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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    Wildau
    Keywords: Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Alter ; Hauspflege ; Altenpflege ; Hochschulschrift ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Alter ; Hauspflege ; Altenpflege
    Abstract: Europäisches Management
    Additional Material: 1 CD-ROM
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: 101 Blätter , Illustrationen
    Language: English
    Dissertation note: Bachelorarbeit Technische Hochschule
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer Gabler
    Keywords: Personalpolitik ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Digitalisierung ; Personalpolitik ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Digitalisierung
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XIII, 300 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658216238
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: This paper explores the experience of developed countries that have introduced greater private sector involvement to traditionally government owned and run urban public transport industries. Such reforms have generally been driven by a desire to reduce taxpayer costs and to improve services for travellers. Reform options of full open competition, alternative tendering models and negotiated performance based contracting are considered. Just as the possible models for reform are diverse, so too have been the outcomes from reforms across different contexts. Case studies from bus reforms in the UK and rail and tram reforms in Melbourne, Australia provide several lessons for other jurisdictions considering reforms in urban public transport. In particular, the evidence suggests that cost savings and service improvements are achievable through corporatisation of public agencies and the introduction of service tendering, though savings tend to be once-off and are subject to excessive optimism. Caution is also urged in the introduction of open competition in markets that are not commercially viable. Performance based contracts that involve arm's length cooperation between the government and operator, when combined with the threat of competition, can achieve a good balance between the desire for quality and network flexibility from government with the commercial imperatives of the operator.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Kommunale Verkehrspolitik ; Öffentlicher Nahverkehr ; Deregulierung ; Großbritannien ; Australien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F22 ; H53 ; J11 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Einwanderung ; Kontrolle ; Internationale Migration ; Migrationsökonomie ; Bevölkerungsstruktur ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Sozialstaat ; Deutschland
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 5
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: D61 ; D64 ; F22 ; J10 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; Einwanderung ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Einwanderungsrecht ; Migrationspolitik ; Menschenrechte ; Ethnische Vielfalt ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: This study was prepared by Nadine Fabritz while she was working at the Ifo Institute for Economic Research in the Department for Human Capital and Innovation. It was completed in June 2014 and accepted as a doctoral thesis by the Department of Economics at the University of Munich in October 2014. It consists of four distinct empirical analyses in the field of the economics of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Three analyses address the economic effects of ICT investments, while one is concerned with determinants of investment in ICT networks. The study uses German firm-level data and regional-level data from Germany and the United Kingdom. The empirical strategies in all analyses attempt to establish causal relationships between the variables and outcomes of interest as much as possible by using panel models and controlling for unobserved, timeinvariant individual factors.
    Keywords: L50 ; L96 ; O10 ; O30 ; R10 ; ddc:330 ; Innovation ; Informationstechnik ; Breitbandkommunikation ; Infrastrukturinvestition ; Investition ; Regionalentwicklung ; Regulierung ; Computerunterstützung ; Produktentwicklung ; Unternehmenserfolg ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Deutschland ; Großbritannien ; Informationstechnik ; Investition ; Computerunterstützung ; Produktentwicklung ; Unternehmenserfolg ; Breitbandkommunikation ; Infrastrukturinvestition ; Deregulierung ; Ländliche Entwicklung ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Deutschland ; Großbritannien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 7
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    Vienna: WWWforEurope
    Publication Date: 2016-01-12
    Description: Unless labour force participation in Europe increases enormously in the coming decades, the current demographic dynamics will pose gigantic challenges to the sustainability of public finance. Migration (and thus migration policy) can thus be seen as a central topic which will remain on top of the policy agenda. The aim of this policy brief is to summarize the knowledge gained by the research efforts on this issue in the framework of WWWforEurope and to provide policymakers with new methods and research results which will allow them to better quantify the effects of policy changes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Alternde Bevölkerung ; Einwanderung ; Migranten ; Arbeitsmarktintegration ; Migrationspolitik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-11-12
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Luftverkehr ; Deregulierung ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Luftverkehr ; Fluggesellschaft ; Deregulierung ; China ; Asien (Nordost)
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Köln: Otto-Wolff-Institut für Wirtschaftsordnung (owiwo)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-11
    Description: The structure of the German economy changed drastically over time. The decline of the proportion of gross value added of the manufacturing sector at the expense of the services sector is often cited as an indicator for this structural change. However, this shift is not necessarily an indication of a decreas-ing importance of the manufacturing sector, but rather it points to a fundamental change of the gross value added process in manufacturing. Within the manufacturing process, business services and product-related services are growing in importance in development, production, marketing and sales as well as in customer relations and maintenance. With the increasing importance of intermediate inputs of the business services sector the interest in the regulatory framework for the provision of these services and the resulting welfare effect is also increasing. Inappropriate regulation can, inter alia, lead to the waste of resources in the production process and to unexploited innovation potential. Negative effects would especially occur in the downstream domestic production areas, which compete internationally and, therefore, need competitive services. Conversely, the reduction of unnecessary regulation- and trading-barriers can release unused growth potential not just in the services sector, but also in the manufacturing sector. The OECD has recorded the level of regulation for selected professional services since 1998. The indicators of the OECD confirm that substantial structural reforms have taken place in Germany in the past. Nonetheless, Germany does not have one of the lowest indicator values of EU countries. In addition, other regulation measures like the Service Trade Restrictiveness Indicator also published by the OECD and the level of economic rents suggest further deregulation potential in the professional services sector. This study offers three principles for the identification of potential deregulation targets. First, we recommend the equalisation of different profession-specific regulations for professions with comparable fields of activity to the currently lowest level of regulation. Second, one can consider the equalisation of state specific regulations within Germany for the same professions to the lowest existing intensity of intervention. Third, "gold-plating" of existing and future EU demands should be avoided. The results of the econometric analyses for selected business services carried out as a part of this study confirms the significant impacts on welfare of past structural reforms on the net value added in the downstream manufacturing production as well as in the overall economy. Furthermore, the discovered interrelationships give rise to positive indications for the expected effects of potential future reforms, which should have growth effects particular on the German manufacturing sector.
