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  • Außenhandel
  • English  (60)
  • Romanian  (1)
  • 2010-2014  (61)
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  • 1
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: In the decade prior to the economic and financial crisis, Germany's net exports increased in absolute terms as well as relative to the growing level of import intensity of domestically produced export goods and services. This article analyses the direct and indirect employment effects induced both by exports as well as by of the import intensity of the production process of export goods and services on the skills used. It shows that Germany's export surpluses led to positive net employment effects. Although the volume of imports of intermediate goods increased and was augmented by the rise in exports, it could not undermine the overall positive employment effect.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Außenhandel ; Beschäftigungseffekt ; Humankapital ; Außenhandelsstruktur ; Input-Output-Analyse ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandel ; Vermögen ; Handelsabkommen ; Außenhandel ; Handelseffekt
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; WTO-Verhandlungen ; WTO-Recht ; Außenhandel ; GATS ; Freihandelszone ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F14 ; F23 ; F34 ; G32 ; ddc:330 ; Kreditrationierung ; Betriebliche Wertschöpfung ; Außenhandel ; China
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandelszone ; Handelsabkommen ; Außenhandel ; CGE-Modell ; Bruttoinlandsprodukt ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F20 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; BRICS-Staaten ; Eurozone ; Auslandsinvestition ; Bruttoinlandsprodukt ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftsförderung
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; Exportkredit ; Exportkreditversicherung ; Außenhandel
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: This volume was prepared by Sebastian Benz while he was working at the Ifo Institute. It was completed in December 2013 and accepted as a doctoral thesis by the Department of Economics at the University of Munich. It includes five self-contained chapters. All chapters discuss different implications of the growing importance of trade in intermediate inputs. The first chapter compares the impact of international trade in intermediate inputs (offshoring) on wage inequality in two distinct but similar frameworks. In the first framework the profitability of offshoring is based on increasing returns to scale on the task-level, whereas the second framework relies on differences in relative factor endowments of the two countries involved in offshoring. The second chapter provides a theory of offshoring under imitation risk that explains optimal dynamic adjustments of firms' offshoring decisions and yields two new channels by which offshoring affects wage inequality. Chapter 3 studies the impact of intellectual property rights and of offshoring costs on the rate of innovation and on the offshoring intensity. In chapter 4 I estimate knowledge spillovers through outsourcing relationships between German firms, measured by the number of those firms' successful patent applications. The last chapter describes sector-level input-output relationships in eleven European economies and estimates the importance of international trade in intermediate inputs and internationally mobile capital for the interdependence of output shocks in those countries.
    Keywords: C21 ; F11 ; F12 ; F14 ; F15 ; F16 ; F21 ; F23 ; F43 ; J31 ; O30 ; O31 ; O34 ; O52 ; ddc:330 ; Innovation ; Input-Output-Analyse ; Immaterialgüterrechte ; Vorleistungen ; Kapitalmobilität ; Einkommensverteilung ; International ; Wissenstransfer ; Auslandsverlagerung ; Outsourcing ; Patent ; Faktorproportionentheorem ; Lohnstruktur ; Trade in tasks ; Auslandsverlagerung ; Vorleistungen ; Außenwirtschaftstheorie ; Anforderungsprofil ; Lohnstruktur ; Imitationsstrategie ; Risiko ; Sachenrecht ; Innovation ; Wissenstransfer ; Outsourcing ; Theorie ; Deutschland ; Input-Output-Analyse ; Vorleistungen ; Außenhandel ; Kapitalmobilität ; Faktorproportionentheorem ; Theorie ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: This volume was prepared by Benedikt Heid while he was working at the ifo Institute and the University of Bayreuth. It was completed in December 2013 and accepted as a doctoral thesis by the Department of Economics at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München. It includes six self-contained chapters which deal with the following topics in empirical international trade and development economics: the expansion of firms' export destinations across space and time (chapter 1), the extension of structural gravity models for developed countries to include unemployment (chapter 2) and for Latin American and Caribbean developing countries to additionally include informal employment (chapter 3) as well as the relation between foreign direct investment, trade, and informal employment as illustrated by the maquiladora industry in Mexico (chapter 4), the interaction between migration and trade and their effects on unemployment (chapter 5), and the dynamics of democracy and income chapter 6).
    Keywords: C23 ; C26 ; C33 ; D72 ; E21 ; F10 ; F20 ; O10 ; O17 ; O24 ; ddc:330 ; Demokratie ; Panelforschung ; Export ; Gravitationsmodell ; Einkommen ; Informeller Sektor ; Außenhandel ; Kosten ; Internationale Wanderung ; Auslandsverlagerung ; Handelspräferenzen ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Export ; Internationaler Markt ; Räumliche Verteilung ; Welt ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Außenwirtschaftstheorie ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Handelspräferenzen ; Internationale Migration ; Auslandsverlagerung ; Schätzung ; Welt ; Nationaleinkommen ; Demokratie ; Demokratisierung ; Schätzung ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandel ; Außenhandel ; Außenhandelsliberalisierung ; Spillover-Effekt ; EU-Staaten ; Vereinigte Staaten ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    Hamburg: GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2020-04-24
    Description: This article provides a review of literature on African Agency and the drivers of change within EU–African trade politics in negotiations on Economic Partnership Agreements between the European Union and African governments.
    Description: Revised Author's Version.
    Description: Agence africaine et de partenariat économique UE-Afrique. Revue article Cet article fournit une revue de littérature sur l'agence africaine participative et les facteurs de changement au sein de la politique commerciales UE-africains dans les négociations sur les Accords de partenariat économique entre l'Union européenne et les gouvernements africains.
