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  • 1
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    Waterloo: University of Waterloo, Canadian Labour Economics Forum (CLEF)
    Publication Date: 2020-03-26
    Description: We consider the job progression of immigrant women in five European countries: France, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK. We complement data from the European Labour Force Survey (2005-2015), with information about the skills contained in the jobs held by women, using data from the O*Net. In particular, we focus on analytical and strength skills in immigrant's jobs and compare them to those required by jobs held by similar native women. Even though immigrants experience upon arrival a gap in participation relative to the native born, they gradually increase participation during the first ten years spent in the country (approximately, 1% per year in Spain, Italy and the UK, and 2% and 4 % per year in France and Sweden respectively). Our results reveal significant differences across countries of origin as well as differences within countries over the period of analysis. Recent immigrant women show relatively large gaps in the analytical skill content of the jobs they held relative to native-born women across our host countries. Further, with the exception of immigrants to Spain, they also work jobs with higher requirements of strength than their native-born counterparts do. Although educated immigrants show a different pattern in most countries (included Spain). We find differences within countries over the period of analysis that may be consistent with the variation of incentives to move depending on the business cycle at arrival - particularly given the meager opportunities in many destination countries during aftermath of the recent great recession.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Migranten ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Qualifikation ; Erwerbsverlauf ; Vergleich ; Bevölkerung ; EU-Staaten ; Frankreich ; Italien ; Spanien
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    München: ifo Institut – Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2019-11-28
    Description: Das ANFA-Abkommen ist eine vertragliche Vereinbarung über Nettofinanzanlagen (NFA) zwischen den 19 nationalen Zentralbanken (NZB) der Eurostaaten und der Europäischen Zentralbank. Es beinhaltet Regeln und Obergrenzen von Wertpapierbeständen, die die NZBen eigenständig erwerben können, und ermöglicht den Notenbanken der Eurostaaten die Schaffung von Zentralbankgeld auf eigene Rechnung und eigenes Risiko im Rahmen ihrer nicht geldpolitischen Aktivitäten. Über TARGET-Verbindlichkeiten können die nationalen Notenbanken zudem die Verteilung der Schöpfung von Zentralbankgeld innerhalb der Währungsunion beeinflussen. Arne Hansen und Dirk Meyer, Helmut-Schmidt-Universität, Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg, zeigen die Gemeinsamkeiten sowie die Unterschiede der beiden Systeme auf und analysieren die Implikationen, die sich aus einer national-autonomen Geldschöpfung für das Eurosystem ergeben.
    Keywords: E58 ; E52 ; ddc:330 ; Geldschöpfung ; Geldpolitik ; Zahlungsverkehr ; EU-Staaten ; ANFA ; TARGET2
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    München: ifo Institut – Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2019-11-28
    Description: Der europäische Bausektor dürfte 2019 erneut schwächer expandieren. Nach einem Anstieg um 4,2% im Jahr 2017 und einem Zuwachs um 3,1% im vergangenen Jahr gehen die Experten des EUROCONSTRUCT-Netzwerks für das laufende Jahr von einem Plus in der Größenordnung von knapp 2% aus. Dabei dürfte die Bautätigkeit lediglich in Schweden und Finnland nachgeben. Bis 2021 wird das Wachstum in den 19 Mitgliedsländern voraussichtlich weiter nachlassen und dann bei etwa 1½% liegen. Verglichen mit den im November 2018 veröffentlichten Prognosen ergaben sich im Juni 2019 kaum nennenswerte Revisionen. Am auffälligsten ist die – in allen drei Baubereichen – erfolgte Aufwärtskorrektur der damaligen Schätzwerte für das Jahr 2018. Gemäß der neuen Prognose wird der Tiefbausektor in den drei Jahren 2019 bis 2021 mit einem Wachstumsanteil von 45% noch etwas stärker zur Ausweitung der Bauleistungen beitragen als bislang angenommen. Die Zahl der Wohnungsfertigstellungen dürfte sich 2019 zum vorerst letzten Mal deutlich erhöhen und auch in den kommenden Jahren bei gut 1,8 Mio. Einheiten liegen. Während der Wohnungsbau insgesamt weiter an Schwung verlieren wird, dürfte der übrige Hochbau bis 2021 nahezu unverändert moderat wachsen. Die Impulse für die Bautätigkeit kommen insbesondere vom – auch weiterhin – positiven Wirtschaftsumfeld, den günstigen Finanzierungskonditionen sowie vom ausgeprägten Handlungsbedarf in Bezug auf die Verkehrs- und Energieinfrastruktur.
