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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of clinical immunology 19 (1999), S. 378-387 
    ISSN: 1573-2592
    Keywords: Apoptosis ; cytochrome c ; mitochondria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Whether we view the mitochondria as the headquarters for the leader of a crack suicide squad or as a prison for the leader of a militant coup, the role of the mitochondria in the apoptotic process is now well established. During apoptosis the integrity of the mitochondria is breeched, the mitochondrial transmembrane potential drops, the electron transport chain is disrupted, and proteins from the mitochondrial intermembrane space (MIS) such as cytochrome c are released into the cytosol, although not necessarily in that order. In the cytosol, cytochrome c forms part of a proteinaceous complex that directly activates caspase-9, one of the apical enzymes responsible for the dismantling of the cell. In this way a mitochondrial factor which is normally locked away from the rest of the cell can directly trigger apoptosis. The need to regulate the release of cytochrome c suggests that the mitochondria may be the decision center for whether a cell lives or dies. Various hypotheses have been formulated to explain how proteins of the MIS are released and how this process is regulated. These include the Bcl-2-regulated opening of a permeability transition pore or an increase in mitochondrial transmembrane potential followed by outer membrane rupture. It remains to be clarified which mitochondria specific events are essential for apoptosis and which are merely consequences of apoptosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature America Inc.
    Nature medicine 5 (1999), S. 1231-1232 
    ISSN: 1546-170X
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Two papers suggest that apoptosis of alloreactive T cells is required for induction of peripheral transplantation tolerance. These findings raise new questions about how lymphocytes reach from beyond the grave to influence the immune response (pages 1298–1302 and ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature medicine 3 (1997), S. 1117-1123 
    ISSN: 1546-170X
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] The HIV-1 accessory gene product Vpr can influence viral pathogenesis by affecting viral replication as well as host cell transcription and proliferation. We have investigated the effects of Vpr on host cell activation and confirm that it influences cellular proliferation. However, we have also ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 60 (1996), S. 33-38 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: No abstract.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 373 (1995), S. 441-444 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] To address the possible role of Fas/Fas-ligand interactions in activation-induced apoptosis in T-cell hybridomas, we examined the expression of Fas and Fas-ligand in the hybridoma line Al. 1, which rapidly undergoes apoptosis following activation1'3. Al.l cells do not express cell-surface Fas ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 313 (1985), S. 400-402 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Hydractinia echinata is an athecate colonial marine hydroid possessing a genetically based capacity for discrimination between related and unrelated colonies of the same species6-9. Colonies are composed of an ectodermal mat from which arise many feeding polyps (each superficially similar to those ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 339 (1989), S. 625-626 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] It has been suggested that AICD in thymocytes may be the mechanism by which autoreactive clones become negatively selected during T-cell development11. As CsA has been shown to interfere with the process of negative selection in the thy-mus5'6, we asked whether CsA blocks AICD. We first examined ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 320 (1986), S. 451-454 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Prolonged oral immunization of C3H/HeN mice with SRBC induces systemic unresponsiveness, while identically treated C3H/HeJ mice exhibit IgM, IgG and IgA anti-SRBC splenic plaque-forming cell (PFC) responses (Fig. I)3. The inability to induce oral tolerance in C3H/HeJ mice is linked to a defective ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 405 (2000), S. 28-29 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Multicellular animals are confronted daily with death and its consequences, at least at the cellular level. Cells die from wear and tear, as a part of differentiation and selection, and through mechanisms that provide for normal cellular turnover. Cells usually die by apoptosis, a death process ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 396 (1998), S. 629-630 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The simple fact that cancer cells survive beyond their normal ‘die by’ date has only in the past decade been incorporated into our understanding of tumorigenesis. How transformed cells evade death provides insights not only into cancer, but also into the molecular mechanisms of ...
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