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  • ddc:330  (1,777)
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  • 11
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    Quezon City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-12
    Description: Providing agricultural insurance to farmers and fisherfolk in the Philippines has been implemented for nearly three decades. While it is agreed that agricultural insurance is crucial in assisting farmers, fisherfolk, and governments in lessening the negative financial impact of natural events, issues of providing premium subsidies and being tied to credit in the Philippines remain to be important policy issues. This paper reviews available information about partnerships between local government units (LGUs) and the Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation. The aim is to look at these innovations that may promote and enhance agricultural insurance in the Philippines. Providing for full premium subsidies and as a form of loan to the farmers was implemented by the LGUs reviewed in this paper. Further study is needed to determine which scheme works best in terms of increasing coverage over the long term and ensuring financial viability.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; agricultural insurance ; LGUs ; Philippine Crop Insurance ; subsidy
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 12
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    Oslo: Norges Bank
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: We empirically examine how the global carry trade affects the dynamics of spot exchange rates and interest rates across 13 countries from 2000, through the world financial crisis, until the end of 2011. Our model identifies the weekly carry trade position in each currency by matching data on forex trading flows with the predictions of a dynamic portfolio allocation problem that exploits the predictability in excess currency returns (deviations from uncovered interest parity). Using these carry positions produce two surprising results: First, in nine countries carry trades are an economically significant driver of interest rate differentials (vs. U.S. rates). Second, the carry trade only affects the dynamics of spot exchange rates insofar as it is contributes to total forex order flow; (i.e., flows generated by the carry trade and all other trading motives). These findings contradict the conventional view that sudden large movements in exchange rates are attributable to the carry trade. They suggest, instead, that the effects of the global carry trade are primarily concentrated in bond markets.
    Keywords: F3 ; F4 ; G1 ; ddc:330 ; exchange rate dynamics ; microstructure ; order flow
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 13
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    Quezon City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: In the Philippines, women and children with disabilities were found to have lower literacy and school participation rates, and generally have lower educational attainment, than male persons with disability (PWDs) and nondisabled children. This paper is part of the joint project of the Philippine Institute for Development Studies and the Institute of Developing Economies. It looked into the school participation of children with disability in Mandaue City and San Remigio, Cebu, Philippines. Using survey data (collected involving PWD enumerators) and key informant interviews with various stakeholders, the study found that school participation among PWD children is generally low in both study sites. Possible reasons for low school participation are: type and severity of impairment, distance of school (especially in rural area, San Remigio), household size, and income. Some recommendations include making sure that assistive devices given to PWD children match their needs, possible learning livelihood and basic health care modules/trainings for parents, exploring ways to train more teachers (including the Alternative Learning System or ALS) to handle children with disabilities, and possible local government unit partnerships to provide venues for the ALS. Lastly, the study recommends pushing for more awareness to make schools not just "child friendly" but also "PWD friendly".
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; school participation ; Person with disability (PWD) children ; San Remigio ; Mandaue City ; Cebu ; City ; Philippines
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 14
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    Quezon City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: To reduce the risks and vulnerability to sudden income shocks faced by households due to natural calamities, disability, illnesses and other causes, ensuring that social protection programs are designed in a relevant and effective manner is crucial. This study examines the coverage of several social protection programs with focus on social insurance schemes like the SSS/GSIS, PhilHealth and social pension programs. The idea is to profile those with access to these schemes, examine potential exclusion issues and leakages, and provide insights for improving access to insurance schemes. This paper likewise examines access to social insurance with a gender perspective to help determine any need for differentiated intervention or program design for men and women.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Social protection ; Philippines ; social insurance ; gender
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 15
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Goethe University, Center for Financial Studies (CFS)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-21
    Description: A counterparty credit limit (CCL) is a limit imposed by a financial institution to cap its maximum possible exposure to a specified counterparty. Although CCLs are designed to help institutions mitigate counterparty risk by selective diversification of their exposures, their implementation restricts the liquidity that institutions can access in an otherwise centralized pool. We address the question of how this mechanism impacts trade prices and volatility, both empirically and via a new model of trading with CCLs. We find empirically that CCLs cause little impact on trade. However, our model highlights that in extreme situations, CCLs could serve to destabilize prices and thereby influence systemic risk.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Counterparty Credit Limits ; Counterparty Risk ; Price Formation ; Market Design ; Systemic Risk
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 16
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-10