    Keywords: L74 ; E30 ; ddc:330 ; Bauwirtschaft ; Konjunktur ; Branchenentwicklung ; EU-Staaten ; EUROCONSTRUCT
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Frankfurt a. M.: European Central Bank (ECB)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Description: We quantify the role of financial factors behind the sluggish post-crisis performance of European firms. We use a firm-bank-sovereign matched database to identify separate roles for firm and bank balance sheet weaknesses arising from changes in sovereign risk and aggregate demand conditions. We find that firms with higher debt levels and a higher share of short-term debt reduce their investment more after the crisis. This negative effect is stronger for firms linked to weak banks with exposures to sovereign risk, signifying increased rollover risk. These financial channels explain about 60% of the decline in aggregate corporate investment.
    Keywords: E22 ; E32 ; E44 ; F34 ; F36 ; G32 ; ddc:330 ; Firm Investment ; Debt Maturity ; Rollover Risk ; Bank-Sovereign Nexus ; Finanzkrise ; Unternehmensfinanzierung ; Verbindlichkeiten ; Investition ; Investitionsrisiko ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    München: ifo Institut – Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2019-11-28
    Description: Im März dieses Jahres hat das Europäische Parlament trotz zahlreicher Proteste ein neues Urheberrecht beschlossen. Ziel der Reform ist es zum einen, einen vereinheitlichten digitalen Binnenmarkt zu schaffen. Einheitliche Regeln sollen den EU-Unternehmen, insbesondere Start-ups, bessere Chancen eröffnen, im Wettbewerb mit den US-amerikanischen und chinesischen Internet-Giganten zu bestehen. Zum anderen soll die Reform bessere Verdienstchancen für Verleger, Autoren und Musiker schaffen. Denn die Urheber sollen am Gewinn beteiligt werden, den die Internetplattformen mit deren Werken erzielen. Artikel, Musik und Videos verbreiten wird dadurch aber erschwert. Ist das neue EU-Urheberrecht ein Durchbruch für Kreative oder ein Aufbruch ins unfreie Internet? Die EU verfolgt wünschenswerte Ziele: Sie will Urheber stärken, europaweit für Einheitlichkeit sorgen und Rechtssicherheit schaffen. Die gewählten Mittel haben jedoch nach Ansicht von Christian Rusche und Marc Scheufen, Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft, Köln, gravierende Nebenwirkungen wie Informationsunterdrückung durch Upload-Filter, Wettbewerbsverzerrungen und Umsatzverluste bei den Rechteinhabern. Es sei davon auszugehen, dass vor allem große Verlage und Interessengruppen von Rechteinhabern Lizenzvereinbarungen mit den Plattformen schließen, da sie und ihre zahlreichen Inhalte für die Internetplattformen attraktiv seien. Kleine Gruppen und Einzelpersonen hingegen würden vor der Wahl stehen, ungünstige Verträge anzunehmen oder die beliebten Plattformen als Marketingkanal zu verlieren. Für Steffen J. Roth, Universität zu Köln, geht es in der aktuellen Diskussion weniger um einen Streit zwischen Urhebern von »kreativen Werken« und zahlungsunwilligen Konsumenten, sondern eher um eine Auseinander­setzung »herkömmlicher« Rechteverwerter in der analogen und den mächtigen Plattformbetreibern in der digi­talen Welt. Denn die Internetfirmen verfolgen ein gänzlich anderes Geschäftsmodell als die früheren Vertreiber von kreativen Werken: Während YouTube und ähnliche Akteure die Inhalte der Produzenten zur Verfügung stellen und den Kreativen damit Einkommensmöglichkeiten erschließen, verlangen sie von den Nutzern überwiegend keine Preise. Das bereitet dem Geschäftsmodell traditioneller Verleger enorme Probleme. Karl-Nikolaus Peifer, Universität zu Köln, zeigt, dass vom juristischen Standpunkt aus betrachtet, »das neue EU-Recht die Position der Rechteinhaber und die der kreativen Inhalteerzeuger gegenüber den Rechten der Plattformbetreiber« bevorzugt. Inwieweit durch die neue Gesetzgebung auch neue Geschäftsmodelle entstehen, hänge davon ab, ob die Internetfirmen – um ihre Portale weiterhin im bisherigen Umfang betreiben zu dürfen – Lizenzen mit den Rechteinhabern und Kreativen abschließen und sie an den Gewinnen beteiligen. Der Plattformbetrieb wäre zwar dann finanziell etwas weniger, aber wahrscheinlich noch attraktiv genug.
    Keywords: K00 ; O34 ; ddc:330 ; Urheberrecht ; Digitale Medien ; Internet ; Unternehmen ; Wettbewerbsrecht ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-09
    Description: The People's Republic of China experienced a tremendous economic development within the last four decades. The increased economic power and political weight of China are challenging the USA and EU. Furthermore, the strategies used by China for its own development, e.g. broad-based industry policy with distortive subsidization, forced technology transfer or investment restrictions, are perceived as unfair, especially in the US, but to a large extent also in the EU. This development in combination with the trade imbalances are resulting in the current conflict between China and the US. The term decoupling was introduced to describe the cutting off of economic ties between China and the US as a consequence of the conflict. Accordingly, we analyze in this article whether a decoupling is going on. [...]