    Description: Die Struktur der deutschen Wirtschaft hat sich in der Vergangenheit stark gewandelt. Als Indikator für diesen Strukturwandel wird oftmals der langjährige Rückgang des Wertschöpfungsanteils der Industrie zugunsten der Dienstleistungen angeführt, die einen immer größeren Teil der wirtschaftlichen Leistung ausmachen. Diese Verschiebung ist jedoch nicht zwingend Ausdruck einer schwindenden Bedeutung der Industrie, vielmehr deutet sie auf eine grundlegende Veränderung im industriellen Wertschöpfungsprozess hin. Innerhalb der industriellen Wertschöpfung gewinnen unternehmensbezogene und produktbegleitende Dienstleistungen sowohl in Entwicklung, Produktion, Vermarktung und Vertrieb als auch in der anschließenden Kundenbetreuung und Wartung immer mehr an Bedeutung. Mit zunehmender Bedeutung der Vorprodukte dieser unternehmensbezogenen Dienstleistungen steigt auch das Interesse an der Ausgestaltung des Regelrahmens für die Erbringung dieser Dienstleistungen und den daraus folgenden Wohlfahrtseffekten. Eine nicht sachgemäße Regulierung dieser unternehmensbezogenen Dienstleistungen kann unter anderem dazu führen, dass es im Produktionsprozess zu Ressourcenverschwendung kommt und Innovationspotential nicht ausgeschöpft wird. Negativ betroffen wären insbesondere nachgelagerte inländische Produktionsbereiche, die im internationalen Wettbewerb stehen und daher auf wettbewerbsfähige Dienstleistungen angewiesen sind. Im Umkehrschluss könnte der Abbau nicht erforderlicher Regulierungs- und Handelshemmnisse bisher ungenutzte Wachstumspotentiale freisetzen. Der Umfang an Regulierungen wird für ausgewählte Unternehmensdienste ("Professional Services") von der OECD seit dem Jahr 1998 fortlaufend erfasst. Die Indikatoren der OECD bescheinigen Deutschland signifikante Strukturreformen in der Vergangenheit. Dennoch gehört Deutschland auch weiterhin im EU-Vergleich nicht zu den Ländern mit den geringsten Indikatorwerten. Auch andere Regulierungsmaße wie der ebenfalls von der OECD herausgegebene "Service Trade Restrictivnes Indikator" oder die Höhe der ökonomischen Renten lassen ein gewisses Deregulierungspotenzial im Bereich der "Professional Services" vermuten. Zur Identifikation möglicher Deregulierungsbereiche bietet die vorliegende Studie drei Heuristiken an: Erstens empfiehlt sich die Angleichung unterschiedlicher berufsspezifischer Regulierungen bei vergleichbaren Tätigkeitsfeldern auf das gegenwärtig niedrigere Regulierungsniveau. Zweitens kann die Angleichung unterschiedlicher bundeslandspezifischer Regulierungen für gleiche Berufe auf die jeweils niedrigere bestehende Eingriffsintensität erwogen werden. Und drittens sollte bei der Umsetzung bestehender und künftiger EU-Vorgaben auf eine "Übererfüllung" verzichtet werden. Die Ergebnisse einer im Rahmen dieser Studie durchgeführten ökonometrischen Analyse für ausgewählte unternehmensbezogene Dienstleistungen bestätigen positive Effekte vergangener Strukturreformen auf die Bruttowertschöpfung in nachgelagerten Produktionsbereichen sowohl in der Industrie als auch in der Gesamtwirtschaft. Die gefundenen Wirkungszusammenhänge liefern auch einen Anhaltspunkt für die Einordnung der zu erwartenden Effekte künftiger potentieller Reformbemühungen, die insbesondere auch für die Industrie mit Wachstumswirkungen verbunden sein dürften.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Dienstleistungssektor ; Deregulierung ; Strukturwandel ; Deutschland
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 11
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: Optimal forecasts are, under a squared error loss, conditional expectations of the unknown future values of interest. When stochastic demographic models are used in macroeconomic analyses, it becomes important to be able to handle updated forecasts. That is, when population development turns out to differ from the expected one, the decision makers in the macroeconomic models may change their behavior. To allow for this, numerical methods have been developed that allow us to approximate how future forecasts might look like, for any given observed path. Some technical details of how this can be done in the R environment are given.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Demography ; Forecasting ; Overlapping generations ; Bevölkerungsprognose ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Prognoseverfahren ; Overlapping Generations
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Energiemarkt ; Erdgasmarkt ; Deregulierung ; Energiepolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 13
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The study "Perspectives of the Migration Policy in Romania's Current Demographic Context" belongs to the thematic series of papers dedicated to migration initiated by the European Institute of Romania. If initially the issue of migrations analysed the relationship between the Romanian migrants and the European common space ("Free Movement of People" - 2002, "The Migration Phenomenon in Romania from the Perspective of Romania's Adherence to the European Union" - 2004 and "European Perspectives on Asylum and Migration" - 2008), the new suggested themes sought to expand the migrations' topic. In this respect, after analysing and assessing the effects of external migrations in the context of free movement within the communitary space, the European Institute of Romania (EIR) suggests a new scientific challenge, which is also of public interest, namely the analysis of migrations and the relative policies in the context of profound transformations of demographic structures in Romania. The topicality of this issue is confirmed by the increasing interest shown by numerous representatives of the scientific environment, as well as by experts within public institutions or interested politicians. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Migration ; Freizügigkeit ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Migrationspolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 14
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: D63 ; D91 ; I10 ; I31 ; ddc:330 ; Deregulierung ; Meinung ; Ideologie ; Zufriedenheit ; Systemvergleich ; Geld ; Gesundheit ; Gesundheitsökonomik
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: This paper provides compelling evidence that equity market liberalization, as the most efficient way to smooth financial market frictions such as credit constraints, can alleviate persistent cross-dynastic income inequality by promoting increased human capital accumulation. The authors examine the effect of equity market liberalization on inequality by using data from 72 countries for 1980-2006. Their measured effect is robust to alternative measures of equity market liberalization. Finally, the authors show that foreign equity flows benefit initially less-active stock markets more than the active ones, providing evidence that foreign equity flows act as a substitute for domestic financial markets. This finding emphasizes the possibility of reducing inequality and poverty through equity market liberalization.
