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  • Wirkungsanalyse  (13)
  • Tschechisch
  • Finnish  (8)
  • Czech  (4)
  • Romanian  (4)
  • 1
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this report, we re-assess the role of so-called job banks as mediators into the open labour market but also as employers of unemployed job-seekers. The focus is primarily on the unemployed who became job bank clients during 2013. We follow up the labour market situation of these individuals during one year’s timeahead, until the end of 2014. In the latter part of the report, we compare the main findings to those obtained for the unemployed having re-entered the labour market with the help of a job bank either in 2011 or 2012. We present two different sets of results concerning individuals’ near-future labour market experiences. The first set illustrates the development of their employment situation more generally both before and after employment via a job bank while the second set reports results obtained from using statistical evaluation methods. The results indicate that the labour market prospects of those having been employed via a job bank have, on average, been clearly better than for identical unemployed persons who did not use the services of a job bank. Moreover, those employed via a job bank often also seem to have faced better opportunities to stay employed. The results are the same irrespective of whether or not the job bank client‘s employment involves wage subsidies.
    Keywords: I38 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Job bank ; Employability ; Employment ; Active labour market policies ; Impact ; Evaluation ; Subsidies ; Youth ; Arbeitsvermittlung ; Arbeitsmarktintegration ; Aktivierende Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 2
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this report, we analyze the Finnish R&D tax incentive scheme of the years 2013 and 2014. Under the scheme, firms were eligible for double corporate tax deduction incentive on labor expenses incurred for undertaking R&D activities. Our report consists of a literature review, an empirical analysis of the Finnish register data, and an internet survey. We find that the scheme failed to reach its anticipated impact. The deduction was claimed far less than expected, the actual tax loss being only 8 % of the expected tax loss. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that the R&D tax incentive failed to reach clear, blind spots in the current Finnish, mainly direct-subsidy-based innovation system. Although the scheme’s design does not allow an unambiguous analysis of its impact on the R&D expenditure, our tentative results suggests that its impact remained rather small. The previous, international literature shows that the R&D tax incentives have an increasing effect on the R&D expenditures, but the impact tends not to exceed the amount of the tax subsidy. Based on our results it is unlikely that even a better-designed R&D tax deduction scheme would bring great value-added to the current, Finnish innovation system.
    Keywords: O38 ; H25 ; ddc:330 ; R&D ; Tax credits ; Forschungsfinanzierung ; Steuervergünstigung ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 3
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We analyse how alternative reforms of the student financial aid would influence average study duration, government expenditures, and tax revenues. We also consider the reform that has been proposed by the current government (in 2016) which consists of lowering the monthly student grant and decreasing the maximum eligibility period while increasing the maximum study grant. Our results are based on a structural model that describes the financial constraints and incentives faced by the students. The model is calibrated with register based panel data on students’ study progress, withdrawal of study grants and student loans, and wage income. According to the results, the reform proposed by the current government will reduce government expenditures on student aid by about 20 percent, which is close to the government’s target. However, the reform is also likely to increase the average study duration. The size of this effect depends on how willing the students are to take student loans.
    Keywords: D14 ; H24 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; Student financial aid ; Study duration ; Studienfinanzierung ; Studium ; Dauer ; Bildungspolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 4
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this report, we follow up the situation of individuals having re-entered the labour market with the help of a so-called job bank. The follow-up period extends over the next two years after their job-bank-mediated transition into the open labour market. We present two different sets of results concerning individuals’ near-future labour market experiences. The first set illustrates the development of their employment situation more generally while the second set reports results obtained from using statistical evaluation methods. The results show, inter alia, that the labour market prospects of those having been employed via a job bank have, on average, been clearly better than for identical individuals not having used the services of a job bank.
    Keywords: I38 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Job bank ; Employability ; Employment ; Active labour market policies ; Impact ; Evaluation ; Arbeitsmarktintegration ; Arbeitsvermittlung ; Erwerbstätigkeit ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 5
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Freizügigkeit ; Rumänen ; Wirkungsanalyse ; EU-Staaten ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 6
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We summarize and compare previous studies considering the impact of R&D subsidies on firm-level labor productivity. These studies conclude quite consistently that the subsidies provided by Tekes do not have statistically significant impact on its client firms’ labor productivity. These studies go astray from the outset, however, as they neither measure what Tekes is set out to do nor correspond to its stated missions. Furthermore, serious methodological issues remain unaddressed both by these studies and by the literature at large. Our findings call for extensive effort in developing a more appropriate tool box for evaluating the impacts of innovation policy.
    Keywords: L52 ; L53 ; O25 ; ddc:330 ; Tekes ; R&D subsidies ; Productivity ; Policy evaluation ; Forschungsfinanzierung ; Technologiepolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 7
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: A withdrawal of a member state from the EMU due to market pressure has been a rather popular topic in the public debate in recent years. However, the effects of a withdrawal have been analysed quantitatively surprisingly little. Discussions have been concentrated on the crisis countries, but as the Finnish economic difficulties have deepened also on Finland. In the report, the effects of the potential withdrawal of Greece, one of the weakest economies in the EMU, is studied first. In addition we try to sketch the economic effects of a withdrawal of the relatively more balanced Finland. The analysis is made using an international econometric model (NiGEM), where the global economy and the individual economies are described in a rather detailed way based on economic theory and past economic behaviour. Benefits and costs, measured with effects on the GDP, of a withdrawal are related in the short and particularly in the longer run to the ability of labour markets to achieve sustainable wage agreements and to the ability to keep the financial markets calm.
