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  • 1
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-10
    Description: Poverty incidence among population rose from 24.9 percent in 2003 to 26.4 percent in 2006 and then inched up further to 26.5 percent in 2009. Although this aggregate poverty rate shows only a few percentage points change from 2003 to 2009, this does not mean there are no movements in and out of poverty. Based on a matched panel data obtained from three survey years of the Family Income and Expenditure Survey, this paper aims to look into the dynamics of poverty. The main objective is to draw a line between the chronic and transient poor, and to determine the factors that have made people exit poverty and those that dragged many nonpoor households into poverty.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Philippines ; panel data ; poverty analysis ; chronic and transient poverty ; dynamics of poverty ; Armut ; Soziale Mobilität ; Philippinen
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-10
    Description: In an effort to complement the 2008 disability survey conducted in Metro Manila, the University of Tokyo and the Philippine Institute for Development Studies collaborated to undertake a similar study in a rural area. The survey was conducted in Rosario, Batangas in 2010, where 106 PWDs from 31 barangays were interviewed.Some of the major findings of the survey are as follows: The majority of the respondents did not even finish elementary education. The most common reason for not going to school ever or completing schooling is poverty. Employment rate among the respondents, however, is slightly lower (at 47%) than that in Metro Manila (50%). If the visually-impaired has the highest proportion with income-generating jobs (72%) in Metro Manila (who are usually masseurs), the hearing-impaired has the highest employment rate (58%) in Rosario, who are usually farmers/farm workers. Very few of the respondents are members of the Municipal Federation of PWDs, which is the only Disability Self-Help Organization in Rosario. Moreover, only 3 out of 10 respondents are aware of the important policies that were intended to improve their well-being. Among the 31 respondents who have knowledge about any of the policies on discounts, only 10 of them have ever enjoyed at least one of these discounts and possess a PWD ID card. Lack of awareness and participation stem from not having the chance to go out and mingle with other people reflecting the social, economic, and physical constraints that PWDs in rural areas are facing.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Philippines ; macroeconomic outlook ; persons with disability (PWDs) ; rural ; survey ; Rosario ; Batangas ; livelihood ; Behinderte ; Soziale Lage ; Bildungsniveau ; Erwerbstätigkeit ; Ländlicher Raum ; Philippinen
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-10
    Description: Despite the remarkable economic performance of the Philippines in recent years, poverty remains a core policy issue. And with a relatively young population, the poverty situation concerns largely children who are at the critical stages of their physical, mental, and social development. This report provides a comprehensive profile of children who are living in poverty through data collected from national surveys and administrative records of government agencies. The estimations show that in 2009, 13.4 million or over a third of all children aged below 18 are living below the poverty line. Both the incidence and magnitude of poor children are increasing through years. Moreover, around 10 million face at least two overlapping types of severe deprivation in basic amenities while an estimated three quarters of a million face at least five kinds of deprivation simultaneously. Although these children can be found in the different regions of the country, several areas that consistently lag behind in many poverty aspects have been identified. Meanwhile, longitudinal data show that a non-negligible number of families move in and out of poverty and this vulnerability poses risks on children's well-being. With the recent trend in population growth, the lack of inclusivity of economic growth, and the exposure of the country to natural calamities, we would expect that the number of children in dire condition would not be significantly reduced within the next few years.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; poverty ; Philippines ; panel data ; children ; deprivation
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-10
    Description: In 2006, poverty incidence in the Philippines went up by 3 percentage points from 2003, marking a reversal against the downward trend in previous poverty estimates. This upward trend went against expectations after the Philippine economy exhibited a relatively robust performance during this period. The reasons as to why this has happened are explored in this paper. Meanwhile, income inequality measures do not show significant change over the years. Natural disasters and economic crises further add to the already difficult work of reducing poverty. The MDG deadline looms ahead and time is running out in the country's battle against poverty. In this report, the poverty situation is again revisited and closely examined. It aims to assess whether the country has made any improvements or not and to answer several key questions such as: What should likely be the focus of poverty reduction efforts? Why is it that poverty rose despite the relatively fast economic growth in recent years? What can we learn from this experience?