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; F54 ; F63 ; O24 ; Y3 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; EPAs ; civic agency ; Africa ; development aid ; EU ; ECOWAS ; Partizipation ; Außenhandel ; Subsahara-Afrika ; EU-Außenwirtschaftspolitik
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: This paper analyzes the current status of fisheries and aquaculture in Southeast Asia and international trade. Analysis concludes that a policy of sustainable management for both capture fisheries and aquaculture is of greatest importance, but such a policy has been neither planned nor implemented with a holistic and long-term perspective. Current policy reflects a short-term view and the immediate needs of each nation. Therefore, capacity building of human resources and organizations, including governments, is needed for the formulation of holistic national policies to seek long-term and fundamental remedies for the sustainable management of fisheries resources and intensified and extensive aquaculture. Such holistic national policies should include science-based management, monitoring, enforcement, coordination of capture fisheries and aquaculture, and international trade policies. It may include the effects of climate change and oil price increases, as well as international market trends and regulations or barriers. Moreover, international trade will be promoted based on the sustainability of capture fisheries and aquaculture. ADB members and governments are urged to provide official development assistance for policy implementation, in particular to the private sectors that may not otherwise receive any, and to small and community-related businesses. Recommendations focus on building capacity for the long run, among others, for which facilitation should be provided.
    Keywords: F64 ; Q22 ; O13 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; fisheries ; development of natural resources ; aquaculture southeast asia ; Fischerei ; Aquakultur ; Fischschutz ; Außenhandel ; Südostasien
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: In this paper we show that price equalization alone is not sufficient to determine the barriers to international trade. There are many barrier combinations that deliver price equalization, but each combination implies a different volume of trade. We demonstrate this first theoretically in a simple two-country model. We then demonstrate the result quantitatively for the case of capital goods trade: barriers have to be large in order to be consistent with the observed trade flows even though our model implies that capital goods prices are similar across countries. Zero barriers to trade in capital goods will deliver price equalization in capital goods, but cannot reproduce the observed trade flows.
    Keywords: F01 ; F02 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; capital goods trade ; Internationaler Preiszusammenhang ; Außenwirtschaftstheorie ; Markteintritt ; Zwei-Länder-Modell ; Theorie ; Investitionsgut ; Preis ; Außenhandel ; Schätzung ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: China is the leading exporter of rare earths, elements which are crucial to the development of high-tech products and new green technologies. In recent years, however, China has begun imposing export restraints on these elements in order to benefi t its domestic economic development. This reduces global supply and thus artifi cially leads to higher prices for importing countries. The EU, the US and Japan have launched a formal complaint in the WTO against China's export restrictions. China claims that these restrictions are aimed at environmental protection. This paper examines China's rare earth policy and its compliance with WTO rules.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Kritische Metalle ; Außenhandel ; WTO-Recht ; Handelskonflikt ; Geopolitik ; China
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The present study aims, in the first part, to examine the trends evidenced at the level of international trade and extra-community trade flows and, at the same time, the new directions of the EU trade policy in relation with the rest of the world. In the second part, it brings to the forefront the main trends of the Romanian trade as well as the Romanian export competitiveness and ways towards their sustainable development. These issues are analyzed and presented in seven sections, as follows: I. Developments, trends and structural changes in international trade in goods II. Main characteristics of the extra-community trade in goods during 2000-2011. Romania's position in these exchanges III. EU trade policy and its impact on the Romanian foreign trade IV. General directions of the Romanian foreign trade during 2000-2011. Assessment of the Romanian export competitiveness. The role of FDI in promoting exports V. Benchmarking best practices in export support and promotion. Role played by national and international organizations VI. Challenges and perspectives of the Romanian exports VII. Ways towards sustainable export development. Role of the National Export Strategy. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Export ; Außenhandel ; EU-Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 16
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: The purpose of this paper is to update the information on net food importing countries, using different definitions of food, separating countries by their level of income, whether they are in conflict and whether they are significant oil exporters. The study also estimates the changes in net food importing status of these countries over the last two and a half decades, and, most important, the study measures the relative importance of these net food imports in the import basket of the countries. Our results show that while many low-income countries are net food importers, the importance and potential impact of the net food importing status has been highly exaggerated. Many low-income countries that have larger food deficits are either oil exporters or countries in conflict. Food deficits of most low-income countries are not that significant as a percentage of their imports. Our results also show that only 6 low-income countries have food deficits that are more than 10 percent of their imports. Last two decades have seen a significant improvement in the food trade balances of low-income developing countries. SSA low-income countries are an exception to this trend. On the other hand, there are a group of countries which are experiencing civil conflicts which are large importers of food, and these countries can not meet their basic needs. They also need special assistance in the distribution of food within their boundaries. Therefore, one should modify the WTO Ministerial Declaration, and focus on these conflict countries rather than the broad net food importers.
    Keywords: F10 ; F13 ; Q17 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; Nahrungsmittel ; Außenhandel ; Welt ; Entwicklungsländer ; Niedriglohnländer
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Manila: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: The paper tabulates Myanmar's merchandise trade as reported by its partner countries, thereby circumventing the data constraints stemming from Myanmar's patchy trade records. It then estimates Myanmar's export potential, based on the bilateral export patterns observed for six other countries in Southeast Asia. Against that benchmark and controlling for outliers, Myanmar is found to be trading at about 15% its potential. The bulk of this gap is explained by very low trade with the industrialized countries. Through reintegration with the world economy accompanied by deep economic reforms domestically, Myanmar would be expected to be closing this gap rather swiftly.