    Description: Innerhalb der letzten vier Jahrzehnte durchlief die Volksrepublik China eine enorme wirtschaftliche Entwicklung. Mit dem zunehmenden Gewicht in der Weltwirtschaft stiegen jedoch auch die globalen ökonomischen Wirkungen und die politischen Einflussmöglichkeiten der Volksrepublik. Durch beide Entwicklungen sehen sich die USA und die EU vor zunehmende Herausforderungen gestellt. Dies wird noch verstärkt durch die Strategien, die China für seine wirtschaftliche Entwicklung genutzt hat und noch nutzt, wie zum Beispiel verzerrende Subventionen zugunsten der eigenen Industrie, erzwungenen Technologietransfer oder Investitionsbeschränkungen, welche insbesondere in den USA, aber zunehmend auch innerhalb der EU kritisch gesehen werden. An dieser Machtverschiebung in der Weltwirtschaft und dem dadurch begünstigten Handelsungleichgewicht zwischen den USA und China entbrannte der gegenwärtige Handelskonflikt. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird in den USA über ein mögliches Decoupling diskutiert - also eine ökonomische Entkopplung der Volkswirtschaften Chinas und der Vereinigten Staaten. In diesem Report wird analysiert, ob es bereits Hinweise in den offiziellen Daten für ein Decoupling gibt. [...]
    Keywords: E61 ; F02 ; O24 ; ddc:330 ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Handelskonflikt ; China ; USA ; Handelseffekt ; Auslandsinvestition ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 7
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    Bielefeld: transcript Verlag
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: Gender impact assessment has been both celebrated as a beacon of hope for the cause of gender equality and criticised as being ineffectual. More than 20 years of gender mainstreaming have demonstrated that equality governance with and through impact assessment is an intersectional and still evolving process. Arn T. Sauer's study examines the instruments of gendered policy analysis and the conditions under which they are being used by the Canadian federal government and the European Commission. Interviews with experts from public administration and instrument designers as well as document analyses reveal benefits and challenges and show that the success of equality governance depends upon whether knowledge about gendered policy and appropriate administrative practices are embedded, embodied and entrenched in public administration.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Gleichstellungspolitik ; Gleichberechtigung ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Öffentliche Verwaltung ; Kanada ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-26
    Keywords: D31 ; I32 ; D63 ; ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Verteilungspolitik ; Gini-Koeffizient ; EU-Staaten ; Eurozone
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-26
    Keywords: D31 ; I32 ; D63 ; ddc:330 ; Marktintegration ; Einkommensverteilung ; Verteilungspolitik ; Konzentrationsmaß ; Gini-Koeffizient ; EU-Regionalpolitik ; EU-Staaten ; Eurozone
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F22 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Visapolitik ; Migrationspolitik ; Einwanderung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    Linz: Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy (ICAE)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: This paper analyzes the dynamics of structural polarization and macroeconomic convergence vs. divergence in the context of European integration, where the latter is understood primarily as an increase in economic and financial openness. In the process of estimating the dynamic effects of openness shocks on 26 EU countries, we develop a taxonomy of European economies that consists of core, periphery, financialized and Eastern European catch-up economies. As these four country groups have responded in a distinct way to the openness shocks imposed by European integration, we argue that the latter should be seen as an evolutionary process that has given rise to different path-dependent developmental trajectories. These trajectories relate to the sectoral development of European economies and the evolution of their technological capabilities. We propose a set of interrelated policy measures to counteract structural polarization and to promote macroeconomic convergence in Europe.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftliche Konvergenz ; Europäische Integration ; Pfadabhängigkeit ; Wettbewerb ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-26
    Keywords: D31 ; I32 ; D63 ; D12 ; D14 ; ddc:330 ; Haushaltseinkommen ; Haushaltsökonomik ; Einkommensverteilung ; Verteilungspolitik ; EU-Regionalpolitik ; EU-Staaten ; Eurozone
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Chicago, IL: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
    Publication Date: 2019-07-23
    Description: Risk-free rates have been falling since the 1980s while the return on capital has not. We analyze these trends in a calibrated OLG model with recursive preferences, designed to encompass many of the "usual suspects" cited in the debate on secular stagnation. Declining labor force and productivity growth imply a limited decline in real interest rates and deleveraging cannot account for the joint decline in the risk free rate and increase in the risk premium. If we allow for a change in the (perceived) risk to productivity growth to fit the data, we find that the decline in the risk-free rate requires an increase in the borrowing capacity of the indebted agents in the model, consistent with the increase in the sum of public and private debt since the crisis, but at odds with a deleveraging-based explanation put forth in Eggertsson and Krugman (2012).
