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  • EU-Staaten  (14)
  • Außenwirtschaftspolitik
  • Finnish  (8)
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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The aim of the study is to offer to decision-makers the necessary data regarding European policies of social inclusion for the Roma, with focus on the practices which have shown a positive impact in the fields of education, employment, housing and health, and to accompany the analysis with policy recommendations for a more efficient and effective action in promoting Roma inclusion. The second chapter, Social Inclusion Policies at the European Level: Mainstreaming versus Targeting offers a brief historical overview of the European policy framework within which social inclusion was conceptualised and its corresponding policies were articulated, along with preoccupations with the situation of the Roma, defined as a European minority subject to centuries-long discrimination. It reminds the reader the definition of „social inclusion” mentioned in European documents and connects the development of the concept and its corresponding social policies to the discourse on the risks of poverty and social exclusion, which can be found already in the 1984 documents of the Council of European Communities. The first part of the chapter presents the emergence and evolution of the Lisbon agenda (2000) and the Open Method of Coordination in the Domain of Social Policies (OMC) that became operational soon after, along with the main indicators aimed to measure the extent and depth of poverty and social exclusion in EU member states, i.e. the Laeken indicators and the currently employed AROPE indicator. It discusses the role of the European Platform against Poverty and Social Exclusion, launched in 2010 as part of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable development that fosters social inclusion. The Platform aims to stand for a political commitment of EU member states to promote social innovation and more efficient use of European funds for the objectives of social inclusion. Recently, the European Commission also recommended adding a series of social indicators (i.e. the rate of long term unemployment and the neither-in-work-nor-in-education rate among the youth) in the monitorization of the European common market. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Soziale Integration ; Roma-Bevölkerung ; EU-Politik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Freizügigkeit ; Rumänen ; Wirkungsanalyse ; EU-Staaten ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The present study aims, in the first part, to examine the trends evidenced at the level of international trade and extra-community trade flows and, at the same time, the new directions of the EU trade policy in relation with the rest of the world. In the second part, it brings to the forefront the main trends of the Romanian trade as well as the Romanian export competitiveness and ways towards their sustainable development. These issues are analyzed and presented in seven sections, as follows: I. Developments, trends and structural changes in international trade in goods II. Main characteristics of the extra-community trade in goods during 2000-2011. Romania's position in these exchanges III. EU trade policy and its impact on the Romanian foreign trade IV. General directions of the Romanian foreign trade during 2000-2011. Assessment of the Romanian export competitiveness. The role of FDI in promoting exports V. Benchmarking best practices in export support and promotion. Role played by national and international organizations VI. Challenges and perspectives of the Romanian exports VII. Ways towards sustainable export development. Role of the National Export Strategy. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Export ; Außenhandel ; EU-Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: European Union and the United States have decided to start negotiations over a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. Among other things, the agreement would include a reduction in trade and investment barriers as well as barriers against participation in public procurement projects. If successful, the Partnership agreement would constitute a considerable liberalisation of business activity in an area with 825 million inhabitants and about 45 per cent of world GDP when measured in current exchange rates. We review the transatlantic economic relations especially from the Finnish point of view using statistics, and existing empirical economic research on the effects of a transatlantic free-trade area. We have also made an enquiry to Finnish firms concerning the expected effects on their business activities of a Transatlantic Partnership. The expected effects are clearly positive.
