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  • Außenwirtschaftspolitik
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  • 1
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    Calgary: University of Calgary Press
    Publication Date: 2019-10-23
    Description: Canada is the one of the first in-depth studies of China's increasing interest in the Arctic. It offers a holistic approach to understanding Chinese motivations and the potential impacts of greater Chinese presence in the circumpolar region, exploring resource development, shipping, scientific research, governance, and security. Drawing on extensive research in Chinese government documentation, business and media reports, and current academic literature, this timely volume eschews the common assumption that China poses an acute threat to Arctic states' polar interests. Instead, it offers a nuanced assessment of how different Chinese stakeholders approach the region and how carefully managed relationships can contribute to positive circumpolar development. Analyzing Chinese interests and activities from a Canadian perspective, the book provides an unparalleled point of reference to discuss the implications for the Canadian and broader circumpolar North.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Beziehungen ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Rohstoffpolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Transitverkehr ; Frachtschifffahrt ; Kanada ; China
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
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  • 2
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: When President Trump came into office the US administration launched a detailed analysis of American trade relations. It aimed to identify "unfair trade practices" that are supposedly increasingly being used by other countries, and that are economically damaging to America. This study simulates potential protectionist trade policies on the part of the USA using historical data. The results enable a comprehensive analysis of the political debate and, above all, of its meaningfulness. The study illustrates that the USA does actually face economic imbalances, and especially high trade deficits, which are increasingly causing upsets in individual branches within the States. At the same time, however, the study also makes it clear that the solution to such economic challenges does not lie in a protectionist trade policy. On the contrary, such a policy would only exacerbate problems in the long term. The study ends with a policy recommendation for the USA and the functioning, rule-based, multilateral trade system.
    Description: Die neue US-Administration hat mit der Amtsübernahme Präsident Trumps eine detaillierte Analyse der amerikanischen Handelsbeziehungen initiiert. Ziel ist die Identifizierung 'unfairer Handelspraktiken', die vermeintlich durch andere Nationen zunehmend eingesetzt werden und den USA wirtschaftlich schaden. Die vorliegende Studie analysiert die angedrohten protektionistischen Handelspolitiken der USA unter Heranziehung historischer Daten. Auf Basis der vorliegenden Ergebnisse ist eine umfassende Bewertung der politischen Debatte und insbesondere ihrer Sinnhaftigkeit möglich. Die Studie illustriert, dass die USA mit ökonomischen Ungleichgewichten konfrontiert sind, insbesondere mit hohen Handelsdefiziten, die zunehmend zu Verstimmungen in einzelnen Industrien innerhalb der USA führen. Zugleich wird aber aus der Studie auch deutlich, dass die Lösung für solche wirtschaftlichen Herausforderungen nicht in einer protektionistischen Handelspolitik zu finden ist, im Gegenteil. Eine solche Politik würde die Probleme auf lange Sicht nur verschärfen. Die Studie schließt mit einer Politikempfehlung im Sinne der USA und des funktionierenden regelbasierten, multilateralen Handelssystems.
    Keywords: F10 ; F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Protektionismus ; Zoll ; Handelshemmnisse ; Auslandsinvestition ; NAFTA-Staaten ; WTO-Recht ; USA ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 3
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F01 ; F10 ; ddc:330 ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; Handelsabkommen ; Mitteleuropa ; Osteuropa ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Since June 2007, the EU and India have been negotiating a comprehensive free trade agreement, but negotiations broke down in 2013. Nevertheless, both sides have expressed their desire to revive talks on the Broad-based Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA). To quantify potential economic consequences, we use a multi-country, multi-industry Ricardian trade model with national and international input-output linkages. Based on the assumption that the FTA would eliminate all tariffs between the EU and India and reduce non-tariff barriers, we simulate trade, value added, and welfare effects of the BTIA. The long-run level of real per capita income would change by 1.30% in India and by 0.14% in the EU. We find that outsiders to the agreement remain largely unaffected relative to the status quo. However, substantial regional heterogeneity exists across the 134 geographical, investigated entities. Due to an agreement, EU-Indian trade could approximately double particularly in business services. We find a small amount of trade diversion due to tightly integrated value chains, but a clear effect on structural change in India. So, at a first glance, both parties should have an interest in forming a FTA.
    Keywords: F02 ; F13 ; F23 ; ddc:330 ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Handelshemmnisse ; Auslandsinvestition ; Indien ; EU-Staaten ; Außenhandel ; Auslandsinvestition ; Handelshemmnisse ; EU-Staaten ; Indien
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: The election of Trump into the Oval Office is much of a non-event for EU trade-policy detail, possibly even the TTIP: they have been deteriorating for years. Europe and the global trading system can survive new trade frictions and creeping protectionism, but a Trump that wants to go radical will make everyone miserable.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Handelspräferenzen ; TTIP-Staaten ; EU-Staaten ; USA
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F02 ; F13 ; F50 ; ddc:330 ; Zollunion ; Strategie ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; EU-Staaten ; Türkei
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Oxford: University of Oxford, Global Economic Governance Programme (GEG)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Description: The global trade and investment architecture (GTIA) plays a critical role in shaping the organisation and structure of international commerce - from production and distribution to consumption. Yet, tensions and questions abound - some longstanding, some new - about whose interests it best advances, its distributional impacts, and its responsiveness to changing market forces and political demands. Although there is a regular supply of proposals on rules and policies for global trade and investment, critical thinking on the trade and investment architecture is less prevalent. This paper seeks to update and bolster the analytical foundations for such discussion by reviewing the changing demands on the global architecture for trade and investment, and by mapping its contours. To begin, we review the changing global landscape for trade and investment, the key policy debates, and the myriad pressures on policymakers - arguing that these have implications for what is needed in terms of a global architecture. Alongside key enduring challenges, we identify important shifts and game changers in trade and investment flows, which in turn spur new policy challenges and implications for the governance architecture. Second, we present a systematic mapping of the contemporary global architecture for trade and investment currently, noting its on-going evolution. In so doing, we underscore that the trade and investment architecture is broader in scope and more complex, with a wider array of actors and functions, than commonly recognised or discussed in scholarly work. We also argue for analysing the trade and investment architecture in a unified fashion. Further, the paper highlights the changing ways that governments and stakeholders seek to advance international cooperation on trade and investment. The proliferation of private standards and the emphasis on "behind the border" regulatory matters illustrate the expanding array of relevant actors relevant to international trade and investment diplomacy, and the rising interest in moving beyond treaty negotiations to new modalities for cooperation - ranging from soft law approaches and technical cooperation to public-private partnerships.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationales Abkommen ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Internationales Investitionsrecht ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Oxford: University of Oxford, Global Economic Governance Programme (GEG)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Description: Over recent years, many states have taken steps to refine and modernize their investment treaties. They have done this to, among other things, clarify what were often vaguely worded standards, insert provisions on procedural and jurisdictional questions, and expand the express ability of states to issue binding interpretations on certain questions. Together, these reforms can help narrow states' exposure to claims and liability under investment treaties. Those reforms, however, are typically only included in newer treaties or model agreements. States typically have legacies of existing treaties that are "old-style" and therefore are still exposed to claims, litigation, and potential damages awarded under those agreements. To mitigate that exposure, states can exercise the important powers they possess as "masters of their treaties" and use practice and agreement to help shape interpretation of treaty provisions. This note focuses on this strategy. In addition to setting out the general rules regarding state practice and agreement as a means of influencing treaty interpretation, it (1) identifies three issues in investment treaty law - FET, MFN, and shareholder rights - that may be particularly ripe for proactive efforts by states applying this interpretive strategy; and (2) sets out a series of questions that aim to facilitate interstate efforts to identify consensus on these controversial treaty provisions.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Internationales Investitionsrecht ; Internationales Abkommen
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Frederiksberg: Copenhagen Business School (CBS), Asia Research Centre (ARC)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-11
    Description: China's impressive development since the introduction of market-oriented reforms in the late 1970s has had a considerable impact on the world economy. After a first decade and a half of cautious experiments with liberalization, markets, and internationalization, Chinese reforms accelerated in the early 1990s and the Chinese economy started growing at a rate that has not been matched by any other country. The GDP growth rate has averaged nearly 10 percent per year since that time. China has become the world's largest exporter and one of the largest importers, with a huge domestic market driven both by export-oriented industry and nearly 1.4 billion increasingly affluent domestic consumers. It is one of the main destinations for foreign direct investment (FDI) and has also become an important outward investor. The emergence of this new economic superpower has created both opportunities and challenges for other countries. The purpose of this paper is to focus on some of the challenges and to discuss three imbalances that put pressure on the relationship between the EU and China. These concern the large deficit in Europe's trade with China, the unequal conditions for European investment in China and Chinese investment in Europe, and the EU's inability to agree on a common China policy.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Auslandsinvestition ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; China ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Linz: Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-10-26
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Auslandsinvestition ; Handelshemmnisse ; USA ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    Bochum: Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Institut für Entwicklungsforschung und Entwicklungspolitik (IEE)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: We investigate the impact of Chinese activities in sub-Saharan African countries with respect to the growth performance of economies in that region. Using a Solow-type growth model and panel data for the period 1991 to 2011, we find that African economies that export natural resources have benefited from positive terms-of-trade effects. In addition, there is evidence for displacement effects of African firms due to competition from China. Chinese foreign investment and aid in Africa does not have an impact on growth.