    Keywords: F41 ; O16 ; O15 ; O11 ; G0 ; F36 ; ddc:330 ; income inequality ; equity market liberalization ; human capital ; economic growth ; Aktienmarkt ; Deregulierung ; Kapitalmarktregulierung ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Einkommensverteilung ; Bildungsinvestition ; Armut ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: In recent decades, most industrialized countries experienced declining population growth rates caused by declining fertility and associated with rising life expectancy. We analyze the effect of continuing demographic change on medium- and long-run economic growth by setting forth an R&D-based growth model including an analytically tractable demographic structure. Our results show that, in response to demographic change, technological progress and economic growth accelerate in the medium run but slow down in the long run. Numerical investigation reveals that the time period during which technological progress and economic growth are faster than without demographic change can be very long. Since the theoretical predictions for the medium run are consistent with the negative association between population growth and economic growth found in the empirical literature, the present framework can reconcile R&D-based growth theory with the available empirical evidence.
    Keywords: J11 ; O30 ; O41 ; ddc:330 ; demographic change ; technological progress ; economic growth ; semiendogenous growth theory ; transitional dynamics ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Alternde Bevölkerung ; Bevölkerungsökonomie ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Forschung ; Neue Wachstumstheorie ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Lahore: Johar Education Society, Pakistan (JESPK)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: Pakistan launched one of the first population control programs in the late 1950s, yet has lagged far behind other countries in effective implementation over the past five decades. The primary purpose of this note is to make a clear case for formulating an integrated and effective population policy in Pakistan. Therefore, this paper presents literature based demographic analysis on a recent report published by Ministry of Population Welfare: Population stabilization: the case for Pakistan (Khan 2010). The discussion presented in this paper should be viewed as the healthy criticism of the issue under debate. In addition, these comments are influenced by previous population research on Pakistan on the basis of the lessons which should be learnt from the previous population planning inputs. The paper presents the chapter by chapter analysis of the report and concludes that there is a weak relationship between family planning input and population policy in Pakistan.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bevölkerungspolitik ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Pakistan
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Essen: FOM Hochschule, Institut für Logistik- & Dienstleistungsmanagement (ild)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-23
    Description: This research paper deals with the specific question of demographic developments in India, which are in many parts reciprocal developments for example compared to Germany. In India the trend of bigger urban areas (urbanization) is a large challenge for transport systems. A contribution of a general development in India, particularly the pollution and economic development, are the objectives of the following paper. Furthermore this paper illustrates future urban transport systems under the specific logistics point of view. As method a SWOT analysis is applied.
    Description: Die vorliegende Forschungsarbeit beschäftigt sich mit der besonderen Frage der demographischen Entwicklung in Indien, welche in weiten Teilen reziprok zur Entwicklung beispielsweise in Deutschland verläuft. Insbesondere der Trend zu immer größeren Ballungszentren (Urbanisierung) wird Indien in Zukunft gerade für urbane Transportsysteme vor sehr große Herausforderungen stellen. Dafür skizziert der Beitrag die allgemeine Entwicklung in Indien, insbesondere die Bevölkerungs- und Wirtschaftsentwicklung. Anschließend werden Konzepte für zukünftige urbane Transportsysteme vorgestellt und eine SWOT-Analyse aus logistischer Sicht vorgestellt.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Stadtverkehr ; Urbanisierung ; Megastadt ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Indien
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    Kavala: Kavala Institute of Technology
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology in measuring productivity growth by decomposing it into technical change and technical efficiency change in India's paper industry. The prime objective of this article is to assess the impact of liberalization on productivity growth of India's paper industry. Specifically, this study quantifies the level of technical efficiency and technical change in this particular manufacturing sector. The paper applies Malmquist Productivity Index method to different sub-sectors of India's Paper and pulp industry at aggregate level in order to have trend in productivity growth covering a period of 28 years commencing from 1979-80 to 2006-07. Finally, regressing the log difference of the measured productivity growth on the log difference of the capacity utilization rate which is a proxy for business cycle, attempt has been made to find out capacity utilization adjusted TFP growth. The result of this study reveals decline in growth rate of TFP during post-reforms (1991-92 to 2006-07) period showing adverse impact of liberalization at aggregate level. Results also indicate that during the study period, industry also experienced regress in technological progress along with stagnation in technical efficiency. Non-responding technical efficiency change and the deteriorating technical change were the main ingredients responsible for declining productivity change in Indian paper and pulp industry. Moreover, removal of short run variations in capacity utilization from the estimated TFP growth hardly affects its overall movement but remarkably mitigates its variation because variations between sub-periods are lesser after adjusting capacity utilization as cyclical factor.
    Keywords: L60 ; O25 ; D24 ; ddc:330 ; Indian paper industry ; total factor productivity ; economic reforms ; Malmquist Index ; data envelopment analysis ; Produktivität ; Technischer Fortschritt ; Technische Effizienz ; Deregulierung ; Malmquist-Produktivitätsindex ; Papierwirtschaft ; Indien
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Nürnberg: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-10
    Description: German employment relations are characterized by a distinct dual system: First, working conditions and wages are determined by industry level collective bargaining agreements. Second, on the establishment level the works council is responsible for employer-employee negotiations. But since the mid-1980s more and more areas of regulation were transferred from the industry to the establishment level using so called opening-clauses. Our analysis relies on rich German establishment data and reveals new insights in the institutional machinery of wage bargaining: While the existence of such clauses is related to higher wages (11 %), their application results in wages cuts of roughly the same size. Regarding works councils our results suggest that they are able to prevent negative wage effects of opening clauses on average.
    Description: Das deutsche System der industriellen Beziehungen ist durch einen charakteristischen Dualismus gekennzeichnet: Einerseits werden in überbetrieblichen, sektoralen Tarifverträgen Arbeitsbedingungen und Löhne vereinbart. Andererseits regelt der Betriebsrat auf betrieblicher Ebene den Interessensausgleich zwischen Belegschaft und Betriebsführung. Seit Mitte der 1980er-Jahre wurden im Rahmen von Öffnungsklauseln jedoch zunehmend tarifvertragliche Regelungen auf betrieblicher Ebene verändert. Unsere Analysen basieren auf den Daten des IAB-Betriebspanels und gestatten einen besseren Einblick in die institutionellen Mechanismen der Lohnfindung. Wie sich zeigt, geht die Existenz von Öffnungsklauseln in Branchentarifverträgen mit einem höheren Lohnniveau (11 %) einher, deren betrieblicher Einsatz führt hingegen zu einer Lohnreduktion in ungefähr gleichem Ausmaß. Darüber hinaus legen unsere Ergebnisse den Schluss nahe, dass Betriebsräte in der Lage sind, die negativen Lohneffekte von Öffnungsklauseln zu verhindern.