    Keywords: F14 ; F17 ; ddc:330 ; Myanmar ; gravity model ; export potential ; Außenhandel ; Gravitationsmodell ; Schätzung ; Myanmar
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Zurich: University of Zurich, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: This paper investigates empirically how similarity of demand structures - approximated by similarity of income distributions - affects trade patterns along both the extensive and intensive margin. The idea that similarity of demand structures intensifies trade goes back to the well-known Linder hypothesis. Based on a sample of 102 countries, I find that bilateral trade volumes are increasing in the overlap of two countries income distributions. This effect is driven by both the extensive and intensive margin. I establish two novel measures of income similarity - the average income level of the overlap area and the range of incomes for which two distributions overlap - and document that both are important determinants of bilateral trade margins. My analysis shows that the positive relationship between similarity of income distributions and bilateral trade margins is present at the aggregate and disaggregate level of trade flows.
    Keywords: F10 ; D31 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; similarity of income distributions ; Linder hypothesis ; nonhomothetic preferences ; extensive and intensive margin of trade ; gravity equation ; Außenhandel ; Außenhandelsgewinn ; Makroökonomischer Einfluss ; Sozialprodukt ; Vergleich ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: Does financial health shore up firm productivity? This paper empirically investigates this question and presents productivity as another driving factor in translating financial development into real economic progress. Our empirical framework employs Levinsohn and Petrin's (2003) semi-parametric estimation of total factor productivity (TFP) using firm-level panel data during 2002 - 2008, and incorporates financial health variables into conventional determinants of firm productivity. Our findings suggest that liquidity and access to external credit boosts firm productivity, with the latter particularly imperative for exporting and/or importing firms. We also present supplementary results regarding economies of scale, high-tech capital accumulation, human capital investment and foreign ownership.
    Keywords: O16 ; O25 ; O53 ; ddc:330 ; financial health ; total factor productivity ; financial development ; Wirtschaftlichkeit ; Produktivität ; Unternehmenserfolg ; Außenhandel ; Panelforschung ; Vietnam
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: Greece, Ireland, Portugal and Spain were all hit by the economic downturn in the course of the financial crisis and have been struggling with national debt crises and recession. A problem common to all of these countries is the collapse of national demand. Foreign trade might seem a logical way to restore economic strength, but little is known about the international competitiveness of these countries' industries. This paper sheds light on their export structures using the revealed comparative advantage indicator.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Komparativer Vorteil ; Außenhandel ; Außenhandelsstruktur ; Griechenland ; Irland ; Portugal ; Spanien
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Vienna: FIW - Research Centre International Economics
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: TTRIOPOL studies the role of domestic bioenergy potentials for agriculture, the wider economy and international trade for Austria. In particular, agricultural biomass pro-duction can contribute to significant shares of energy provision in Austria. A detailed scenario is developed to explore the opportunities and challenges of enhanced domestic biomass production based on short rotation forestry (SRF) for heat supply which is currently among the most competitive technologies. To that end, TRIOPOL establishes a model linkage between a sectoral supply-model for Austrian agriculture and a national small open economy general equilibrium model. Model results show that a biomass premium of 65 € per ton dry matter is required to support 250,000 ha of SRF on cropland in Austria by 2020. The thus provided bioheat covers some 33 petajoule (PJ) heat energy demand in Austria; taking into account the likely rising of energy prices by 2020, this number rises to 47 PJ. Substantial land use changes may also be compensated by increases in land use intensity and as well as changes in imports and exports. Scenario results suggest that domestic food production of non-meat commodities falls by 1.3%. The sector meat products profits from the high competitiveness of Austrian livestock production and responds by a slight increase in net exports. The results of the quantitative analysis shall support the scientific and political debate on securing food and energy supply as well as economic development goals.
    Keywords: C63 ; C68 ; E20 ; F10 ; Q18 ; Q21 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; Bioenergie ; Landwirtschaft ; Nahrungsmittelproduktion ; Landnutzung ; Wärmebereitstellung ; Außenhandel ; Modellstudie ; Modellkopplung
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Handelsabkommen ; Investitionspolitik ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; EU-Staaten ; USA ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 23
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Handelsabkommen ; Investitionspolitik ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; EU-Staaten ; USA ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandel ; Außenhandel ; Außenhandelsliberalisierung ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; Investitionspolitik ; Arbeitsmarkt ; EU-Staaten ; USA ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 25
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandel ; Außenhandel ; Außenhandelsliberalisierung ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; Investitionspolitik ; Arbeitsmarkt ; EU-Staaten ; USA ; TTIP
    Language: English
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  • 26
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We formulate a dynamic game model of trade in an exhaustible resource with a quantity-setting cartel. We compute the feedback Nash equilibrium and two Stackelberg equilibria under two different leadership scenarios: leadership by the strategic importing country, and leadership by the exporting cartel. We numerically show that as compared to the Nash equilibrium, both players are better off if the importing country is the leader. The follower is worse off if the exporting cartel is the leader. Among the three game-theoretic outcomes, the world welfare is highest under the importing country's leadership and lowest under the exporting country's leadership.
    Keywords: C73 ; L72 ; Q34 ; F18 ; ddc:330 ; dynamic game ; exhaustible resource ; Stackelberg leadership ; optimal tariff ; Erschöpfbare Ressourcen ; Außenhandel ; Kartell ; Zolltarif ; Optimale Besteuerung ; Dynamisches Spiel ; Nash-Gleichgewicht ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 27
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: The main objective of this paper is to analyse trade flows and tariff policies of health products. Compared to previous studies, we not only focus on medicines, but on a large set of products that enter the public health space and can be identified in the common trade classification. The first contribution is thus to construct three groups of health products based on the 2007 Harmonized System classification of international trade. Using these commodity groups, we analyse trade flows between 167 countries for the years 1996 to 2009. We find that trade in health products has developed very dynamically, with trade in dosified medicine displaying the strongest growth with an annual growth rate of almost 12 per cent. The results further indicate that the market of health products is dominated by a small number of developed countries. Looking at tariffs on health products for developed and developing countries as well as LDCs and transition economies we find that the overall level of tariffs is low, but far from being zero, especially in the last three country groups. Finally, studying the tariffs on health products in preferential trade agreements between developing countries, the results show that the tariff level is low, but in some individual cases still substantive.