    Keywords: F14 ; F23 ; F35 ; O47 ; ddc:330 ; China ; Sub-Saharan Africa ; Trade ; FDI ; Foreign aid ; Economic growth ; South-south cooperation ; Auslandsinvestition ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Chinesisch ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; China ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Subsahara-Afrika
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; Exportkredit ; Staatliche Einflußnahme ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Handelsabkommen ; Investitionspolitik ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; EU-Staaten ; USA ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The present study aims, in the first part, to examine the trends evidenced at the level of international trade and extra-community trade flows and, at the same time, the new directions of the EU trade policy in relation with the rest of the world. In the second part, it brings to the forefront the main trends of the Romanian trade as well as the Romanian export competitiveness and ways towards their sustainable development. These issues are analyzed and presented in seven sections, as follows: I. Developments, trends and structural changes in international trade in goods II. Main characteristics of the extra-community trade in goods during 2000-2011. Romania's position in these exchanges III. EU trade policy and its impact on the Romanian foreign trade IV. General directions of the Romanian foreign trade during 2000-2011. Assessment of the Romanian export competitiveness. The role of FDI in promoting exports V. Benchmarking best practices in export support and promotion. Role played by national and international organizations VI. Challenges and perspectives of the Romanian exports VII. Ways towards sustainable export development. Role of the National Export Strategy. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Export ; Außenhandel ; EU-Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 15
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Handelsabkommen ; Investitionspolitik ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; EU-Staaten ; USA ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: Natural resources account for 20% of world trade, and dominate the exports of many countries. Policy is used to manipulate both international and domestic prices of resources, yet this policy is largely outside the disciplines of the WTO. The instruments used include export taxes, price controls, production quotas, and domestic producer and consumer taxes (equivalent to trade taxes if no domestic production is possible). We review the literature, and argue that the policy equilibrium is inefficient. This inefficiency is exacerbated by market failure in long run contracts for exploration and development of natural resources. Properly coordinated policy reforms offer an avenue to resource exporting and importing countries to overcome these inefficiencies and obtain mutual gains.
    Keywords: F1 ; F13 ; Q3 ; ddc:330 ; natural resources ; trade ; export tax ; tariff escalation ; OPEC ; WTO ; terms of trade ; Natürliche Ressourcen ; Rohstoffpolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Exportsteuer ; Zollpolitik ; Terms of Trade ; Allokationseffizienz ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Istanbul: Koç University-TÜSİAD Economic Research Forum (ERF)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: Recent research indicates that the democratic peace - the observation that democratic nations rarely fight each other - is spurious: that advanced capitalism accounts for both democracy and the democratic peace (Mousseau 2009). This is not a trivial prospect: if economic conditions explain the democratic peace, then a great deal of research on governing institutions and foreign policy is probably obsolete. This study addresses all the recent defenses of the democratic peace and reports new results using a new measure that directly gauges the causal mechanism of contract flows dependent on third-party enforcement. Analyses of most nations from 1961 to 2001 show contract-intensive "impersonal" economy to be the second most powerful variable in international conflict - following only contiguity - and, once considered, there is no evidence of causation from democracy to peace. It is impersonal economy, not democracy or unfettered markets, which appears to explain the democratic peace.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Politischer Konflikt ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Demokratie ; Systemvergleich ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Oldenburg: University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2014-12-18
    Description: In the absence of effective world-wide cooperation to curb global warming, import tariffs on embodied carbon have been proposed as a potential supplement to unilateral emissions pricing. We consider alternative designs for such tariffs, and analyze their effects on global welfare within a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of global trade and energy. Our analysis suggests that the most cost-efficient policy could be region-specific tariffs on all products, based on direct plus electricity emissions. In the end, however, the potential cost savings through carbon tariffs must be weighed against the administrative costs as well as legal issues and political considerations.
    Keywords: Q43 ; Q54 ; H2 ; D61 ; ddc:330 ; carbon leakage ; embodied carbon ; border tariffs ; Umweltbelastung ; Treibhausgas ; Treibhausgas-Emissionen ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Zoll ; Kosten-Wirksamkeits-Analyse
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: El objetivo de este trabajo es estimar el potencial sesgo pro-pobre en la actual estructura de protección en seis países de África Sub-Sahariana (ASS), es decir, si redistribuye ingresos de los hogares ricos a los pobres. También exploramos la medida en que las barreras que enfrentan los exportadores de la ASS en el resto del mundo están sesgadas a favor de los hogares pobres o ricos. Para ello, partimos de un modelo simple de producción agrícola familiar y proponemos una ampliación para incluir los ajustes en los ingresos laborales asociados con cambios en los salarios de trabajadores calificados y no calificados. A continuación, creamos indicadores que reflejan las diferencias en los cambios en el bienestar a través de los niveles de ingresos asociados con la eliminación de las medidas proteccionistas en ASS. Los resultados sugieren que la propia política comercial de ASS se inclina a favor de los hogares pobres. Por el contrario, las políticas comerciales de los socios comerciales de ASS tienden a estar sesgadas a favor de los hogares ricos de ASS.