    Keywords: F14 ; F15 ; F2 ; ddc:330 ; Economic integration ; Transatlantic economic relations ; Free trade ; Foreign direct investment ; Public procurement ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Freihandelszone ; EU-Staaten ; Auslandsinvestition ; Finnland ; USA
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The study analyses the price formation and market functionality of the Finnish food chain. A significant portion of the report consists of international comparisons. The main comparison countries are the so-called old EU countries (EU15) of Western Europe, the new EU countries (EU12) and the United States. Comparisons are also made with individual countries. After the international comparisons, the price formation of the food chain, degree of concentration, competition, and the position of small producers is analysed for Finland in more detail. The main findings of the study are as follows: 1) a significant reason for the high price of foodstuffs in Finland is the high VAT, 2) the price level without VAT was in 2005 a couple of per cent higher and in December 2009 about 7 per cent higher than the average in the old EU countries, but it is considerably higher than in the new EU countries and the United States, 3) In Finland the price level of foodstuffs is elevated by the weak agricultural competitiveness (northern location and small farm size); on the other hand, the competitiveness of the foodstuffs industry and the wholesale and retail trade is rather good, 4) measured in terms of price-cost margins, competition works in Finland just as well in agriculture, the foodstuffs industry and the wholesale and retail trade as it does in the food chain of the comparison countries, 5) the large share of the wholesale and retail trade in the Finnish food chain is attributable to higher transport costs than in the comparison countries, 6) in Finland the prices of foodstuffs have moved in the same direction as in comparison countries, albeit with a lag of a few months; in 2009 the prices of dairy products, butter and margarine, meat, fish products and food products nevertheless fell by considerably less than in the comparison countries and less than the development of producer prices would have indicated, 7) the foodstuffs industry and the wholesale and retail trade are concentrated sectors; enterprises nevertheless compete with each other and with imports, 8) the degree of concentration, agreement practices and price development should be monitored especially in product groups where consumer prices have not fallen in line with a decline in producer prices, 9) access of small producers to markets is important from the standpoint of competition and consumer choice; the position of small producers can best be improved by fostering the exchange of information within the chain.
    Keywords: C50 ; L1 ; L4 ; L66 ; L81 ; Q11 ; Q13 ; ddc:330 ; foodstuff prices ; food chain ; agriculture ; foodstuff industry ; retail and wholesale trade ; competition ; competitiveness ; small foodstuff producers ; Finland ; Nahrungsmittelgewerbe ; Wettbewerb ; Nahrungsmittelpreis ; Vergleich ; Finnland ; EU-Staaten ; USA
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; EU-Politik ; EU-Nachbarstaaten ; EU-Staaten ; Mittelmeerraum
    Language: Romanian
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  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: This paper examines the evolution of the EU's trade in services over the 2004-2008 period in comparison with its trade in goods. It aims to disentangle the main trends shaping the EU's services trade flows under the impact of increasing globalisation and the last two waves of EU enlargement. Relying on BoP trade statistics published by Eurostat and the WTO, it highlights the recent changes in the EU's services flows in terms of dynamics, composition, trade balance as well as patterns of specialisation and integration into the internal and global market. It also reveals the main trends prevailing in the evolution of extra and intra-EU trade flows, and their relevance for the process of economic integration within the EU. The purpose of the paper is to contribute to the discussion of the issues related to services trade in the EU since this topic is focusing to a far lesser extent the attention of current economic literature than trade in goods. Hence, our empirical investigation attempts to find the answers to the following questions: What is the significance of services trade flows for the EU as compared with trade in goods, and which is their role in the global economy? How relevant is trade in services from the perspective of European economic integration? What are the effects of the global financial and economic crisis on the EU's trade in services, and which are its future prospects? Following the answers to these questions, the paper is structured around five sections. The last one summarizes the main findings of the authors.
