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  • 1
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    Basel: MDPI
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: The purpose of this Special Issue is to investigate topics related to sustainability issues in the new era, especially in Industry 4.0 or other new manufacturing environments. Under Industry 4.0, there have been great changes with respect to production processes, production planning and control, quality assurance, internal control, cost determination, and other management issues. Moreover, it is expected that Industry 4.0 can create positive sustainability impacts along the whole value chain. There are three pillars of sustainability, including environmental sustainability, economic sustainability, and social sustainability. This Special Issue collects 15 sustainability-related papers from various industries that use various methods or models, such as mathematical programming, activity-based costing (ABC), material flow cost accounting, fuel consumption model, artificial intelligence (AI)-based fusion model, multi-attribute decision model (MADM), and so on. These papers are related to carbon emissions, carbon tax, Industry 4.0, economic sustainability, corporate social responsibility (CSR), etc. The research objects come from China, Taiwan, Thailand, Oman, Cyprus, Germany, Austria, and Portugal. Although the research presented in this Special Issue is not exhaustive, this Special Issue provides abundant, significant research related to environmental, economic, and social sustainability. Nevertheless, there still are many research topics that require our attention to solve problems of sustainability.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Industrie 4.0 ; Corporate Social Responsibility ; Nachhaltige Entwicklung ; China ; Taiwan ; Thailand ; Oman ; Zypern ; Deutschland ; Österreich ; Portugal
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
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  • 2
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    New York: Berghahn Books
    Publication Date: 2018-09-29
    Description: During the twentieth century, German government and industry created a highly skilled workforce as part of an ambitious program to control and develop the country's human resources. Yet, these long-standing efforts to match as many workers as possible to skilled vocations and to establish a system of job training have received little scholarly attention, until now. The author's account of the broad support for this program challenges the standard historical accounts that focus on disagreements over the German political-economic order and points instead to an important area of consensus. These advances are explained in terms of political policies of corporatist compromise and national security as well as industry's evolving production strategies. By tracing the development of these policies over the course of a century, the author also suggests important continuities in Germany's domestic politics, even across such different regimes as Imperial, Weimar, Nazi, and post-1945 West Germany.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitsverwaltung ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Berufsbildung ; Geschichte ; Deutschland
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
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  • 3
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-16
    Description: Quality of life and satisfaction with life are of particular importance for individuals as well as for society concerning the "demographic change" with now longer retirement periods. This study will contribute to the life satisfaction discussion and quantifies life satisfaction and pattern of explanation before and after such a prominent life cycle event, the entrance into retirement. In particular, with the individual longitudinal data and 33 waves of the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and the appropriate microeconometric causal fixed effects robust panel methods we ask and quantify if actual life satisfaction indeed is decreasing before retirement, is increasing at the entrance into retirement, and is decreasing then after certain periods back to a fore-going level. Thus, we ask if such an anticipation and adaptation pattern - as known from other prominent events - is also to discover for life satisfaction before and after retirement in Germany. Main result: Individual and family situation lift life satisfaction after retirement for many years, the (former) occupational situation, however, absorbs this effect both for pensioners and civil service pensioners. It remains only one period of improvement with close anticipation and adaptation at entering retirement but no furthermore significant change compared to pre-retirement life satisfaction. This holds for pensioners (German pension insurance, GRV) but there is no significant effect at all for civil service pensioners.
    Description: Lebensqualität und Lebenszufriedenheit ist für den Einzelnen wie aber auch für die Gesellschaft insgesamt vor dem Hintergrund des demographischen Wandels mit nun länger andauernder Phase nach dem Eintritt in den Ruhestand von besonderer Bedeutung. Die vorliegende Studie will zur Diskussion der Lebenszufriedenheit einen empirisch fundierten Beitrag leisten insbesondere die Lebenszufriedenheit vor und nach einem markanten Ereignis, dem Renteneintritt, quantifizieren und dafür Erklärungsmuster finden. Vor allem wird mit den individuellen Verlaufsdaten und 33 Wellen des Sozio-ökonomischen Panels (SOEP) und der mikroökonometrischen kausalen fixed effects robusten Panelanalyse analysiert, ob die individuelle Lebenszufriedenheit tatsächlich vor dem Renteneintritt absinkt, der Renteneintritt sie hochschnellen lässt und sie nach einer gewissen Zeit wieder auf das vorherige Niveau der Lebenszufriedenheit absinkt. Zu klären wird also zu sein, ob sich ein solches Muster herausschält und wie bedeutend Antizipation und Adaption - bekannt von anderen markanten Ereignissen - für die Lebenszufriedenheit vor und nach dem Renteneintritt in Deutschland sind. Hauptergebnis: Individuelle und familiäre Faktoren erhöhen die Lebenszufriedenheit nach dem Renteneintritt für viele Jahre. Allerdings absorbiert die (vormalige) Arbeitssituation diesen Effekt sowohl für GRV Rentner als auch für Pensionäre (Beamte). Es verbleibt nur eine Periode der Verbesserung mit Antizipation und Adaption nahe dem Renteneintritt aber keine signifikante längere Änderung im Vergleich zur Lebenszufriedenheit vor dem Renteneintritt. Dies gilt für GRV Rentner, für Pensionäre wird kein signifikanter Effekt überhaupt feststellbar.