    Description: The objective of this paper is to estimate the potential pro-poor bias in the existing structure of protection in six Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries (i.e., whether it redistributes income from rich to poor households). We also explore the extent to which the barriers faced by SSA exporters in the rest-of-the-world are biased in favor of poor or rich household. To this end, we start with a simple agricultural household production model and propose an extension to include adjustments in labor income associated with changes in unskilled and skilled wages. We then build indicators that capture the differences in welfare changes across income levels associated with the elimination of SSA's own trade protection, as well as trade protection on SSA's export bundle by the rest-of-the-world. Results suggest that SSA's own trade policy is biased in favor of poor households. In contrast, the trade policies of SSA's trading partners tend to be biased in favor of SSA's rich households, especially when ad-valorem equivalents of NTMs are taken into account. -- Trade policy ; wage elasticities ; poverty ; Sub-Saharan Africa
    Keywords: F13 ; F16 ; ddc:330 ; Trade policy ; wage elasticities ; poverty ; Sub-Saharan Africa ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Protektionismus ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Umverteilung ; Subsahara-Afrika
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: Over the last decade, the internal and external macroeconomic imbalances in China have risen to unprecedented levels. In 2008, China's national savings rate soared to over 53 percent of its GDP, whereas its current account surplus exceeded 9 percent of GDP. The current paper presents a unified framework for understanding the structural causes of these imbalances. I argue that the imbalances are attributable to a set of policies and institutions embedded in the economy. Moreover, the accession of China to the World Trade Organization has dramatically amplified the effects of these structural distortions. I document major trends in aggregate savings, investment, trade, and net foreign asset positions in China, and explore options for policy reforms aimed at rebalancing the Chinese economy.
    Keywords: E21 ; O16 ; F32 ; ddc:330 ; aggregate savings ; current account ; income distribution ; structural distortions ; trade policies ; China ; Sparen ; Leistungsbilanz ; Zahlungsbilanzungleichgewicht ; Einkommensverteilung ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; China
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: The UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has a long history of intellectual independence. This article details how Western countries tried to marginalise the organisation and its work - which is often critical of Western powers - during the 2012 UNCTAD conference. While developing countries were able to mobilise and partially beat back these attempts for now, the organisation's ability to contribute to global macroeconomics remains under threat.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Entwicklungsorganisation ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Industriestaaten ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: This paper interprets China's overall trade policy since its accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) almost a decade ago, and more recently in the wake of the global economic crisis. The first section briefly summarises policy trends leading up to WTO accession, as well as recent trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) patterns. The second section looks at China in the WTO: its record of implementing WTO commitments; its participation in the Doha Round; and in dispute settlement. The next section looks at China's trade-related reforms outside the WTO, especially unilateral measures and preferential trade agreements (PTAs). Section Four highlights challenges for China's trade policy: in the context of domestic reforms; in the WTO; in PTAs; in its key bilateral relationships; and in the context of global macroeconomic tensions. Section Five puts Chinese trade policy in a bigger domestic political-economy and geopolitical context. Section Six concludes. (...)
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; WTO-Mitgliedschaft ; China
    Language: English
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  • 23
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    Zurich: ETH Zurich, KOF Swiss Economic Institute
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: This paper investigates the R&D persistence of R&D active firms in different markets with different intensities of competition, based on firm-level panel data for the period 1996-2008. In a dynamic setting of the empirical model it turns out that persistence is strongly related to market competition (measured by the number of principal competitors). Persistence of R&D expenditures is more likely to be observed in markets with few principal competitors (between 6 and 10) and is very unlikely to be observed in polypolistic type of markets (more than 50 competitors). These results call for a stronger coordination between competition policy and innovation promotion policy, since the former basically aims at larger markets with many competitors, while the latter aims at persistence of R&D efforts and thus markets with fewer competitors.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Konjunkturzusammenhang ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Innovationspolitik ; Schweiz
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    Nürnberg: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Bavarian Graduate Program in Economics (BGPE)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-26
    Description: This paper explores the role of country asymmetries for trade and industrial policies with heterogeneous firms. Our analysis delivers a number of novel results. First, trade policies, infrastructure policies and industrial policies which improve the business conditions in one country have negative productivity and welfare effects on the trading partner. Second, symmetric trade liberalization is immiserizing for a trading partner whose business conditions are inferior. Third, there are gains from trade even for a country whose monopolistically competitive sector with heterogeneous firms is wiped out by the switch from autarky to trade.
    Keywords: F12 ; F13 ; F15 ; L25 ; ddc:330 ; firm heterogeneity ; welfare ; trade policies ; industrial policies ; business conditions ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Industriepolitik ; Standortpolitik ; Mehr-Länder-Modell ; Produktivität ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; Außenhandelsliberalisierung ; Außenhandelseffekt ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 25
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: The objective of the paper is to explore and give an overview of two central policy alternatives to improve the integration between the European Union and developing countries by removing barriers to trade: trade preferences and trade facilitation. After reviewing the relevant literatures and discussing the issues which constitute problems or opportunities for practitioners and researchers in both areas, the paper concludes that while at least some trade preferences actually have been less of a failure than their reputation suggests, trade facilitation is a far more promising policy option for the future.
    Keywords: F10 ; F13 ; F15 ; ddc:330 ; Trade preferences ; Trade Facilitation ; European Union ; Developing Countries ; Außenhandelsliberalisierung ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Internationale Handelspolitik ; Außenhandelseffekt ; Außenhandelspräferenz ; Außenhandelsgewinn ; Handelsabkommen ; Entwicklungsländer ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 26
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    Oldenburg: University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2014-12-18
    Description: In a world where the prospects of a global agreement to control greenhouse gas emissions are bleak, the idea of using trade policy as an implicit regulation of foreign emission sources has gained many supporters in countries contemplating unilateral climate policies. Embodied carbon tariffs tax the direct and indirect carbon emissions embodied in imported goods. The appeal seems obvious: as OECD countries are, on average, large net importers of embodied emissions from non-OECD countries, carbon tariffs could substantially extend the reach of OECD climate policies. We investigate this claim by simulating the effects of embodied carbon tariffs with a computable general equilibrium model of global trade and energy use. We find that embodied carbon tariffs do effectively reduce carbon leakage. However, the scope for improvements in the global cost-effectiveness of unilateral climate policy is limited. The main welfare effect of the tariffs is to shift the burden of OECD climate policy to the developing world.
    Keywords: F18 ; H23 ; Q54 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Umweltbelastung ; Treibhausgas ; Treibhausgas-Emissionen ; Ökosteuer ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Zoll ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; OECD-Staaten ; Entwicklungsländer
    Language: English
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    Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: This paper explores the ways in which macroeconomic imbalances have driven policy discussions between the United States (US) and People's Republic of China (PRC) in the last decade. The PRC's current account surplus, its growing foreign exchange reserves, and its shifting policies on exchange rate adjustment have become a central preoccupation of US trade policy. The paper considers the evolving political economy of the US policy stance and of the PRC's response; it assesses the opportunity costs of an approach that has sometimes focused on the exchange rate to the exclusion of other issues; and it explores the ramifications for economic governance in the short- and medium-run. The paper finds that there has been ample mutual misunderstanding between the US and the PRC in their economic arguments; that the momentous debates have the potential to severely impair the institutions of global economic governance; and that there is likely to be an important race between economic and demographic forces that will naturally redress the imbalances and the political imperatives for each country to stand tough and fight.
    Keywords: F42 ; F51 ; ddc:330 ; Zahlungsbilanzungleichgewicht ; Währungsreserven ; Wechselkurspolitik ; China ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; USA
    Language: English
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    Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: In the course of the last decade, the IBSA states (India, Brazil, South Africa) have increased their weight in the shifting global order, particularly in economic affairs. Can the same be said about the IBSA states' position in the international security hierarchy? After locating the IBSA coalition in the shifting world order, we analyze its member states' willingness and capacity to coordinate their security policies and build a common global security agenda. In addition, we explore the state of and perspectives on bi- and trilateral collaboration initiatives on defense and armaments between India, Brazil and South Africa. A key reason for the mostly modest results of global security agenda coordination and cross-regional defense collaboration is that the prevailing security concerns of each country are located at the regional level. Therefore, the starting point of an assessment of the prospects of IBSA's security cooperation and its potential impact on the strategic global landscape has to be a comparative evaluation of the regional security environments, focusing on overlaps and potential synergies between the national security policies of the three state actors.