    Keywords: F14 ; F15 ; L80 ; O52 ; ddc:330 ; European Union ; trade in services ; trade in goods ; economic integration ; global financial and economic crisis ; Dienstleistungshandel ; Außenhandel mit Industriegütern ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Finanzkrise ; Wirtschaftskrise ; Regionale Wirtschaftsintegration ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
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  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: The study analyses the financial framework of the European Union in 2014-2020 and the prospects of Finland in this framework. The study is structured according to budget headlines the most central of which are the natural resources (agriculture and rural development), cohesion (regional and structural policies), and competitiveness. Scenarios concerning the future are built upon alternative developments in the composition of the budget. The development of Finland's net payment position is analysed using different assumptions of GDP growth. A central assumption in most scenarios is the fact that the budget shares of the natural resources and regional and structural policies will decline substantially, also giving room to cut the size of the budget. According to our study, Finland will be able to adjust to the changes in the structure of the budget. In the case of agriculture, an increase in the size of farms, productivity growth, and especially the assumed continued national agricultural support will have an outcome that the level of agricultural output does not change substantially. In regional policy, a decrease in the growth of or cuts in EU regional subsidies can be compensated for by national subsidies. The pressures for adjustment which Finland will face during the future financial framework will be decreased because during the current financial period Finland already experienced many adjustments. Finland will be able to respond to the growth of funding under the competitiveness headline, if the country will be able to develop capabilities to apply for research and other competitiveness funding.
    Keywords: O52 ; F53 ; F55 ; H87 ; Q18 ; R58 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; European Union ; Finland ; EU budget ; agricultural policy ; regional policy ; competitiveness ; research and development (R&D) ; EU-Finanzen ; EU-Staaten ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 9
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: This paper analyses the justifications and stages of the elaboration of impact studies at the European level, focusing on the various working methods, be it 'impact matrix' or the 'logic of intervention', which may be adopted by law-makers, in order to improve the regulation mechanisms in the public administration field and shape up new ways in which they could be used. Attention is paid to the role and the utility of impact assessment in elaborating public policies, as well as to the importance of properly using analysis instruments, with a focus on the obstacles and risks associated to the impact assessment process, by comparing different approaches and working methods, from the European and OECD area. Various evaluation patterns from OECD and the EU are presented, with their peculiarities and challenges involved by their implementation, leading to the conclusion that the European assessment pattern is still far away from providing a universal impact analysis model due to the lack of efficient sanctioning mechanisms. The credibility of an impact assessment largely depends on its results, which means they need to be based on correct and updated information, which is at the same time transparent and easy to access and understand. The role of impact assessment and, by extension, of impact studies is to allow lawmakers to check up whether the implementation of existing regulations observes the established indicators, as well as whether the policy in question had reached its objective.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Politik ; Politische Entscheidung ; Politische Willensbildung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
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  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: This paper describes the main features of a model developed for fore-casting economic developments, energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in the EU area and Finland as well as for simulating the economic impacts of EU climate policy. Climate policy analysis necessitates a model of the whole EU area, because CO2 emissions of the EU area emission trading sector determine the demand and price of emission allowances. The main conclusion from model simulations is that output and employment losses induced by EU climate policy in 2008-2012 will be more se-vere in a small open energy intensive economy like Finland than in the rest of the EU area. The negative impacts of EU climate policy on export competitiveness, exports and output volume in Finland will be strongest in the energy intensive industrial sec-tors which belong to the EU emission trading sector.
    Keywords: C5 ; E3 ; Q4 ; Q5 ; ddc:330 ; Greenhouse gas emissions ; economic impacts of emission reduction ; Treibhausgas ; Klimaveränderung ; Umweltschutz ; EU-Staaten ; Makroökonomischer Einfluss ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
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  • 11
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Stadtentwicklung ; Rumänien ; EU-Regionalpolitik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
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  • 12
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Tässä raportissa esitetään hiljattain valmistuneen EU-rahoitteisen tutkimushankkeen keskeisimpiä tuloksia. Hankkeen painopiste oli koulutuksen yksilöille tuottamassa taloudellisessa hyödyssä palkassa mitattuna sekä julkisen rahoituksen vaikutuksissa tähän yksityistaloudelliseen tuottoon. Tutkimustulokset perustuvat viidentoista Euroopan maan vertailuun. Tässä kirjoituksessa keskitytään Suomen menestymiseen muihin maihin verrattuna. Ylipäänsä Suomi näyttää sijoittuvan hyvin näissä kansainvälisissä tuottoasteen vertailuissa, mistä syystä Suomi muodostaa mielenkiintoisen poikkeuksen muista Pohjoismaista. Tulos on huomion arvoinen, koska Suomi edustaa “pohjoismaista mallia” siinä mielessä, että työmarkkinoilla esiintyvät palkkaerot ovat kansainvälisesti pienet ja julkisen sektorin osuus koulutusmenoista suuri. Raporttiin on lisäksi lisätty laskelmia nuorten työmarkkinatilanteen kehityksestä 1990-luvun turbulenteilla suomalaisilla työmarkkinoilla. Laskelmista ilmenee muun muassa se tosiasia, ettei edes korkeampi koulutus välttämättä suojaa työttömyydeltä ja siten syrjäytymisen riskiltä. Edelleen laskelmat osoittavat, että nuorten työttömyys tosin väheni kohti 1990-luvun loppua mutta samalla heidän todennäköisyytensä jäädä usemmaksi vuodeksi matalapalkkatasolle kasvoi selvästi.