    Keywords: I31 ; J26 ; J14 ; J17 ; A13 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; retirement ; life-satisfaction ; happiness ; anticipation and adaptation effects ; fixed-effect regression ; Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) ; Renteneintritt ; Lebenszufriedenheit ; Antizipations- und Adaptionseffekte ; Fixed-Effects-Regression ; Sozio-oekonomisches Panel (SOEP) ; Deutschland ; Germany
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-26
    Keywords: D31 ; I32 ; D63 ; ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Funktionelle Einkommensverteilung ; Lohnquote ; Haushaltseinkommen ; Verteilungspolitik ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: The ifo Business Climate Index is the most important early indicator for developments in the German economy. It aggregates thousands of responses from the companies surveyed in the ifo business surveys on a monthly basis. This article presents the new ifo Business Climate for Germany, which will appear on a monthly basis as of April 2018, replacing the index for German industry and trade that has been published to date. A few major changes have been made to the new business climate index. The most important change is that in addition to manufacturing, construction and both distributions sectors, it now includes the service industry, which has been published separately to date. Moreover, the aggregation procedure has been slightly modified, and finally the base year for index calculation has been adjusted from 2005 to 2015. This article offers an insight into the background to these adjustments and shows that the basic economic forecasts and interpretations remain unchanged.
    Keywords: C22 ; O10 ; ddc:330 ; Konjunktur ; Wirtschaftsprognose ; Frühindikator ; Deutschland ; Geschäftsklima
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: J61 ; J68 ; ddc:330 ; Arbeitsnachfrage ; Arbeitsmigranten ; Hochqualifizierte Arbeitskräfte ; Scoring-Modell ; Deutschland
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 7
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F22 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; Migrationspolitik ; Reform ; Arbeitsmigranten ; Berufsgruppe ; Beruf ; Welt ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: The German federal government presented a legislative proposal on tax- and especially VAT law with the focus to combat VAT fraud in (international) ecommerce on July 31st 2018. This draft legislation is explained and discussed.
    Keywords: K1 ; F10 ; ddc:330 ; VAT ; Umsatzsteuer ; Mehrwertsteuer ; Value Added Tax ; China ; Germany ; Deutschland ; ecommerce ; e-commerce ; Steuerhinterziehung ; tax evasion ; tax ; Amazon ; FBA ; Fulfillment ; liability rule ; UK ; Asia ; Chinese sellers ; chinesische Händler ; Alibaba ; online platform ; electronic marketplace ; Onlinehandel ; UStG ; Umsatzsteuergesetz ; legislation ; Finanzamt Neukölln ; Fulfillment by Amazon ; Umsatzsteuerbetrug ; Steueroase ; Entwurf eines Gesetzes zur Vermeidung von Umsatzsteuerausfällen beim Handel mit Waren im Internet und zur Änderung weiterer steuerlicher Vorschriften ; Finanzministerkonferenz ; Thomas Schäfer ; Jörg Brettschneider ; Brettschneider ; Shenzhen ; Marktplatzhaftung ; HMRC ; Steuernummer
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    München: ifo Institut – Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2019-06-22
    Keywords: A11 ; A12 ; ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftswissenschaft ; Wirtschaft ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-13
    Description: This paper uses confidential firm-level panel data to provide new estimates on the extent of corporate profit shifting by German-based affiliates of multinational corporations. The estimated semi-elasticity of reported profits with regard to statutory foreign tax rates is 3.6, or 4.8 when allowing for a non-linear relationship. This is higher than most of the previous estimates of around 1. The case for a non-linear relationship is even stronger when average effective tax rates are used instead of statutory rates. In addition, the paper develops an alternative identification strategy suggesting that the first-time appearance of a tax-haven investor in the ownership chain reduces the reported profits of German-based affiliates by 61 percent if a majority of the affiliate is held by a single investor. The estimated effects are used to extrapolate the amount of shifted profits and associated revenue losses for all German-based foreign affiliates. The results suggest moderate but non-negligible revenue losses between 2.9 and 10.7 percent of corporate income tax revenues (or EUR 1.5-5.6 bn in 2015).
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Gewinnverlagerung ; Steueroase ; Ausländische Tochtergesellschaft ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; Panel ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    München : C.H. Beck
    Associated volumes
    Keywords: Unternehmenskauf ; Vertrag ; Deutschland ; Formularsammlung ; Deutschland 03.10.1990- ; Unternehmenskauf ; Vertrag
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Edition: 3. Auflage
    Series Statement: Beck'sche Musterverträge 49
    DDC: 340
    RVK:
    Language: German , English
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    München : C.H. Beck
    Keywords: Lizenzvertrag ; Deutschland ; Hardback ; Markenlizenz ; Know-How-Lizenz ; Merchandising ; Franchise ; Patentlizenz ; 1775: Hardcover, Softcover / Recht/Handelsrecht, Wirtschaftsrecht ; Kommentar ; Deutschland 03.10.1990- ; Lizenzvertrag
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Edition: 4. Auflage
    Series Statement: Beck-online
    URL: Volltext  (URL des Erstveröffentlichers)
    DDC: 340
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: English , German