    Keywords: F45 ; F47 ; ddc:330 ; NiGEM ; Simulation ; EMU ; Grexit ; Fixit ; EU-Mitgliedschaft ; Exit-Strategie ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Simulation ; Griechenland ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 8
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The study "Perspectives of the Migration Policy in Romania's Current Demographic Context" belongs to the thematic series of papers dedicated to migration initiated by the European Institute of Romania. If initially the issue of migrations analysed the relationship between the Romanian migrants and the European common space ("Free Movement of People" - 2002, "The Migration Phenomenon in Romania from the Perspective of Romania's Adherence to the European Union" - 2004 and "European Perspectives on Asylum and Migration" - 2008), the new suggested themes sought to expand the migrations' topic. In this respect, after analysing and assessing the effects of external migrations in the context of free movement within the communitary space, the European Institute of Romania (EIR) suggests a new scientific challenge, which is also of public interest, namely the analysis of migrations and the relative policies in the context of profound transformations of demographic structures in Romania. The topicality of this issue is confirmed by the increasing interest shown by numerous representatives of the scientific environment, as well as by experts within public institutions or interested politicians. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Migration ; Freizügigkeit ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Migrationspolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 9
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The severity of the global financial crisis has highlighted major structural limits not only at the level of credit institutions' risk management strategies, but also in the financial safety net. There were very few rules at the onset of the international financial crisis, to determine the actions to be taken by the authorities in case of distressed banks. Lender of last resort funding by central banks, deposit guarantee schemes and the prudential regulatory framework, as they were before the crisis, failed to stem the propagation of systemic shock that spread to the entire European banking system, after the collapse of Lehman Brothers, in the mid-September 2008. The newly created situation showed that public authorities do not have adequate means to handle the situation of distressed banks on today's globalized markets. When a bank had been under stress, there was the risk of contaminating other financial institutions, including those beyond the borders of a country. During the systemic events, several major banks were in such a situation (Fortis, Lehman Brothers, Icelandic banks, Anglo Irish Bank, Dexia), which indicated that existing mechanisms were not effective, being necessary the design of additional elements, in order to allow a proper management of distressed financial institutions. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Finanztransaktionssteuer ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Öffentliche Finanzen
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 10
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2014-10-03
    Description: Práce se zaměřuje na podporu energie z fotovoltaických článků v České republice a výpočet nákladů plynoucích z podpory obnovitelných zdrojů energie. Česká republika se zavázala do roku 2020 zvýšit podíl obnovitelných zdrojů energie na spotřebě mezi lety 2010 a 2020 na 13 %. Tento nárůst nebude možný bez zvýšení nákladů, které budou především obsaženy v regulovaných složkách cen elektrické energie. Hlavním cílem autorů je tyto náklady odhadnout. Největší podíl příspěvku na obnovitelné zdroje bude spadat na podporu fotovoltaiky. Kumulované náklady obsažené v příspěvku na OZE, KVET a DZ přesáhnou 330 miliard korun v cenách roku 2010. Mimo samotného odhadu se práce zaměřuje na stručný popis fotovoltaického trhu v České republice a nástin jeho historického kontextu, potenciálu a budoucího vývoje. Práce shrnuje nejdůležitější prvky legislativy České republiky a Evropské unie. Samostatná analytická část je věnována analýze a výpočtu nákladů na podporu jednotlivých obnovitelných zdrojů včetně fotovoltaiky, kogenerace a druhotných zdrojů.