    Description: This report draws together some of the main findings of a recently completed EU funded research project. The emphasis of the project was on exploring, on a comparative basis, private returns to education and the impact of public funding on these. The results cover 15 European countries. In this report the focus is on contrasting the Finnish situation against that in the other 14 countries. On the whole, Finland manages well in these international rate-of-return comparisons, and accordingly stands out as an interesting exception among the Nordic countries. Indeed, the finding is noteworthy because Finland represents the “Nordic model” in other crucial respects such as compressed wage structure and high share of public funding of education expenditure. The report also includes calculations concerning the labour market development of Finnish youths in the turbulent years of the 1990s. These calculations reveal that not even a higher education protects from unemployment and thus from the risk of marginalisation. Another important outcome is that although the unemployment rate declined among the youths towards the end of the decade, the propensity of young people of being locked for several years in low-paid jobs increased markedly. – education ; marginalisation ; rate of return ; public funding ; wage inequality
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; julkinen rahoitus ; koulutus ; palkkaerot ; syrjäytyminen ; tuotto ; Bildungsertrag ; Einkommensverteilung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Finnish
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  • 13
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Tässä muistiossa käsitellään EU:n itälaajenemisen vaikutuksia Suomen tuotantorakenteeseen. Tarkastelu jakautuu neljään osaan. Ensiksi tarkastellaan KIE-maiden integroitumista kohti EU:ta. Todetaan, että EU:n laajenemisen suhteen vallitsee merkittävä epäsymmetria siinä, että KIE-maiden ja EU:n välinen kauppa on merkitykseltään yli 15-kertainen KIE-maille verrattuna sen merkitykseen EU:lle, mikä aiheuttaa merkittävän epäsymmetrian laajenemisen hyötyjen kannalta. Toiseksi tarkastellaan ulkomaankauppaa, suoria sijoituksia ja kauppapolitiikan arkkitehtuuria. Suomi on merkittävässä määrin jo integroitunut KIE-maiden kanssa niin, että toimialojen väliset välituote-lopputuote –linkit ovat vahvat. Ne tarjoavat etuja suomalaisille yrityksille jatkossakin. Toisaalta ei ole odotettavissa, että sisämarkkinoiden laajeneminen siirtäisi merkittävästi tuotantoa EU:n sisämarkkinoiden ytimeen, koska tuotannon sijoittuminen perustuu Euroopassa suuressa määrin suhteelliseen etuun. Kolmanneksi tarkastellaan EU:n laajenemisen vaikutuksia Suomen heikkojen ja vahvojen tuotantoklustereiden kannalta. Herkkiä aloja, joille laajeneminen voi aiheuttaa sopeutumisongelmia, ovat elintarviketeollisuus