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  • Articles  (7,729)
  • 1
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-09-24
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 2089: Seroprevalence and Determinants Associated with Mumps Antibodies after 20 Years of MMR Vaccination in Urban Area of Shanghai, China International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102089 Authors: Hong Pang Yibiao Zhou Wensui Zhao Qingwu Jiang A resurgence of the mumps epidemic in highly vaccinated populations has occurred in recent years in many countries. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence to mumps in urban areas of Shanghai, where a measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination had been implemented for 20 years. Mumps IgG antibodies were tested in 2662 residual sera from all ages in an urban area of Shanghai. A linear regression method was performed to assess the persistence of mumps antibodies after MMR vaccination. A logistic regression method was used to analyze the variables associated with seronegative sera. The overall age- and gender-adjusted seroprevalence of mumps antibodies reached 90% (95% CI: 90.0–90.2). The antibody concentration declined significantly in the first eight years after the second dose of MMR. The multivariate analysis identified that males, age groups, especially 17–19 years and no dose of vaccination, as well as one dose of vaccination, as factors associated with an increased risk of seronegative sera. A high seroprevalence to mumps has been achieved in the urban areas of Shanghai. A declining antibody level of mumps after the second dose of MMR may put a potential risk of recurrence of mumps. The two-dose MMR vaccine schedule is superior to one-dose schedule for mumps control.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 2
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-09-24
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 2090: Priorization of River Restoration by Coupling Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) Models in the Taizi River Basin, Northern China International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102090 Authors: Juntao Fan Mengdi Li Fen Guo Zhenguang Yan Xin Zheng Yuan Zhang Zongxue Xu Fengchang Wu Identifying priority zones for river restoration is important for biodiversity conservation and catchment management. However, limited data due to the difficulty of field collection has led to research to better understand the ecological status within a catchment and develop a targeted planning strategy for river restoration. To address this need, coupling hydrological and machine learning models were constructed to identify priority zones for river restoration based on a dataset of aquatic organisms (i.e., algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish) and physicochemical indicators that were collected from 130 sites in September 2014 in the Taizi River, northern China. A process-based model soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) was developed to model the temporal-spatial variations in environmental indicators. A support vector machine (SVM) model was applied to explore the relationships between aquatic organisms and environmental indicators. Biological indices among different hydrological periods were simulated by coupling SWAT and SVM models. Results indicated that aquatic biological indices and physicochemical indicators exhibited apparent temporal and spatial patterns, and those patterns were more evident in the upper reaches compared to the lower reaches. The ecological status of the Taizi River was better in the flood season than that in the dry season. Priority zones were identified for different hydrological seasons by setting the target values for ecological restoration based on biota organisms, and the results suggest that hydrological conditions significantly influenced restoration prioritization over other environmental parameters. Our approach could be applied in other seasonal river ecosystems to provide important preferences for river restoration.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 3
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-09-23
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 2088: Diet and Physical Activity as Determinants of Lifestyle Chosen by Women from Southern Poland International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102088 Authors: Agnieszka Ostachowska-Gasior Emilia Kolarzyk Renata Majewska Anna Gasior Jacek Kwiatkowski Izabela Zaleska The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the lifestyle of Polish women (characterized by the quality of diets and levels of reported physical activity) and their characteristics such as age, place of residence, physical activity at work or school, reported health status, and BMI. The sample consisted of 882 women from Southern Poland. Diet quality and the level of physical activity were evaluated by the Nutrition Beliefs Questionnaire established by the Polish Academy of Sciences. The lifestyle category (healthy, moderate, or unhealthy) was based on “Prohealthy Diet Index-10” and participant’s self-assessed physical activity during their leisure-time. The lifestyle category was significantly associated with age, BMI, physical activity at work/school, and health. Moderate lifestyle (high or moderate levels of physical activity combined with low prohealthy diet) was the most commonly found classification in examined women. Age (>35 years old) and overweight are the main factors determining unhealthy lifestyle behavior. Healthy lifestyle is more often chosen by the women from big cities. More intensive efforts should be undertaken to increase the knowledge and awareness of the health benefits of a healthy lifestyle. The main goal should be concentrated on increasing the level of physical activity, especially in leisure time, and promoting the tenets of a well-balanced diet.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 4
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-09-23
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 2087: Anxiety in Rural Chinese Children and Adolescents: Comparisons across Provinces and among Subgroups International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102087 Authors: Hongyan Liu Yaojiang Shi Emma Auden Scott Rozelle China’s competitive education system has produced notably high learning outcomes, but they may be costly. One potential cost is high levels of anxiety. China has launched several initiatives aimed at improving student mental health. However, little is known about how effective these programs and policies are. The goal of this paper was to examine anxiety levels among children and adolescents in rural China, and to identify which subpopulations were particularly vulnerable to anxiety. Data were aggregated from 10 different school-level surveys conducted in rural areas of five provinces between 2008 and 2015. In total, 50,361 students were evaluated using the 100-item, nine-subcategory Mental Health Test (a variation of the Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale). Seven percent of students were at risk for overall anxiety. However, over half of students were at risk for at least one subcategory of anxiety. Students at higher risk for anxiety included students from poorer counties and families, female students, secondary school students, and students with lower levels of academic performance. Many students in rural China are at risk for anxiety, and certain student subpopulations are particularly vulnerable. We suggest that China’s government review and update student mental health programs and policies.