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Zins ; Kapitaleinkommen ; Risikoprämie ; USA ; EU-Staaten ; Japan
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Umweltverträglichkeit ; Umweltbelastung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    Frankfurt a. M.: European Central Bank (ECB)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-02
    Description: This paper provides evidence on the role of non-base wage components as a channel for firms to adjust labour costs in the event of adverse shocks. It uses data from a firm-level survey for 25 European countries that covers the period 2010-2013. We find that firms subject to nominal wage rigidities, which prevent them from adjusting base wages, are more likely to cut non-base wage components in order to adjust labour costs when needed. Firms thus use non-base wage components as a buffer to overcome base wage rigidity. We further show that while non-base wage components exhibit some degree of downward rigidity, they do so to a lesser extent than base wages.
    Keywords: J30 ; J32 ; C81 ; P5 ; ddc:330 ; downward nominal wage rigidity ; bonuses ; firm survey ; European Union ; Lohnrigidität ; Leistungsentgelt ; Arbeitskosten ; Schock ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-26
    Keywords: D31 ; I32 ; D63 ; ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Verteilungspolitik ; Konzentrationsmaß ; Gini-Koeffizient ; EU-Regionalpolitik ; EU-Staaten ; Eurozone
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Körpergewicht ; Gesundheitsrisiko ; Gesundheitspolitik ; Gesundheitsfinanzierung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: Accessibility is one of the key aspects of current transport planning, especially in reliance to public transport and pedestrian traffic facilities. This paper deals with this subject by outlining which are or could be the benefits of improved accessibility to the transport system with a special focus on economic benefits and the tourism sector. Therefore selected existing studies will be analysed. Besides the legal background and social aspects of accessibility related to the transport sector will be covered. The first section deals with the legal background and social aspects of accessibility in the transport sector. It shows that nowadays in many countries accessibility of transport systems is not a voluntary task but a task bound by law and that an accessible environment is not only essential for people with disabilities and necessary for up to 40 % of the population but also a matter of comfort for all users. The second section outlines which are or could be the economic benefits of improved accessibility to the transport system. Two studies from Norway used the stated preference method to monetise and prioritise different universal design measures. In general this method seems to work also as a tool for analysing economic benefits of accessibility measures. Nevertheless the results of these studies have to be interpreted with extremely caution in order to avoid discrimination. The third section deals with the economic impact of accessible tourism using the example of Europe. The inducible impact of accessible tourism on the transport sector as well as the relevance of passenger transportation for accessible tourism is elaborated. All in all accessible tourism produces a huge economic impact on the tourism sector and beyond, and by improving accessibility in the future a significant raise of economic benefits is possible. In general traffic is precondition for tourism. Besides tourists spend a significant part of their travel expenses for the journey to the destination and back and for local transportation. This makes it clear that accessible transport systems will directly benefit from an increasing accessible tourism market.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Verkehrsinfrastruktur ; Räumliche Erreichbarkeit ; Behindertenpolitik ; Behinderte ; Ältere Menschen ; Tourismus ; Partizipation ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    Zurich: ETH Zurich, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: This paper examines the efficiency and distributional impacts of introducing a price floor in an emissions trading system (ETS) when environmental regulation is partitioned. We theoretically characterize the conditions under which a price floor enhances welfare. Using a multi-country multi-sector numerical general equilibrium model of the European carbon market, we find that moderate minimum price levels in the EU ETS can reduce the costs of EU climate policy by up to thirty percent and yield outcomes close to uniform carbon pricing. Moreover, most of the EU Member States would gain. Our results are robust with respect to parametric uncertainty in production and consumption technologies.
    Description: September 2017
    Keywords: H23 ; Q52 ; Q58 ; C68 ; ddc:330 ; Emissions Trading ; Price Floors ; EU ETS ; Partitioned Environmental Regulation ; General Equilibrium ; EU-Emissionshandel ; Preisregulierung ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Verteilungswirkung ; EU-Klimapolitik ; Kosten ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Frankfurt a. M.: European Central Bank (ECB)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Against the backdrop of continuing adjustment in EU labour markets in response to the Great Recession and the sovereign debt crisis, the European System of Central Banks (ESCB) conducted the third wave of the Wage Dynamics Network (WDN) survey in 2014-15 as a follow-up to the two previous WDN waves carried out in 2007 and 2009. The WDN survey collected information on wage-setting practices at the firm level. This third wave sampled about 25,000 firms in 25 European countries with the aim of assessing how firms adjusted wages and employment in response to the various shocks and labour market reforms that took place in the European Union (EU) during the period 2010-13. This paper summarises the main results of WDN3 by identifying some patterns in firms' adjustments and labour market reforms. It seeks to lay out the main lessons learnt from the survey in terms of both the general response of EU labour markets to the crisis and how these responses varied across the countries that took part in the survey.