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  • 13
    Book
    Book
    Wildau
    Keywords: Supply Chain Management ; Internet ; Venezuela ; Deutschland ; Hochschulschrift ; Supply Chain Management ; Venezuela ; Internet ; Deutschland 03.10.1990-
    Abstract: Logistics / Supply Chain Management
    Additional Material: 1 CD-ROM
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: VII, 93 Blätter , Illustrationen
    Language: English
    Dissertation note: Masterarbeit Technische Hochschule
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    München : C.H. Beck
    Keywords: Innovation ; Unternehmensgründung ; Risikokapital ; Deutschland ; Paperback / softback ; VC ; Wagniskapital ; Risikokapital ; Finanzierung ; Beteiligungskapital ; Start-Up ; Trade Sale ; Börsengang ; Crowd-Investing ; Business Angels ; 24: W-RSW_Rabatt ; 1783: Hardcover, Softcover / Wirtschaft/Betriebswirtschaft ; Deutschland 03.10.1990- ; Innovation ; Unternehmensgründung ; Risikokapital
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource , Mit Freischaltcode zum Download von Vertragsmustern
    Edition: 6., überarbeitete Auflage
    URL: Volltext  (URL des Erstveröffentlichers)
    DDC: 650
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: English , German
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  • 15
    Book
    Book
    Wildau
    Keywords: Personalorganisation ; Datenschutz ; Deutschland ; Hochschulschrift ; Personalorganisation ; Datenschutz ; Deutschland 03.10.1990-
    Abstract: Europäisches Management
    Additional Material: 1 CD-ROM
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: VII, 55 Blätter , Illustrationen
    Language: English
    Dissertation note: Bachelorarbeit Technische Hochschule
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  • 16
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: The European Court of Justice examines the conformity of German co-determination under European law.Professor of law Bernard Johann Mulder, University of Oslo, argues that, in the case at issue, national law is not incompatible with EU law. Consequently, there is no discrimination on the grounds of nationality, and there is no obstacle to the free movement of workers.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Mitbestimmung ; Europäisches Arbeitsrecht ; Nationales Recht ; Antidiskriminierungsrecht ; Deutschland
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 17
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: This study presents a comparative analysis of regulatory thresholds applicable to firms in France and in Germany. A central question tackled by the report is whether regulations related to limits on firms’ employment appear to prevent French firms from growing above these thresholds. The first part of the report specifies how the obligations of the firms depend on the number of employees. Several thresholds apply to firms in both countries. In France, the main regulations become effective when a firm hires the fiftieth employee. In the empirical analysis on small and medium-sized manufacturing firms in the second part of the report, evidence is found for distorting effects on the firm size distribution only in France. French firms are increasingly concentrated below the regulatory thresholds of 10, 20, and 50 employees. The effects of the 50-employee-threshold on employment growth at the firm level are evaluated in particular. Firms are less likely to hire new workers if the 50-employee-threshold is exceeded. When it comes to different reform proposals in the third part of the report, increasing the thresholds permanently would encourage firm growth in the range between the current and the new threshold. In the longer term, a new distortion would be established at the new threshold. The most efficient way to reduce other distortions at the threshold would be to estimate the costs that such regulations impose on firms, and then offer firms that exceed that threshold a reduction in payroll tax when the threshold is crossed.
    Description: Die Studie analysiert die arbeitsrechtlichen Schwellenwerte, die für Firmen in Frankreich und Deutschland gelten. Die wesentliche Fragestellung, die dieser Bericht behandelt, ist, ob Regulierungen, die ab einer bestimmten Mitarbeiterzahl gelten, französische Firmen davon abhalten, zusätzliche Mitarbeiter einzustellen und damit den Schwellenwert zu überschreiten. Der erste Teil des Berichts legt dar, inwieweit die Verpflichtungen für die Firmen von der Mitarbeiterzahl abhängen. Für Firmen in beiden Ländern gelten eine Reihe von Schwellenwerten. In Frankreich treten die wesentlichen Regulierungen in Kraft, wenn eine Firma den 50. Mitarbeiter einstellt. Die empirische Analyse zu kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen des verarbeitenden Gewerbes im zweiten Teil der Studie deutet auf verzerrende Effekte auf die Verteilung der Firmengröße ausschließlich in Frankreich hin. Französische Firmen sind zunehmend unterhalb des Schwellenwerts von 10, 20 und 50 Mitarbeitern konzentriert. Insbesondere werden die Effekte der 50-Mitarbeiter-Schwelle auf das Beschäftigungswachstum auf Firmenebene analysiert. Es ist unwahrscheinlicher, dass Firmen neue Mitarbeiter einstellen, wenn die 50-Mitarbeiter-Schwelle überschritten wird. Was die verschiedenen Reformvorschläge im dritten Teil des Berichts betrifft, so würde eine dauerhafte Anhebung der Schwellenwerte das Wachstum der Firmen im Bereich zwischen dem derzeitigen und dem neuen Schwellenwert fördern. Langfristig würde beim neuen Schwellenwert eine neue Verzerrung entstehen. Die effizienteste Art, die anderen Verzerrungen beim Schwellenwert zu verringern, wäre, die Kosten zu schätzen, die Firmen aufgrund der Regulierungen entstehen. Firmen, die den Schwellenwert überschreiten, sollten niedrigere Lohnsteuern zahlen müssen.