    Keywords: Q28 ; Q42 ; Q47 ; ddc:330 ; fotovoltaika ; FVE ; obnovitelné zdroje energie ; OZE ; energetická politika ; výkupní ceny ; Förderung erneuerbarer Energien ; Photovoltaik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Tschechische Republik
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 11
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: The study evaluates the impacts of EU climate policy on the emission allowance price, electricity prices, the competitiveness of industry and macroeconomic developments in the third EU emission trading period 2013–2020. The economic impacts of climate policy on Finland are compared to the impacts on the entire EU area. It turns out that due to its cold climate and heating energy demand, higher export intensity of the economy and higher energy intensity of the industry Finland pays a higher price for EU climate policy in terms of output and employment losses than the EU on average. The study examines the macroeconomic effects of climate policy also in the more distant future, assuming that climate policy is tightened further in the 2020s. Climate policy implemented by emission trading means that the long-term economic growth in the EU area depends essentially on emission-free electricity production, and no longer on other growth factors, such as the labour supply and productivity growth.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; EU emissions trading ; Macroeconomic impacts of emission reduction ; EU-Emissionshandel ; Umweltkosten ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 12
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: This paper analyses the justifications and stages of the elaboration of impact studies at the European level, focusing on the various working methods, be it 'impact matrix' or the 'logic of intervention', which may be adopted by law-makers, in order to improve the regulation mechanisms in the public administration field and shape up new ways in which they could be used. Attention is paid to the role and the utility of impact assessment in elaborating public policies, as well as to the importance of properly using analysis instruments, with a focus on the obstacles and risks associated to the impact assessment process, by comparing different approaches and working methods, from the European and OECD area. Various evaluation patterns from OECD and the EU are presented, with their peculiarities and challenges involved by their implementation, leading to the conclusion that the European assessment pattern is still far away from providing a universal impact analysis model due to the lack of efficient sanctioning mechanisms. The credibility of an impact assessment largely depends on its results, which means they need to be based on correct and updated information, which is at the same time transparent and easy to access and understand. The role of impact assessment and, by extension, of impact studies is to allow lawmakers to check up whether the implementation of existing regulations observes the established indicators, as well as whether the policy in question had reached its objective.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Politik ; Politische Entscheidung ; Politische Willensbildung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 13
    Book
    Book
    Berlin ; München [u.a.] : Langenscheidt
    Keywords: Tschechisch ; Deutsch ; Wörterbuch ; Tschechisch ; Deutsch
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: 1002 S. , 16 cm
    Edition: völlige Neubearb., 1. [Dr.]
    ISBN: 9783468113635 , 3468113633
    Series Statement: Langenscheidts Taschenwörterbücher
    DDC: 491.86331
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German , Czech
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  • 14
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    Unknown
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Tässä selvityksessä arvioidaan EU:n itälaajenemisen vaikutuksia Suomen tulevaan väestökehitykseen. Arviointia varten mallinnetaan ekonometrisesti Suomeen suuntautunutta nettosiirtolaisuutta Suomen ja läntisten teollisuusmaiden elintasoeron avulla. Ennustelaskelmissa tätä työvoiman kansainvälisen liikkuvuuden kannalta potentiaalista maaryhmää laajennetaan EU-hakijamailla. EU-hakijamaiden elintaso on huomattavasti alempi kuin Suomen elintaso, joten EU:n itälaajeneminen muuttaa siirtolaisuuskehityksemme kannalta merkityksellistä Suomen ja ulkomaiden välistä elintasoeroa huomattavasti nykyisestä. Eri maiden ja alueiden elintasoerojen kehitystä selittävän konvergenssimallin mukaan Baltian ja Itä-Euroopan maiden elintaso kohoaa tulevaisuudessa Suomeen verrattuna. Kapenemisestaan huolimatta Suomen ja näiden maiden elintasoero on kuitenkin vielä vuosikymmeniä niin suuri, että EU:n itälaajenemisen aikaansaama muuttoliikepotentiaali voi johtaa merkittävään ja pitkäaikaiseen meille suuntautuvaan siirtolaisvirtaan, kun rajat tälle muuttoliikkeelle avautuvat. Selvityksessä tehtyjen laskelmien mukaan EU:n itälaajeneminen johtaa Suomeen muuttavien lisäykseen enimmillään lähes 15000 hengellä vuosittain. Tällöin kokonaisnettomuutto Suomeen on lähes 20000 henkeä vuodessa. – Siirtolaisuus ; elintasoerojen konvergenssi
    Description: This study evaluates the impact of EU enlargement on population developments in Finland. The accession of Baltic and Eastern European countries to EU and free mobility of labour from these countries may lead to substantive migration to the present EU countries because of the large differences in standards of living. The evaluation is made by modelling econometrically the historical net immigration to Finland in relation to the difference in the standard of living between Finland and other OECD countries. This group of reference countries is enlarged by Baltic and Eastern European countries when forecasting future immigration to Finland. The convergence model of economic growth theory implies that the difference in the standard of living between Finland and the new EU countries will diminish gradually over time. However, the estimated convergence model implies that the difference will remain large for decades. This will lead to a long-lasting increase in net immigration to Finland. At its maximum immigration from the new EU countries will be about 15000 persons per year, which is about 0.3 percent of the Finnish population. Total net immigration to Finland will then be nearly 20000 persons per year. – Migration ; convergence in living standards
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; EU-Erweiterung ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Arbeitsmobilität ; Internationale Wanderung ; Lebensstandard ; Finnland ; Osteuropa
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 15
    Book
    Book
    Berlin ; München [u.a.] : Langenscheidt
    Keywords: Tschechisch ; Wörterbuch ; Deutsch ; Tschechisch ; Wörterbuch ; Deutsch
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: 1005 S.
    Edition: 2. Aufl.
    ISBN: 3468113617
    Series Statement: Langenscheidts Taschenwörterbücher
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German , Czech
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  • 16
    Book
    Book
    Leipzig : Verl. Enzyklopädie
    Keywords: Tschechisch ; Wörterbuch ; Deutsch ; Tschechisch ; Wörterbuch ; Deutsch
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: XVIII, 194 S.
    Edition: 10., unveränd. Aufl.
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: Czech , German
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