    Keywords: J53 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; works council ; worker participation ; opening clauses ; wages ; collective bargaining agreements ; organized decentralization ; Lohnverhandlungen ; Firmentarifvertrag ; Tarifvertrag ; Deregulierung ; Betriebsrat ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Goethe University, Center for Financial Studies (CFS)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-27
    Description: I evaluate the effect of inflation targeting on inflation and how it interacts with product market deregulation during the disinflationary process in the 1990s. Using a sample of 21 OECD countries, I show that, after controlling for product market deregulation, the effect of inflation targeting is quantitatively important and statistically significant. Moreover, product market deregulation also matters in particular in countries that adopted an inflation targeting regime. I propose a New Keynesian Phillips curve with an explicit role for market deregulation to rationalize the empirical evidence.
    Keywords: E31 ; E58 ; E65 ; L51 ; ddc:330 ; Inflation Targeting ; Product Market Deregulation ; Difference in Difference ; Inflation Targeting ; Produkt ; Markt ; Deregulierung ; New-Keynesian Phillips Curve ; Schätzung ; OECD-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    Brussels: National Bank of Belgium
    Publication Date: 2018-09-21
    Description: This study provides a detailed and easy-to read overview of the railway liberalisation in Belgium and the three neighbouring countries. The European Union's liberalisation Directives are often complex and are implemented in very specific ways in the different Member States. The analysis goes into some detail about the Commission's underlying motives and economic theories for letting network industries, which had previously been regarded as natural monopolies, convert into competitive enterprises with the separation of infrastructure from operations. The study takes a look at the impact of the European rail liberalisation Directives in Belgium and its neighbouring countries - France, Germany and the Netherlands. There are considerable variations in the way in which the Directives are applied. It is reflected in the way in which the separation of the infrastructure and the transport services within the railway companies was carried out, and in the degree of opening of the market in freight and passenger transport. The analysis shows that the dominance of the former monopolists in the different Member States means that private rail operators face major obstacles. The financial analysis of the railway companies reveals wide variations in economic performance. The combination of better balance sheet figures and a bigger domestic market means that some major players in Europe are financially better off, giving them superiority over the smaller railway companies. This raises the question whether these circumstances will ultimately lead to distortion of competition.
    Keywords: D23 ; D40 ; H20 ; L14 ; L92 ; ddc:330 ; rail ; liberalisation ; subsidies ; debt ; EU-Recht ; EU-Verkehrspolitik ; Bahnpolitik ; Deregulierung ; Belgien ; Frankreich ; Deutschland ; Niederlande
    Language: English
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  • 23
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: It is widely argued that declining fertility slows the pace of economic growth in industrialized countries through its negative effect on labor supply. There are, however, theoretical arguments suggesting that the effect of falling fertility on effective labor supply can be offset by associated behavioral changes. We formalize these arguments by setting forth a dynamic consumer optimization model that incorporates endogenous fertility as well as endogenous education and health investments. The model shows that a fertility decline induces higher education and health investments that are able to compensate for declining fertility under certain circumstances. We assess the theoretical implications by investigating panel data for 118 countries over the period 1980 to 2005 and show that behavioral changes partly mitigate the negative impact of declining fertility on effective labor supply.
    Keywords: I15 ; I25 ; J24 ; O47 ; ddc:330 ; demographic change ; effective labor supply ; human capital ; population health ; economic growth ; Fruchtbarkeit ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Arbeitsangebot ; Bildungsinvestition ; Gesundheitsvorsorge ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: This paper develops the theoretical foundations and the testable implications of the various mechanisms that have been proposed as possible triggers for the demographic transition. Moreover, it examines the empirical validity of each of the theories and their significance for the understanding of the transition from stagnation to growth. The analysis suggests that the rise in the demand for human capital in the process of development was the main trigger for the decline in fertility and the transition to modern growth.
    Keywords: O10 ; J1 ; ddc:330 ; demographic transition ; gender gap ; human capital ; fertility ; mortality ; Unified Growth Theory ; Demographischer Übergang ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Humankapital ; Geburtenrate ; Sterblichkeit ; Theorie ; Welt
    Language: English
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    Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW)
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: The growing momentum for gas price liberalization in Russia is increasingly constrained by fears of potentially strong adverse impact that market-based price setting principle will have on the economy. Based on a novel multi-regional, multi-sector and multi-household computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Russian Federation, this paper presents a simple yet a flexible framework for evaluating gas price reform. We found that the reform is feasible at low economic cost, without greater disparities in terms of increased inequity within and between country's federal districts. Large redistributive impacts can arise from specific mechanisms to recycle revenues. In terms of global environmental credentials, gas price liberalization can bring Russia on a substantially more sustainable path. The potential to foster adoption of energy efficiency measures by exploiting the revenue-recycling effect is, however, limited.
    Keywords: D58 ; H21 ; H22 ; Q48 ; ddc:330 ; regional general equilibrium model ; sustainable development ; natural gas pricing ; Russia ; Gaspreis ; Staatliche Preispolitik ; Deregulierung ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Regionale Inzidenz ; Russland
    Language: English
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    Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW), Vienna Institute of Demography (VID)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-27
    Description: Religion and religiosity are important identity markers, and changes in a country's religious composition may affect its culture, value orientations and policies. In recent decades the Protestants in both the US and Canada have lost their absolute population majority. In the present study we investigate the future of the religious composition in both the US and Canada jointly until the 2060s taking into consideration changes due to demographic forces, the level and composition of migration, fertility differentials and intergenerational religious transmissions. The joint focus on both the US and Canada allows one to better understand the commonalities and differences between these two nations which are tightly knit in terms of geography, politics, economics and culture. The projections reveal that North America should not become Catholic by mid-century but close to, with an increasing importance of minorities in the religious landscape.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; Religion ; religious composition ; transmission of religion ; secularization ; multistate projections ; Katholizismus ; Sozialer Wandel ; Prognose ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; USA ; Kanada
    Language: English
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    Annandale-on-Hudson, NY: Levy Economics Institute of Bard College
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Keywords: E31 ; E34 ; E52 ; F42 ; O16 ; O53 ; ddc:330 ; Global Current Account Imbalances ; Impossible Trinity ; Capital Mobility ; Official Reserves ; Monetary Policy ; National Autonomy ; Efficient Market ; Kapitalmobilität ; Wechselkurspolitik ; Kapitalbilanz ; Deregulierung ; Geldpolitik ; Autonomie ; China ; Indien
    Language: English
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: Using state-level data for the period 1990 through 2007, we estimate the effect of legalizing medical marijuana on suicide rates. Our results suggest that the passage of a medical marijuana law is associated with an almost 5 percent reduction in the total suicide rate, an 11 percent reduction in the suicide rate of 20- through 29-year-old males, and a 9 percent reduction in the suicide rate of 30- through 39-year-old males. Estimates of the relationship between legalization and female suicides are less precise and are sensitive to functional form.