    Keywords: D22 ; K31 ; J21 ; J88 ; L25 ; ddc:330 ; Beschäftigungseffekt ; Unternehmen ; Staat ; Staatliche Einflussnahme ; Frankreich ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: D72 ; D78 ; ddc:330 ; Radikalismus ; Ideologie ; Politische Partei ; Nationalismus ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: O20 ; O31 ; O32 ; O38 ; ddc:330 ; Innovation ; Innovationsmanagement ; Forschungskooperation ; Wissenschaft ; Wirtschaft ; Technischer Fortschritt ; Wirtschaftsforschungsinstitut ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: O15 ; N44 ; ddc:330 ; Integration ; Soziale Integration ; Flüchtlinge ; Umsiedlung ; Weltkrieg ; Zeitgeschichte ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Protektionismus ; USA ; Außenhandelspolitik ; Außenhandel ; Kooperation ; China ; Deutschland ; NAFTA-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: O31 ; O32 ; ddc:330 ; Innovation ; Innovationsmanagement ; Forschungskooperation ; Wissenschaft ; Wirtschaft ; Wirtschaftsforschungsinstitut ; Arbeitsbeziehungen ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 23
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: L85 ; R21 ; R31 ; ddc:330 ; Wohnimmobilien ; Immobilienmarkt ; Wohnungsmarkt ; Bauwirtschaft ; Konjunktur ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F22 ; J61 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Arbeitsmarktintegration ; Flüchtlinge ; Integration ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 25
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: G31 ; L26 ; M13 ; ddc:330 ; Kreditmarkt ; Kreditgeschäft ; Bank ; Unternehmen ; Unternehmensfinanzierung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 26
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: E21 ; E52 ; ddc:330 ; Sparen ; Verlust ; Zentralbank ; Zins ; Zinspolitik ; Deutschland ; Eurozone
    Language: English
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  • 27
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: G32 ; K12 ; K22 ; ddc:330 ; Finanzmarkt ; Kleinaktionäre ; Anlegerschutz ; Crowdfunding ; Crowdsourcing ; Rückzahlung ; Finanzmarktregulierung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 28
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: D72 ; F22 ; ddc:330 ; Einwanderung ; Ethnische Gruppe ; Ethnische Diskriminierung ; Politische Partei ; Radikalismus ; Faschismus ; Deutschland ; Populismus
    Language: English
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  • 29
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: H20 ; H21 ; ddc:330 ; Steuererhöhung ; Steuerbelastung ; Steuertarif ; Steuerpolitik ; Deutschland ; Versteckte Steuer ; Heimliche Steuererhöhung
    Language: English
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  • 30
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    Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-21
    Description: Innovation is regarded as a key driver of productivity and market growth and thus has a great potential for increasing wealth. Surveying innovation activities of firms is an important contribution to a better understanding of the process of innovation and how policy may intervene to maximise the social returns of private investment into innovation. Over the past three decades, research has developed a detailed methodology to collect and analyse innovation activities at the firm level. The Oslo Manual, published by OECD and Eurostat (2005) is one important outcome of these efforts. In 1993 both organisations have started a joint initiative, known as the Community Innovation Survey (CIS), to collect firm level data on innovation across countries in concord (with each other). The German contribution to this activity is the so-called Mannheim Innovation Panel (MIP), an annual survey implemented with the first CIS wave in 1993. The MIP fully applies the methodological recommendations laid down in the Oslo Manual. It is designed as a panel survey, i.e. the same gross sample of firms is surveyed each year, with a biannual refreshment of the sample. The MIP is commissioned by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and conducted by the Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI) and the Institute for Applied Social Science (infas). This publication reports main results of the MIP surveys conducted in the years 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. The surveys of the years 2013 and 2015 were the German contribution to the CIS for the reference years 2012 and 2014. The purpose of this report is to present descriptive results on various innovation indicators for the German enterprise sector.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Innovation ; Investitionsentscheidung ; Panel ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 31
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    Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft / edition sigma | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-08-20
    Description: There is now ample evidence of a rise in ‘non-standard work arrangements’ in many industrialised economies, yet only rarely does theoretical and empirical work probe the question of why the risk of temporary employment varies. Focusing on temporary employment, the author extends the scope of closure theory to an entirely new domain. He develops new and highly sophisticated measures with which to document occupational closure by measuring the scarcity of credentials for particular types of occupations and how effectively these credentials signal quality to potential employers. Similarly, by measuring the degree of task specialisation and the uniqueness of the occupations’ tasks, this work exceeds previous studies in breadth and precision. These new measures allow the author to demonstrate how professions protect their employees from temporary employment contracts.
    Description: Zugl.: Dissertation, Humboldt-Universität Berlin, 2015
    Description: Bei der Analyse der Gründe, warum befristete Beschäftigungsformen in den industrialisierten Volkswirtschaften inzwischen so weit verbreitet sind, werden Berufe und ihre mögliche Schutzfunktion bislang nicht berücksichtigt. Der Autor schließt diese Lücke, indem er Berufe und ihren Einfluss auf individuelle Befristungsrisiken untersucht. Er erweitert auf diese Weise die Schließungstheorie um das wichtige Feld der befristeten Beschäftigungsformen und entwickelt neue und höchste innovative Maße zur Erfassung der Schließung von beruflichen Arbeitsmärkten. Mit diesen Maßen kann erstmals die Knappheit bestimmter beruflicher Ausbildungszertifikate oder die Einzigartigkeit der ausgeübten beruflichen Tätigkeiten erfasst werden. Diese und weitere Maße erlauben es dem Autor zu zeigen, wie bestimmte Berufe die Beschäftigten davor schützen, befristete Verträge zu erhalten.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; temporary employment ; befristete Beschäftigung ; occupation ; Beruf ; occupational group ; Berufsgruppe ; employment system ; Beschäftigungssystem ; credence goods ; Vertrauensgüter ; estimation ; Schätzung ; Germany ; Deutschland ; Befristetes Arbeitsverhältnis ; Berufssoziologe
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
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  • 32
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2019-01-18
    Description: The pension systems in both Germany and Austria have undergone substantial reforms, though only one of the countries appears to have had success. Average earners in Austria will receive gross pensions equivalent to 78.1% of their average earnings, whereas in Germany they will receive just 37.5%. The authors argue that Germany has been left with a system that has abandoned the goal of protecting people's standard of living.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Altersvorsorge ; Rentenreform ; Vergleich ; Deutschland ; Österreich
    Language: English
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  • 33
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    Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut
    Publication Date: 2016-12-17
    Description: This collection presents an updated bibliography of those empirical forest ecosystem service valuation studies in the German speaking countries which relate to demand oriented measures of the utility of public goods. The associated database (which is provided as a separately downloadable Excel-file) contains 77 data sets by October 2016. These data sets are characterised by about 40 descriptors (the exact number depending on the specific valuation method used in the respective study) which present details of the valuation object, the statistical and economic methods applied, the results of the valuation exercise, some other descriptors for study quality, and the associated publications. The structure of the database is explained in detail here.