    Description: Drugs and medicines account for about half of the total medical out-of-pocket expenses of households. This share of drugs to total medical expenses is much higher for the poor than the rich. Thus, affordability of medicines is an important issue in poverty reduction. Recent efforts to improve affordability of medicines in the country were geared toward price mediation, advocacy campaigns for quality generic drugs, and creation of village drugstores (that is, the Botika ng Bayan and Botika ng Barangay), among others. This report shows how some of these efforts have gone as far as lowering the prices is concerned. It likewise examines the extent of establishment of DOH-initiated village drugstores in the effort to improve physical access to essential medicines. The goal is to identify areas with low access to affordable medicines by mapping out the geographic distribution of village drugstores.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Philippines ; financial crisis ; poverty impacts ; school-level test scores ; affordable medicines ; Botika ng Barangay ; Botika ng Bayan ; Arzneimittel ; Gesundheitsversorgung ; Generika ; Gesundheitskosten ; Entwicklungsprojekt ; Philippinen
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 17
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-10
    Description: The Philippines is one of the biggest pharmaceutical markets in the ASEAN region, next only to Indonesia and Thailand. It is a lifeline to thousands of Filipino workers and a significant contributor in terms of value of output. This industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the country. Meanwhile, its output, drugs and medicines, account for 46 percent of the total medical out-of-pocket expenses of Philippine households. For poorer people, this percentage goes up to 55 percent. Making essential drugs and medicines more affordable especially to the poor and underserved is one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It is therefore essential to examine the profile of the pharmaceutical industry in the country to better understand the supply chain of drugs and medicines for policy formulation purposes. Using administrative data from agencies that have regulative powers over the industry, a profile of the Philippine pharmaceutical industry was developed. As of December 2009, the Food and Drug Administration’s records show that there are 284 drug manufacturers, 438 drug traders, 634 drug importers, 4,719 drug distributors of which 3,956 are wholesalers, and 32,538 retail outlets. Manufacturing is dominated by multinational brand originator giants and numerous local generics/branded generics producers. Meanwhile, trading is done by few large companies and thousands of small retail outlets. The industry players are diverse and formulating policies therefore must take into consideration how each player may be affected by policy issuances.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; drugs/medicine ; Philippines ; Geographic Information System (GIS) ; macroeconomic shock ; Philippine pharmaceutical sector ; Pharmaindustrie ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Philippinen
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 18
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-10
    Description: Addressing gender gaps is a major development objective anywhere in the world. This paper aims to illustrate that this is far more critical in the presence of another social layer – disability. Among persons with disability (PWDs), the gap between men and women are more distinct, their conditions more dismal with poverty as their needs are different. Apart from poverty, discrimination and prejudice are the major challenges that persons with disabilities face in their everyday life. Because they face various social, physical, and economic barriers, policies should gear toward formulating rights-based and comprehensive actions to improve their well-being. In formulation of effective policy actions, data and information are critical. However, data collection on disability in many countries is at an early stage of development because it is given low priority or often excluded from official statistics. The ESCAP noted that the lack of availability and the quality of demographic and socioeconomic indicators concerning disability continue to be major challenges. This paper aims to fill in this information gap. It discusses the conditions of men and women with disability using a set of pioneering surveys conducted in the Philippines. The goal is to illustrate the gender disparities and to draw useful insights on how stakeholders can address this issue.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Philippines ; persons with disability (PWDs) ; gender studies ; Behinderte ; Geschlechterdiskriminierung ; Philippinen
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 19
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-10
    Description: Poverty incidence in the Philippines is rising based on the national official data released by the National Statistical Coordination Board. Poverty incidence among population rose from 24.9 percent in 2003 to 26.4 percent in 2006 and then inched up further to 26.5 percent in 2009. This is in reverse of the downward trend and is a major deviation from the path toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals. The disparities across the regions remain wide both in terms of poverty and inequality measures. In this paper, we show the salient features of the country's poverty situation in a hope to contribute to the existing knowledge about the poverty condition and to the formulation of better strategies for reducing poverty. It focuses on agriculture because it plays a central role in the poverty condition that continues to persist despite recent episodes of high economic progress the country has achieved.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; inequality ; Philippines ; Philippine poverty profile ; agricultural poverty ; multidimensional poverty
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 20
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2015-11-27
    Description: A consensus has recently emerged that a number of variables in addition to the level, slope, and curvature of the term structure can help predict interest rates and excess bond returns. We demonstrate that the statistical tests that have been used to support this conclusion are subject to very large size distortions from a previously unrecognized problem arising from highly persistent regressors and correlation between the true predictors and lags of the dependent variable. We revisit the evidence using tests that are robust to this problem and conclude that the current consensus is wrong. Only the level and the slope of the yield curve are robust predictors of excess bond returns, and there is no robust and convincing evidence for unspanned macro risk.
    Keywords: E43 ; E44 ; E47 ; ddc:330 ; yield curve ; spanning ; bond returns ; small-sample bias ; robust inference
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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