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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of nuclear medicine 23 (1996), S. 568-570 
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Technetium-99m sestamibi ; Multidrug resistance ; P-glycoprotein ; Glutathione
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An in vitro study was designed to evaluate the uptake of sestamibi (MIBI) in P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and glutathione-associated (GSH) multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines. MIBI uptake was studied in various human breast carcinoma cell lines, i.e. in wild-type (MCF7/wt) cells, in adriamycin-resistant (MCF7/adr) cells which express Pgp and in melphalan-resistant (MCF7/mph) cells with increased levels of GSH. The effects of buthiomine sulphoximine (BSO) and verapamil on MIBI uptake were also studied in the MCF7/mph and MCF7/adr cells respectively. The cells were incubated for 1 h with a dose of 0.1 MBq thallium-201 and technetium-99m MIBI. Both MIBI and201Tl uptakes were higher for MCF7/mph cells than for the other cells studied. The mean MIBI uptake in MCF7/adr cells was significantly lower than that in MCF7/wt cells (1.9%±0.5% vs 3.1%.0.6%;P 〈0.01). Verapamil treatment increased the MIBI uptake in MCF7/adr cells (to 2.6%.0.3%;P 〈0.05). Treatment of MCF7/mph cells with BSO resulted in a significant reduction in GSH content (from 243.2±81.1 nmoUmg protein to 17.6±4.4 nmol/mg protein;P 〈0.001). However, MIBI uptake in BSO-treated and untreated MCF7/mph cells was similar (4.43%±0.5% and 5.93%±1.7%, respectively;P 〉0.1). This study suggests that the uptake of MIBI is not diminished by glutathione-associated drug resistance and that MIBI uptake in a tumour sample does not necessarily indicate that a cancer is sensitive to drugs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Minds and machines 7 (1997), S. 1-37 
    ISSN: 1572-8641
    Keywords: Connectionism ; systematicity ; learning ; language ; semantics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Philosophy
    Notes: Abstract Fodor's and Pylyshyn's stand on systematicity in thought and language has been debated and criticized. Van Gelder and Niklasson, among others, have argued that Fodor and Pylyshyn offer no precise definition of systematicity. However, our concern here is with a learning based formulation of that concept. In particular, Hadley has proposed that a network exhibits strong semantic systematicity when, as a result of training, it can assign appropriate meaning representations to novel sentences (both simple and embedded) which contain words in syntactic positions they did not occupy during training. The experience of researchers indicates that strong systematicity in any form is difficult to achieve in connectionist systems. Herein we describe a network which displays strong semantic systematicity in response to Hebbian, connectionist training. During training, two-thirds of all nouns are presented only in a single syntactic position (either as grammatical subject or object). Yet, during testing, the network correctly interprets thousands of sentences containing those nouns in novel positions. In addition, the network generalizes to novel levels of embedding. Successful training requires a, corpus of about 1000 sentences, and network training is quite rapid. The architecture and learning algorithms are purely connectionist, but ‘classical’ insights are discernible in one respect, viz, that complex semantic representations spatially contain their semantic constituents. However, in other important respects, the architecture is distinctly non-classical.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Sexual plant reproduction 12 (1999), S. 43-52 
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Key words Apomixis ; Sexuality ; Day length ; Embryology ; Brachiaria ; Agamic complexes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Meiotic and aposporous embryo sacs and the initial steps of parthenogenetic embryogenesis and endosperm formation were investigated in diploid and tetraploid accessions of Brachiaria decumbens in two environments, differing mainly in day length: early summer and late autumn. Both diploid and tetraploid accessions were facultative apomicts. Di(ha)ploids showed a much lower level of apomixis (10% to15%) than tetraploids (80% to 95%). No obligate sexual diploids were found; thus, their occurrence in natural populations is obscure. It is suggested that reproduction in B. decumbens, as in other agamic complexes of the Paniceae tribe, in general, approximates a diploid-tetraploid-(di)haploid reproductive cycle which does not involve triploids. The dihaploids were fertile and survived in nature. Development of the reproductive structures depended on the environment. In autumn, in contrast to early summer, many meiotic and aposporous embryo sacs degenerated during development, leading to a significant reduction in the proportion of parthenogenetic embryos. Whether this effect can be attributed to day length or simply to age remains to be investigated. The ratio of aposporous to sexual embryo sacs was relatively stable over the two seasons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 363 (1993), S. 166-169 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We previously reported that fos-lacZ was expressed, apparently continuously, in cell populations undergoing ter-minal differentiation culminating in death in skin, hair follicle and bone6. These and other results7'10 prompted us to examine other sites of naturally occurring cell death. In the ...
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 450 (2007), S. 960-961 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Transition-metal compounds provide a 'double whammy' of interest for researchers. Not only do they offer the fundamental scientific challenge of finding ways to control and enhance their properties, but they also have applications in such diverse areas as catalysis, magnetic information storage and ...
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 54 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Acute seizures and other stimuli that increase neuronal activity cause a rapid induction of the immediate-early genes c-fos and c-jun, also referred to as nuclear proto-on-cogenes, in the nervous system. In the present study, rats were administered one or more electroconvulsive seizures (ECS) and the responsiveness of c-fos and c-jun to an acute, “test” seizure was examined. Four hours after a single ECS, the induction of c-fos mRNA by a test seizure was blocked, in agreement with earlier findings, but by 18 h the levels of c-fos mRNA could be reinduced by the test seizure, suggesting that 1 day is sufficient to “reset” the responsiveness of this system. However, it was found that chronic, daily ECS treatments resulted in a time-dependent decrease in the expression of c-fos mRNA in response to a test seizure administered 18 h after the last daily ECS; this effect was maximal after 8–10 days of treatment, at which time the induction of c-fos mRNA by the test seizure was blocked dramatically. Chronic ECS also blocked the induction of c-jun in response to an acute, test seizure. The effect of chronic ECS on levels of Fos protein was also investigated. It was found that basal levels of Fos protein were reduced after chronic (10 days) ECS and were not induced by a test seizure. Because levels of Fos protein remain elevated 4 h after a single seizure this finding suggests that the mechanisms by which acute (4 h) and chronic (8–10 days) ECS block the induction of c-fos may differ.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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