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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Forschungsmethode ; Transdisziplinarität ; Wissenschaftstransfer ; Social sciences ; Sociology ; Social Sciences ; Methodology of the Social Sciences ; Knowledge - Discourse ; Aufsatzsammlung ; Forschungsmethode ; Transdisziplinarität ; Wissenschaftstransfer
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (406 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658215309
    URL: Volltext  (kostenfrei)
    URL: Volltext  (kostenfrei)
    DDC: 300.1
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Forschungsmethode ; Transdisziplinarität ; Wissenschaftstransfer ; Social sciences / Methodology ; Methodology of the Social Sciences ; Knowledge - Discourse ; Forschungsmethode ; Transdisziplinarität ; Wissenschaftstransfer
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (X, 374 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658271350
    URL: Volltext  (kostenfrei)
    DDC: 300.1
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 3
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    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: In this paper the results of a detailed seismic microzonation, performed at Sant’Agata Fossili (Piemonte region, northern Italy) are presented. We study the local seismic response of this small village using a level 3, that is the most accurate level following the Italian code of seismic microzonation. The activity steps consist in a gradual widening of knowledge of the different aspects of the amplification phenomena. A multidisciplinary approach has been performed to obtain the local seismic response: including a study of local geology, geophysical and geotechnical characterization of the lithologies, and numerical and experimental analyses. We finally compare the obtained elastic response spectra to the prescribed spectra of the Italian Building Code (in Italian: Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni). Our results show the geologic and geophysical differences of the subsoil, that produce different local seismic response in terms of amplification factors and acceleration response spectra.
    Print ISSN: 1593-5213
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-09-08
    Description: The largest dataset ever recorded during a normal fault seismic sequence was acquired during the 2009 seismic emergency triggered by the damaging earthquake in L'Aquila (Italy). This was possible through the coordination of different rapid-response seismic networks in Italy, France and Germany. A seismic network of more than 60 stations recorded up to 70,000 earthquakes. Here, we describe the different open-data archives where it is possible to find this unique set of data for studies related to hazard, seismotectonics and earthquake physics. Moreover, we briefly describe some immediate and direct applications of emergency seismic networks. At the same time, we note the absence of communication platforms between the different European networks. Rapid-response networks need to agree on common strategies for network operations. Hopefully, over the next few years, the European Rapid-Response Seismic Network will became a reality.
    Print ISSN: 1593-5213
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
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    BioMed Central
    Publication Date: 2013-11-12
    Description: Background: Adaptations to a new environment, such as a polluted one, often involve large modifications of the existing phenotypes. Changes in gene expression and regulation during critical developmental stages may explain these phenotypic changes. Embryos from a population of the teleost fish, Fundulus heteroclitus, inhabiting a clean estuary do not survive when exposed to sediment extract from a site highly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) while embryos derived from a population inhabiting a PAH polluted estuary are remarkably resistant to the polluted sediment extract. We exposed embryos from these two populations to surrogate model PAHs and analyzed changes in gene expression, morphology, and cardiac physiology in order to better understand sensitivity and adaptive resistance mechanisms mediating PAH exposure during development. Results: The synergistic effects of two model PAHs, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist (beta-naphthoflavone) and a cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) inhibitor (alpha-naphthoflavone), caused significant developmental delays, impaired cardiac function, severe morphological alterations and failure to hatch, leading to the deaths of reference embryos; resistant embryos were mostly unaffected. Unexpectedly, patterns of gene expression among normal and moderately deformed embryos were similar, and only severely deformed embryos showed a contrasting pattern of gene expression. Given the drastic morphological differences between reference and resistant embryos, a surprisingly low percentage of genes, 2.24% of 6,754 analyzed, show statistically significant differences in transcript levels during late organogenesis between the two embryo populations. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates important contrasts in responses between reference and resistant natural embryo populations to synergistic effects of surrogate model PAHs that may be important in adaptive mechanisms mediating PAH effects during fish embryo development. These results suggest that statistically significant changes in gene expression of relatively few genes contribute to the phenotypic changes and large morphological differences exhibited by reference and resistant populations upon exposure to PAH pollutants. By correlating cardiac physiology and morphology with changes in gene expression patterns of reference and resistant embryos, we provide additional evidence for acquired resistance among embryos whose parents live at heavily contaminated sites.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2164
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 6
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    In: Nature
    Publication Date: 2016-07-07
    Description: A microbial perspective of human developmental biology Nature 535, 7610 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature18845 Authors: Mark R. Charbonneau, Laura V. Blanton, Daniel B. DiGiulio, David A. Relman, Carlito B. Lebrilla, David A. Mills & Jeffrey I. Gordon When most people think of human development, they tend to consider only human cells and organs. Yet there is another facet that involves human-associated microbial communities. A microbial perspective of human development provides opportunities to refine our definitions of healthy prenatal and postnatal growth and
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Publication Date: 2015-03-17
    Description: We show the preliminary seismic monitoring of a historical church in L’Aquila (central Italy), which was strongly damaged by the 2009 seismic sequence. This structure, S. Maria del Suffragio church, suffered the collapse of a great part of the dome during the April 6th 2009 Mw 6.1 earthquake. In this paper, recordings of ambient noise and local earthquakes have been analyzed. The seismic data were recorded by means of a dynamic monitoring system (19 mono-directional and 3 tri-directional piezoelectric accelerometers) and of two velocimeters, with all the instruments installed into the church. The aim of this research is the evaluation of the performance of the accelerometers of the monitoring system in case of low-amplitude vibrations. Simple techniques of analysis commonly employed in the seismic characterization of buildings have been applied. The reliability of the in-situ data was evaluated and the main modal parameters (natural frequencies and damping ratio) of the church were presented.