    Description: Im Verlauf der letzten Dekade konnten die IBSA-Staaten (Indien, Brasilien, Südafrika) ihre Position in der sich verschiebenden Weltordnung erheblich verbessern; das gilt insbesondere für ihren Einfluss auf globale Handelsfragen. Lässt sich ein ähnlicher Aufstieg der IBSA-Staaten in der internationalen Sicherheitsordnung konstatieren? Die Autoren verorten die IBSA-Koalition in der sich verschiebenden Weltordnung und analysieren die Bereitschaft und Fähigkeit der drei Staaten, ihre Sicherheitsstrategien zu koordinieren und eine gemeinsame Sicherheitsagenda zu entwerfen. Ferner werden die Bedingungen und Perspektiven biund trilateraler Verteidigungs- und Rüstungszusammenarbeit untersucht. Im Ergebnis zeichnen sich bisher allenfalls anfängliche Bemühungen bei der Zusammenarbeit im Verteidigungssektor und bei der Entwicklung einer globalen Sicherheitsagenda ab. Ausschlaggebend dafür sind die primär auf der regionalen Ebene liegenden Sicherheitsprioritäten der IBSA-Staaten. Die perspektivische Bewertung des potenziellen Einflusses der Staatenkoalition auf globale Sicherheitsfragen erfolgt demnach vor dem Hintergrund der regionalen Sicherheitsstrategien Indiens, Brasiliens und Südafrikas. Dabei stehen mögliche Überschneidungen und Synergien zwischen den regionalen Sicherheitsstrategien im Zentrum des Interesses.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; India ; Brazil ; South Africa ; IBSA Dialogue Forum ; security policies ; security context ; military power ; Politischer Konflikt ; Bündnissystem ; Großmacht ; Militärpotenzial ; Internationale Beziehungen ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Indien ; Brasilien ; Südafrika
    Language: English
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    Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: Asia is fast becoming the largest recipient of Japan's foreign direct investment (FDI). Within the Asian region, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has been the major investment destination of Japan. In the manufacturing sectors, however, the investment flows from Japan to ASEAN - with Thailand being the largest recipient - has been declining. In contrast, Japan's FDI in the services sectors in ASEAN has been growing rapidly. The recent phenomenon of the Singapore Shift in Japan's FDI in the ASEAN services sectors proves interesting. The prominent strategy of Japanese companies is to establish a commercial presence in Singapore, which they expect to be the hub of Southeast Asia, thereby enabling them to supply services to the entire ASEAN region. The magnitude of the Singapore Shift varies for every services sub-sector. By comparing transport and logistics with finance and insurance industries, this paper considers the critical determinants of the Singapore Shift.
    Keywords: F2 ; F13 ; F15 ; ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Direktinvestition ; Japan ; Singapur ; ASEAN-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 30
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    Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: Adverse effects of the global financial crisis on international trade include falling demand, increased trade protectionism, and drying up of trade finance. Much attention has focused on the impact of the crisis on goods trade; however literature on its impact on services trade is limited, especially on the services trade in the People's Republic of China (PRC). This paper analyzes the impact of the global financial crisis on the PRC's services trade, discusses policy responses by the government, and puts forward policy suggestions. The main findings of the paper are as follows: Although the global economic and financial crisis spawned a synchronized recession leading to a contraction in the PRC's services trade, the crisis has had a moderate effect on the PRC's trade in services because of the lower internationalization of services. The PRC's trade surplus in goods decreased and its trade deficit in services increased after the crisis. Structural reforms are now urgently needed to help support the recovery of output and trade. A possible solution to rebalancing the trade balance (trade surplus in goods and trade deficit in services) would be to expand trade in services. The degree of openness for services is lower than for goods in the PRC. Further liberalization in services trade is the appropriate policy choice for the government. Continued policy and regulatory reform in favor of services trade will be vital to supporting economic recovery. Improved market access and national treatment of foreign service suppliers would help enhance the productivity and competitiveness of local services firms and upgrade the industry structure of services, which is essential for the country's economy to change from being driven by exports to being driven by domestic demand. Decreasing trade and investment barriers would help expand services trade and investment, and increase PRC involvement in the globalization of services.
    Keywords: F13 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; Finanzmarktkrise ; Internationaler Dienstleistungsverkehr ; Außenhandelseffekt ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; China
    Language: English
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    Manila: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: This paper provides trade flow projections for major Asian developing economies (ADEs) up to 2030 against the backdrop of an in-depth analysis of policy shifts and trade patterns over the past 4 decades. Merchandise trade of ADEs has grown at a much faster rate in the global context, with a distinct intraregional bias. Global production sharing has become a unique feature of the economic landscape of the region, with the People's Republic of China playing a pivotal complementary role as the premier assembly center within the regional production networks. According to the projections made within the standard gravity modelling framework, total real nonoil trade of ADEs would increase at an average annual rate of 8.2 during the next 2 decades, with a notable convergence of individual countries' rates to the regional average. The share of intraregional trade in total nonoil trade would increase steadily from 53% in 2010 to 58% in 2030. The trade-to-GDP ratio would increase from 39.4% and 74.4% between these 2 years. These predictions need to be treated with caution as they are based on the assumption that the trade structure pertaining to the estimation period will remain unchanged in the next 2 decades.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Außenhandelsstruktur ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Handelseffekt ; Asien
    Language: English
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  • 32
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    Marburg: Philipps-University Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-02-17
    Description: This paper characterizes, under the most general conditions to date, the steady-state equilibria of a symmetric, two-country trade model in which countries move in alternating-move, dynamic either tariffsetting or quota-setting games in Markov Perfect strategies, and compares the respective equilibrium level of tariffs and quotas with the corresponding pairs in the equilibria of static games. Our results imply that the alleged non-equivalence of the outcomes of tariff-retaliation (neither free trade nor autarky) and quota-retaliation (asymptotic autarky) games in the literature depends crucially on complete myopia, and can be dismissed altogether once dynamic considerations are introduced in an operationally significant manner.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; foreign trade policy ; tariff ; quota ; retaliation ; dynamic game ; Markov perfect equilibrium ; supermodular games ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Zollpolitik ; Außenhandelskontingent ; Dynamisches Spiel ; Markovscher Prozess ; Gleichgewicht ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 33
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: This Policy Brief aims at examining Ukraine's economic woes and what it needs to do to improve economic performance. At the centre of the Brief are the effects on Ukraine of the economic crisis and the policy programme devised to improve economic performance. The crisis hit Ukraine hard and Gross Domestic Product fell by 15 percent in 2009. The economy is now recovering, but economic growth will not return to pre-crisis levels anytime soon. Ukraine went through a classic emerging-market crisis - it was too dependent on export of steel and metals, and it was too exposed to adverse development on international credit markets. The reform agenda set out by the new Ukrainian government is ambitious. If the government delivers on its promises - and obligations to the International Monetary Fund - economic policy will move in a liberal direction and economic growth is likely to pick up. There are hesitations about the ability to push through all reforms, but the Ukrainian government has been forced to tie itself to the IMF mast and should make full use of this opportunity to liberalize economic policy and modernize the economy. There are also hesitations based on President Yanukovych and his political orientation towards Russia. Sceptics may or may not be proven right - it is too soon to tell. What seems clear, however, is that Ukraine favours a much more pragmatic approach to its neighbors in the east and the west. It is not difficult to understand why. Ukraine's relations to Russia had to improve and as long as the EU does not wish to start the process for full accession, Ukraine needs to find its own way and build a reform and future agenda on other foundations.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Finanzkrise ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Wirtschaftsreform ; Politische Reform ; Ukraine
    Language: English
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  • 34
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: The Treaty of Lisbon will introduce a number of changes to European Union (EU) external trade policy decision making. These involve the scope of exclusive competence of the EU, the role of the European Parliament and the inclusion of trade in the common external action of the EU. This article discusses these changes but also provides an initial assessment of how the Treaty of Lisbon (ToL) might affect the role of the EU as an actor in international trade. After an introduction to the attributes of "an actor" in international trade the article then summarises the main changes the ToL will bring about before discussing their likely ramifications. It argues that the ToL can be expected to strengthen the EU as a trade actor in a number of respects and that these should, to some degree, compensate for the relative decline in EU market power due to systemic changes in the international trading system.
