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  • ddc:330  (89)
  • Chemistry  (81)
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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2015-09-11
    Description: The study of corruption is attracting lot of attention in recent years. Focusing on the economic consequences of corruption, the empirical evidence points to a positive relation between institutional integrity, or absence of corruption, and economic growth. Although most developed countries tend to have lower corruption than less developed ones, there exists significant variation within OECD countries. As an example, it may be observed that the gap in perceived corruption between the Nordic countries and southern Europe is larger than the gap between southern Europe and the average of the emerging economies. In this context, the objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of corruption on economic performance in a sample of OECD countries during the period 1980-2000. Specifically, we study the effect of corruption on productivity and efficiency change, trying to determine whether productivity growth is greater in countries with lower corruption. To this end, different productivity measures are compared by considering both output per worker and Total Factor Productivity (TFP). Furthermore, TFP change is decomposed into efficiency change and technological progress by means of Malmquist productivity indices. On the basis of this of this decomposition we will analyze whether corruption affect TFP growth via efficiency gains or technological change, thus gaining insight into the channels through which corruption influence economic growth.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 2
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    Unknown
    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: This paper takes advantage of a new source of information – the Gallup World Poll 2006 – to estimate and characterize income poverty and inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) at the country level, and to compare LAC estimates to those in other regions of the world. The Gallup survey has the advantage of being conducted in over 130 nations with almost the same questionnaire in all countries, and then it stands as a complement to national household surveys for international comparison purposes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Intergenerationale Übertragung ; Argentinien
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective GC ; Permethyl-β-cyclodextrin ; Cyclopropyl amino acids ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Fluvalinate residues ; Honey ; Gas chromatography-atomic emission detection (GC-AED) ; Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two hyphenated techniques, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-atomic emission detection, have been used to identify the degradation products of the acaricide fluvalinate in a methanol solution of the commercially available formulation Mavrick, as well as in honey from beehives treated with this product. The major degradation products were 2-chloro-4-trifluoromethylaniline (I), methyl 2-[2-chloro-4-trifluoromethylaniline]-3-methylbutanoate (II), N-(2-chloro-4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)valine (III), and 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde (IV). Fluvalinate in honey is gradually degraded, 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde being the most abundant residue.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advanced Materials 5 (1993), S. 738-741 
    ISSN: 0935-9648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advanced Materials 7 (1995), S. 130-136 
    ISSN: 0935-9648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advanced Materials 7 (1995), S. 238-243 
    ISSN: 0935-9648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chemistry - A European Journal 3 (1997), S. 1071-1076 
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: fullerenes ; endohedral helium complexes ; NMR spectroscopy ; ring currents ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Bis- to hexakisadducts of C60 (1-6) and mono- to tetrakisadducts of C70 (7-13) containing 3He atoms (endo-hedral helium complexes) were prepared and studied by 3He NMR spectroscopy to determine the influence of degree of functionalization and addition pattern on the chemical shift of the 3He atom. In the series of C60 derivatives, which included the previously measured 6-6 monoadduct 3He@C61H2, the 3He resonance was shifted considerably upfield relative to that of 3He@C60 (δ = -6.36) up to the bisadduct 1 (δ = -11.45). The resonances of the higher adducts 3-6, however, were shifted only slightly further up-field and all appeared in a rather narrow spectral range between δ = -11.84 and -12.26. The absence of further substantial upfield shifts was rationalized in terms of the compensation of deshielding due to the functionalization-induced decrease in the diamagnetic π-electron ring currents that extend around the fullerene sphere by the shielding that results from the weaker pentagonal-ring paramagnetic currents and the increased number of localized benzenoid substructures in 3-6. In contrast, all 3He resonances of the C70 adducts are shifted downfield relative to the signal of 3He@C70 (δ = -28.81). A monotonic relationship exists between the chemical shift and the degree of functionalization, whereby the 3He chemical shifts steadily decrease from monoadduct 7 (δ = -27.53) to the isomeric tetrakisadducts 12 (δ = -21.09) and 13 (δ = -20.68). This deshielding was explained by the reduction of the strong diamagnetic ring currents extending along the polar corannulene perimeters as a result of the functionalization at α- and β-type polar bonds in 7-13. In both series, the addition pattern was also found to have a distinct influence on the 3He chemical shift.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: peptide folding ; NMR ; CD ; 310-helix ; gp120 ; CD4 binding domain ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A close association between the HIV surface protein gp120 and the CD4 T cell receptor initiates the viral multiplication cycle. A 15 amino acid peptide (LAV) within the CD4 binding domain of gp 120 has been shown to retain receptor binding ability. The structural behavior of the LAV peptide has been studied by CD and NMR methods in aqueous solution and upon addition of trifluoroethanol (TFE) to emulate the relatively apolar conditions at the membrane bound receptor. Previous work has shown that the LAV peptide folds into a β-pleated structure in more polar buffer/TFE mixtures, while a concerted structural change can be observed at a concentration of 60% TFE (v/v). This abrupt, cooperative refolding from a regular β-sheet to a helical secondary structure is known as “switch” behavior. Former CD experiments with LAV sequence variants have supported the assumption that four amino acids at the N-terminus (LPCR) are indispensable for the “switch.” The tetrad has a strong β-turn forming potential. The suggestion has been formulated that the tetrad can act as a nucleation site governing the refolding. The present NMR study of the LAV peptide in TFE gives evidence for a 310-helix suggesting that the tetrad adopts a type III β-turn and promotes the formation of a similar bend in the next overlapping tetrad until the sequence is restructured into a 310-helix at a critical polarity favoring intrachain hydrogen bonds. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Organic Magnetic Resonance 30 (1992), S. 1012-1018 
    ISSN: 0749-1581
    Keywords: Peptide group proton shift effects ; Proton chemical shift computation ; Protein backbone conformation ; Solution peptide and protein structures ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: It has been found that protein NH protons on top of a peptide group plane experience large upfield conformation shifts. The joint analysis of this effect and other known effects of the peptide group on proton chemical shifts has led to a two-term empirical expression for peptide group proton chemical shift computation as a function of protein backbone conformation. Both terms are expressed by McConnell's point-dipole shielding expressions, one referred to an axis perpendicular to the peptide plane and origin in the coordinate centre of the OCN atoms and the other referred to an axis along the carbonyl bond and origin close to the oxygen atom. Values for the two constants have been determined by least-squares fitting of the C-α, H and amide NH chemical shifts of the protein ubiquitin. As a cross-check on the validity of the expression, the C-α, H and NH shifts of ribonuclease and BPTI (basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor) have been computed. The general agreement between the observed and computed shifts and the correlation coefficients found (0.72 on average) indicate that the expression accounts for the main physical effects of the protein peptide group on the proton chemical shifts. It is shown that, together with ring current shifts, the expression explains the main characteristics of the C-α, H and amide NH chemical shifts in proteins.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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