    Keywords: F14 ; I11 ; O24 ; ddc:330 ; Public health ; tariffs ; trade ; pharmaceuticals ; medical devices ; medical technology ; Gesundheitswesen ; Außenhandel ; Zoll
    Language: English
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  • 28
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: This paper studies the relationship between export policy and food prices. We show that, when individuals are loss averse, food exporters may use trade policy to shield the domestic economy from large price shocks. This creates a complementarity between the price of food in international markets and export policy. Specifically, unilateral actions by exporting countries give rise to a multiplier effect: when a shock in the international food market drives up (down) its price, governments respond by imposing export restrictions (subsidies), thus exacerbating the initial shock and soliciting further export activism. We test this theory with a new dataset that comprises monthly information on trade measures across 125 countries and 29 food products for the period 2008-10, finding evidence of a multiplier effect. Global restrictions in a product (i.e. the share of international trade covered by export restrictions) are positively correlated with the probability of imposing a new export restriction on that product, especially for staple foods. Large exporters are found to be more reactive to restrictive measures, suggesting that the multiplier effect is mostly driven by this group. Finally, we estimate that a 1 per cent surge in global restrictions increased international food prices by 1.1 per cent on average during 2008-10. These findings contribute to inform the broader debate on the proper regulation of export policy within the multilateral trading system.
    Keywords: F13 ; F59 ; Q02 ; Q17 ; ddc:330 ; Loss aversion ; Export policy ; Multiplier effect ; Food crisis ; WTO ; Lebensmittelpreis ; Nahrungsmittel ; Außenhandel ; Exportbeschränkung ; Multiplikator ; Schätzung ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 29
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    Istanbul: Koç University-TÜSİAD Economic Research Forum (ERF)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: Using a micro-level dataset of wind turbine installations in Denmark and Germany, we estimate a structural oligopoly model with cross-border trade and heterogeneous firms. Our approach separately identifies border-related from distance-related variable costs and bounds the fixed cost of exporting for each firm. Variable border costs are large: equivalent to roughly 400 kilometers (250 miles) in distance costs, which represents 40 to 50 percent of the average exporter's total delivery costs. Fixed costs are also important; removing them would increase German firms' market share in Denmark by 10 percentage points. Counterfactual analysis indicates that completely eliminating border frictions would increase total welfare in the wind turbine industry by 5 percent in Denmark and 10 percent in Germany.
    Keywords: F14 ; L11 ; L20 ; L60 ; R12 ; ddc:330 ; trade costs ; oligopoly ; spatial competition ; constrained MLE ; Windenergieanlage ; Außenhandel ; Räumlicher Wettbewerb ; Oligopol ; Dänemark ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 30
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    Manila: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: As tariffs are increasingly being reduced, trade economists and policymakers have begun to emphasize the importance of reducing non-tariff trade costs to facilitate international trade flows. However, the measurement of trade costs and transport costs, in particular, is not an easy task. For developing country policymakers, it is important to accurately understand their country’s trade facilitation status (improvement as well as deterioration) at the commodity level, to be able to design appropriate trade facilitation policies. However, in reality, the majority of policymakers and researchers tend to overuse data from the World Bank’s Doing Business Report, despite the fact that data on costs to export and import under its trading-across-borders component have several inherent weaknesses. In this paper, we suggest that the use of trade statistics calculated in conjunction with Doing Business data is helpful in understanding overall as well as detailed commodity-level trade costs. The two can be regarded as alternative indicators of trade efficiency, because both indicators improve when the trade transaction is streamlined. Moreover, by using trade statistics, we can compute not only long-term trade costs but also trade costs for each commodity group, unlike the case of Doing Business data where the assumption of a standardized 20-foot, 10-ton dry cargo of a country’s leading export or import product is employed. Based on commodity-level trade costs, more concrete trade facilitation policies targeting specific sectors can be developed.
    Keywords: F13 ; F14 ; F15 ; ddc:330 ; transport costs ; commodity level ; trade statistics ; c.i.f.-f.o.b. ; trade facilitation ; Transportkosten ; Transaktionskosten ; Außenhandel ; Nichttarifäre Handelshemmnisse ; Handelsliberalisierung ; Asien
    Language: English
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  • 31
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: We empirically examine the heterogeneity in the effects of multiple dimensions of distance on trade across detailed product groups. Using finite mixture modeling on bilateral trade data at the 3-digit SITC level, we endogenously group product categories into an, a priori unknown, number of segments based on estimated coefficients of multiple dimensions of distance in the gravity equation. We find that institutional distance, whether countries belong to the same trade block and especially geographical distance are crucial and distinct factors to classify commodities in homogeneous groups.