    Keywords: I10 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; medical marijuana laws ; marijuana ; alcohol ; suicide ; Drogenpolitik ; Deregulierung ; Drogenkonsum ; Selbstmord ; Schätzung ; USA
    Language: English
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: What are the factors that explain reversals in the implementation of structural reforms? Our main hypothesis is that reversals in different reforms are driven by different factors. This paper uses new reform indicators and presents novel evidence showing that (a) FDI inflows reduce the likelihood of privatization reversals, (b) worsened terms of trade increase the probability of external liberalization reversals and (c) labour strikes propel reversals in the liberalization of wages and prices.
    Keywords: E23 ; D72 ; H26 ; O17 ; ddc:330 ; reform reversals ; price liberalization ; trade liberalization ; privatization ; political economy ; Wirtschaftsreform ; Deregulierung ; Privatisierung ; Außenhandelsliberalisierung ; Public Choice
    Language: English
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: Using evidence from recent work on truckers and disaggregated older data prior researchers did not have, we revisit a classic topic and find some new answers. We focus on differentials in average annual earnings at the firm level among mileage-paid over-the-road tractor-trailer drivers (road drivers) employed by US for-hire trucking companies, before and after economic deregulation. Road driver output is individualized, and pay is on the basis of a piece rate (mileage). However, road drivers work under two distinct logistical systems - less-than-truckload [LTL], and truckload [TL] - associated with two different forms of work organization. We find that - contrary to the predictions of Rose (1987) - not only are road drivers for LTL companies paid more than those for TL companies, but in LTL the union earnings premium was maintained following deregulation and union coverage fell slowly, while in TL both the union differential and union coverage fell sharply. We review relevant theoretical explanations: payment for cognitive abilities or non-pecuniary disamenities; standard efficiency wage models based on independent utilities; sharing of product market rents; equity concerns resulting from social comparisons between employee groups; and differences in work organization as a source of union rents or quasi-rents. Only equity concerns, for the LTL earnings differential, and quasi rents (but not a union threat effect, contrary to Henrickson and Wilson (2008)), for union coverage and premium in LTL, are consistent with our empirical results. Both earnings differentials are based on differences in work organization, rather than differences in the workers or the work itself.
    Keywords: J31 ; J42 ; L92 ; ddc:330 ; fair wage ; equity ; compensating differential ; cognitive ability ; quasi-rent ; rent-sharing ; work organization ; trucking ; trucker ; less-than-truckload (LTL) ; truckload (TL) ; regulation ; deregulation ; union premium ; Verkehrsberufe ; Güterkraftverkehrsgewerbe ; Deregulierung ; Lohnstruktur ; Lohnbildung ; Arbeitsorganisation ; Gewerkschaftsmitgliedschaft ; USA
    Language: English
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: To what extent, and under what conditions, does access to arms fuel violent crime? To answer this question, we exploit a unique natural experiment: the 2004 expiration of the U.S. Federal Assault Weapons Ban exerted a spillover on gun supply in Mexican municipios near Texas, Arizona and New Mexico, but not near California, which retained a pre-existing state-level ban. We find first that Mexican municipios located closer to the non-California border states experienced differential increases in homicides, gun-related homicides and crime gun seizures in the post-2004 period. Second, the magnitude of this effect is contingent on political factors related to Mexico's democratic transition. Killings increased substantially more in municipios where local elections had become more competitive prior to 2004, with the largest differentials emerging in high narco-trafficking areas. Our findings are consistent with the notion that political competition undermined informal agreements between drug cartels and entrenched local governments, highlighting the role of political instability in mediating the gun-crime relationship.
    Keywords: K14 ; D72 ; D73 ; ddc:330 ; gun control ; violence ; informal employment ; cross-border spillover ; cartels ; Waffenrecht ; Deregulierung ; USA ; Spillover-Effekt ; Gewalt ; Kriminalität ; Organisierte Kriminalität ; Mexiko
    Language: English
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    Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: Structural change has a far-reaching impact on inequality. It exposes the population to challenges and opportunities. Foreign trade and technological progress have been widely put forth as a structural driver of inequality. Broader structural change, such as demographic transition, can also impinge upon inequality. Structural change in developing Asia has been unprecedented in its scale and speed. The heterogeneity of the population implies that the adjustment capacity to these changes varies. The fundamental solution to mitigating the adjustment costs arising from structural change lies in empowering individuals to become more productive, adaptable, and versatile through access to education and employment. Structural change exerts a significant effect on inequality in both advanced and developing countries. The experiences of the advanced economies entail valuable lessons for developing Asia. Extensive structural change is both a cause and consequence of the exceptionally rapid economic growth, which enabled developing Asia to raise living standards and reduce poverty at a historically unprecedented rate. The region has already begun the difficult and complex task of addressing inequality arising from structural change. There is a growing recognition that more sustainable growth supported by broad-based political and social support requires a growth strategy, which provides equality of opportunity, especially in education and employment. The newly developing more inclusive growth philosophy envisions expanded social protection systems and social safety nets to protect the poor and the vulnerable.
