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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 24 (1999), S. 1067-1074 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Adenosine A2 receptors ; NECA binding ; guanine nucleotides ; glutamate analog ; cAMP ; chicks
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Binding properties of the subtypes of adenosine A2 receptors in membrane preparations and the effects of adenosine receptor ligands on cAMP accumulation in slices from the optic tectum of neonatal chicks have been investigated. [3H]2-[4-(2-p-carboxyethyl)phenylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxaminoadenosine (CGS 21680), a selective ligand for adenosine A2a receptors, did not bind to optic tectal membranes, as observed with rat striatal membranes. CGS 21680 also did not induce cyclic AMP accumulation in optic tectum slices. However, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), 2-chloro-adenosine or adenosine induced a 2.5- to 3-fold increase on cyclic AMP accumulation in this preparation. [3H]NECA binds to fresh non-washed-membranes obtained from optic tectum of chicks, displaying one population of binding sites, which can be displaced by NECA, 8-phenyltheophylline, 2-chloro-adenosine, but is not affected by CGS 21680. The estimated KD value was 400.90 ± 80.50 nM and the Bmax was estimated to be 2.51 ± 0.54 pmol/mg protein. Guanine nucleotides, which modulate G-proteins activity intracellularly, are also involved in the inhibition of glutamate responses by acting extracellularly. Moreover, we have previously reported that guanine nucleotides potentiate, while glutamate inhibits, adenosine-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in slices from optic tectum of chicks. However, the guanine nucleotides, GMP or GppNHp and the metabotropic glutamate receptors agonist, 1S,3R-ACPD did not alter the [3H]NECA binding observed in fresh non-washed-membranes. Therefore, the adenosine A2 receptor found in the optic tectum must be the adenosine A2b receptor which is available only in fresh membrane preparations, and its not modulated by guanine nucleotides or glutamate analogs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 23 (1998), S. 519-524 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Glutamate ; excitotoxicity ; rat hippocampus ; guanine nucleotides ; reactive oxygen species ; chemiluminescence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Glutamate significantly increased levels of spontaneous chemiluminescence (CL) in rat hippocampal slices incubated under hypoxic conditions. Although it has been previously shown that guanine nucleotides (GN) displace glutamate from several of its receptors, in our study only GMP, as well as the glutamate antagonist MK-801, was able to reverse the increase in CL provoked by glutamate. On the other hand, not only GTP or Gpp(NH)p failed to reverse the action of glutamate, but they increased CL production like glutamate. This effect of GTP/Gpp(NH)p was also reversed by GMP. We concluded that, under neurotoxic conditions, GMP acted as an antagonist and GTP or Gpp(NH)p acted as agonists of glutamate. These results reinforced the evidence of the existence of extracellular site(s) for GN and indicated a possible role for GN in excitotoxicity.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 25 (2000), S. 181-188 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Adenosine ; guanine nucleotides ; GMP ; adenosine A2 receptors ; glutamate ; hippocampus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Guanine nucleotides (GN) have been implicated in many intracellular mechanisms. Extracellular actions, probably as glutamate receptor antagonists, have also been recently attributed to these compounds. GN may have a neuroprotective role by inhibiting excitotoxic events evoked by glutamate. Effects of extracellular GN on adenosine-evoked cellular responses have also been reported. However, the exact mechanism of such interaction is not known. In the present study, we showed that GN potentiated adenosine-induced cAMP accumulation in slices of hippocampus from young rats. However, neither GMP nor the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, 1S,3R-ACPD, inhibited the binding of the adenosine receptor agonist [3H]NECA (when binding to adenosine A2 receptors), or the binding of the adenosine A2a receptor agonist [3H]CGS 21680 in hippocampal membrane preparations. GppNHp, probably by interacting with G-proteins, decreased [3H]CGS 21680 binding. [3H]GMP binding was assayed in order to evaluate the GN sites which are not G-proteins. [3H]GMP binding was inhibited by GMP and GppNHp, but not by 1S,3R-ACPD. The interaction of endogenous adenosine with the GMP-binding sites was determined by incubating membranes in the presence or absence of adenosine deaminase (ADA). NECA, CADO, CGS 21680 and CPA (only at the highest concentration used) increased GMP binding in the presence of ADA. However, in the absence of ADA, the control levels of GMP binding were as high as in the presence of added ADA plus adenosine agonists, indicating that endogenous adenosine modulates the binding of GMP. If this site has a neuroprotective role, adenosine may be increasing its neuromodulator and proposed protective action.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 25 (2000), S. 211-215 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Glutamate ; guanine nucleotides ; antinoception ; naturally-occurring compounds
