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  • 1
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Verein für Socialpolitik
    Publication Date: 2010-10-21
    Description: We analyze the incidence and welfare effects of unit sales taxes in experimental monopoly and Bertrand markets. We find, in line with economic theory, that firms with no market power are able to shift a high share of a tax burden on to consumers, independent of whether buyers are automated or human players. In monopoly markets, a monopolist bears a large share of the burden of a tax increase. With human buyers, however, this share is smaller than with automated buyers as the presence of human buyers constrains the pricing behavior of a monopolist.
    Keywords: H22 ; L12 ; L13 ; ddc:330 ; tax incidence ; monopoly ; Bertrand competition ; experiment
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 2
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-23
    Description: We analyze the incidence and welfare effects of unit sales taxes in experimental monopoly and Bertrand markets. We find, in line with economic theory, that firms with no market power are able to shift a high share of a tax burden on to consumers, independent of whether buyers are automated or human players. In monopoly markets, a monopolist bears a large share of the burden of a tax increase. With human buyers, however, this share is smaller than with automated buyers as the presence of human buyers constrains the pricing behavior of a monopolist.
    Keywords: C92 ; H22 ; L12 ; L13 ; C72 ; ddc:330 ; tax incidence ; monopoly ; Bertrand competition ; experiment
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB)
    Publication Date: 2015-11-26
    Description: We study endogenous group formation in tournaments employing experimental threeplayer contests. We find that players in endogenously formed alliances cope better with the moral hazard problem in groups than players who are forced into an alliance. Also, players who are committed to expending effort above average choose to stand alone. If these players are forced to play in an alliance, they invest even more, whereas their co-players choose lower effort. Anticipation of this exploitation may explain their preference to stand alone.
    Description: Wir untersuchen die endogene Bildung von Gruppen in Wettkämpfen in experimentellen Drei-Spieler-Wettbewerben. Es zeigt sich, dass Spieler in endogen gebildeten Allianzen besser mit dem Moral Hazard-Problem in Gruppen zurechtkommen als Spieler, die in eine Allianz gezwungen werden. Außerdem entscheiden sich Spieler, die bereit sind, überdurchschnittlichen Einsatz zu leisten, allein zu agieren. Sind diese Spieler gezwungen in einer Allianz zu spielen, investieren sie sogar mehr, wogegen ihre Mitspieler ihren Einsatz reduzieren. Die Erwartung dieser Ausbeutung ist eine mögliche Erklärung für ihre Präferenz allein zu agieren.
    Keywords: D72 ; D74 ; ddc:330 ; endogenous group formation ; contest ; conflict ; alliance ; experiment ; moral hazard problem ; free-riding ; in-group favoritis
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB)
    Publication Date: 2015-11-26
    Description: Victorious alliances often fight about the spoils of war. We consider experimentally when members of victorious alliances accept a peaceful division of the spoils, and when they fight against each other, and how the inability to commit to a peaceful division affects their effort contributions in their fight against a common enemy. First, we find that an asymmetric split of the prize induces a higher likelihood of internal fight and, in turn, reduces the effort contributions in the fight against a joint enemy. Second, non-binding declarations on how to divide the spoils in case of victory do not help to mitigate the holdup problem.
    Keywords: D72 ; D74 ; ddc:330 ; conflict ; contest ; alliance ; hold-up problem ; experiment ; Konflikt ; Bündnissystem ; Sunk Costs ; Test
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB)
    Publication Date: 2015-11-26
    Description: We analyze the incidence and welfare effects of unit sales taxes in experimental monopoly and Bertrand markets. We find, in line with economic theory, that firms with no market power are able to shift a high share of a tax burden on to consumers, independent of whether buyers are automated or human players. In monopoly markets, a monopolist bears a large share of the burden of a tax increase. With human buyers, however, this share is smaller than with automated buyers as the presence of human buyers constrains the pricing behavior of a monopolist.
    Description: Dieser Artikel untersucht Inzidenz- und Wohlfahrtseffekte einer Mengensteuer in experimentellen Monopol- und Bertrand-Märkten. Im Einklang mit der ökonomischen Theorie sind Firmen ohne Marktmacht in der Lage, einen großen Anteil der Last einer Steuererhöhung an die Konsumenten weiterzugeben. Dies gilt unabhängig davon, ob die Käufer simuliert sind oder die Kaufentscheidungen durch reale Käufer getroffen werden. In Monopolmärkten trägt der Monopolist einen großen Anteil der Last einer Steuererhöhung. Werden die Kaufentscheidungen durch reale Käufer getroffen, ist dieser Anteil jedoch kleiner als mit simulierten Käufern, da reale Käufer im Experiment das Preissetzungsverhalten des Monopolisten einschränken.
    Keywords: H22 ; L12 ; L13 ; C72 ; C92 ; ddc:330 ; Tax incidence ; monopoly ; Bertrand competition ; experiment
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Victorious alliances often fight about the spoils of war. This paper presents an experiment on the determinants of whether alliances break up and fight internally after having defeated a joint enemy. First, if peaceful sharing yields an asymmetric rent distribution, this increases the likelihood of fighting. In turn, anticipation of the higher likelihood of internal fight reduces the alliance's ability to succeed against the outside enemy. Second, the option to make non-binding declarations on non-aggression in the relationship between alliance members does not make peaceful settlement within the alliance more likely. Third, higher differences in the alliance players' contributions to alliance effort lead to more internal conflict and more intense fighting.
    Keywords: D72 ; D74 ; ddc:330 ; conflict ; contest ; alliance ; endogenous internal conflict ; hold-up problem ; non-aggression pact ; experiment ; Konflikt ; Bündnissystem ; Sunk Costs ; Test
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    München: Sonderforschungsbereich/Transregio 15 - Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems (GESY)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-19
    Description: We study the role of an imbalance in fighting strengths when players bargain in the shadow of conflict. Our experimental results suggest: In a simple bargaining game with an exogenous mediation proposal, the likelihood of conflict is independent of the balance of power. If bargaining involves endogenous demand choices, however, the likelihood of conflict is higher if power is more imbalanced. Even though endogenous bargaining outcomes reflect the players' unequal fighting strengths, strategic uncertainty causes outcomes to be most efficient when power is balanced. In turn, the importance of exogenous mediation proposals depends on the balance of power.
    Keywords: C78 ; C91 ; D72 ; D74 ; ddc:330 ; Conflict ; balance of power ; contest ; bargaining ; Nash demand game ; conflict resolution ; asymmetries ; experiment
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    München: Sonderforschungsbereich/Transregio 15 - Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems (GESY)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-19
    Description: We study endogenous group formation in tournaments employing experimental three-player contests. We find that players in endogenously formed alliances cope better with the moral hazard problem in groups than players who are forced into an alliance. Also, players who are committed to expending effort above average choose to stand alone. If these players are forced to play in an alliance, they invest even more, whereas their co-players choose lower effort. Anticipation of this exploitation may explain their preference to stand alone.
    Keywords: D72 ; D74 ; ddc:330 ; Endogenous group formation ; contest ; conflict ; alliance ; experiment ; moral hazard problem ; free-riding ; in-group favoritism
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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