    Keywords: F14 ; F21 ; F23 ; ddc:330 ; bilateral trade ; gravity models ; distance ; institutions ; product heterogeneity ; finite mixture modeling ; Außenhandel ; Geographische Entfernung ; Internationale Arbeitsteilung ; Handelshemmnisse ; Gravitationsmodell ; Schätzung ; OECD-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 32
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F10 ; L60 ; ddc:330 ; Maschinenbautechnik ; Branchenentwicklung ; Wachstumsbranche ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Außenhandel ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 33
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Klimawandel ; Außenhandel
    Language: English
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  • 34
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    Vienna: Austrian Foundation for Development Research (ÖFSE)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-20
    Description: Value chain interventions are increasingly used by international organizations and national donor agencies in the context of their private sector development (PSD) activities. These interventions are broadly labeled as value chains for development and share common characteristics such as the focus on improving market access conditions for and upgrading opportunities of developing country firms and producers to promote market-based and often export-oriented development. They differ however also along certain dimensions, most importantly with regard to the explicit focus on broader development objectives, the scope and specific activities supported, and the type of targeted actors for the intervention (Henrikson et al. 2010; Humphrey/Navas-Aleman 2010). The global value chain (GVC) framework and the academic literature on GVCs that has developed in the last two decades are broadly used as a basis for donor-led value chain interventions. The paper argues that taking the GVC framework as a basis for interventions to support private sectors in developing countries has the potential to make PSD interventions more effective in terms of improving economic and social outcomes of participating in international trade and global production. To secure the effectiveness of value chain interventions and their development effects, two factors are however critical: First, integration in GVCs should not be seen as "a panacea" for development but as "windows of opportunity" (Phillips/Henderson 2009: 60) that can have important development effects but should be complemented by more locally and regionally based development approaches (th0at may in itself involve the development of local or regional value chains). Second, the critical tradition and broader perspective of the GVC literature needs to be brought back and taken into account when re-designing existing or initiating new generations of value chain policies and interventions (Neilson/Pritchard 2011), in particular the focus on structural and asymmetric power relationships, the ambivalent role of lead firms, the important role of institutions and particularly the state and strategic state policies, and the focus on broader socio-economic and poverty reducing effects.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wertschöpfung ; Außenhandel ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Entwicklungsländer
    Language: English
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  • 35
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: When looking at the conditions of trade in natural resources the world appears upside down: Tariff protection in natural resources sectors is generally lower than for overall merchandise trade, while export restrictions are twice as likely as in other sectors. On the other hand, tariff escalation is significant in natural resources sectors, where materials in their raw state face, on average, lower duties than in their processed form. In this paper, we discuss how export taxes and tariff escalation may be the result of an uncooperative trade policy. Specifically, tariff escalation and export taxes can be beggar-thy-neighbor policies because governments may be tempted to use them to alter the relative price of exports to their advantage (terms-of-trade effect) or to expand the domestic processing industry at the expenses of foreign production (production relocation effect). In equilibrium, these policies offset each other in a Prisoners' Dilemma situation, where trade is inefficiently low.
    Keywords: F13 ; F59 ; Q34 ; ddc:330 ; Natural Resources ; Export Taxes ; Tariff Escalation ; Prisoner's Dilemma ; WTO ; Natürliche Ressourcen ; Außenhandel ; Außenhandelspolitik ; Exportsteuer ; Zoll
    Language: English
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  • 36
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: Scholars and policy makers believe that democracy will bring prosperity through integration into the global economy via increased international trade. This study tests two theories as to why democracies might trade more. First, political freedom may be correlated with economic freedom, thus prompting higher levels of economic activity, thereby driving states to trade more. Second, democracy implies higher quality governance either through institutions or policy-making procedures. I utilize a bilateral gravity trade model covering approximately 150 countries from 1950 to 1999, with fixed effects for time, importers and exporters. I find the theory that democracy, and many of its components, promotes international trade unconvincing. Economic freedom does not have the expected impact on international trade levels, but quality of governance variables have broad economic and statistical significance.
    Keywords: F1 ; O17 ; P16 ; ddc:330 ; trade ; democracy ; governance ; Africa ; gravity model ; Außenhandel ; Demokratie ; Governance-Ansatz ; Gravitationsmodell ; Afrika
    Language: English
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  • 37
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: The theoretical claim that ethnic networks encourage trade has found broad empirical support in the literature on migration, business networks and international trade. Ethnic networks matter for the exporting firm, as they exhibit the potential to lower fixed and variable cost of exporting. This paper provides a first attempt to identify the export-promoting effect of emigration on the firm level. Using detailed Danish firm-level data, we can parsimoniously control for export determinants other than emigration, unobserved heterogeneity at the firm level, as well as for self-selection of firms into exporting. Additionally accounting for taste similarity between Denmark and its trade partners, our findings suggest a positive effect of emigration on Danish manufacturing trade within Europe, thereby corroborating preceding studies on aggregate data. Nevertheless, as a novel insight, our analysis reveals that the only beneficiaries of emigration are small enterprises.
    Keywords: F22 ; F16 ; ddc:330 ; Emigration ; Brain Drain ; Small Businesses ; International Trade ; Firm-level analysis ; Internationale Wanderung ; Brain Drain ; KMU ; Außenhandel ; Dänemark
    Language: English
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  • 38
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    Köln: Institute of Energy Economics at the University of Cologne (EWI)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-16
    Description: The seaborne steam coal market changed in recent years. Trade volumes grew dynamically, important players emerged and since 2007 prices increased significantly and remained relatively high since then. In this paper we analyse market equilibria in the years 2006 and 2008 by testing for two possible market structure scenarios in this market: perfect competition and an oligopoly setup with major exporters competing in quantities. We conclude from our results that international steam coal trade is not perfectly competitive as there is a large spread between marginal costs and prices and a low capacity utilisation in 2008. Further, trade flows are generally more diversified in reality than in the competitive scenario. However, also the Cournot scenarios fail to accurately explain real market outcomes. We conclude that only more sophisticated models of strategic behaviour can predict market equilibria in international steam coal trade.