ja maatalous, kuljetukset ja siellä erityisesti kuorma-autokuljetukset sekä rakentaminen. EU:n laajenemisesta aiheutuvat muutokset tarjoavat kuitenkin usein mahdollisuuksia suomalaisille yrityksille. Vahvat klusterimme kuten ICT voivat vallata uusia markkina-asemia, saada alihankkijoita, hyödyntää kustannuseroja jne. Lopuksi tarkastellaan tilannetta Suomen metsäklusterin kannalta. KIE-maat ovat sekä uhka että mahdollisuus. Ensinmainittu asiantila voi toteutua, jos KIE-maissa kapasiteettia laajennetaan merkittävästi. Mahdollisuus se on laajentuvana markkina-alueena sekä tuotteille että konetoimituksille. – EU ; itälaajeneminen ; ulkomaankauppa ; klusterit
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Intraindustrieller Handel ; EU-Erweiterung ; Handelsregionalismus ; EU-Staaten ; Osteuropa
    Language: Finnish
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  • 14
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Kioton pöytäkirjassa YK:n ilmastosopimukseen määritellään Euroopan unionille kasvihuonepäästöjen tavoitteeksi kahdeksan prosentin vähennys vuoteen 1990 verrattuna. Euroopan unionin sisäisessä taakanjaossa Suomelle sovittu kaavailtu kasvihuonepäästöjen tavoite on nollakasvu vuoteen 1990 verrattuna. Tavoitteen saavuttaminen edellyttää sekä teknisten että taloudellisten ratkaisujen käyttöä. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitetään laskennallisen yleisen tasapainon mallin avulla, minkälaisia kokonaistaloudellisia vaikutuksia aiheutuisi energiaverotuksen käytöstä osana ilmastopolitiikkaa. Tutkimuksessa arvioidaan myös eri energialajien verotuksen muuttamista EU:n komission ehdottamalle minimiverotasolle ja toisaalta sen yhdenmukaistamista. Energiaverotus vaikuttaa fossiilisten polttoaineiden käyttöön korottamalla niiden hintaa. Hinnannousu aiheuttaa fossiilisten polttoaineiden käytön vähentymistä ja siirtymistä vähäpäästöisempiin energialähteisiin. Se aiheuttaa toisaalta merkittäviä kustannuksia tuotantotoiminnalle. Laskelmien perusteella Suomen nykyisten hiilidioksidipäästöverojen kaksinkertaistaminen laskee kansantuotetta enimmillään 0.8 prosenttia vuoteen 2010 mennessä. Vaikutukset jäävät pienemmiksi, jos energiaverojen kasvanut kertymä palautetaan tuloveroja alentamalla. EU:n esitys eri energialajien minimiveroiksi edellyttää Suomelta vain dieselveron korotusta, mistä ei aiheudu suuria kansantuotevaikutuksia. Jos päästöverojen kattavuutta sen sijaan lisätään, kasvavat niiden kaksinkertaistamisen vaikutukset kansantuotteeseen selvästi ja voivat olla enimmillään yli kaksi prosenttia vuoden 2010 kansantuotteesta. Tutkimuksen perusteella energiaverotuksen korottaminen aiheuttaisi energiankäytön korvaamista työpanoksella ja pääomalla. Tästä aiheutuisi todellisuudessa lisäkustannuksia koulutuksen ja pääoman sopeutumisen kautta. Näitä kustannuksia ei mallissa kuitenkaan ole huomioitu.