    Description: Dieser Arbeitsbericht enthält eine aktualisierte Bibliographie derjenigen empirischen Bewertungsstudien über forstliche Umweltleistungen im deutschsprachigen Raum, die nachfrageorientierte Methoden zur Bestimmung des monetären Nutzens öffentlicher Güter verwendet haben. Die damit verbundene Datenbank (die als separate Excel-Datei bereitgestellt wird) enthält derzeit (Oktober 2016) 77 Datensätze. Diese Datensätze werden - abhängig von der jeweiligen Bewertungsmethode - durch je etwa 40 Deskriptoren beschrieben, welche Einzelheiten zum Bewertungsobjekt, zu den verwendeten statistischen und ökonomischen Methoden, zu den Bewertungsergebnissen, zu einigen Qualitätsmerkmalen der Studien sowie zu den zugehörigen Publikationen enthalten. Die Struktur dieser Datenbank wird im Folgenden detailliert beschrieben.
    Keywords: ddc:630 ; forest ; non-market valuation ; ecosystem services ; Austria ; Germany ; Switzerland ; meta-database ; bibliography ; Wald ; Umweltbewertung ; Monetarisierung ; Ökosystemleistungen ; Österreich ; Schweiz ; Deutschland ; Metadatenbank ; Bibliografie
    Language: English
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  • 34
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    Zurich: ETH Zurich, KOF Swiss Economic Institute
    Publication Date: 2017-01-17
    Description: One of the main goals of the "Energy Strategy 2050" in Switzerland is the exploitation of the existing energy efficiency potentials. The size of the efficiency potential strongly depends on the development and the adoption of energy-related innovations. The objective of this project is to improve our knowledge about the drivers and potentials of both the adoption and the creation of energy-saving technologies and other technologies for the generation of renewable energy sources through a comparative firm-level study for Switzerland, Germany and Austria. Firms are not only the main source of energy-related innovation, but they are also responsible for a considerable share of the total energy consumption. The data presented in this study has been collected through firm surveys conducted in all three countries at the same time. The surveys used a harmonized questionnaire and collected information both on the development and on the adoption of energy-related innovations during the years 2012 to 2014. While data on the adoption of energy-related technologies has been obtained for all major economic sectors (manufacturing, construction and services, excluding state-related services such as public administration, education and health and excluding the energy sector) data on the development of energy-related innovations has only been collected for a group of manufacturing sectors (excluding food, textiles and clothing, printing, pharmaceuticals, and "other manufacturing") as well as two service sectors, "information technology services" and "technical services".
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Energieeinsparung ; Energietechnik ; Innovation ; Erneuerbare Energie ; Innovationsakzeptanz ; Vergleich ; Schweiz ; Deutschland ; Österreich
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 35
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    Nürnberg: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-10
    Description: Recent research suggests that much of the cross-firm variation in measured productivity is due to differences in use of advanced management practices. Many of these practices - including monitoring, goal setting, and the use of incentives - are mediated through employee decision-making and effort. To the extent that these practices are complementary with workers' skills, better-managed firms will tend to recruit higher-ability workers and adopt pay practices to retain these employees. We use a unique data set that combines detailed survey data on the management practices of German manufacturing establishments with longitudinal earnings records for their employees to study the relationship between productivity, management, worker ability, and pay. As documented by Bloom and Van Reenen (2007) there is a strong partial correlation between management practice scores and firm-level productivity in Germany. In our preferred TFP estimates only a small fraction of this correlation is explained by the higher human capital of the average employee at better-managed firms. A larger share (about 13%) is attributable to the human capital of the highestpaid workers, a group we interpret as representing the managers of the firm. And a similar amount is mediated through the pay premiums offered by better-managed firms. Looking at employee inflows and outflows, we confirm that better-managed firms systematically recruit and retain workers with higher average human capital. Overall, we conclude that workforce selection and positive pay premiums explain just under 30% of the measured impact of management practices on productivity in German manufacturing.
    Description: Aktuelle Forschung zeigt, dass ein großer Teil der gemessenen Produktivitätsunterschiede zwischen Firmen auf den Einsatz modernen Managementpraktiken zurückzuführen ist. Viele dieser Praktiken, zu denen Monitoring, Zielvereinbarungen und Anreizsysteme gehören, werden durch die Entscheidungen und Leistungen von Beschäftigten beeinflusst. Sofern diese Praktiken die Kenntnisse der Beschäftigten ergänzen, neigen besser gemanagte Firmen dazu fähigere Beschäftigte zu rekrutieren und Vergütung als Instrument zur Mitarbeiterbindung einzusetzen. Wir nutzen einen einzigartigen Datensatz, der umfangreiche Befragungsdaten zu Managementpraktiken deutscher Produktionsbetriebe mit Längsschnittinformationen zu Löhnen von Beschäftigten in diesen Betrieben verknüpft, um den Zusammenhang zwischen Produktivität, Management, Fähigkeiten der Beschäftigten und Entlohnung zu untersuchen. Wie Bloom und van Reenen (2007) zeigen, besteht in Deutschland eine starke partielle Korrelation zwischen den Management Practice Scores und Produktivität auf Firmenebene. In unseren präferierten TFP-Schätzungen wird nur ein kleiner Teil dieser Korrelation durch das höhere Humankapital eines "Durchschnittsbeschäftigten" in besser gemanagten Firmen erklärt. Einen größeren Anteil (ungefähr 13%) macht das Humankapital der höchstbezahlten Beschäftigten aus, die wir als Manager in der betreffenden Firma definieren. Ein ähnlicher Anteil wird durch Lohnaufschläge und Prämien erklärt, die besser gemanagten Firmen ihren Beschäftigten gewähren. In der Analyse von Firmenein- und -austritten finden wir, dass besser gemanagte Firmen gezielt Beschäftigte mit höherem Humankapital rekrutieren und diese binden. Insgesamt erklären Personalauswahl und Lohnaufschläge somit fast 30 % des gemessenen Einflusses von Managementpraktiken auf die Produktivität im verarbeitenden Gewerbe in Deutschland.
