to coordinate actions efficiently. In large networks, such coordination may be very difficult to achieve and may depend on the communication technology and the network structure. We examine how pre-play communication and clustering within networks affect coordination in a challenging experimental game on eight-person networks. Free-form chat is enormously effective in achieving the nonequilibrium efficient outcome in our game, but restricted communication (where subjects can only indicate their intended action) is almost entirely ineffective. We can rationalize this result with a novel model about the credibility of cheap-talk messages. This credibility is much larger with freeform message communication than with restricted communication. We are the first to model this credibility and show, both theoretically and experimentally, an interaction effect of network structure and communication technologies. We also provide a model of message diffusion, which indeed predicts that diffusion will be more rapid without clustering and is consistent with our data.
    Keywords: C71 ; C91 ; D03 ; D85 ; ddc:330 ; networks ; clustering ; communication ; credibility ; cheap talk ; experiment
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper investigates the impact of international shocks - interest rate, commodity price and industrial production shocks - on key macroeconomic variables in ten Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries by using near-VAR models and monthly data from the early 1990s to 2009. In contrast to previous work, the empirical analysis takes explicit account of the possibility of (multiple) structural breaks in the underlying time series. We establish strong evidence of structural breaks, particularly along the years 2007 and 2008, suggesting the very relevant impact of the recent global crisis on CEE economies. Moreover, our results suggest that the way how countries react to world commodity price shocks is related to the underlying economic structure and the credibility of the monetary policy. We also find that some countries like Slovakia and Slovenia - already euro area members - react stronger to foreign industrial production shocks than other countries and that the responses to such shocks are strongly correlated for selected CEE countries. Nevertheless, our results also shed light on substantial differences in responses to foreign interest rate shocks that originate from the US or the euro area.
    Keywords: E43 ; E50 ; E52 ; C22 ; O52 ; ddc:330 ; monetary policy ; foreign shocks ; multiple structural breaks ; near-VAR model ; CEE economies ; Schock ; Zins ; International ; Weltkonjunktur ; Makroökonomischer Einfluss ; VAR-Modell ; Schätzung ; Ostmitteleuropa
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: The Basel II Accord requires that banks and other Authorized Deposit-taking Institutions (ADIs) communicate their daily risk forecasts to the appropriate monetary authorities at the beginning of each trading day, using one or more risk models to measure Value-at-Risk (VaR). The risk estimates of these models are used to determine capital requirements and associated capital costs of ADIs, depending in part on the number of previous violations, whereby realised losses exceed the estimated VaR. In this paper we define risk management in terms of choosing from a variety of risk models, and discuss the selection of optimal risk models. A new approach to model selection for predicting VaR is proposed, consisting of combining alternative risk models, and we compare conservative and aggressive strategies for choosing between VaR models. We then examine how different risk management strategies performed during the 2008-09 global financial crisis. These issues are illustrated using Standard and Poor’s 500 Composite Index.
    Keywords: G32 ; G11 ; G17 ; C53 ; C22 ; ddc:330 ; Value-at-Risk (VaR) ; daily capital charges ; violation penalties ; optimizing strategy ; risk forecasts ; aggressive or conservative risk management strategies ; Basel Accord ; global financial crisis ; Basler Akkord ; Einlagengeschäft ; Risikomaß ; Unternehmenspublizität ; Finanzkrise ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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