    Keywords: E24 ; J30 ; J52 ; J68 ; ddc:330 ; Wage Dynamics Network ; Survey data ; Labour market adjustment ; Labour market reforms ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Wirtschaftliche Anpassung ; Schuldenkrise ; Schock ; Arbeitskosten ; Lohnrigidität ; Arbeitsmarktreform ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Zurich: ETH Zurich, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research
    Publication Date: 2017-11-29
    Description: We introduce an international technology treaty that couples the funding of research for a more advanced abatement technology with an international emissions permit market. Under the treaty, each country decides on the amount of permits for its domestic industries, but a fraction of these permits is auctioned on the permit market, and the revenues are used to scale up license revenues for the innovators of abatement technologies. We discuss the conditions under which such a technology treaty can slow down climate change through technological innovations and whether it creates complementary incentives for countries to tighten permit issuance. Finally, we discuss how participation in Tech Treaties can be fostered and how such treaties might be implemented.
    Keywords: H23 ; Q54 ; O31 ; ddc:330 ; Climate change mitigation ; Technology promotion ; International permit markets ; International treaty ; Externalities ; Klimawandel ; Klimapolitik ; Technologiewahl ; Externer Effekt ; EU-Emissionshandel ; Innovation ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: D31 ; D72 ; F00 ; F40 ; F43 ; ddc:330 ; Außenhandel ; Handelsliberalisierung ; Erwerbstätigkeit ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Einkommensverteilung ; Politische Einstellung ; Ideologie ; Radikalismus ; EU-Staaten ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 23
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: D72 ; F22 ; ddc:330 ; Einwanderung ; Ethnische Gruppe ; Ethnische Diskriminierung ; Politische Partei ; Radikalismus ; Faschismus ; EU-Staaten ; Schweiz ; Großbritannien
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    Stockholm: Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: It is imperative that the economies of the European Union become more entrepreneurial to promote innovation and economic growth. To achieve these goals, we propose a reform strategy with respect to (i) the rule of law and the protection of property rights; (ii) the tax system; (iii) regulations governing savings, capital and finance; (iv) the organization of labor markets and social insurance systems; (v) regulations governing goods and service markets; (vi) regulations governing bankruptcy and insolvency; (vii) R&D, commercialization and knowledge spillovers; (viii) human capital investments; and (ix) informal institutions. Overall, the proposed institutional changes move in a liberalizing direction; however, one-size-fits-all policy reforms aimed at freer markets will not necessarily be successful. Instead, a successful reform strategy must consider country differences that affect the viability of reform without abandoning the long-term goal of institutional liberalization to promote entrepreneurship, innovation and growth.
    Keywords: L26 ; L5 ; M13 ; O31 ; P14 ; ddc:330 ; Entrepreneurship ; European Union ; Innovation ; Institutions ; Policy reform ; Regulation ; Self-employment ; Technologiepolitik ; Entrepreneurship ; Unternehmensgründung ; Innovation ; Institutioneller Wandel ; Gründungsförderung ; Selbstständige ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 25
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    Coventry: University of Warwick, Industrial Relations Research Unit
    Publication Date: 2019-06-13
    Description: In the face of continuing European market and economic integration, European industrial relations has become more fractured. This fracturing is occurring in two senses. First, the main institutional pillars of the industrial relations dimension of the European social model (or models) are weakening. Second, common features of industrial relations across countries are no longer so apparent. Further, industrial relations outcomes such as wages and conditions have become more unequal and less solidaristic. The immediate causes of this fracturing are eastern enlargement of the EU, and the nature of the responses to the financial and economic crisis propounded by the European authorities and some national governments. These have sought to accelerate European integration by removing perceived institutional rigidities. At an underlying level, a more fractured industrial relations landscape is the result of asymmetries as between countries in the effects and impact of market and economic integration and the further exacerbation of the imbalance between negative and positive integration measures in favour of the former. The paper concludes with proposals, directed at the EU as well as national level, which could stem or even reverse the decline in the institutional pillars of European industrial relations and result in a less fractured landscape.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitsbeziehungen ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; Handelsabkommen ; Außenhandel ; Außenhandelspräferenz ; WTO-Regeln ; EU-Staaten ; Vereinigte Staaten ; TTIP
    Language: English
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; Handelsabkommen ; Export ; Verdrängungswettbewerb ; Protektionismus ; Zoll ; Polen ; USA ; EU-Staaten ; TTIP
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 28
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; Handelsabkommen ; Außenhandel ; Bruttoinlandsprodukt ; Nationaleinkommen ; Visegrad-Staaten ; EU-Staaten ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 29
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; L71 ; ddc:330 ; Erdöl ; Außenhandel ; USA ; EU-Staaten ; Polen ; TTIP
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 30
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: D72 ; ddc:330 ; Ästhetik ; Politiker ; Geschlecht ; Politische Partei ; Wahlverhalten ; Wahl ; Verhalten ; Finnland ; Australien ; USA ; EU-Staaten ; Parlament
    Language: English
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  • 31
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: J08 ; J13 ; J21 ; J24 ; J38 ; J61 ; J68 ; J88 ; ddc:330 ; Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Arbeitsmarktintegration ; Institutionelle Infrastruktur ; Reform ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 32
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: G01 ; J21 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ; Generationengerechtigkeit ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Arbeitsmarktstatistik ; Finanzkrise ; Konjunktur ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 33
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: H52 ; I20 ; I24 ; J24 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ; Finanzpolitik ; Geldpolitik ; Konvergenzkriterien ; Reform ; Periphere Region ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 34