    Keywords: C61 ; L11 ; L71 ; Q31 ; ddc:330 ; Steam coal trade ; mining costs ; market structure ; Kohle ; Außenhandel ; Marktstruktur ; Außenhandelspreis ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 39
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: Because of economic growth and a strong increase in global energy demand the demand for fossil fuels and therefore also greenhouse gas emissions are increasing, although climate policy should lead to the opposite effect. The coal market is of special relevance as coal is available in many countries and often their first choice to meet energy demand. In this paper we assess possible interactions between climate policies and the global steam coal market. Possible market adjustments between demand centers through market effects are investigated with a numerical model of the global steam coal market until 2030: the COALMOD-World model. The COALMOD-World model is an equilibrium model that computes future trade flows, infrastructure investments and prices until 2030. We investigate three specific designs of climate policy: a unilateral European climate policy, an Indonesian export-limiting policy and a carbon capture and storage (CCS) fast-roll out policy in the broader context of climate policy and market constraints. We find that market adjustment effects in the coal market can have significant positive and negative impacts on the effectiveness of climate policies.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; climate policy ; future coal production ; energy ; numerical modeling ; international trade ; Klimaschutz ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Kohlenmarkt ; Kohle ; Außenhandel ; Wirtschaftsmodell ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 40
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: In recent decades, the international division of labor expanded rapidly in course of globalization. In this context, highly developed countries specialized on (human) capital intensively manufactured goods and increasingly sourced parts and components from lowwage countries. Since this should be beneficial for the high-skilled and harmful for the lower qualified workforce, especially the opening up of Eastern Europe and the international integration of newly industrializing Asian economies are considered as main reasons for increasing unemployment of the lower qualified in high-wage countries. The present paper addresses this issue for selected Western European countries by analyzing factor content of trade, which allows inferring on factor demand patterns resulting from international trade. This is not only done for countries' total external trade, but also for bilateral trade flows, using input-output analyses. Thereby, differences in factor inputs and production technologies are considered, allowing for product differentiation. According to the results, factor content of bilateral trade flows between Western European high-wage countries does hardly differ. However, the results are different for East-West trade, since exports from Western to Eastern Europe are distinctly more human capital intensively manufactured than imports of Western European high-wage countries from Eastern Europe.
    Description: Die Globalisierung ging in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten mit einer erheblichen Ausweitung der internationalen Arbeitsteilung einher. In diesem Zusammenhang spezialisierten sich die hochentwickelten Länder zunehmend auf (human-)kapitalintensiv produzierte Güter, und die heimischen Unternehmen verlagerten arbeitsintensive Teilelemente der Wertschöpfungsketten in Niedriglohnländer. Folglich wird die Öffnung Osteuropas und die Integration der asiatischen Schwellenländer in die Weltwirtschaft als ein wesentlicher Grund für den Anstieg der Arbeitslosigkeit insbesondere Geringqualifizierter in Hochlohnländern angesehen. Die vorliegende Studie greift diese Problematik durch die Analyse des Faktorgehalts des Außenhandels ausgewählter westeuropäischer Länder mit Hilfe des Input-Output-Modells auf. Dies erlaubt Rückschlüsse auf die Wirkung des Außenhandels auf die Faktornachfrage in den betrachteten Ländern. Die Untersuchungen beschränken sich jedoch nicht auf den gesamten Außenhandel der Länder, sondern umfassen auch Analysen des Faktorgehalts bilateraler Handelsströme. Durch die Berücksichtigung unterschiedlicher nationaler Faktoreinsatzrelationen und intersektoraler Verflechtungen wird in den bilateralen Analysen Produktdifferenzierung in das Modell integriert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sich im bilateralen Handel der westeuropäischen Länder der Faktorgehalt von Exporten und Importen kaum voneinander unterscheidet. Dies stellt sich für den Außenhandel zwischen den west- und den osteuropäischen Ländern erwartungsgemäß anders dar. So werden die von West- nach Osteuropa exportierten Güter offenbar deutlich humankapitalintensiver gefertigt als die Importe der westeuropäischen Länder aus Osteuropa.
    Keywords: C67 ; F11 ; F15 ; F16 ; ddc:330 ; European integration ; international trade ; labor markets ; input-output analysis ; Europäische Integration ; Außenhandel ; Arbeitsmärkte ; Input-Output-Analyse
    Language: English
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  • 41
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: The import penetration of exports has become a topic of public debate, particularly in the context of Germany's position as one of the world's leading exporters. The growth in the volume of intermediate products purchased from abroad for subsequent processing into export goods in Germany seems to be undermining the importance of exports as a driver of domestic production and employment. The gains that arise from an increase in exports seem to have been offset by the losses caused by the crowding out of local production by imports. Empirical evidence on the impact of this international integration of the goods market on the German labour market is ambiguous. Short-term negative effects on employment are claimed to be offset by the long-term benefit that the jobs lost in the short run will eventually be replaced by higher-skilled jobs with better perspectives. Against this background, the following hypothesis is tested empirically: Germany is poor in natural resources, but rich in skilled labour. In line with the Heckscher- Ohlin theory, Germany should therefore specialize in the production of export goods and services that are relatively intensive in these factors and should import those goods and services that are relatively intensive in unskilled labour ...
    Description: Die Importdurchdringung der Exporte ist im Zusammenhang mit der Stellung Deutschlands als Exportweltmeister in der Öffentlichkeit diskutiert worden. Durch den wachsenden Zukauf von Vorleistungsgütern aus dem Ausland zur Weiterverarbeitung zu Exportgütern in Deutschland werde die Bedeutung des Exports als Motor von Produktion und Beschäftigung im Inland untergraben. Der Wohlfahrtsgewinn aus der Intensivierung des Exports würde durch Wohlfahrtsverluste infolge der Verdrängung einheimischer Produktion durch Importe erkauft. Die empirische Evidenz für die Wirkungen der internationalen Integration der Gütermärkte auf den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt ist jedoch nicht eindeutig. Negativen Folgen auf Beschäftigung und Einkommen in der kurzen Frist stehen Vorteile gegenüber, wenn die wegfallenden Arbeitsplätze durch höherwertige mit besseren Einkommensperspektiven ersetzt werden. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird folgende Hypothese getestet: Deutschland ist gering ausgestattet mit Rohstoffen, aber reichlich mit qualifizierter Arbeit. Gemäß der Heckscher-Ohlin-Theorie sollte sich Deutschland deshalb im Export auf die Produktion von qualifikationsintensiven Gütern spezialisieren und solche Güter importieren, die viel unqualifizierte Arbeit enthalten ...