    Print ISSN: 1593-5213
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-10-18
    Description: On May 20, 2012, at 02:03 UTC, a Ml 5.9 reverse-fault earthquake occurred in the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, at a hypocentral depth of 6.3 km (http://iside.rm.ingv.it/), close to the cities of Modena and Ferrara in the plain of the Po River. The epicenter was near the village of Finale Emilia where macroseismic intensity was assessed at 7 EMS98 [Tertulliani et al. 2012, this issue], while the closest accelerometric station, MRN, located less than 20 km west-ward at Mirandola (Figure 1) recorded peaks of ground accelerations of about 300 cm/s2 (www.protezionecivile.gov.it/resources/cms/documents/Report_DPC_1_Emilia_EQSd.pdf). The mainshock triggered liquefaction phenomena a few kilometers eastwards of the epicenter, around the village of San Carlo. On the same day, two other shocks of Ml 5.1 followed (02:07, 13:18 GMT; http://iside.rm.ingv.it/). On May 29, 2012, at 07:00 UTC another Ml 5.8 earthquake hit the region (http://iside.rm.ingv.it/), with the epicenter close to the village of Mirandola (Figure 1). Three other strong aftershocks occurred afterwards, of Ml 5.3 (May 29, at 10:55), Ml 5.2 (May 29, at 11:00) and Ml 5.1 (June 3, at 19:20). For a detailed description of the seismic sequence, see Moretti et al. [2012], Scognamiglio et al. [2012], and Massa et al. [2012], in this issue. The Emilia seismic sequence resulted in 25 casualties, several of whom were among the workers in the many factories that collapsed during working hours, and there was extensive damage to monuments, public buildings, industrial sites, and private homes. […]
    Print ISSN: 1593-5213
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Description: Soil liquefaction can result in significant settlement and reduction of load-bearing capacity. Moreover, the increase and the accumulation of pore pressure during an earthquake and its post-seismic dissipation can generate permanent deformations and settlements. The quantitative evaluation of post-liquefaction settlements is of extreme importance for engineering purposes, i.e. for earthquake-resistant design of new buildings and safety evaluation of existing ones. Quantifying the extent of these phenomena is, however, rather difficult. Uncertainties arise from the stochastic nature of the earthquake loading, from the simplifications of soil models, and from the difficulty in establishing correlations between the pre-earthquake soil state and the post-seismic deformations. Field scale liquefaction tests, under controlled conditions, are therefore important for a correct quantification of these phenomena. Recent experiences (e.g. New Zealand, United States) show that liquefaction can be induced and monitored with field scale blast tests to study the related effects on soil geotechnical properties. Within this framework this paper introduces the preliminary results obtained from a research project on blast-induced liquefaction at the field scale; tests were performed at a trial site located in Mirabello (Ferrara, Italy), a village strongly affected by liquefaction phenomena during the 2012 Emilia Romagna earthquake. Invasive tests, such as piezocone, seismic dilatometer and down-hole tests, and non-invasive tests were carried out before and after the execution of two blast test sequences to study the variation in physical properties of the soils. Pore pressure transducers, settlement profilometers, accelerometers and an instrumented micropile were installed with the objective of measuring, during and after the detonations, the generation and subsequent dissipation of the pore pressure, the vertical deformations, and the blast-induced ground motions respectively. Variations in load distribution on deep foundations due to soil liquefaction were also evaluated on a test micropile instrumented with a strain gauge chain. Topographical surveys were carried out to measure ground surface settlements. Laboratory tests and trenches also provided increase understanding of the site characteristics.
    Print ISSN: 1593-5213
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
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    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Publication Date: 2017-07-13
    Description: We carried out a vibration study experiment on a masonry building in the town of Ariano Irpino, southern Italy, using six-channel stations equipped with three-component velocity-transducers and accelerometers and running in continuous modality from January 2006 to December 2007. The analysis of weak motions from several local earthquakes, together with the 3D numerical modelling of the structure, allowed us to identify the first three vibration modes of the target building. Therefore, we checked the validity of ambient noise data to determine the vibration frequencies of buildings. The analysis tools based on earthquake and ambient noise data were conventional, i.e. spectral ratios between homologous components of stations at high floors in the building with respect to a station installed at the basement, and single-station spectral ratios between horizontal and vertical components. The indications derived from earthquakes and ambient noise result in a satisfactory agreement for frequencies between 1 and 20 Hz when using recordings characterized by low levels of amplitude, both for cultural and meteorological noise. In contrast, when the wind speed increases (above 20 km/h, approximately) seismic noise shows an excess of horizontal vibrations at low frequencies (below 2 Hz). These extra-amplitudes are not related to the seismic input vertically incident to the basement, but are probably due to the lateral action of the wind on the building. In contrast anthropic activities do not affect considerably the trend of spectral ratios in the range of frequencies that include the first modes of vibration of the building, even at high noise level.
    Print ISSN: 1593-5213
    Topics: Geosciences
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