    Keywords: O15 ; O53 ; P46 ; ddc:330 ; inequality ; structural change ; developing asia ; Soziale Ungleichheit ; Strukturwandel ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Asien
    Language: English
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Reforms often occur in waves, seemingly cascading from country to country. We argue that such reform waves may be driven by informational spillovers: uncertainty about the outcome of reform is reduced by learning from the experience of similar countries. We motivate this hypothesis with a simple theoretical model and then test it empirically. Our results confirm the presence of informational spillovers with respect to political liberalization but offer little support for informational spillovers with respect to economic reforms.
    Keywords: O11 ; O47 ; P27 ; ddc:330 ; reform ; transition ; institutions ; uncertainty ; spillovers ; contagion ; Deregulierung ; Wirtschaftsreform ; Informationsverbreitung ; Spillover-Effekt ; Ansteckungseffekt ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Übergangswirtschaft ; Transformationsstaaten
    Language: English
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    Vienna: Austrian Foundation for Development Research (ÖFSE)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-26
    Description: Academic analyses and impact evaluation studies produced by the international development community almost all conclude that the microfinance model has made an important net contribution to the economic and social recovery of post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereafter Bosnia). However, as we now are finding is also the case in many other countries, these far-reaching claims are almost entirely based upon often deliberately flawed impact evaluation methodologies and inappropriate success criteria. This article provides an alternative assessment of the available evidence accumulated to date which, in our opinion, actually shows that the microfinance model has made a distinctly negative contribution to Bosnia's reconstruction and development effort. We argue, centrally, that the microfinance model has assisted the Bosnian economy to move to an unsustainable institutional development trajectory marked by the deindustrialisation, informalisation and infantilisation of the enterprise sector. More widely, we argue that the microfinance model in Bosnia has led to a sub-prime-style episode in Bosnia's post-war history, one that has materially benefitted a tiny elite working within and around the microfinance sector whilst simultaneously destroying many of the most important pillars of the Bosnian economy and society. We find that the best possible explanatory framework for what has transpired in postwar Bosnia is contained in the "control fraud" concept developed by William Black.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; microfinance ; neoliberalism ; Bosnia ; deindustrialization ; informal sector ; control fraud ; Mikrofinanzierung ; Deindustrialisierung ; Informeller Sektor ; Deregulierung ; Systemtransformation ; Bosnien-Herzegowina
    Language: English
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    Hamburg: Universität Hamburg, Zentrum für Ökonomische und Soziologische Studien (ZÖSS)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: Despite severe economic turmoil within the last decade the stock diagnosis for most market insufficiencies has been: the state must be 'slimmed down'. Satisfying social needs through the free market under the slogan of 'less government is good government' has been a constitutive feature of economic policy since the rise of neoliberalism in the 1980s. But even as the deregulation of the markets and the 'downsizing' of the state causes growing social turbulences - especially in the context of the current financial and economic meltdown - politicians, scholars and the media still cling to the idea of an omnipotent market. Deeprooted and widely-spread anti-statism still fulfils the role of a creed serving to legitimize the necessity of market-centred 'reforms'.
    Keywords: A11 ; B22 ; B26 ; L3 ; N20 ; P16 ; ddc:330 ; anti-statism ; free-market economy ; laissez-faire ; lean state ; liberalism ; neoliberalism ; Mont Pèlerin Society ; Staatliche Einflussnahme ; Wirtschaftsliberalismus ; Deregulierung ; Marktwirtschaft
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    Marburg: Philipps-University Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-02-17
    Description: This paper empirically analyzes the effects of de jure financial openness on institutional quality as captured by indicators on investment risk, corruption level, impartiality of judiciary system as well as the effectiveness of bureaucratic authorities. Using a panel data set of more than 110 countries and a time span from 1984 to 2005, we show that a higher degree of financial openness improves institutional quality in particular by reducing investment risks. We also study the effect of a single liberalization reform on the development of institutional quality. Again, we find evidence for the beneficial impact of financial liberalization with the exception of the level of corruption. We additionally show that if financial liberalization is supported by simultaneous political liberalization, the benign consequences of financial opening for the institutional performance are even larger, while financial deregulation in former socialist countries tends to worsen institutional quality.
    Keywords: F02 ; D72 ; P48 ; ddc:330 ; financial integration ; liberalization reform ; institutional development ; institutional dimensions ; Finanzsektor ; Deregulierung ; Institutioneller Wandel ; Investitionsrisiko ; Korruption ; Rechtsstaat ; Bürokratie ; Schätzung ; Welt ; Osteuropa
    Language: English
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    Manila: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: There is a lack of verifiable evidence on the period and magnitude of the demographic dividends in India, a gap policy makers must address when setting priorities for human resource and capital investment to harvest the economic benefits of the demographic transition currently under way. This study attempts to fill this gap by quantifying the demographic dividends using National Transfer Accounts framework and by indicating their implications for equity. Our analysis projects that income per effective consumer could increase by 24.9% from 2005 to 2035 - 9.1% from the first demographic dividend and 15.8% from the second demographic dividend - and that the second dividend will be stable up to 2070. However, unless appropriate institutional reforms create an environment conducive to accumulating assets and raising productivity, India will find it difficult to meet the fiscal challenges posed by population aging.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Öffentliche Sozialleistungen ; Indien
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    Providence, RI: Brown University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: We assess quantitatively the effect of exogenous reductions in fertility on output per capita. Our simulation model allows for effects that run through schooling, the size and age structure of the population, capital accumulation, parental time input into child-rearing, and crowding of fixed natural resources. The model is parameterized using a combination of microeconomic estimates, data on demographics and natural resource income in developing countries, and standard components of quantitative macroeconomic theory. We apply the model to examine the effect of an intervention that immediately reduces TFR by 1.0, using current Nigerian vital rates as a baseline. For a base case set of parameters, we find that an immediate decline in the TFR of 1.0 will raise output per capita by approximately 13.2 percent at a horizon of 20 years, and by 25.4 percent at a horizon of 50 years.
    Description: NBER Working Paper No. 17377.