    Keywords: L2 ; M2 ; O32 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; management practices ; productivity ; wages ; Führungsstil ; Management ; Produktivität ; Industrie ; Qualifikation ; Personalauswahl ; Humankapital ; Leistungsentgelt ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 36
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    Cologne: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies
    Publication Date: 2016-12-30
    Description: We revisit the concept of Diversified Quality Production (DQP), which we introduced about thirty years ago. Our purpose is to examine the extent to which the concept can still be considered tenable for describing and explaining the development of the interaction between the political economy and concepts of production, notably in Germany. First, we show why and in which ways DQP was more heterogeneous than we had originally understood. Then, on the basis of evidence with respect to political, business, and economic changes in Germany, we show that DQP Mark I, a regime by and large characteristic of the 1980s, turned into DQP Mark II. In the process, major "complementarities" disappeared between the late 1980s and now - mainly the complementarity between production modes on the one hand and industrial relations and economic regulation on the other. While the latter exhibit greater change, business strategies and production organization show more continuity, which helps explain how Germany maintained economic performance after the mid-2000s, more than other countries in Europe. Conceptually, our most important result is that the complementarities emphasized in political economy are historically relative and limited, so that they should not be postulated as stable configurations.
    Description: Dies ist eine Neubetrachtung des Konzepts der Differenzierten Qualitätsproduktion (DQP), das vor etwa dreißig Jahren von uns eingeführt wurde. Wir prüfen, inwieweit das Konzept noch zur Beschreibung und Erklärung der Wechselwirkung zwischen politischer Ökonomie und Produktionskonzepten taugt, vor allem in Deutschland. Zuerst zeigen wir, dass DQP vielgestaltiger war, als wir uns dies zunächst vorgestellt hatten. Danach diskutieren wir vor dem Hintergrund des politischen sowie betriebs- und volkswirtschaftlichen Wandels in Deutschland, wie DQP Mark I, ein vor allem in den 1980er-Jahren vorherrschendes Regime, zu DQP Mark II wurde. Dabei verschwanden zentrale "Komplementaritäten", insbesondere die zwischen Produktionsweisen einerseits und Arbeitsbeziehungen und wirtschaftlicher Regulierung andererseits. Während die letzteren mehr Veränderung aufwiesen, zeigten Geschäftsstrategien und Produktionsorganisation mehr Kontinuität. Dadurch erklärt sich die im Vergleich zu anderen europäischen Ländern stabile deutsche Wirtschaftsleistung nach 2005. In konzeptioneller Hinsicht ist unser wichtigstes Ergebnis, dass die in der politischen Ökonomie betonten Komplementaritäten historisch relativ und zeitlich begrenzt sind; sie sollten deshalb nicht als stabile Konfigurationen vorausgesetzt werden.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; production concepts ; manufacturing ; diversified quality production ; industrial organization ; industrial relations ; industrial restructuring ; globalization ; skills ; Germany ; Produktionskonzepte ; industrielle Fertigung ; diversifizierte Qualitätsproduktion ; Industrieökonomik ; Arbeitsbeziehungen ; Strukturwandel ; Globalisierung ; Qualifikationen ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 37
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    Nürnberg: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-10
    Description: Unemployment insurance agencies may combat moral hazard by punishing refusals to apply to assigned vacancies. However, the possibility to report sick creates an additional moral hazard, since during sickness spells, minimum requirements on search behavior do not apply. This reduces the ex ante threat of sanctions. We analyze the effects of vacancy referrals and sanctions on the unemployment duration and the quality of job matches, in conjunction with the possibility to report sick. We estimate multi-spell duration models with selection on unobserved characteristics. We find that a vacancy referral increases the transition rate into work and that such accepted jobs go along with lower wages. We also find a positive effect of a vacancy referral on the probability of reporting sick. This effect is smaller at high durations, which suggests that the relative attractiveness of vacancy referrals increases over the time spent in unemployment. Overall, around 9% of sickness absence during unemployment is induced by vacancy referrals.
    Description: Ein Instrument zur Eindämmung von Moral Hazard in der Arbeitslosenversicherung ist die finanzielle Sanktion in Form einer Sperrzeit. Da jedoch während Krankheitsperioden keine Mindestanforderungen an Suchanstrengungen von Arbeitslosen gelten, entsteht durch die Möglichkeit, sich krank zu melden ein zusätzlicher Moral Hazard. Dies wiederum verringert die Drohwirkung von Sperrzeiten. Unter Berücksichtigung der Möglichkeit, sich krank zu melden, analysieren wir die Auswirkungen von Vermittlungsvorschlägen und Sperrzeiten auf die Dauer der Arbeitslosigkeit und die Qualität der aufgenommenen Jobs.Wir schätzen Multi-Spell Verweildauermodelle mit Selektion basierend auf unbeobachteten Merkmalen. Wir zeigen, dass ein Vermittlungsvorschlag die Übergangsrate in Beschäftigung erhöht und dass dies mit geringeren Löhnen einhergeht.Wir finden auch positive Effekte eines Vermittlungsvorschlags auf die Wahrscheinlichkeit einer Krankmeldung. Dieser Effekt ist geringer in späteren Monaten der Arbeitslosigkeit. Dies legt nahe, dass die relative Attraktivität der Vermittlungsvorschläge im Verlauf der Arbeitslosigkeit ansteigt. Unseren Ergebnissen zufolge sind insgesamt etwa 9 Prozent der Krankmeldungen während der Arbeitslosigkeit ausgelöst durch Vermittlungsvorschläge.