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: O31 ; O32 ; O38 ; ddc:330 ; Innovation ; Technologiepolitik ; Wissenschaft ; Wirtschaft ; Umweltökonomik ; Technischer Fortschritt ; Good Governance ; EU-Staaten ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 35
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F02 ; F36 ; ddc:330 ; Europäische Integration ; Währungsunion ; Eurozone ; Bewertung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 36
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: J64 ; ddc:330 ; Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ; Arbeitskräftepotenzial ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 37
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: J64 ; R10 ; ddc:330 ; Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ; Regionaler Arbeitsmarkt ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 38
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F34 ; G12 ; H81 ; ddc:330 ; Europäische Finanzpolitik ; Schuldenkrise ; Internationaler Kredit ; Zinsstruktur ; Zins ; Zentralbank ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 39
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: J08 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ; Konjunktur ; Schuldenkrise ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Kohortenanalyse ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 40
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; Handelsabkommen ; Außenhandel ; Handelseffekt ; Wertschöpfung ; EU-Staaten ; USA ; TTIP
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 41
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; Herkunftsbezeichnung ; Verhandlungen ; Mitteleuropa ; Osteuropa ; EU-Staaten ; USA ; TTIP
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 42
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: I20 ; J21 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 43
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: H53 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Elternzeit ; Väter ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Since June 2007, the EU and India have been negotiating a comprehensive free trade agreement, but negotiations broke down in 2013. Nevertheless, both sides have expressed their desire to revive talks on the Broad-based Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA). To quantify potential economic consequences, we use a multi-country, multi-industry Ricardian trade model with national and international input-output linkages. Based on the assumption that the FTA would eliminate all tariffs between the EU and India and reduce non-tariff barriers, we simulate trade, value added, and welfare effects of the BTIA. The long-run level of real per capita income would change by 1.30% in India and by 0.14% in the EU. We find that outsiders to the agreement remain largely unaffected relative to the status quo. However, substantial regional heterogeneity exists across the 134 geographical, investigated entities. Due to an agreement, EU-Indian trade could approximately double particularly in business services. We find a small amount of trade diversion due to tightly integrated value chains, but a clear effect on structural change in India. So, at a first glance, both parties should have an interest in forming a FTA.
    Keywords: F02 ; F13 ; F23 ; ddc:330 ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Handelshemmnisse ; Auslandsinvestition ; Indien ; EU-Staaten ; Außenhandel ; Auslandsinvestition ; Handelshemmnisse ; EU-Staaten ; Indien
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F22 ; ddc:330 ; Flüchtlinge ; Asylrecht ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    Warsaw: Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-30
    Description: The financial crisis and its ensuing effects have brought back into the limelight the issue of cycles and of policies which fuel or mitigate crises. Cognitive and operational models in economics and business are questioned. There is a specter of much lower economic growth in the industrialized world. Central banks are over-burdened. This makes central bankers' lives much more complicated and obfuscates the boundaries between monetary policy and fiscal policy, especially when financial stability gets to center stage. New systemic risks show up in capital markets. The eurozone has escaped collapse owing to the European Central Bank's extraordinary operations and large macro-imbalance corrections in its periphery, but major threats persist. This paper focuses on economic cycles and policies in an international (European) context. Attention is paid to linkages between domestic cycles and the European financial cycle, drivers of financial cycles, finance deregulation and systemic risks, ultra-low interest rates, the international policy regime, and global stability. The experience of European emerging economies is taken into account.
    Keywords: E31 ; E32 ; E44 ; E51 ; E62 ; F21 ; F34 ; F44 ; F62 ; ddc:330 ; financial crisis ; financial cycle ; secular stagnation ; debt overhang ; low interest rates ; policy rates ; fiscal policy ; monetary policy ; emerging economies ; Konjunktur ; Konjunkturzusammenhang ; Finanzkrise ; Geldpolitik ; Öffentliche Schulden ; Finanzmarktregulierung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 47
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    Cham: Springer Open
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Entrepreneurship in Europe ; Innovation policy in EU ; Horizon 2020 project ; Labor income taxation policy ; Corporate income taxation policy ; Capital gains taxation policy ; Protection of property rights ; R&D policy ; Technology commercialization ; Innovation financing ; Knowledge spillovers ; Human capital investments ; Informal institutions ; Open Access ; Technologiepolitik ; Entrepreneurship ; Unternehmensgründung ; Innovation ; Institutioneller Wandel ; Gründungsförderung ; Selbstständige ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
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  • 48
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    Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
    Publication Date: 2017-02-10
    Description: We develop a new modelling approach combining micro and macro simulations to analyse distributional and stabilizing effects of a European Unemployment Benefit System (EUBS). We run counterfactual simulations based on micro data for the period 1995 to 2013 to estimate net contributions for different variants of EUBS across European member states. Our micro estimates are then used to feed the macro-econometric model in order to obtain counterfactual evolutions of income and unemployment. These new income and employment series are finally simulated again at the micro level. We compare results before and after taking account of the macroeconomic feedback effects and analyse the difference that the feedback effects make.