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 5
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-09-22
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 2086: ‘Sustainable’ Rather Than ‘Subsistence’ Food Assistance Solutions to Food Insecurity: South Australian Recipients’ Perspectives on Traditional and Social Enterprise Models International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102086 Authors: Sue Booth Christina Pollard John Coveney Ian Goodwin-Smith South Australian (SA) food charity recipients’ perspectives were sought on existing services and ideas for improvement of food assistance models to address food insecurity. Seven focus groups were conducted between October and November 2017 with 54 adults. Thematically analysed data revealed five themes: (1) Emotional cost and consequences of seeking food relief; (2) Dissatisfaction with inaccessible services and inappropriate food; (3) Returning the favour—a desire for reciprocity; (4) Desiring help beyond food; and, (5) “It’s a social thing”, the desire for social interaction and connection. Findings revealed that some aspects of the SA food assistance services were disempowering for recipients. Recipients desired more empowering forms of food assistance that humanise their experience and shift the locus of control and place power back into their hands. Some traditional models, such as provision of supermarket vouchers, empower individuals by fostering autonomy and enabling food choice in socially acceptable ways. Improvement in the quality of existing food assistance models, should focus on recipient informed models which re-dress existing power relations. Services which are more strongly aligned with typical features of social enterprise models were generally favoured over traditional models. Services which are recipient-centred, strive to empower recipients and provide opportunities for active involvement, social connection and broader support were preferred.
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 6
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-09-22
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 2084: Erratum: Assari, S.; Mistry, R. Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks’ Diminished Return. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 763 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102084 Authors: Shervin Assari Ritesh Mistry Due to an error during production, a citation of the published paper [1] was incorrect [...]
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 7
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-09-22
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 2082: Syncope and Collapse Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality in Patients Undergoing Dialysis International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102082 Authors: Shih-Ting Huang Tung-Min Yu Tai-Yuan Ke Ming-Ju Wu Ya-Wen Chuang Chi-Yuan Li Chih-Wei Chiu Cheng-Li Lin Wen-Miin Liang Tzu-Chieh Chou Chia-Hung Kao Objective: This study explored the impact of syncope and collapse (SC) on cardiovascular events and mortality in patients undergoing dialysis. Methods: Patients undergoing dialysis with SC (n = 3876) were selected as the study cohort and those without SC who were propensity score-matched at a 1:1 ratio were included as controls. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including acute coronary syndrome (ACS), arrhythmia or cardiac arrest, stroke, and overall mortality, were evaluated and compared in both cohorts. Results: The mean follow-up periods until the occurrence of ACS, arrhythmia or cardiac arrest, stroke, and overall mortality in the SC cohort were 3.51 ± 2.90, 3.43 ± 2.93, 3.74 ± 2.97, and 3.76 ± 2.98 years, respectively. Compared with the patients without SC, those with SC had higher incidence rates of ACS (30.1 vs. 24.7 events/1000 people/year), arrhythmia or cardiac arrest (6.75 vs. 3.51 events/1000 people/year), and stroke (51.6 vs. 35.7 events/1000 people/year), with higher overall mortality (127.7 vs. 77.9 deaths/1000 people/year). The SC cohort also had higher risks for ACS, arrhythmia or cardiac arrest, stroke, and overall mortality (adjusted hazard ratios: 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11–1.46), 2.05 (95% CI = 1.50–2.82), 1.48 (95% CI = 1.33–1.66), and 1.79 (95% CI = 1.67–1.92), respectively) than did the non-SC cohort. Conclusion: SC was significantly associated with cardiovascular events and overall mortality in the patients on dialysis. SC may serve as a prodrome for cardiovascular comorbidities, thereby assisting clinicians in identifying high-risk patients.
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  • 8
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-09-22
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 2083: Selected Socio-Demographic and Occupational Factors of Burnout Syndrome in Nurses Employed in Medical Facilities in Małopolska—Preliminary Results International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102083 Authors: Anna Nowacka Anna Piskorz Renata Wolfshaut-Wolak Jadwiga Piątek Agnieszka Gniadek The study examined the relationship between socio-demographic and occupational factors and the level of occupational burnout using the dimensions of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DEP), and personal accomplishment (PA). It examined 560 nurses working in hospitals and primary healthcare units. We used: Maslach Burnout Inventory and a questionnaire including socio-demographic (sex, age, marital status, education, parental status) and occupational (period of employment, workplace, managerial functions, additional employment) factors. An average respondent was 38.13 (SD = 10.16) and had a BA degree (56.0%). The respondents reported average values of the EE (22.8), a low level of DEP (Me = 6), and a low PA (27.63). Nurses working on the intensive care unit had a chance of a high level of DEP that was 75% lower (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.13–0.50) than nurses working in conservative treatment units. Additional employment increased the risk of a high level of DEP (OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.70–4.84). The chance of low PA was 64% lower in the case of nurse managers (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13–0.998) than other nurses. Education, period of employment, additional employment, and managerial position had a significant influence on the level of occupational burnout. An analysis of nurses’ work overload and additional employment can be an interesting research area.