    Keywords: J64 ; J65 ; C41 ; C21 ; ddc:330 ; unemployment ; vacancy referrals ; physician ; wage ; unemployment insurance ; monitoring ; moral hazard ; Arbeitslosenversicherung ; Moral Hazard ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Dauer ; Offene Stellen ; Krankheit ; Anreiz ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 38
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: G31 ; K35 ; L26 ; ddc:330 ; Crowdfunding ; Branchenentwicklung ; Insolvenz ; Deutschland ; Großbritannien
    Language: English
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  • 39
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F13 ; ddc:330 ; Außenwirtschaftsförderung ; Regulierung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 40
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: This volume was prepared by Constantin Mang while he was working at the Ifo Institute. It was completed in 2014 and accepted as a doctoral thesis by the Department of Economics at the University of Munich. It includes a short introduction and four self-contained chapters that focus on ICT innovations in different markets. Chapter 1gives a short introduction into the topic and lays out some general aspects about the methodological frameworks used in this volume. Chapter 2 is focused on the effects of broadband Internet on the housing market in order to quantify the value of broadband access in terms of a premium on housing rents. Methodologically, the chapter uses micro data from Germany’s largest online platform for real estate advertisements and estimates a hedonic model with rent prices. Chapter 3 investigates the association of online job search and matching quality using individual-level data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). It measures matching quality by the respondent's evaluation of his new job compared to his former job. The results show that job changers who found their new job online are better matched than their counterparts who found their new job through traditional channels. Chapter 4 provides evidence on the effectiveness of PC use in schools across countries. Using data from the international student achievement test TIMSS, it estimate the effect of PC use on student test scores and finds that using a PC for some activities has positive effects on student achievement, whereas using a PC for other activities has negative effects. Chapter 5 investigates the effects of a mobile Internet infrastructure upgrade on the take-up of location-based online services. Using data from the largest German online platform for restaurant reviews, it finds that upgrading the mobile Internet infrastructure increases the number of restaurant reviews and the share of reviews written on smartphones.
    Keywords: L86 ; L96 ; R31 ; R42 ; H54 ; O18 ; I21 ; I28 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Informationstechnik ; IKT-Sektor ; Breitbandkommunikation ; Internet ; Mobilkommunikation ; Hedonischer Preisindex ; Arbeitsuche ; Matching ; Personal Computer ; Schule ; E-Learning ; Informationstechnik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Breitbandkommunikation ; Immobilienpreis ; E-Learning ; Bildungsniveau ; Mobilkommunikation ; Gastronomie ; Bewertung ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 41
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    Köln: Otto-Wolff-Institut für Wirtschaftsordnung (owiwo)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-11
    Description: [Introduction] Over the last few years there has been an increasing debate on supply security in the German healthcare system. In particular, concerns have been raised with respect to the shortage of pharmacies in rural regions. While the low level of demand for pharmaceutical services and products in these in these areas dampens the profitability of pharmacies, regulations imposed on pharmacies with substantial implications for their cost structures affect the entry and exit decisions of pharmacies in rural district, and hence directly affecting the supply gap. In this article we estimate a model of entry for pharmacies in Germany and identify the economic forces determining market entry. Our empirical model captures important features of the pharmacy market. First, the toughness of short-run competition reflect the idea that an increase in the number of pharmacies in a given market lowers the profits that can be earned by all participants. Second, potential entrants face an amount of fixed entry cost lowering the net profit level and affect firm's entry decision. Furthermore, we allow the magnitude of the fixed cost to differ across firms and allowing different firms to earn different levels of profit in a given market and therefore allow for markets with similar characteristics to support different numbers of pharmacies. This feature allows markets with similar structures to have different numbers of pharmacies. We estimate the model using a constructed dataset on the number of pharmacy stores operating in 4115 geographic markets in Germany. In addition to in-formation on market characteristics such as population number and demographic structure, we also measure the number of branches a pharmacist operates. The number of branches captures information on possible scale effect affecting the level of firm's fixed cost. The model estimates describe the pharmacies' profitability and the longrun market structure. Furthermore, using the estimates we can also assess the effect different policy measure on market structure, for instance the effect of entry subsidy, the relaxation of operation requirements that have cost impacts, or indirect subsidy through altering market characteristics. The next section provides information on the regulation of pharmacies in Germany and Europe and summarizes the observed market structure in the data. The third section describes the empirical model used for the analysis and outlines our estimation procedure. At this stage the model estimates on the competition effect and importance of firm heterogeneity and the entry fixed cost are still work in progress. The fourth section provides outlook on possible counterfactual exercises and conclude.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Markteintritt ; Pharmahandel ; Marktstruktur ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 42
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    Unknown
    Bath: University of Bath
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: This paper analyses the differences in the efficiency of using subsidies for franchised regional rail services between the federal states in Germany, and provides evidence on the impact of procurement strategies and contractual design on the efficient use of funds. The analysis is based on a 15-year panel data set at the level of the federal states and employs a two-stage efficiency analysis, including a DEA approach and a Tobit panel model. The analysis shows that a higher share of tendering, a higher share of gross contracts, and longer and smaller contracts were efficiency-enhancing factors in the period of analysis.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Eisenbahnverkehr ; Franchising ; Schienenverkehr ; Wirtschaftlichkeit ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 43
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    Zurich: ETH Zurich, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research
    Publication Date: 2017-11-29
    Description: We investigate the dynamic effects of interregional labor market integration on migration flows, capital formation, and the price for housing services. The co-evolution of these variables depends on initial conditions at the time of labor market integration. In an initially capital-poor economy, there may be a reversal of migration flows during the transition to the steady state, while housing costs are increasing over time. Although capital may accumulate while labor emigrates early in the transition, the causal effect of immigration on capital investments and housing costs is positive. We present new data on the evolution of net migration flows and rental rates for housing in East Germany after 1990. Our results are consistent with the presented evidence in the reverse migration scenario.