    Keywords: C67 ; F14 ; F16 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; labour and skills market interactions ; input-outputmodels ; Außenhandel ; Arbeitsmärkte ; Qualifikation ; Input-Output-Modelle
    Language: English
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  • 42
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    Osaka: Osaka University, Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: Does trade affect the equilibrium rate of unemployment? To theoretically examine this question, we incorporate firm-union bargaining considerations into a model with a booming external sector and a stagnating manufacturing sector. In the model, a sustained improvement in the terms of trade lowers unemployment. To empirically investigate the predicted determinants of the unemployment rate, we use data for Australia, a country whose prosperity has always depended on the value of its exports. We find strong evidence that higher export prices, capital accumulation in tradeable goods industries and a lower unemployment benefit replacement rate each reduce the equilibrium unemployment rate.
    Keywords: E24 ; F12 ; J51 ; ddc:330 ; equilibrium unemployment rate ; specific factors model ; bargaining ; mining boom ; Dutch disease ; Arbeitsmarkttheorie ; Terms of Trade ; Beschäftigungseffekt ; Bergbauerzeugnis ; Außenhandel ; Rohstoffreichtum ; Australien
    Language: English
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  • 43
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    Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: We apply a simple method to study the relative quality of Chinese versus European products exported in the clothing sector after the end of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement. Based on the model of Foster et al (2008), we interpret the relative change of export prices and quantities sold in narrowly defined product categories as an indicator of quality shifts. Using UN Comtrade data we find that European varieties exported to the US typically sell for a higher price than identical Chinese varieties exported to the US, but this price gap is narrowing. Despite rising prices, Chinese varieties are gaining market share. This opposite movement of relative prices and quantities sold in the same destination market, are a strong indication of China moving up the quality ladder in its clothing exports relative to the EU. While European ?core? products in clothing are stable over time, Chinese exports show strong product dynamics with exit and entry of new ?core? products every year and ?core? products changing rapidly. Both China and the EU export in every product category, resulting in an almost perfect product overlap with almost no products being exported by only one of the two.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bekleidungsindustrie ; Außenhandel ; Produktqualität ; EU-Staaten ; China
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, independent entrepreneurial migrants from China have been increasingly flocking to Africa in search of greener pastures. This paper scrutinizes the empirical foundations of the increasingly hostile discourses of African traders regarding the alleged encroachment of the West African urban market space by Chinese petty entrepreneurs. Based on indepth ethnographic fieldwork and interviews, we aim to demystify this common allegation by exploring the diversity of influx channels through which Chinese commodities, said to create unfair and existential competition, come to the African continent. Our analysis of trade trajectories shows that Chinese products were coming to Africa long before the arrival of independent Chinese migrants at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Statistical evidence further supports our stance that Chinese entrepreneurs still represent a minority group in the import of cheap China goods into Ghana and Senegal.
    Keywords: D43 ; D85 ; F14 ; F22 ; L14 ; O24 ; P45 ; Z1 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; consumer goods ; imperfect competition ; migration ; social networks ; China ; Africa ; Konsumgut ; Außenhandel ; China ; Import ; Unternehmer ; Chinesen ; Ghana ; Senegal
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: In particular, the ability to export on time is crucial to explain comparative advantage in intermediate goods. These findings underscore the importance of investing in infrastructure and fostering trade facilitation to boost a country's participation in production networks. Furthermore, we contribute to the so-called distance puzzle by showing that the increasing importance of distance over time is in part driven by trade in intermediate goods.
    Keywords: F13 ; F14 ; L60 ; ddc:330 ; aid for trade ; trade facilitation ; offshoring ; export times ; quality of infrastructure ; quality of institutions ; comparative advantage ; Vorprodukt ; Außenhandel ; Außenhandelsförderung ; Offshoring
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: This paper investigates the scope for international rules to address market failures in trade in natural resources and the associated international transactions of prospecting and investment in resource exploitation. We argue that several market failures are likely to have substantial costs. However, due to the distinctive features of natural resources, the market failures are particular to them. The ad hoc approaches which have attempted to address them to date leave scope for a more systematic and comprehensive approach by the WTO, but the distinctive features of natural resources imply that this could not simply be an application of the rules appropriate for other forms of trade.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Rohstoffressourcen ; Erschöpfbare Ressourcen ; Außenhandel ; Gewinn ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Terms of Trade ; WTO-Regeln ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 47
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: We use unique plant-level data to study the link between the local availability of services and the decision of manufacturing firms to source materials from abroad. To guide our empirical analysis we develop a monopolistic-competition model of the materials sourcing decisions of heterogeneous firms. The model generates predictions about how the intensity of international sourcing of materials depends on a firm's productivity and the availability of local services. These predictions are supported by the data. We find evidence that more productive manufacturing firms tend to have a higher ratio of imported materials to sales. In addition, we find evidence that services grease the wheels of international commerce: A greater availability of services across regions, industries and time increases a firm's foreign sourcing of materials relative to sales. Interestingly, this positive impact of local service availability on imports especially applies to stand-alone firms that, unlike multinationals, are less likely to rely on imported or internally provided services.
