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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Freizügigkeit ; Rumänen ; Wirkungsanalyse ; EU-Staaten ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This paper describes the impact of the global crisis on China, the central and local level government responses and preferences it triggered as well as the consequences these reactions had on national and regional levels. It focuses on the immediate economic and general systemic reasons of the development of local indebtedness and that of the overheating generated by investment. It sheds light on the fact that despite the substantial evolution of the market economy in China, the state interventions to compensate the impact of the crisis activate the general and specific Chinese characteristics of party-states during the process. These specifics will determine the politically rational criteria in the distribution of resources, the accomodating investment behavior of actors and the characteristics of distribution according to the specifics of the Chinese power structure. It is the prevalence of these specific structural characteristics that will cause among others the penomena of local indebtedness, local economic overheating and the hardships in their central control.
    Keywords: F5 ; D78 ; R58 ; J08 ; 015 ; E24 ; ddc:330 ; local indebtedness ; crisis ; party-state system ; resource distribution ; state inter-vention ; overheating ; Wirtschaftskrise ; International ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Sachenrecht ; China
    Language: Hungarian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The study "Perspectives of the Migration Policy in Romania's Current Demographic Context" belongs to the thematic series of papers dedicated to migration initiated by the European Institute of Romania. If initially the issue of migrations analysed the relationship between the Romanian migrants and the European common space ("Free Movement of People" - 2002, "The Migration Phenomenon in Romania from the Perspective of Romania's Adherence to the European Union" - 2004 and "European Perspectives on Asylum and Migration" - 2008), the new suggested themes sought to expand the migrations' topic. In this respect, after analysing and assessing the effects of external migrations in the context of free movement within the communitary space, the European Institute of Romania (EIR) suggests a new scientific challenge, which is also of public interest, namely the analysis of migrations and the relative policies in the context of profound transformations of demographic structures in Romania. The topicality of this issue is confirmed by the increasing interest shown by numerous representatives of the scientific environment, as well as by experts within public institutions or interested politicians. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Migration ; Freizügigkeit ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Bevölkerungsentwicklung ; Migrationspolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The severity of the global financial crisis has highlighted major structural limits not only at the level of credit institutions' risk management strategies, but also in the financial safety net. There were very few rules at the onset of the international financial crisis, to determine the actions to be taken by the authorities in case of distressed banks. Lender of last resort funding by central banks, deposit guarantee schemes and the prudential regulatory framework, as they were before the crisis, failed to stem the propagation of systemic shock that spread to the entire European banking system, after the collapse of Lehman Brothers, in the mid-September 2008. The newly created situation showed that public authorities do not have adequate means to handle the situation of distressed banks on today's globalized markets. When a bank had been under stress, there was the risk of contaminating other financial institutions, including those beyond the borders of a country. During the systemic events, several major banks were in such a situation (Fortis, Lehman Brothers, Icelandic banks, Anglo Irish Bank, Dexia), which indicated that existing mechanisms were not effective, being necessary the design of additional elements, in order to allow a proper management of distressed financial institutions. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Finanztransaktionssteuer ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Öffentliche Finanzen
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The study aims to revisit some of the macroeconomic issues related to Hungary's eurozone-accession. The government postponed euro-adoption until 2020 without any explanation, which is one of the motivations of our analysis. We review the arguments formulated in 2000-2004 regarding the adoption of the euro by the profession, as well as the declarations and actual policies pursued by successive governments during the 2000-s. The study discusses the crisis within the euro area, the experiences of three central-east-European EU-countries having adopted the euro, and the modifications in EU economic governance, focusing at the implications for Hungary's euro-adoption. The main conclusion of the analysis is that, irrespective of when Hungary actually intends to join the eurozone, it is in the country's best interest to fulfil the requirements necessary for introducing the euro as early as possible. However, beyond the Maastricht-criteria, "internal" requirements have also to be met, involving the stabilisation of inflation expectations at a low level and, furthermore, that institutions and mechanisms be established, ensuring a close link between the evolution of productivity and wages. By declaring the will to meet these conditions, supported by actual policy measures, the credibility of economic policy could be enhanced and the conditions of economic convergence could be improved.