    Keywords: D90 ; F20 ; O10 ; ddc:330 ; Capital formation ; German reunification ; Housing services ; Labor market integration ; Reverse migration ; Nationale Einheit ; Regionale Arbeitsmobilität ; Arbeitsmarktintegration ; Dienstleistungssektor ; Investition ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F00 ; F50 ; ddc:330 ; Internationale Wirtschaftspolitik ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Türkei ; Deutschland ; Eurozone
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F34 ; F50 ; G01 ; ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftskrise ; Finanzkrise ; EU-Mitgliedschaft ; EU-Staaten ; Türkei ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F22 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Migrationspolitik ; Migranten ; Flüchtlinge ; Asylrecht ; Migrationsökonomie ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 47
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F22 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Migrationspolitik ; Migranten ; Flüchtlinge ; Asylrecht ; Migrationsökonomie ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 48
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F22 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Migrationspolitik ; Migranten ; Flüchtlinge ; Asylrecht ; Migrationsökonomie ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 49
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: D61 ; D64 ; F22 ; J10 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; Einwanderung ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Einwanderungsrecht ; Migrationspolitik ; Menschenrechte ; Ethnische Vielfalt ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 50
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: L26 ; O10 ; ddc:330 ; Unternehmen ; Unternehmensgründung ; Konjunktur ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Arbeitsmarktstatistik ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 51
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: H60 ; H63 ; ddc:330 ; Öffentliche Schulden ; Gruppenentscheidung ; Externer Effekt ; Gläubiger ; Deutschland ; Schweiz ; USA ; Eurozone
    Language: English
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  • 52
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: L62 ; Q55 ; ddc:330 ; Elektrofahrzeug ; Kfz-Industrie ; Subvention ; Strategie ; Deutschland ; Bayern
    Language: English
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  • 53
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F22 ; N00 ; ddc:330 ; Flüchtlinge ; Migranten ; Zeitgeschichte ; Deutschland ; Europa
    Language: English
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  • 54
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    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: This volume includes five self-contained chapters in the fields of public debt and fiscal transfer schemes. After an introduction to the topic, chapter 2 shows that the institutional setting of fiscal policy making needs to be considered when assessing the sustainability of fiscal policy. Using data for the U.S. and German state governments, the results of fiscal sustainability tests depend on whether fiscal transfers are taken into account. If fiscal transfers are not included in the primary surplus, the test results do not indicate that the U.S. and German state governments pursued sustainable fiscal policies. Chapter 3 examines whether the municipalities' voting behavior in state elections in a German state influenced the distribution of discretionary grants from the state level to the municipalities. The results show that discretionary grants were awarded to municipalities with many core supporters of the incumbent state government. In Chapter 4, a test on explosive time-series behavior is applied to the Target balances of the German Bundesbank. Chapter 5 examines whether electoral motives in OECD countries influenced “creative accounting” by the governments as measured by stock-flow adjustments (the difference between budget deficits and the change in public debt). Governments can engage in creative accounting to hide borrowing and sugarcoat the budget balance. The results show that stock-flow adjustments increased before elections. In Germany, stock-flow adjustments chiefly occurred via the creation of off-budget special funds that governments can use to finance public activities outside the core budget. Chapter 6 describes special funds in Germany and elaborates upon the purposes for which special funds were established. It discusses the extent to which the new German debt brake limits the borrowing of special funds and explains how the debt brake can be circumvented by using special funds.
    Keywords: C22 ; C23 ; D72 ; E62 ; H60 ; H70 ; P16 ; ddc:330 ; Public debt ; fiscal sustainability ; institutions ; fiscal transfers ; intergovernmental grants ; discretionary grants ; fiscal equalization ; hidden debt ; creative accounting ; stockflow adjustments ; electoral motives ; political business cycles. ; Öffentliche Schulden ; Neue politische Ökonomie ; Finanzausgleich ; Parafiskus ; Haushaltskonsolidierung ; Clearing ; Wahlverhalten ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: This volume was prepared by Julian Dieler while he was working with the Center for Energy, Climate and exhaustible Resources at the Ifo Institute for Economic Research. At the latest since the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 climate policies are permanently on the international policy agenda. And the urgency to find effective and feasible strategies to curb greenhouse gas emissions increases as the carbon budget to reach the 2°C goal will be exhausted in 2045 according to current estimations by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Therefore decision-makers should be provided with thorough knowledge of climate policies and their effects by the scientific community. This thesis contributes to the scientific discourse by analyzing the effectiveness and the development of climate policies. Chapter 1 analyzes the degree of effectiveness of gasoline and diesel taxes in Europe by estimating price and tax elasticities of fuel demand. The price or the tax elasticity is a typical measure to assess the effectiveness of policies which are designed as price mechanisms. Besides the insights into the European motor fuel market the analysis led to the more general finding that anticipation effects have to be taken into account while analyzing the impact of a tax introduction or increase. Chapter 2 makes a further methodological contribution in the area of fuel demand estimation. Especially in case of analyzing micro-data an often encountered problem in demand estimation is the large number of zero-observations which poses problems for standard regression methods. The study which is the basis for Chapter 2 provides alternative empirical methods which constitute a remedy to the problem of zero-observations. Chapter 3 introduces a new climate policy indicator which provides information about the stringency of climate policies in the OECD countries and can serve itself as an input in empirical analyses because of its empirical foundation.
    Keywords: C01 ; C18 ; C21 ; C23 ; D12 ; H23 ; Q31 ; Q41 ; R41 ; ddc:330 ; Anticipation effect ; inventory effect ; fuel demand ; fuel price ; fuel tax price elasticities ; tax elasticities ; log of zero ; model comparison tests ; two-part models ; climate policies ; carbon price ; renewable subsidies ; energy taxation ; climate policy index ; Klimaschutz ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Wirtschaftsindikator ; Mineralölsteuer ; Benzinpreis ; Schätzung ; Deutschland ; OECD-Staaten