    Keywords: E17 ; J11 ; J13 ; J18 ; O11 ; ddc:330 ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Familienplanung ; Öffentliche Bildungsausgaben ; Ressourcenökonomik ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Prognose ; Theorie ; Nigeria
    Language: English
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    Istanbul: Koç University-TÜSİAD Economic Research Forum (ERF)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: To evaluate the costs and benefits of various anti-smoking policy alternatives including taxation and four cessation programs, accounting for the demographic projections in 2011-2050 in Turkey. Demographic projections are combined with incidence and mortality rates of four major cigarette related diseases, price elasticity of cigarette demand and unit costs of nonprice measures to reduce demand in order to estimate the net present discounted values of policy alternatives. Among policy alternatives that yield the same amount of cigarette consumption, cessation programs yield lower costs to households and the society at large than taxation, while taxation is preferred by the public sector. Net benefit to the public sector as a function of the tax rate is a single-peaked Laffer curve. The public sector can obtain the highest net benefit if it raises the special consumption tax rate from its current level by nearly 9 percentage points. Although intervention programs emerge as the preferred anti-smoking alternatives, more research is needed on estimating the cost-effectiveness and social desirability of taxation and intervention programs in Turkey.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Rauchen ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Türkei
    Language: English
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Following an earlier paper titled 'Population and Poverty: The Real Score' (UPSE Discussion Paper 0415, December 2004), the present paper was first issued in August 2008 as a contribution to the public debate on the population issue that never seemed to die in this country. The debate heated up about that time in reaction to a revival of moves to push for legislation on reproductive health and family planning (RH/FP). Those attempts at legislation, however, failed in the 13th Congress, and again in the 14th Congress. Since late last year, the debate has been heating up further on the heels of President Noy Aquino's pronouncements seeming to favor RH/FP, though he prefers the nomenclature 'responsible parenthood'. With some updating of the data, this paper remains as relevant as ever to the ongoing public debate. It is being re-issued as a Discussion Paper for wider circulation.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Armut ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Familienpolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Philippinen
    Language: English
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    Luxembourg: European Investment Bank (EIB)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: I summarize the main results and policy insights from the 2011 EIB Conference on Productivity and Long-Term Growth Potential in Europe. Europe's need for productivity growth has become more pressing against the backdrop of huge government debt and a beginning slowdown in labour supply. The contributors to the EIB Conference and this volume suggest that governments should embrace domestic and international competition by dismantling anticompetitive product market regulations, especially in services. Private and public R&D should feature high on the policy agenda, but their effectiveness should be enhanced by removing overly protective elements of the patent system. Education attainment and quality as well as life-long learning should be fostered and more emphasis put on an ICT-literate workforce. Productivity-enhancing resource reallocation may further require lower employment protection and stronger incentives for regional and sectoral mobility. Finally, Europe faces large broadband investment needs, calling for a predictable network regulation framework and targeted public support to broadband roll-out to less profitable areas.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Produktivität ; Wirtschaftspotenzial ; Produktivität ; Deregulierung ; Wettbewerbspolitik ; Europäische Forschungs- und Technologiepolitik ; Patentrecht ; Binnenwanderung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-21
    Description: In this paper, the relation between income inequality and population growth is analized from a Darwinian perspective. A Markov chain population growth model is presented and estimated using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). We estimate both population growth rates and steady-state income distribution for males and females. The results are compatible with the traditional age-based population growth models of demography, in so far as these are actually irreducible, positive-recurrent Markov chains. It is concluded that, from the perspective of individuals and family lines, income inequality may improve reproductive fitness of high-income individuals, and foster adaptive reproductive strategies for a given income level.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Steady-state income distribution ; intrinsic growth rates ; Markov chains ; population projection ; reproductive fitness ; Einkommensverteilung ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Fertilität ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: Using CPS data for the period 1979-2009, the wage dispersion of truck drivers (and subsets of the truck driving sample) is compared to the trends in wage dispersion of males economy-wide. We find that truckers' wages experienced a decrease in inequality post-deregulation, as expected given the literature on regulation's impact on the labor market. We also find that the wage dispersion for truckers is markedly different from males economy-wide, providing evidence that the wage distribution of truck drivers has been dominated by the changing structure of the occupation post-deregulation and largely immune to the factors that increased inequality for the aggregate labor market.
    Keywords: J31 ; L92 ; ddc:330 ; wage differentials ; wage inequality ; trucking ; Verkehrsberufe ; Straßengüterverkehr ; Lohnstruktur ; Deregulierung ; USA
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: A recent literature has used variation just around deterministic legislative population thresholds to identify the causal effects of institutional changes. This paper reviews the use of regression discontinuity designs using such population thresholds. Our concern involves three arguments: (1) simultaneous exogenous (co-)treatment, (2) simultaneous endogenous choices and (3) manipulation and precise control over population measures. Revisiting the study by Egger and Koethenbuerger (2010), who analyse the relationship between council size and government spending, we present new evidence that these three concerns do matter for causal analysis. Our results suggest that empirical designs using population thresholds are only to be used with utmost care and confidence in the precise institutional setting.
    Keywords: C2 ; D7 ; H7 ; ddc:330 ; regression discontinuity design ; population thresholds ; local elections ; government spending ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Regression ; Kommunalwahl ; Öffentliche Ausgaben ; Bevölkerungsdichte
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2013-07-18
    Description: We propose a spatial competition model to study banks' strategic responses to the asymmetric Spanish geographic deregulation process. We find that once the geographic deregulation process finishes, inter-regional mergers between savings banks are optimal whenever the economies of scale associated to merging activities are low. If there are large gains, then there will be mergers between savings and commercial banks.
    Keywords: C72 ; G21 ; G28 ; L13 ; L41 ; L51 ; ddc:330 ; branch deregulation ; mergers ; optimal behavior ; Spanish banking system ; Bankenregulierung ; Deregulierung ; Bank ; Fusion ; Nichtkooperatives Spiel ; Spanien
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  • 46
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    Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW), Vienna Institute of Demography (VID)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-27
    Description: The reproductive value (see Fisher 1930) arises as part of the shadow price of the population in a large class of age-structured optimal control models.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Reproductive value ; distributed optimal control theory ; McKendrick equation ; shadow price ; indirect effect ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Opportunitätskosten ; Kontrolltheorie ; Gesundheitsökonomik ; Theorie
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  • 47
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: This paper explores the impact of financial liberalization on the migration of high skilled labor from 46 countries to the OECD, taken at five year intervals over the period 1985-2000. Using an exploratory factor analysis, we are able to distinguish between two dimensions of financial liberalization, namely the robustness of the markets and their freedom from direct government control. We find that a standard deviation improvement in the robustness of the source country financial sector magnifies the extent of brain drain by a factor of about four percentage points on the average. However, a corresponding increase in the freedom of the source country financial sector from government control has a modest negative impact on the emigration of high skilled labor and the effect is not statistically significant. Further, the impact of improved financial sector robustness on selection is more pronounced for non-OECD economies than for OECD nations, which experience virtually no impact on skilled emigration.