    Keywords: F12 ; L23 ; ddc:330 ; International trade ; services ; off-shoring ; supply chain management ; firm heterogeneity ; Internationale Beschaffung ; Offshoring ; Lieferanten-Kunden-Beziehung ; Unternehmensdienstleistung ; Außenhandel ; Monopolistischer Wettbewerb ; Supply Chain Management ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 48
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-11-24
    Description: Coal continues to be an important fuel in many countries' energy mix and, despite the climate change concerns, it is likely to maintain this position for the next decades. In this paper a numerical model is developed to investigate the evolution of the international market for steam coal, the coal type used for electricity generation. The main focus is on future trade ows and investments in production and transport infrastructure until 2030. COALMOD-World is an equilibrium model, formulated in the complementarity format. It includes all major steam coal exporting and importing countries and represents the international trade as one globalized market. Some suppliers of coal are at the same time major consumers, such as the USA and China. Therefore, domestic markets are also included in the model to analyze their interaction with the international market. Because of the different qualities of steam coal, we include different heating values depending on the origin of the coal. At the same time we observe the mass-specific constraints on production, transport and export capacity. The time horizon of our analysis is until 2030, in 5-year steps. Production costs change endogenously over time. Moreover, endogenous investments are included based on a net present value optimization approach and and the shadow prices of capacities constraints. Investments can be carried out in production, inland freight capacities (rail in most countries), and export terminals. The paper finishes with an application of the model to a base case scenario and suggestions for alternative scenarios.
    Keywords: L11 ; L72 ; C69 ; ddc:330 ; Coal ; energy ; numerical modeling ; investments ; international trade ; Kohlenmarkt ; Prognose ; Kohle ; Außenhandel ; Wirtschaftsmodell ; Szenariotechnik ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 49
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-23
    Description: We use unique plant-level data to study the link between the local availability of services and the decision of manufacturing firms to source materials from abroad. To guide our empirical analysis we develop a monopolistic-competition model of the materials sourcing decisions of heterogeneous firms. The model generates predictions about how the intensity of international sourcing of materials depends on a firm's productivity and the availability of local services. These predictions are supported by the data. We find evidence that more productive manufacturing firms tend to have a higher ratio of imported materials to sales. In addition, we find evidence that services grease the wheels of international commerce: A greater availability of services across regions, industries and time increases a firm's foreign sourcing of materials relative to sales. Interestingly, this positive impact of local service availability on imports especially applies to stand-alone firms that, unlike multinationals, are less likely to rely on imported or internally provided services.
    Keywords: F12 ; L23 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; services ; off-shoring ; supply chain management ; firm heterogeneity ; Internationale Beschaffung ; Offshoring ; Lieferanten-Kunden-Beziehung ; Unternehmensdienstleistung ; Außenhandel ; Monopolistischer Wettbewerb ; Supply Chain Management ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 50
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    Nottingham: The University of Nottingham, Centre for Research in Economic Development and International Trade (CREDIT)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-02
    Description: This paper argues that SSA has derived a minimal growth benefit from trade because of what it exports and that the detrimental effect of primary commodity export dependence on SSA growth can be captured by two structural variables, natural barriers to trade (NBT, trade costs) and natural resource endowments (NRE, primary commodity dependence). The analysis is based on a large panel of developing countries for 1970 to 2008 and explicitly tests for threshold effects in the structural variables. We find that high trade costs and natural resource endowments have a negative effect on growth and that the combination of these two factors accounts for the SSA dummy: SSA countries tend to have high values of NRE and NBT and this helps to explain why SSA countries experienced lower growth than other developing countries (the significant negative dummy for SSA). The trade variables also performed as expected. Exports and trade openness generally contribute to growth, but their effect on growth is affected by the structural variables; specifically high values as observed in SSA dampen the positive impact of trade on growth. The poor growth of SSA relative to other regions is largely accounted for by the combination of natural resource endowments and high transport costs so that the dependence on primary commodity exports has not supported growth.
    Keywords: F10 ; F43 ; O40 ; O55 ; ddc:330 ; Trade and Growth ; Natural Barriers to Trade ; Primary Commodity Exports ; Sub-Saharan Africa ; Außenwirtschaft ; Rohstoff ; Außenhandel ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Afrika südlich der Sahara
    Language: English
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  • 51
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    Stuttgart: Universität Hohenheim, Forschungszentrum Innovation und Dienstleistung (FZID)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-19
    Description: A unilateral tax on CO2 emissions may drive up indirect carbon imports from non-committed countries, leading to carbon leakage. Using a gravity model of carbon trade, we analyze the effect of the Kyoto Protocol on the carbon content of bilateral trade. We construct a novel data set of CO2 emissions embodied in bilateral trade flows. Its panel structure allows dealing with endogenous selection of countries into the Protocol. We find strong statistical evidence for Kyoto commitments to affect carbon trade. On average, the Kyoto protocol led to substantial carbon leakage but its total effect on carbon trade was only minor.
    Keywords: F18 ; Q54 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Carbon leakage ; gravity model ; international trade ; climate change ; embodied emission ; input-output analysis ; Ökosteuer ; Kohlendioxid ; Emissionshandel ; Außenhandel ; Klimaschutz ; Gravitationsmodell ; Input-Output ; Theorie ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    München: ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Keywords: F00 ; F10 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandelszone ; Wirtschaftslage ; Außenhandel ; NAFTA-Staaten
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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    München: ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Keywords: F00 ; F10 ; F22 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandelszone ; Außenhandel ; Internationale Wanderung ; Mobilität ; NAFTA-Staaten ; Mexiko ; USA
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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    München: ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Keywords: F00 ; F10 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; Freihandelszone ; Außenhandel ; Klimaveränderung ; Nordamerika
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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    Bangkok: Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT)
    Publication Date: 2016-09-01
    Keywords: ddc:330