    Description: This paper was written as part of Task 3B for the research project 'Feasibility and Added Value of a European Unemployment Benefit Scheme' (contract VC/2015/0006). […]
    Keywords: F55 ; H23 ; J65 ; ddc:330 ; European fiscal integration ; unemployment insurance ; automatic stabilizers ; Europäisches Arbeitsrecht ; Arbeitslosenversicherung ; EU-Finanzbeziehungen ; Verteilungswirkung ; Mikroökonomik ; Makroökonomisches Modell ; Simulation ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 49
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandel ; Handelsabkommen ; EU-Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; WTO-Mitgliedschaft ; EU-Staaten ; Russland
    Language: English
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  • 50
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: J13 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; Mütter ; Lohnstruktur ; Erwerbsverlauf ; Karriereplanung ; Familienplanung ; Familie-Beruf ; Geschlechterdiskriminierung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 51
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F22 ; K49 ; ddc:330 ; Einwanderungsrecht ; Reform ; EU-Recht ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 52
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: D92 ; E43 ; ddc:330 ; Zentralbank ; Niedrigzinspolitik ; Einlagengeschäft ; Unternehmen ; Unternehmensstatistik ; EU-Staaten ; Negativzins ; EZB
    Language: English
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  • 53
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F34 ; ddc:330 ; Schuldenkrise ; Finanzpolitik ; Finanzwissenschaft ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 54
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    Vienna: WWWforEurope
    Publication Date: 2016-09-24
    Description: This paper summarizes future research questions for each driver of change based on the outcomes of the WWWforEurope project and the derived policy recommendations. Firstly, a broad research question is suggested for each driver indicating the main focus of interest. In a second step, several analytical aspects as well as policy aspects are defined to specify the broad research questions (for an overview of all analytical and policy aspects see Aiginger 2016, p. 128). While focussing on the seven drivers of change when formulating the research questions, attention was also paid to so-called cross-cutting issues (e.g. gender aspects, strategies for implementing the Paris climate agreements). The research gaps are based on the fundamental insight of WWWforEurope that highlights the importance of applying a comprehensive and integrated approach for achieving the three strategic project goals instead of following a silo approach.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Sozialer Wandel ; Umweltschutz ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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    Zurich: ETH Zurich, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research
    Publication Date: 2017-11-29
    Description: This paper develops a multi-country multi-sector general equilibrium model, integrating high-frequency electricity dispatch and trade decisions, to study the e ects of electricity transmission infrastructure (TI) expansion and re- newable energy (RE) penetration in Europe for gains from trade and carbon dioxide emissions in the power sector. TI can bene t or degrade environ- mental outcomes, depending on RE penetration: it complements emissions abatement by mitigating dispatch problems associated with volatile and spa- tially dispersed RE but also promotes higher average generation from low- cost coal if RE production is too low. Against the backdrop of European decarbonization and planned TI expansion, we nd that emissions increase for current and targeted year-2020 levels of RE production and decrease for year-2030 targets. Enhanced TI yields sizeable gains from trade that de- pend positively on RE penetration, without creating large adverse impacts on regional equity.
    Keywords: F18 ; Q28 ; Q43 ; Q48 ; C68 ; ddc:330 ; Stromnetz ; Erneuerbare Energie ; Infrastrukturpolitik ; Elektrizität ; Außenhandel ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; EU-Energiepolitik ; EU-Umweltpolitik ; Mehr-Länder-Modell ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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    Zurich: ETH Zurich, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research
    Publication Date: 2017-11-29
    Description: This paper analyzes hybrid emissions trading systems (ETS) under partitioned environmental regulation when firms’ abatement costs and future emissions are uncertain. We show that hybrid policies that introduce bounds on the price or the quantity of abatement provide a way to hedge against differences in marginal abatement costs across partitions. Price bounds are more efficient than abatement bounds as they also use information on firms’ abatement technologies while abatement bounds can only address emissions uncertainty. Using a numerical stochastic optimization model with equilibrium constraints for the European carbon market, we find that introducing hybrid policies in EU ETS reduces expected excess abatement costs of achieving targeted emissions reductions under EU climate policy by up to 89 percent. We also find that under partitioned regulation there is a high likelihood for hybrid policies to yield sizeable ex-post cost reductions.