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Glutamate is to be considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter and glutamatergic antagonists present antinoceptive activity. In this study we investigated the effects of the naturally occurring antinociceptive compounds rutin, geraniin and quercetine extracted from Phyllanthus, as well as the diterpene jatrophone, extracted from Jatropha elliptica on the binding of [3H]glutamate and [3H]GMP-PNP [a GTP analogue which binds to extracellular site(s), modulating the glutamatergic transmission] in rat brain membrane. Jatrophone inhibited [3H]glutamate binding and geraniin inhibited [3H]GMP-PNP binding. Quercetine inhibited the binding of both ligands. These results may indicate a neurochemical parameter possibly related to the antinoceptive activity of these natural compounds.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 22 (1997), S. 181-187 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Glutamate ; [3H]glutamate-binding ; guanine nucleotides ; adenylate cyclase ; G-proteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract GMP-PNP, a non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+, so that the binding is stable even after exhaustive washings. This property was exploited to prepare membrane samples of rat brain where G-protein GTP-binding sites were saturated with GMP-PNP. Experiments carried out with these membranes showed that GTP, GMP-PNP, GDP-S and GMP (1 mM) inhibit the sodium-independent [3H]glutamate binding by 30–40% [F(4,40) = 5.9; p 〈 .001], whereas only GMP-PNP activates adenylate cyclase activity [F(6,42) = 3.56; p 〈 .01]. The inhibition of sodium-independent [3H]glutamate binding occurred in the absence of Mg2+. These findings suggest that guanine nucleotides may inhibit glutamate binding and activate adenylate cyclase through distinct mechanisms by acting on different sites.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 23 (1998), S. 183-188 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Glutamate ; 1S,3R-ACPD ; guanine nucleotides ; mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been shown to modulate adenylate cyclase activity via G-proteins. In the present study we report similar results to the previously observed in the literature, showing that glutamate and the metabotropic agonists, 1S,3R-ACPD or quisqualate induced cAMP accumulation in hippocampal slices of young rats. Moreover, guanine nucleotides GTP, GDP or GMP, inhibited the glutamate-induced cAMP accumulation. By measuring LDH activity in the buffer surrounding the slices, we showed that the integrity of the slices was maintained, indicating that the effect of guanine nucleotides was extracellular. GMP, GDPβ-S or Gpp(NH)p abolished quisqualate-induced cAMP accumulation. GDPβ-S or Gpp(NH)p but not GMP inhibited 1S,3R-ACPD-induced cAMP accumulation. The response evoked by glutamate was also abolished by the mGluR antagonists: L-AP3 abolished glutamate-induced cAMP accumulation in a dose-dependent manner and MCPG was effective only at the 2 mM dose. DNQX was ineffective. We are reporting here, an inhibition induced by guanine nucleotides, via an extracellular site (s), similar to the observed with classical glutamate antagonists on a cellular response evoked by mGluR agonists.
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  • 7
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    s.l.: PRME Regional Chapter Brazil, UNDP Office Brazil
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: The aim of this paper is to create an indicator that compares the efficiency of countries in converting economic complexity into human development through the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method and econometric validation. The DEA will not only enable comparisons of efficiency across countries, but will also enable the creation of a global indicator and social efficiency rankings.
    Description: O objetivo deste trabalho é criar um indicador que compare a eficiência dos países na conversão da complexidade econômica em desenvolvimento humano através do método de análise de envolvimento de dados (DEA) e validação econométrica. A DEA não só permitirá comparações de eficiência entre países, mas também permitirá a criação de um indicador global e rankings de eficiência social.
    Keywords: O3 ; O4 ; ddc:330 ; Economic Complexity ; Human Development ; Data Envelopment Analysis
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 8
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    São Carlos: Universidade Federal de São Carlos | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2020-04-24
    Description: Economic growth is not the unique factor to explain human development. Due to that many authors have prioritized studies to measure the Human Development Index. However, these indices do not analyze how Economic Complexity can increase Human Development. The aim of this paper is to determine the efficiency of a set of nations from Latin America and Asia, to measure a country’s performance in converting Economic Complexity into Human Development, between 2010 and 2014. The method used was Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), through the Variable Returns of Scale (VRS) Model and Window Analysis. Results showed in 2014, all Asian countries were efficient except China and the Philippines, and Cuba was the benchmark for inefficient countries. Window Analysis showed Japan, Republic of Korea and Singapore were efficient over time. This result confirms the initial hypothesis of this article: the more complex countries are more efficient in generating Human Development.
    Description: Article accepted for publication in the journal Gestão & Produção.
    Description: O crescimento econômico não é o único fator que explica o desenvolvimento humano. Neste aspecto, índices sobre a qualidade de vida têm sido recorrentes na literatura. Entretanto, estes índices não analisam como a complexidade econômica é convertida em desenvolvimento humano. O objetivo deste artigo é mensurar a eficiência dos países latino americanos e asiáticos em converter complexidade econômica em desenvolvimento humano, entre 2010 e 2014. O método utilizado foi o Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), por meio do modelo de Retornos Variáveis à Escala (BCC) e Análise de Janela. Os resultados demonstraram que, em 2014, todos os países asiáticos foram eficientes, exceto a China e Filipinas. Neste ano, Cuba foi o país que mais serviu de benchmark para os países ineficientes. A análise em janela demonstrou que apenas Japão, Coréia do Sul e Singapura se mantiveram eficientes ao longo do tempo. Este resultado confirma a hipótese inicial deste artigo: economias mais complexas são mais eficientes em gerar desenvolvimento humano.
    Keywords: O15 ; O32 ; ddc:330 ; Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) ; Window Analysis ; Economic Complexity ; Human Development
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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