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  • 9
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-09-22
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 2081: Effect of a 12-Week Online Walking Intervention on Health and Quality of Life in Cancer Survivors: A Quasi-Randomized Controlled Trial International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102081 Authors: Lauren J. Frensham Gaynor Parfitt James Dollman Cancer survivors are at an increased risk of experiencing physical and psychological ill-effects following cancer treatment. Rural cancer survivors are at a greater risk of future health problems following a cancer diagnosis compared to their urban counterparts. Physical activity has been targeted as a health promotion priority in cancer survivors. Research indicates that a large portion of cancer survivors do not meet physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this quasi-randomized controlled trial was to test the effectiveness of an online 12-week walking intervention designed for cancer survivors, and to explore its impact on physical health indicators and quality of life outcomes. Steps Toward Improving Diet and Exercise among cancer survivors (STRIDE) is an online resource designed according to Social Cognitive Theory and Self Determination Theory, based on individualized step goal setting. Measures of physiology, physical fitness, and quality of life were taken at the baseline, post-intervention, and three-month follow-up in an Intervention group (n = 46) and active Control group (n = 45). The Control group was provided with a pedometer but did not have access to the online program. Three-factor repeated measures ANOVAs indicated that there were improvements in physical fitness (p < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.01), waist girth (p < 0.01), mental health (p < 0.05), social functioning (p < 0.01), and general health (p < 0.01), but an increase in bodily pain (p < 0.01), from the baseline to week 12 and the three-month follow-up, irrespective of group allocation. Pedometer interventions, delivered with or without online support and step goal setting, show promise for improving the overall health of cancer survivors, at least in the short term.
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  • 10
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-09-22
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 2085: Development of Policy Relevant Human Biomonitoring Indicators for Chemical Exposure in the European Population International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102085 Authors: Jurgen Buekers Madlen David Gudrun Koppen Jos Bessems Martin Scheringer Erik Lebret Denis Sarigiannis Marike Kolossa-Gehring Marika Berglund Greet Schoeters Xenia Trier The European Union’s 7th Environmental Action Programme (EAP) aims to assess and minimize environmental health risks from the use of hazardous chemicals by 2020. From this angle, policy questions like whether an implemented policy to reduce chemical exposure has had an effect over time, whether the health of people in specific regions or subpopulations is at risk, or whether the body burden of chemical substances (the internal exposure) varies with, for example, time, country, sex, age, or socio-economic status, need to be answered. Indicators can help to synthesize complex scientific information into a few key descriptors with the purpose of providing an answer to a non-expert audience. Human biomonitoring (HBM) indicators at the European Union (EU) level are unfortunately lacking. Within the Horizon2020 European Human Biomonitoring project HBM4EU, an approach to develop European HBM indicators was worked out. To learn from and ensure interoperability with other European indicators, 15 experts from the HBM4EU project (German Umweltbundesamt (UBA), Flemish research institute VITO, University of Antwerp, European Environment Agency (EEA)), and the World Health Organization (WHO), European Core Health Indicator initiative (ECHI), Eurostat, Swiss ETH Zurich and the Czech environmental institute CENIA, and contributed to a workshop, held in June 2017 at the EEA in Copenhagen. First, selection criteria were defined to evaluate when and if results of internal chemical exposure measured by HBM, need to be translated into a European HBM-based indicator. Two main aspects are the HBM indicator’s relevance for policy, society, health, and the quality of the biomarker data (availability, comparability, ease of interpretation). Secondly, an approach for the calculation of the indicators was designed. Two types of indicators were proposed: ‘sum indicators of internal exposure’ derived directly from HBM biomarker concentrations and ‘indicators for health risk’, comparing HBM concentrations to HBM health-based guidance values (HBM HBGVs). In the latter case, both the percentage of the studied population exceeding the HBM HBGVs (PE) and the extent of exceedance (EE), calculated as the population’s exposure level divided by the HBM HBGV, can be calculated. These indicators were applied to two examples of hazardous chemicals: bisphenol A (BPA) and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), which both have high policy and societal relevance and for which high quality published data were available (DEMOCOPHES, Swedish monitoring campaign). European HBM indicators help to summarize internal exposure to chemical substances among the European population and communicate to what degree environmental policies are successful in keeping internal exposures sufficiently low. The main aim of HBM indicators is to allow follow-up of chemical safety in Europe.
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