    Keywords: F13 ; F55 ; F59 ; ddc:330 ; European Union ; Trade Policy ; Lisbon Treaty ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Internationale Handelspolitik ; Verfassung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 35
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    New Delhi: Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Sports retail is a small but fast growing segment of modern retail in India. Recently, the country has been hosting many international sports and this has given a boost to this sector. Many foreign and domestic corporate retailers have entered sports retail. Sports goods manufacturing is a focus area in the Foreign Trade Policy (2009-2014) and the government is taking a fresh look at the current foreign direct investment policy in retail. In the above context, this paper provides an overview of the sports retail sector in India. Specifically, it presents the different retail formats, consumer profile, retailers' supply chain and sourcing. It also examines the retail and sports policies and their implications for this segment of retail, analyses the barriers faced by this sector and suggests policy reforms. The study found that the policy of allowing 51 per cent FDI in the single-brand format has not benefited this sector. The FDI ban on multi-brand retail is not an entry barrier since foreign retailers can establish their presence in India through other routes. The study found that since this is a niche segment of retail, FDI would not have an adverse impact on traditional retailers. It concludes that government should allow 51 per cent FDI in multi-brand sports retail. This will increase sourcing from India, lead to diffusion of technology, proliferation of brands, investment in sports and sports promotion, among others.
    Keywords: C83 ; L67 ; L81 ; L83 ; L88 ; ddc:330 ; Retail ; sports ; government policy ; trade ; consumer survey ; Sportartikel ; Sportbekleidung ; Außenhandel ; Auslandsinvestition ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Indien
    Language: English
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  • 36
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Scholarly consensus regarding Brazil's Lula government characterizes its economic policy as surprisingly conservative but its foreign policy as roughly in line with the traditionally leftist principles of the Workers' Party. While broadly accurate, this perspective tells us little about trade diplomacy, which cuts across these two policy areas. In this article we explain why Lula's trade diplomacy has hewed much more closely to his broader foreign policy strategy than his economic model, despite the critical role of trade in Brazil's recent economic growth. We argue that two key factors have lowered the costs of adopting a combative, South-South orientation, allowing Lula to use trade diplomacy as a tool for appealing to party loyalists. One is the inherently muted short-term impact of trade diplomacy on key macro-economic outcomes. The other is the failure of the traditional trading powers to offer the incentives necessary to successfully conclude the major North-South trade talks they had initiated.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Außenpolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Süd-Süd-Beziehungen ; Brasilien
    Language: English
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  • 37
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    Geneva: Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies
    Publication Date: 2013-07-17
    Description: The subject of this paper is Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 of the United States, a statute that for the past 35 years has allowed the U.S. to unilaterally handle its trade disputes. More specifically, the paper examines the constraining and supporting effects of the multilateral trading system (GATT and WTO) on the effectiveness of Section 301 in general (127 cases), and of retaliatory threats and sanctions in particular (44 cases). In contrast with previous empirical papers, the emphasis is on the gradual interaction between both instances, with special attention to the escalation of the multilateral dispute and the timing of retaliatory threats and sanctions (if any). The paper shows that contrary to conventional wisdom, Section 301 has been less about aggressive unilateralism (Bhagwati and Patrick 1991) than about reinforcing the multilateral trading system and the U.S. agenda in it. Section 301 proceedings and retaliation were often used in contravention of international trade law; but they were also used as tools to enforce multilateral rulings or to advance the multilateral agenda upon non-Members or on new issues. To address the effectiveness question, a qualitative response model is used. Results confirm the hypothesis prevalent in the extant literature that a process of escalation at the GATT/WTO is correlated with a higher success rate of Section 301 investigations in changing the target country's policy. However, the impact is not linear; a settlement is more likely early in the bargaining stages rather than after a ruling is issued by a GATT/WTO panel. The empirical estimation is based on a comprehensive dataset on all Section 301 cases and on the related GATT/WTO dispute(s); and on 45 case studies outlined in the Appendix which, supplemented by the case studies of Bayard & Elliott (1994), are the basis for the coding of the dependent variable.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; WTO-Regeln ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; USA ; Handelskonflikt ; Internationale Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit ; Internationale Handelspolitik ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 38
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    Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: In this paper we examine the changing nature of Japan's commercial policy over the last 25 years while reviewing Japan's changing structure of trade, FDI and economy that underlay policy changes. We argue that until the late 1990s Japan adopted a two-track approach of relying on multilateral liberalization under the GATT/WTO and open regionalism under Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) on the one hand and on the bilateral trade relationship with the US on the other. Although the Japan-US bilateralism sometimes resulted in managed trade and encountered negative perceptions of the US approach in Japan, overall, it had a positive impact on the Japanese economy in opening domestic markets through various reforms and deregulation measures. Japan's more recent commercial policy focuses on bilateral and plurilateral economic partnership agreements particularly with - but not limited to - East Asian economies. We argue that agricultural sector liberalization is key to the further integration of Japan with the Asian and global economies.
    Keywords: F13 ; F14 ; F50 ; ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Handelsregionalismus ; Außenhandelsstruktur ; Direktinvestition ; Japan
    Language: English
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  • 39
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    Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: Thailand - an outward-oriented regional production hub - is one of East Asia's most active users of free trade agreements (FTAs) as an instrument of commercial policy. By December 2009, Thailand had 11 concluded FTAs, and more were either under negotiation or proposed. Thai trade negotiators have striven to secure market access via FTAs, but little is known on how FTAs actually affect exporting firms. A survey of 221 exporters in leading sectors forms the basis for the first systematic study of the business impact of FTAs in Thailand. Key findings are as follows: (i) 24.9% of respondents used Thai FTAs as of 2007-2008, and this figure seems set to rise; (ii) 45.9% of respondents said that FTAs had influenced their business plans; (iii) 26.2% of firms felt that dealing with multiple rules of origin adds to business costs, and this is estimated to be less than 1% of export sales; (iv) more than half the sample firms have consulted with government and business associations on FTAs; and (v) a significant demand existed for business development services to adjust to FTAs, particularly for small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The findings suggest that Thailand should refine its FTA strategy to take better advantage of regional trade agreements. The study concludes with specific recommendations to improve business awareness of FTAs, encourage greater utilization of FTA preferences, increase competitiveness of local firms, and mitigate the potential effect of multiple rules of origin.