    Description: The Kyoto Protocol sets the target for emissions of green house gas emissions for the European union at 92 per cent of 1990 levels. The targets for individual member countries are set in an EU agreement on burden sharing. The Finnish emissions target is the 1990 level of emissions. The attainment of this target requires both technological and economical measures to be taken. This uses a computable general equilibrium model to evaluate the macroeconomic effects arising from the use of energy taxes for CO2-emission abatement policies. The study also estimates the effects of introducing minimum energy taxes according to the draft proposal for a EU energy tax directive. Energy taxes affect the use of fossil fuels by raising their prices. Price rises induce both decreases in the demand for fossil fuels and an increase in the demand for nonfossil fuels. On the other hand, they may cause considerable costs for industry. According to the study, doubling the current Finnish emission taxes would cause a 0.8 per cent reduction in Finnish GDP by 2010. The effect may be smaller, if revenue from energy taxes is used to cut income taxes. The minimum tax-proposal only requires an increase in the tax for diesel fuel in Finland. All other energy taxes are already at or above the proposed minimum. Thus, the proposal would not cause large effects in Finland. The study finds that increased energy taxes would lead to a substitution of labour and capitla for energy. This would cause adjustment costs both in the form of schooling and investment, which have not been taken into account.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Kohlendioxid ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; Internationale Umweltpolitik ; EU-Staaten ; Finnland ; Makroökonomischer Einfluss
    Language: Finnish
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  • 15
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    Unknown
    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Kioton pöytäkirjassa YK:n ilmastosopimukseen määritellään Euroopan unionille kasvihuonepäästöjen tavoitteeksi kahdeksan prosentin vähennys vuoteen 1990 verrattuna. Euroopan unionin sisäisessä taakanjaossa Suomelle sovittu kaavailtu kasvihuonepäästöjen tavoite on nollakasvu vuoteen 1990 verrattuna. Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan kotimaista päästökauppaa osana ilmastopolitiikkaa. Tutkimuksessa arvioidaan kokonaistaloudellisen laskentamallin avulla erilaisin perustein toteutetun päästökaupan vaikutuksia Suomessa. Tarkastellut toteutusvaihtoehdot on valittu muissa Pohjoismaissa valittujen tai suunniteltujen kotimaisen päästökaupan toteutustapojen mukaisesti. Keskeisenä tavoitteena on selvittää päästöoikeuksien joko perintömenettelyn tai huutokaupan avulla toteutetun alkujaon ja päästökaupan laajuuden vaikutuksia Kioton sopimuksen mukaisen päästöjen rajoittamisen toteuttamiskustannuksiin. Tutkimuksen perusteella kotimainen päästökauppa pienentää aina päästöjen rajoittamisesta aiheutuvia kustannuksia ja hyvinvointitappioita perintömenettelyn avulla toteutetun päästökiintiöiden alkujaon yhteydessä verrattuna tilanteeseen ilman päästökauppaa. Huutokauppaan perustuvan päästökaupan yhteydessä hyvinvointitappio sen sijaan pienenee päästökaupan ansiosta vain niissä tapauksissa, joissa kansantuotteen laskukin pienenee. Suomen toimiessa muista maista riippumatta tällainen tapaus olisi sähkön- ja lämmöntuotannon käsittävä päästökauppa. Samanaikaisesti muiden maiden kanssa toteutettuna kotimainen päästökauppa ei yleensä paranna sen enempää kuluttajien hyvinvointia kuin kansantuotettakaan.
    Description: The Kyoto Protocol sets the target for emissions of green house gas emissions for the European union at 92 per cent of 1990 levels. The targets for individual member countries are set in an EU agreement on burden sharing. The Finnish emissions target is the 1990 level of emissions. This study examines the use of domestic emissions trading as part of green house gas abatement policy in Finland. A computable general equilibrium model is used to evaluate various emissions trading schemes. The schemes follow recent proposals from other Nordic countries and differ both in the allocation of emission quotas, as well as the number of industries that are entitled to participate in trading. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of emission trading based on either auctioned or grandfathered emission permits on the costs of Finnish abatement policies, when overall CO2-emissions are restricted to 1990 level. The study finds that emissions trading reduces the costs and welfare losses always, if quotas are allocated by grandfathering to all sectors of the economy. If quotas are allocated by auctions, domestic emissions trading reduces losses only in very few cases but can increase them in many others. Positive effects may occur if Finland were to introduce abatement policies independently of other countries, but not if Finland acts in concert with other countries.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Kohlendioxid ; Internationale Umweltpolitik ; Klimaschutz ; Internationaler Transfer ; EU-Staaten ; Finnland
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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