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  • panel data  (4)
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  • 1
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Although it is a little known fact the Convention no 158 of International Labor Organization (ILO) which prohibits the dismissal of an employee without cause ruled in Brazil from 10 April to 20 November 1996 and thereby providing an excellent opportunity to evaluate the effect of regulation on job market. Using panel data from montly survey of employment we applied a Probit model to check the effects of the introduction of this rule on Brazilian labor market. Our results demonstrate that during the period of validity of the Convention no 158 both the probability of an individual getting a job as the probability of entering the formal labor market suffered negative effect.
    Keywords: J08 ; J88 ; C25 ; ddc:330 ; regulation ; Convention no 158 ; panel data ; probit model
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Although there is agreement that the effect of broadband expansion on the economy, from an general overview, is positive; not an unanimous voice arguments that this impact be positive on all sectors. By applying a multivariate two way panel data model and estimated by bayesian methodology, this study aims to determine the effect of broadband expansion on the sectors of the economy. In order to take into account the geographical, social and economic differences among municipalities cluster analysis was employed in order to isolate groups of municipalities with approximate characteristics. The results illustrate that the impact of broadband is not positive for all sectors, being positive in the most dynamic and technology-intensive sectors such as the industrial and service sectors; and negative where this does not happen as in agricultural sector.
    Keywords: O57 ; O47 ; L69 ; ddc:330 ; broadband ; multivariate model ; panel data ; clustering ; Gibbs sampler
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This study aims to present a model for economic evaluation of the expansion of the broadband network for the Brazilian municipalities. This is done taking into account not only the economic return, but also the cost of expanding the network. Return is calculated from three criteria of prioritization: size of population, HDI, and potential market. Once one of these criteria is chosen, the effect on certain variables of interest, such as the effect on the product, access to the poorest population, etc., is estimated. To determine the potential demand of broadband, we estimated model combining two databases: PNAD 2015 and Census 2010. The effect of broadband on municipal GDP was obtained using the panel data model. To evaluate the cost to expand network we the applied the solution of the minimum generating tree from the graph theory. It was observed that the criterion based on the potential market is the alternative that generates greater economic return. Also the results obtained based on the size of the population are close to this one, whereas the prioritization by the municipal HDI is the criterion that presents the worst performance that penalizes the poor and the extremely poor population.
    Keywords: C21 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; broadband ; backhaul ; graph theory ; minimum spanning tree ; logit regression ; panel data
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of broadband on the GDP taking into account regional differences. This is done by using the econometric model of panel data based on database of 5564 municipalities from 2007 to 2014. In order to incorporate the regional differences we use information derived from cluster analysis that isolates homogeneous groups of municipalities. Simultaneous causality between broadband and GDP is identified through instrumental variable method. Regional differentiated effects of broadband among municipalities were observed. The greatest impact of broadband occurs on those municipalities with the highest income per capita and high urban concentration followed by ones with a strong concentration in the service, commerce and construction sectors. The impact of broadband is also significant in the municipalities linked to the dynamic agricultural sector. In poorer municipalities the effect of broadband also occurs although with less intensity. Finally, we test the hypothesis that the effect of broadband on the output has an "inverted U" form that indicates that the effect rises to a certain level of access, but decreases after it is exceeded. The econometric results do not indicate that this hypothesis can be denied so that the impact is more intense in the intermediate levels of access of broadband.
    Keywords: C21 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; broadband ; cluster analysis ; K-means ; panel data ; instrumental variable
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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