    Keywords: F22 ; O15 ; P48 ; ddc:330 ; financial liberalization ; brain drain ; institutions ; immigration ; Finanzsektor ; Deregulierung ; Kapitalmarktliberalisierung ; Brain Drain ; Panel ; Schätzung ; OECD-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 48
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: This paper contributes to the already vast literature on demography-induced international capital flows by examining the role of labor market imperfections and institutions. We setup a two-country overlapping generations model with search unemployment, which we calibrate on EU15 and US data. Labor market imperfections are found to significantly increase the volume of capital flows, because of stronger employment adjustments in comparison with a competitive economy. We next exploit the model to investigate how demographic asymmetries may have contributed to unemployment and welfare changes in the recent past (1950-2010). We show that a policy reform in one country also has an impact on labor markets in other countries when capital is mobile.
    Keywords: J11 ; F21 ; D91 ; C68 ; ddc:330 ; demographics ; capital flows ; overlapping generations ; general equilibrium ; unemployment ; Kapitalmobilität ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Arbeitsmarktflexibilität ; Unvollkommener Markt ; Overlapping Generations ; Vergleich ; EU-Staaten ; USA
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  • 49
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: There is limited empirical evidence on whether unrestricted cash social assistance to poor pregnant women improves children's birth outcomes. Using program administrative micro-data matched to longitudinal vital statistics on the universe of births in Uruguay, we estimate that participation in a generous cash transfer program led to a sizeable 15% reduction in the incidence of low birthweight. Improvements in mother nutrition and a fall in labor supply, out-of-wedlock births and mother's smoking all appear to contribute to the effect. We conclude that, by improving child health, unrestricted unconditional cash transfers may help break the cycle of intergenerational poverty.
    Keywords: J88 ; I38 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; welfare transfers ; birth outcomes ; Bevölkerungspolitik ; Frauen ; Schwangerschaft ; Sozialtransfer ; Kinder ; Gesundheit ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Uganda
    Language: English
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    Kingston (Ontario): Queen's University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: We characterize the dynamics of relative house prices, construction rates and population growth across US cities. In response to fluctuations in relative incomes, we find that population growth rates adjust more rapidly than construction rates in the short run and that price appreciation exhibits considerable serial correlation in the shortrun and mean reversion in the long-run. We develop a competitive search model of the housing market in which construction, the entry of buyers, house prices and rents are endogenously determined in equilibrium. Our theory generates dynamics that are qualitatively consistent with our empirical observations. In particular, in a version of the economy calibrated to match long-run features of the housing market in U.S. cities, variation in the time it takes to sell a house (i.e. the house's liquidity) induces house values and transaction prices to exhibit momentum, or serially correlated growth.
    Keywords: E30 ; R31 ; R10 ; ddc:330 ; house prices ; liquidity ; search ; construction ; dynamic panel ; Immobilienmarkt ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Haushaltseinkommen ; Wohnungsbauinvestition ; Immobilienpreis ; Ballungsraum ; USA
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Manila: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: The transition in the People's Republic of China from a centrally planned economy to a market-based economy is widely acclaimed for leading to unprecedented economic growth, but there is a growing awareness of the social strains accompanying that growth such as the lagging development of the social protection system as the population ages. Using estimates from the National Transfer Accounts database, we describe changes in life cycle public transfers; interhousehold transfers; and intrahousehold transfers for education, health care, and other support; and discuss the main challenges that demographic change poses for the pension and health care systems. Demographic change and its interaction with family behavior and social policies will strongly shape both future economic growth - through savings and investment decisions, labor supply and productivity - and the sustainability of social support systems.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Generationengerechtigkeit ; Soziale Sicherheit ; Sozialpolitik ; China
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Manila: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: We explore how demographic changes in the Asia and Pacific region are likely to influence economic growth and other features of the regional economy. While many low-income countries in the region will continue to experience a demographic dividend, over time population aging could drag on economic growth, especially in East Asia. A second potential problem from population aging is the strain on public transfer systems the effects of which, although smaller than those in Europe, Japan, or Latin America, will still be large. Countering these problems, however, population aging will lead to substantial capital deepening, an effect of the second demographic dividend. Given current patterns of old-age consumption, production, and transfers, the total demand for pension assets will increase very substantially over the coming decades. Under these circumstances, aging should not depress savings rates. Capital deepening and high standards of living are attainable despite significant population aging.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Bevölkerungsstruktur ; Alternde Bevölkerung ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Asiatisch-pazifischer Raum
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Mimicking the US in 1980 and 1990s, Brazil is a remarkable case of a major shift in homicides. After increasing steadily throughout the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s, homicides reached a peak in 2003, and then fell. I show a strong time-series co-movement between homicide rates and the percentage of the population in 15-24 age bracket. Using a panel of states, I find a very high elasticity of homicide with respect to changes in the 15-24 year-old population (2.4), after controlling for income, income inequality, and state and year fixed effects. I then focus on the case of São Paulo, the largest state in the country, and whose shift in homicides has been particularly acute. City-level panel elasticities are similar to the state-level estimates. Furthermore, the demographic shift in São Paulo was more pronounced than the national one, explaining the particularly large shift in homicides in São Paulo. The large cohort born from the mid 1970 through the early 1980 is the result of a sharp reduction in infant mortality only belatedly followed by acceleration in the reduction of fertility. In line with the Easterlin Hypothesis (Easterlin [1980]), this large cohort faced tough economic conditions. Educational attainment ceased to improve for this cohort, and unemployment rates upon entering the job market were exceptionally high. Thus, the large homicide shift in Brazil is produced by a particularly large and socially fragile cohort.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Age Structure ; Demographic Change ; Homicides ; Altersstruktur ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Suizid ; Brasilien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    München: ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Keywords: D41 ; L50 ; L89 ; ddc:330 ; Postdienst ; Postbeförderung ; Öffentliche Dienstleistung ; Deregulierung ; Privatisierung ; Wettbewerbspolitik ; Reform ; Industriestaaten