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; poverty ; Philippines ; income inequality ; decomposition of poverty ; Armut ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Philippinen
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-10
    Description: The Philippines has been posting progress in terms of poverty reduction since the early 1990s. However, reversal in the trend was observed in 2006. Further worsening of the poverty situation is expected given the various economic and natural shocks (i.e., food and fuel price hikes; global financial and economic crisis; typhoons Milenyo, Reming, Frank, Ondoy, Pepeng; and the recent El Nino) that recently hit the country. Many households, especially those that belong to the bottom 40 percent, are deemed vulnerable to these shocks. Using a panel of households from the different rounds of Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) and Annual Poverty Indicators Survey (APIS) from 2003 to 2008, this paper examined the movements in and out of poverty among households. The study provided a description of the extent of chronic and transient poverty as well as the various household characteristics that discriminate among the different groups of households, including the chronic and the transient poor. A panel regression analysis was also explored to identify factors that can predict the income-based poverty status of households. Based on the descriptive and regression analyses, some insights were presented that can guide the government in the formulation of specific types of interventions to different groups of households, especially the transient poor. This is hopefully an attempt to recover the previous gains in poverty reduction and thus attain the MDG target of halving extreme poverty by 2015.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Philippines ; chronic poor ; transient poor ; panel data ; logistic panel regression ; Armut ; Soziale Lage ; Haushaltseinkommen ; Philippinen
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-10
    Description: The year 2013 marks the fifth year of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) implementation in the country since its inception in 2008. The first batch of beneficiaries will be graduating from the program in several months' time. Meanwhile, the government continues to expand the implementation devising along the way several variants that it deems necessary to address the many facets of poverty. The 4Ps is by far the largest poverty reduction and social development program the Philippine government has ever conceived. Approximately PHP 120 billion have already been allocated to the program up to 2013.The program's dual objectives are social assistance and social development. It provides cash assistance to poor families to alleviate their immediate needs and aims to "break the intergenerational poverty cycle through investments in human capital." As program graduation nears, many questions arise of what to expect from this program. It is rather fitting at this point to draw together assessments that have been conducted so far and to look into some important issues in terms of design and implementation. The paper seeks to answer whether expanding the program would likely yield better results or not. It discusses the outstanding issues most especially those on the aspects that have a bearing on the program's ability to facilitate inclusive growth.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; poverty ; education ; Philippines ; school attendance ; conditional cash transfer (CCT) program ; proxy means test ; Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) ; propensity score matching ; social assistance
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-10
    Description: Regional economic integration in East Asia is characterized initially as a market-driven process of increased trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, and eventually by formal arrangements to liberalize trade and integrate economic activities through free trade agreements (FTAs) among East and Southeast Asian countries (Balboa and Medalla 2011). This has led to a more intensified regional production networks participated in by East and Southeast Asian countries, including the Philippines. Set against the backdrop of continuing economic integration in the region, it seems that the growth in the Philippines has not been as inclusive as in the other countries as manifested in the increase in the magnitude of poverty.This paper examines how we can improve our record on poverty reduction by looking at how we can generate greater demand for the labor services of the poor. Specifically, this paper looks into the linkage between regional production networks and inclusive growth in the Philippines through employment generation for the poor. The manufacturing sector can provide employment opportunities for the poor and can offer relatively higher wages. However, expected high-productivity employment opportunities from the manufacturing sector were not fully realized due to some bottlenecks in the sector. This partly explains the persistence of poverty in the Philippines. To promote inclusive growth and reduce poverty, the manufacturing sector has to be made more competitive and, at the same time, productivity in the agriculture sector (the major employer of poor) has to be increased.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; poverty ; Philippines ; employment ; regional economic integration ; agriculture ; inclusive growth ; chronic poor ; manufacturing ; less educated ; labor force survey (LFS)
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    s.l.: International Journal of Business Science & Applied Management
    Publication Date: 2018-12-20
    Description: Agricultural biomass supply chain consists of a number of interacted sequential operations affected by various variables, such as weather conditions, machinery systems, and biomass features. These facts make the process of biomass supply chain as a complex system that requires computational tools, e.g. simulation and mathematical models, for their assessment and analysis. A biomass supply chain simulation model developed on the ExtendSim 8 simulation environment is presented in this paper. A number of sequential operations are applied in order biomass to be mowed, harvested, and transported to a biorefinery facility. Different operational scenarios regarding the travel distance between field and biorefinery facility, number of machines, and capacity of machines are analyzed showing how different parameters affect the processes within biomass supply chain in terms of time and cost. The results shown that parameters such as area of the field, travel distance, number of available machines, capacity of the machines, etc. should be taken into account in order a less time and/ or cost consuming machinery combination to be selected.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; agricultural biomass ; supply chain management ; simulation model ; agricultural machinery ; operations management
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 9
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Goethe University, Center for Financial Studies (CFS)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-21
    Description: A counterparty credit limit (CCL) is a limit imposed by a financial institution to cap its maximum possible exposure to a specified counterparty. Although CCLs are designed to help institutions mitigate counterparty risk by selective diversification of their exposures, their implementation restricts the liquidity that institutions can access in an otherwise centralized pool. We address the question of how this mechanism impacts trade prices and volatility, both empirically and via a new model of trading with CCLs. We find empirically that CCLs cause little impact on trade. However, our model highlights that in extreme situations, CCLs could serve to destabilize prices and thereby influence systemic risk.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Counterparty Credit Limits ; Counterparty Risk ; Price Formation ; Market Design ; Systemic Risk
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Oslo: Norges Bank
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: Micro-based exchange-rate research examines the determination and behavior of spot exchange rates in an environment that replicates the key features of trading in the foreign exchange (FX) market. Traditional macro exchange-rate models play little attention to how trading in the FX market actually takes place. The implicit assumption is that the details of trading are unimportant for the behavior of exchange rates over months, quarters or longer. Micro-based models, by contrast, examine how information relevant to the pricing of FX becomes reflected in the spot exchange rate via the trading process. According to this view, trading is not an ancillary market activity that can be ignored when considering exchange-rate behavior. Rather, trading is an integral part of the process through which spot rates are determined and evolve. The past decade of micro-based research has uncovered a robust and strong empirical relation between exchange rates and measures of FX trading activity. One measure in particular, order flow (i.e., the net of buyer- and seller-initiated FX trades) appears as the proximate driver of exchange-rate changes over horizons ranging from a few minutes to a few months. This finding supports the view that trading is an integral part of exchange-rate determination. It also stands in stark contrast to the well-known deficiencies of macro models in accounting for exchange-rate variations over horizons shorter than a couple of years. In this paper we provide an overview of micro-based research on exchange-rate determination. We survey both models focusing on partial equilibrium, the traditional domain of microstructure research, and recent research that focuses on the link between currency trading and macroeconomic conditions in the general equilibrium setting of modern macroeconomic models. We believe micro-based research is making some progress towards understanding the links between macroeconomic conditions and the behavior of exchange rates over macro- and policy-relevant horizons.
    Keywords: F3 ; F4 ; G1 ; ddc:330 ; exchange rate dynamics ; microstructure ; order flow
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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