    Keywords: H23 ; Q54 ; C63 ; ddc:330 ; Emissions trading ; Partitioned environmental regulation ; Uncertainty ; Prices ; Quantities ; EU ETS ; Emissionshandel ; Umweltstandard ; Umweltkosten ; EU-Umweltpolitik ; EU-Emissionshandel ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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    Brussels: European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: While innovation is central for the quality of healthcare and improving health outcomes, it is also a source of increasing costs for governments. Confronted by fiscal pressures, governments have made efforts to restrict access to innovative treatments. While such policies are understandable, they are not necessarily supportive of the ambition to control the cost burden of a disease. This paper reviews economic analyses of the cost burden of cancer, and blood cancers in particular, and the effects that innovative treatments have on other sources of costs in the healthcare system or the economy as a whole. While there is a need for more research on the relations between costs in healthcare systems, and significant variations between countries, several studies have found that access to innovative treatments have reduced inpatient care costs because, among other things, better treatments reduce the need for long hospital stay. Furthermore, research also shows that a significant part of the total cost burden of cancer and blood cancer is the productivity loss to the economy when patients are out of work. Reducing the productivity loss is central for improving the economic rationality of healthcare systems. This Policy Brief charts some areas for work - at national and the EU level.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Gesundheitskosten ; Krebskrankheit ; Medizinische Behandlung ; Innovation ; Gesundheitsfinanzierung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Professor Dr Rüdiger Krause, a renowned jurist from Göttingen, has serious doubts as to whether the EU Commission's legal position on the pending so-called 'TUI Case' is tenable at the ECJ. In his opinion, he does not see any legal reasons for an EU Member State to restrict certain voting rights in the context of co-determination to its national territory. Were the ECJ to pursue this argumentation, this would not only endanger employee participation in supervisory or administrative boards of companies in Germany but also in many other EU Member States. The legal uncertainty for companies as well as for employees would increase.
    Description: Der renommierte Göttinger Rechtswissenschaftler Prof: Dr. Rüdiger Krause bezweifelt massiv, dass die Rechtsposition der EU-Kommission zum anhängigen sog. TUI-Fall am EuGH haltbar ist. Er sieht in seiner Stellungnahme zum Fall keine rechtlichen Gründe dafür, dass ein EU-Mitgliedstaat bestimmte Wahlrechte in der Mitbestimmung auf sein nationales Territorium beschränkt. Würde der EuGH dieser Argumentation folgen, würde nicht nur in Deutschland, sondern in vielen anderen EU-Mitgliedstaaten die Arbeitnehmerbeteiligung im Aufsichts- oder im Verwaltungsrat von Unternehmen gefährdet. Die Rechtsunsicherheit würde für Unternehmen wie für Arbeitnehmer zunehmen.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Mitbestimmung ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; Aufsichtsrat ; Board of Directors ; EU-Recht ; Rechtsprechung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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    Brussels: Bruegel
    Publication Date: 2018-01-20
    Description: This working paper reviews the evidence on the impact of public R&D spending. The authors first look at the evidence from micro-analysis of the impact of public intervention on private R&D and innovation, with a focus on the latest results from crosscountry micro-research performed within SIMPATIC. To analyse the impact of public R&D on growth, the micro-results on private R&D investment effects are complemented with a macro-perspective. To this end, the authors look at how public R&D performs in affecting GDP growth and jobs in applied macro-models most commonly used in EU policy analysis. They focus particularly on the NEMESIS model in development within the SIMPATIC project. The authors conclude with some policy recommendations from the reviewed micro and macro SIMPATIC evidence for designing public R&D projects and programmes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Forschungsfinanzierung ; Technologiepolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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    Brussels: Bruegel
    Publication Date: 2018-01-20
    Description: On 25 November 2015, the European Union enacted new rules for international mobile roaming (IMR) under Regulation 2015/2120, which seeks to implement a Roam Like at Home (RLAH) regime among the member states of the European Union. Questions remain, however, as to whether it is possible to implement RLAH without mandating below-cost pricing and thus introducing significant regulatory and economic distortions. It is difficult to see how RLAH could be implemented for other than trivial amounts of IMR traffic without significant cross-subsidisation of the IMR service in many different dimensions. Identifying ways to maintain the ubiquity of the IMR service without unduly distorting the economics of European mobile markets and networks would appear to pose serious challenges; the saving grace, however, might well be that IMR revenue now represents a small enough fraction of total mobile revenue (thanks to previous regulation) that the necessary cross-subsidies might be manageable. The European Commission, which is required to assess the situation and to provide legislative proposals by 15 June 2016, faces a daunting task.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Mobilkommunikation ; International ; Telekommunikationspreis ; Preisregulierung ; Telekommunikationspolitik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Warsaw: Transformation, Integration and Globalization Economic Research (TIGER)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-20
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Sozialkapital ; Soziales Netzwerk ; Wissenstransfer