    Keywords: F1 ; F15 ; O24 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandelszone ; Handelsregionalismus ; Exportindustrie ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Thailand
    Language: English
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  • 40
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We document key features of the deepening economic relationship between Brazil and China. This is evident from sharply increased bilateral trade and foreign direct investment flows and also from enhanced cohesion of negotiating positions in international fora. Data presented show bilateral trade between Brazil and China surging after 2001 and China is now Brazil's largest export market while Brazil's export share to the US has halved. The number of bilateral cooperation agreements between the two countries has also significantly increased in recent years. Projections of future trade flows using current growth rates suggest that China will become the dominant trade partner for Brazil surprisingly soon.
    Keywords: F10 ; F13 ; F19 ; ddc:330 ; economic relationship ; trade ; policy ; China ; Brazil ; deepening ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Direktinvestition ; Handelsabkommen ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; China ; Brasilien
    Language: English
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  • 41
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: The BRIICS - Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa - are the largest developing countries in their respective regions. A snapshot of their trade policies shows they have already liberalised trade and foreign direct investment extensively, and thereby plugged themselves into globalisation. This has helped to deliver higher growth, poverty reduction and improvements in human welfare. But external liberalisation has stalled. Creeping protectionism has set in. It has accelerated in the wake of the global economic crisis, generally translating into behind-the-border regulatory barriers emerging from domestic "crisis interventions". The BRIICS should have the following trade-policy priorities. First, in the short-term, they should counter creeping, crisis-related protectionism by containing the expansion of government at home. Second, looking beyond the immediate crisis, they should couple further trade and FDI liberalisation with behind-the-border regulatory reforms to improve the domestic business climate. Third, second-generation reforms are overwhelmingly domestic in nature. They should be done unilaterally, with less reliance on trade negotiations through the WTO and FTAs - not to mention the G20 and other "global-governance" paraphernalia. Fourth, unilateral reforms should be locked in through stronger WTO commitments, which should emerge from a post-Doha rule-improving agenda. Fifth, the BRIICS should exercise caution with "trade-light" FTAs. And sixth, all BRIICS need more trade-policy transparency. "Transparency boards", inside and outside government, should conduct and disseminate detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of trade policies in order to facilitate better deliberation of policy choices.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Handelspolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Auslandsinvestition ; Protektionismus ; Brasilien ; China ; Indien ; Indonesien ; Russland ; Südafrika
    Language: English
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  • 42
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: In the economics profession there is a fierce debate whether industrial and innovation policy should be targeted to specific sectors or firms. This paper discusses the welfare effects of such targeted policies from the perspective of strategic game theory of the firm. A theoretical case for picking winners through a preferential innovative policy is discussed in a third-market international trade model, which is shown to hold without evoking retaliation from foreign competitors. However, in practice information uncertainties remain a concern. The question whether in this case ‘backing winners’ is a wise policy option depends on the characteristics of the information asymmetries and on the extent the government is able to design selection procedures which minimize the transaction costs that may be caused from the market participants’ opportunistic behavior.
    Keywords: C73 ; F12 ; O24 ; O32 ; ddc:330 ; Innovation policy ; R&D subsidies ; strategic trade policy ; asymmetric information ; spill-over effects ; Innovationspolitik ; Asymmetrische Information ; Spillover-Effekt ; Technologiewahl ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Ökonomischer Anreiz ; Mechanismus-Design-Theorie ; Spieltheorie
    Language: English
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  • 43
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2016-07-20
    Description: Among ENP countries, Azerbaijan is outstanding because it leans on its resource base and sees the EU at the receiving end of bilateral relations. At the other extreme, Ukraine depends on EU cooperation, especially with respect to trade. We develop a comprehensive theoretical concept for analyzing both types of asymmetries. We do this by considering both rational cost-benefit as well as constructivist norm oriented national strategies. Furthermore, we contrast the both national strategies to bilateral, regional, and multilateral EU strategies for democracy promotion, economic cooperation, justice and home affairs cooperation, and conflict resolution in European neighbourhood. It turns out that EU strategies of Neighbourhood Europeanization have to be increasingly based on non-tangible tools, on packages of regional and multilateral initiatives which balance out asymmetries, and on other than trade issues, such as security, in order to be more effective.
    Keywords: F15 ; F50 ; F55 ; O17 ; P20 ; P30 ; Q34 ; ddc:330 ; Ukraine ; Azerbaijan ; ENP ; Transition Economies ; Institutional Change ; Governance ; Resource Curse ; Übergangswirtschaft ; Institutioneller Wandel ; Dutch Disease ; Governance-Ansatz ; Osteuropa ; Ukraine ; Aserbaidschan ; Europapolitik ; EU-Politik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Description: This book describes China's growing range of activities in Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan region. The three most important instruments China has at its disposal in Africa are development aid, investments and trade policy. The Chinese government, which believes the Western development aid model has failed, is looking for new forms of aid and development in Africa. China's economic success can partly be ascribed to the huge availability of cheap labour, which is primarily employed in export-oriented industries. China is looking for the required raw materials in Africa, and for new marketplaces. Investments are being made on a large scale in Africa by Chinese state-controlled firms and private companies, particularly in the oil-producing countries (Angola, Nigeria and Sudan) and countries rich in minerals (Zambia). Third, the trade policy China is conducting is analysed in China and compared with that of Europe and the United States. In case studies the specific situation in several African countries is examined. In Zambia the mining industry, construction and agriculture are described. One case study of Sudan deals with the political presence of China in Sudan and the extent to which Chinese arms suppliers contributed to the current crisis in Darfur. The possibility of Chinese diplomacy offering a solution in that conflict is discussed. The conclusion considers whether social responsibility can be expected of the Chinese government and companies and if this is desirable, and to what extent the Chinese model in Africa can act as an example - or not - for the West.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Economics ; Political science ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Auslandsinvestition ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; China ; Entwicklung ; Sambia ; Sudan ; Subsahara-Afrika
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    Adelaide: University of Adelaide Press
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Description: The countries of the South Pacific have struggled to generate sustainable economic growth since their independence. Interventionist policies have failed in the past here, as they have in all other regions. Business and government leaders in this region are now beginning to acknowledge - as has happened in many other developing country regions over the past two decades - that major reforms are needed to put their economies onto a higher growth path. This study examines the growth record of key Pacific island economies and indentifies the reasons for their relatively poor performance. It then looks at the process of globalization that is affecting those and indeed all economies increasingly; and the role the WTO has played in that process.
    Description: Republished 2009
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Foreign economic relations ; Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (Organization) ; Commercial policy ; Papua New Guinea ; Oceania ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Globalisierung ; Entwicklungsstrategie ; WTO-Recht ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Papua-Neuguinea ; Asiatisch-pazifischer Raum
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    New Delhi: Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: The comparison of the key features of trade integration processes and the economic outcomes in China and India reveals that while much has already been achieved in both these economies, the Chinese reforms, especially with respect to manufacturing trade, have gone further and that this is likely one of the key determinants of better economic performance of China. Still, China's integration process so far remains characterized by a certain duality. On the one hand the opening up of trade and FDI in manufactured goods has spurred the emergence of a largely private sector. On the other hand the high level of public ownership and important regulatory barriers continue to dominate the services sectors. India has gone a long way in reducing its tariffs on non-agricultural products as well as selected non-tariff barriers but moderate protection still persists which likely adds to the hurdles faced by the Indian manufacturing sector. India has revealed a comparative advantage in certain segments of the services sector but its services trade policy is still very restrictive, even as compared to China. More generally the extent of liberalisation achieved so far in India and the outcomes it brought about suggest that the remaining goods and services trade barriers are just but one item on the list of reforms that India needs to tackle in order to promote trade-led expansion of more labour-intensive activities.
