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  • Articles  (118)
  • Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology  (118)
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  • Articles  (118)
  • 1
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2017-07-31
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 17, Pages 1743: Olive Actual “on Year” Yield Forecast Tool Based on the Tree Canopy Geometry Using UAS Imagery Sensors doi: 10.3390/s17081743 Authors: Rafael Sola-Guirado Francisco Castillo-Ruiz Francisco Jiménez-Jiménez Gregorio Blanco-Roldan Sergio Castro-Garcia Jesus Gil-Ribes Olive has a notable importance in countries of Mediterranean basin and its profitability depends on several factors such as actual yield, production cost or product price. Actual “on year” Yield (AY) is production (kg tree−1) in “on years”, and this research attempts to relate it with geometrical parameters of the tree canopy. Regression equation to forecast AY based on manual canopy volume was determined based on data acquired from different orchard categories and cultivars during different harvesting seasons in southern Spain. Orthoimages were acquired with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) imagery calculating individual crown for relating to canopy volume and AY. Yield levels did not vary between orchard categories; however, it did between irrigated orchards (7000–17,000 kg ha−1) and rainfed ones (4000–7000 kg ha−1). After that, manual canopy volume was related with the individual crown area of trees that were calculated by orthoimages acquired with UAS imagery. Finally, AY was forecasted using both manual canopy volume and individual tree crown area as main factors for olive productivity. AY forecast only by using individual crown area made it possible to get a simple and cheap forecast tool for a wide range of olive orchards. Finally, the acquired information was introduced in a thematic map describing spatial AY variability obtained from orthoimage analysis that may be a powerful tool for farmers, insurance systems, market forecasts or to detect agronomical problems.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 2
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2013-11-21
    Description: In this paper we present a complete spike-based architecture: from a Dynamic Vision Sensor (retina) to a stereo head robotic platform. The aim of this research is to reproduce intended movements performed by humans taking into account as many features as possible from the biological point of view. This paper fills the gap between current spike silicon sensors and robotic actuators by applying a spike processing strategy to the data flows in real time. The architecture is divided into layers: the retina, visual information processing, the trajectory generator layer which uses a neuroinspired algorithm (SVITE) that can be replicated into as many times as DoF the robot has; and finally the actuation layer to supply the spikes to the robot (using PFM). All the layers do their tasks in a spike-processing mode, and they communicate each other through the neuro-inspired AER protocol. The open-loop controller is implemented on FPGA using AER interfaces developed by RTC Lab. Experimental results reveal the viability of this spike-based controller. Two main advantages are: low hardware resources (2% of a Xilinx Spartan 6) and power requirements (3.4 W) to control a robot with a high number of DoF (up to 100 for a Xilinx Spartan 6). It also evidences the suitable use of AER as a communication protocol between processing and actuation.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 3
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: Liposome-based drug delivery systems hold great potential for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to design a nanodevice for targeted anchoring of liposomes (with and without cholesterol) with encapsulated anticancer drugs and antisense N-myc gene oligonucleotide attached to its surface. To meet this main aim, liposomes with encapsulated doxorubicin, ellipticine and etoposide were prepared. They were further characterized by measuring their fluorescence intensity, whereas the encapsulation efficiency was estimated to be 16%. The hybridization process of individual oligonucleotides forming the nanoconstruct was investigated spectrophotometrically and electrochemically. The concentrations of ellipticine, doxorubicin and etoposide attached to the nanoconstruct in gold nanoparticle-modified liposomes were found to be 14, 5 and 2 µg·mL−1, respectively. The study succeeded in demonstrating that liposomes are suitable for the transport of anticancer drugs and the antisense oligonucleotide, which can block the expression of the N-myc gene.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 4
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2012-03-27
    Description: In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN), which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and spike-based processing layers and sensors. The presented control system fuses actuation and sensors information as spikes streams, processing these spikes in hard real-time, implementing a massively parallel information processing system, through specialized spike-based circuits. This spike-based close-loop controller has been implemented into an AER platform, designed in our labs, that allows direct control of DC motors: the AER-Robot. Experimental results evidence the viability of the implementation of spike-based controllers, and hardware synthesis denotes low hardware requirements that allow replicating this controller in a high number of parallel controllers working together to allow a real-time robot control.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Superlattices and Microstructures 14 (1993), S. 261 
    ISSN: 0749-6036
    Keywords: Cd"1"-"xMn"xTe ; Magnetization ; microcrystalline ; photomagnetization
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 7 (1992), S. 555-560 
    ISSN: 0925-4005
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 16 (1993), S. 453-457 
    ISSN: 0925-4005
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 32 (1992), S. 393-395 
    ISSN: 0924-4247
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 1359-0189
    Keywords: LR-115 ; Radon ; SSNTD ; atmospherical parameters ; α-semiconductor
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 71 (2000), S. 2563-2571 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A new electronic design for continuous monitoring of the motional series resonant frequency of a quartz crystal microbalance either in vacuum or in single-face contact with a fluid medium is presented. The motional resistance is directly measured and a simple method for measuring L and C parameters of the Butterworth–Van Dyke equivalent circuit is described. The results are in agreement with impedance analyzer measurements. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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