    Keywords: F13 ; F14 ; F15 ; F21 ; F23 ; F43 ; ddc:330 ; China ; India ; manufacturing ; services ; trade barriers ; trade policy ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Auslandsinvestition ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; China ; Indien
    Language: English
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    Manchester: The University of Manchester, Manchester Business School
    Publication Date: 2018-07-02
    Description: This paper addresses deinstitutionalisation from a longitudinal perspective. Drawing on the case of software exports policymaking in Costa Rica, it analyses persistence and change paying particular attention to formation of dissensus, understood as lack of unanimity on the value of an activity that is sufficient to destabilise institutional norms and activities. The role of cultural and political factors in deinstitutionalisation or persistence is considered. Based on the empirical data, a framework for understanding political and cultural dynamics in deinstitutionalisation is proposed.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Institutionalismus ; Institutioneller Wandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Softwareindustrie ; Costa Rica
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The paper considers growth and fluctuations in the Finnish economy in the post-war period starting from her long-run dual strategy vis-à-vis export markets in Western Europe and Russia. Finland has wanted to utilise the more rapid growth based on deeper integration in the former, but has simultaneously wanted to reap the gains linked to her proximity to the latter. We build a theoretical open economy model based on export supply and demand and then for the whole economy and analyse the role of economic policies, notably exchange rate policies in this connection. Empirically, we estimate the relationships using the SVAR methodology identifying the relevant demand and supply shocks and shocks in policy responses. The results clearly show that shifts in competitiveness have played a key role in boosting both categories of exports. However, firms have been able to shift on their own in exports from the Russian market to the West when needed. Productivity gains have been linked to Western exports, but not to exports to Russia. From a macroeconomic point of view exchange rate policies have been roughly as important as fiscal policies to explain economic fluctuations, although the conclusion on this quite sensitively depends on the SVAR model used. However, economic policies have been less important than the aggregate demand and supply shocks.
    Description: Tutkimus tarkastelee kasvua ja sen vaihteluita Suomen taloudessa sodan jälkeisenä aikana lähtien liikkeelle maan kaksinaisesta strategiasta suhteessa vientimarkkinoihin lännessä ja idässä. Suomi on halunnut päästä mukaan syvenevään ja nopean kasvun tuottaneeseen integraatioon lännessä, mutta samalla hyötyä läheisyydestään idän markkinoihin nähden. Rakennamme teoreettisen avoimen talouden mallin, joka rakentuu vientitarjonnan ja -kysynnän varaan, ja sen pohjalta makromallin, jossa erittelemme talouspolitiikan, erityisesti valuuttakurssipolitiikan roolin. Empiirisesti estimoimme riippuvuudet käyttäen rakenteellisen vektoriautoregressiivisen eli SVAR-mallin menetelmää ja identifioimme siinä relevantit kysyntä- ja tarjontashokit sekä innovaatiot politiikanteossa. Tulokset osoittavat, että kilpailukyvyn siirtymät ovat olleet keskeisiä molemmille vientikategorioille. Kuitenkin yritykset ovat kyenneet siirtymään omaehtoisesti viennissään Venäjän markkinoilta lännen markkinoille tarvittaessa ja eliminoimaan näiden shokkien vaikutuksen kokonaisvientiin. Tuottavuuden lisäykset ovat olleet peräisin länsiviennistä, mutta eivät Venäjän-viennistä. Makrotaloudelliselta kannalta valuuttakurssipolitiikka on ollut karkeasti yhtä merkittävää taloudellisten vaihteluiden kannalta kuin finanssipolitiikka, vaikkakin tämä johtopäätös on herkkä käytetyn mallispesifikaation suhteen. Toisaalta talouspolitiikan rooli on ollut vähäisempi kuin yleensä kysyntä- ja tarjontashokkien vaikutukset.
    Keywords: F41 ; F43 ; F12 ; ddc:330 ; Exports ; macro economy ; economic policies ; SVAR ; Vienti ; talouden kasvu ja vaihtelut ; talouspolitiikka ; rakenne-VAR ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Gesamtwirtschaftliches Angebot ; Gesamtwirtschaftliche Nachfrage ; Schock ; VAR-Modell ; Offene Volkswirtschaft ; Finnland
    Language: English
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    Warsaw: Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-20
    Description: The purpose of this paper is to measure and analyse how intensively CIS countries apply nontariff barriers (NTBs) to restrict foreign trade in regard to certain products and total trade. Five CIS countries were selected for this analysis, in particular Ukraine, Russian Federation, Moldova, Belarus, and the Kyrgyz Republic. We first consider measurement methods usually applied to NTBs, review other studies measuring NTBs in CIS countries, and then describe our own findings on the matter. This analysis was made in the framework of the EU Eastern Neighbourhood: Economic Potential and Future Development (ENEPO) project seeking to examine different aspects of the European Union's relations with its neighbours to the East.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; non-tariff barriers ; CIS countries ; trade policy ; Nichttarifäre Handelshemmnisse ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; GUS-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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    Bangkok: Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT)
    Publication Date: 2016-09-01
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Außenhandelsliberalisierung ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Investitionspolitik ; Produktivität ; Direktinvestition ; Export ; Nepal
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    München: ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Keywords: Q18 ; ddc:330 ; Agraraußenhandel ; Biotechnisches Produkt ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Handelskonflikt ; Vereinigte Staaten ; EU-Staaten ; International agricultural trade ; Biotechnological product ; Foreign economic policy ; Trade dispute ; United States ; EU countries
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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    Regensburg: Osteuropa-Institut Regensburg
    Publication Date: 2017-05-08
    Description: As a mall country among Georgia's growth factors in future might well be foreign trade. The close cooperation with the EU within the European neighborhood policy centers on improving and facilitating trade between the partners. In 2006 the EU granted Georgia the GSP+ status which allows almost duty free imports of Georgian products in the EU. The extension of these trade preferences is negotiated in the realm of a deep and com-prehensive free trade agreement between the EU and Georgia. A closer look on the trade data reveal that no trade enhancing effect of the GSP+ can be detected. The available trade data are significantly blurred by the inclusion of energy trade from Georgia which is likely only transit trade from Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. If these export items and the movements of some raw material prices are removed from the data no export enhancing effect can be found. In addition, in the past the composi-tion of Georgian exports remained highly biased towards raw materials and simple products. Improvements in export came from the export of services, namely tourism and pipe-line transport service. Later is a significant source of income as well as the transfers of Georgian migrants working abroad? The export of pipeline service might increase in future further if envisaged additional pipelines over Georgian soil realize. Since these are mainly built with foreign capital increasing profit repatriation will result in higher capital outflows in future. At the moment the EU negotiates an deep and comprehensive free trade agreement with Georgia which foresees beyond the abolition of tariffs the removal of all types of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) . An important part of trade facilitation would be the adop-tion of EU standards and norms which hinder at the moments Georgian exporters. Al-though the EU is prepared to contribute with financial and technical help the removal of NTBs is costly for Georgian firms. The available studies forecast however significant positive effects from a comprehensive trade liberalization between the partners. Al-though not captured by the mentioned feasibility studies on a comprehensive EU-Georgian trade agreement, the strongest export enhancing effect for Georgia will only come from broadening the existing export basket. To do so best chances for Georgian firms are seen in transit services and the production of parts and components as a sup-plier for multinational firms. The existing range of export goods does not exploit effec-tively the comparative advantages of the country.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Exportinduziertes Wachstum ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Freihandelszone ; Handelsbilanz ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Georgien
    Language: English
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: Vietnam has been following China's path closely and very successfully for the last two decades, since the adoption of Doi moi in 1986. Over those last two decades, economic growth rates in both countries have been the highest worldwide (with GDP growing by 8 per cent and 10 per cent per year, respectively). The increase of the Vietnamese share of world trade is the highest of all major Asian exporters (including China) since the mid-1990s. In the current international context, doubts have been raised by some economists concerning the possibility for new Asian countries to take-off and join the group of emerging countries. Several obstacles might block this emergence, such as the rise of China and the stringent rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This paper addresses this question with regard to Vietnam, who joined the WTO at the beginning of 2007: we study Vietnam's potential for sustainable growth and international integration. We start by briefly describing economic reform and trade policies in Vietnam, and their results in terms of economic growth and world integration. We then analyse Vietnamese trade specialization and the bilateral relationship with China. Finally, we assess the competition between Vietnam and China on world markets, and show that the export structures are very different. Both countries have benefited from a boom in their textile and clothing exports following the cessation of quotas (in the case of China) and the signing of USBTA (in the case of Vietnam). For Vietnam, reducing the specialization in textiles and clothing, and joining the Asian production network in electronics, represents a major challenge.
    Keywords: F13 ; O24 ; O53 ; ddc:330 ; export-led growth ; WTO ; Vietnam ; China ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Wirtschaftsreform ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Internationale Arbeitsteilung ; Vietnam ; China ; China
    Language: English
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Germany's G-8 Presidency occurs in a formative period for German foreign economic policy. It is about to step out of the post-Cold War order, but has not yet found a comprehensive strategy for global engagement. Hitherto Germany has had a flexible approach to its G-8 Presidency and neglected to form a decisive agenda that fits the G-8 structure of a limited membership. Furthermore, Germany has not been inclined to use its Presidency to link its foreign economic policy to a domestic reform agenda. Its tradition of Ordnungspolitik - the yin of domestic economic policy and the yang of foreign economic policy - has been lost, but Germany is again in a position to demonstrate the vigour of a comprehensive economic policy that binds together foreign and domestic economic policy. Germany has an opportunity to use its G-8 Presidency to revive the Doha Round and to demonstrate a new German role in global economic policy that corresponds with its position as a top-league trading nation.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Ordnungspolitik ; Deutschland ; G7-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Trade policy in Asia is dangerously unbalanced. It rests on a shaky leg of discriminatory bilateral and regional FTAs. Its other WTO leg has gone to sleep: most Asian countries have neglected the WTO in favour of FTAs. Its regional-cooperation arm is limp: grand visions for regional economic integration are mostly empty conference chatter. Above all, core abdominal strength through unilateral liberalisation and pro-market domestic reforms has weakened post-Asian crisis. China is the conspicuous exception. Now, after the collapse of the Doha round and a fraying multilateral trading system, three priorities are called for. First, a clutch of East-Asian countries plus India should be active in "coalitions of the willing" to set the WTO on its legs again. US leadership and a Chinese helping hand will be crucial. Second, existing FTAs should be cleaned up and new FTA initiatives only launched with caution and a sense of economic strategy. Third, and most important, it is vital that the engine of Chinese unilateral liberalization does not stall. That is the only major route to further liberalization and regulatory reform across Asia and beyond - through competitive emulation, not trade negotiations.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; WTO-Mitgliedschaft ; Freihandelszone ; Asien
    Language: English
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    New Delhi: Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: This paper aims to identify the bilateral trade possibilities and non-tariff barriers between India and Pakistan. The study shows that there is a large untapped trade potential between the two countries. Using the potential trade approach, the study finds that the export potential from India to Pakistan is to the tune of US$ 9.5 billion while that from Pakistan to India is US$ 2.2 billion. Items having export potential from Pakistan are largely in the textile sector while items having export potential from India are predominantly in non-textile sectors. Very few items having export potential from India are on the positive list adopted by Pakistan. At the same time there are several items that India is importing from other countries but not from Pakistan. This indicates that there is a huge information gap on both sides on items that can be imported by India from Pakistan. A working definition of non-tariff barriers adopted in the study included six major categories, namely, quantitative restrictions, trade facilitation and customs procedures, technical barriers to trade and sanitary and phytosanitary measures, financial measures, para-tariff measures and visas. The study was based on an extensive survey conducted in several cities in India and Pakistan. Further, despite the two countries having liberalized their import regimes, Pakistan continues to follow a positive list approach towards Indian imports. The study identifies the ways in which this policy impedes India's exports and recommends the dismantling of the positive list. It also identifies problems related to transportation, custom procedures, rules of origin certification and valuation and suggests measures to address them. The imposition and application of standards in India was perceived as a major non-tariff barrier by Pakistani exporters. The study found that even though the TBT and SPS measures are not discriminatory across trading partners, Pakistani exports to India are surely affected by these. Pakistan has an export interest in textiles and agricultural products which also happen to be sectors where import restrictions/standards are most rigorously applied by India. It also found that due to a restrictive visa regime only selected traders have access to trade-related information. Thus lack of transparency, market imperfections and information asymmetries on both sides raise transaction costs and restrict market access for several other aspiring traders.
    Keywords: F1 ; F13 ; F5 ; ddc:330 ; Trade ; Trade policy ; non-tariff barriers ; South Asia ; India Pakistan and International Relations ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Nichttarifäre Handelshemmnisse ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Indien ; Pakistan
    Language: English
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    New Delhi: Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Rich countries use a combination of domestic market interventions and border protection or export subsidies as a part of their domestic policies. Developed countries such as the United States and the European Union (EU) resort to trade distorting policies to make their crop more competitive - both groups maintain high domestic prices for producers, stimulate production, and thus distort prices in the world market. The distorting effects of international trade can be distinguished between consumer surplus, producer surplus and tariff revenue approaches. The present paper emphasizes on the welfare of the producers with the main focus on small farmers. The analysis presented in the paper is an approximation of the general general equilibrium analysis. The four parts of this approximation are: first, the estimation of the world price effect of removal of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) distortions; second, estimation of the effects of changes in world prices on domestic prices through a price transmission model; third, estimation of the impact on domestic production through a supply response model; and, four, the estimation of changes in supply and welfare on the poor small farmers. The simulation exercise shows that due to elimination of subsidies in OECD countries the world crop prices are expected to rise. The results confirm that the depressed world prices can be corrected by removal of OECD subsidies, but the challenge for India remains: How much can these price corrections benefit the farmers? India's domestic price response to this world price change is very small for rice and wheat and slightly better for cotton and sugar. On the production front, with reduction in subsidies and rising of the world price, the production in OECD countries would decline, but it is not very clear if this would have a discernable effect on India's production. In response to the rise in world price, this paper concludes that this change would have almost negligible impact on India's production for rice and wheat and a marginal increase in the production of cotton and sugar. The welfare impact on small farmers based on these changes is also estimated. The important fact to be observed in this study is that the developed countries' policies protecting their farming sector critically affect the lives of billions of people who depend on agriculture in developing countries.
    Keywords: F13 ; F17 ; Q17 ; ddc:330 ; OECD Agriculture ; Trade Policy ; Subsidy Elimination ; Producer Welfare ; Exportsubvention ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; OECD-Staaten-seitig ; Handelsliberalisierung ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Exportpreis ; Entwicklungsländer ; Schätzung
    Language: English
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    Zurich: ETH Zurich, KOF Swiss Economic Institute