    Keywords: F33 ; F35 ; E58 ; E65 ; ddc:330 ; euro-adoption ; crisis in the eurozone ; country experiences in the eurozone ; economic governance in the EU ; Währungsumstellung ; Euro ; Eurozone ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Ungarn
    Language: Hungarian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: This paper aims at estimating the effect of the kindergarten allowance program (a conditional cash transfer program organized by the government) introduced in Hungary in January 2009. We use institutional kindergarten data and municipality-level demographic data spanning ten years (2001 through 2010), as well as administrative data from the program in 2009 and 2010. We estimate the effect of the program on the kindergarten attendance of children of age 3 and 4 in years 2009 and 2010. Our results indicate that the program had some modest positive effects. We point out several problems of program implementation that may be responsible for the modest effects. In particular, the estimated effects are largest in areas where kindergarten capacities are abundant relative to potential demand, and smaller where capacity constraints may be binding.
    Keywords: I20 ; I38 ; ddc:330 ; kindergarten ; conditional cash transfer ; program evaluation ; Hungary ; Bildungspolitik ; Kinderbetreuungseinrichtung ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Ungarn
    Language: Hungarian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2014-10-03
    Description: Práce se zaměřuje na podporu energie z fotovoltaických článků v České republice a výpočet nákladů plynoucích z podpory obnovitelných zdrojů energie. Česká republika se zavázala do roku 2020 zvýšit podíl obnovitelných zdrojů energie na spotřebě mezi lety 2010 a 2020 na 13 %. Tento nárůst nebude možný bez zvýšení nákladů, které budou především obsaženy v regulovaných složkách cen elektrické energie. Hlavním cílem autorů je tyto náklady odhadnout. Největší podíl příspěvku na obnovitelné zdroje bude spadat na podporu fotovoltaiky. Kumulované náklady obsažené v příspěvku na OZE, KVET a DZ přesáhnou 330 miliard korun v cenách roku 2010. Mimo samotného odhadu se práce zaměřuje na stručný popis fotovoltaického trhu v České republice a nástin jeho historického kontextu, potenciálu a budoucího vývoje. Práce shrnuje nejdůležitější prvky legislativy České republiky a Evropské unie. Samostatná analytická část je věnována analýze a výpočtu nákladů na podporu jednotlivých obnovitelných zdrojů včetně fotovoltaiky, kogenerace a druhotných zdrojů.
    Keywords: Q28 ; Q42 ; Q47 ; ddc:330 ; fotovoltaika ; FVE ; obnovitelné zdroje energie ; OZE ; energetická politika ; výkupní ceny ; Förderung erneuerbarer Energien ; Photovoltaik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Tschechische Republik
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The paper investigates the effect of teacher characteristics (experience, level of education attainment and credentials, gender) on the achievement of eighth grade students using matched student-teacher data from the 1999, 2003 and 2007 TIMSS surveys. The analysis covers European countries, thus contributing to the existing exclusively US-based literature. Non-random student-teacher matching is present in these countries, as well, similar to the US, and this can lead to biased estimates of teacher effects. We deal with this problem using a rich set of student level controls on the one hand, and applying a student fixed effect specification on the other. The results overall suggest that the lack of experience and a proper teacher education degree might drive down student achievement. However, there is a substantial heterogeneity among countries; teacher characteristics seem to matter only in less than half of the countries analysed. Even within this group the results are not robust in some cases, as the fixed-effect estimates are often non-significant. Nevertheless, where these are present, the teacher experience and credential effects are similar in magnitude to those in the US studies reporting strong effects. For Hungary the impact of teacher characteristics is ambiguous; significant only in some specifications.
    Keywords: I21 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; teacher experience ; teacher credentials ; student achievement ; TIMSS ; Lehrkräfte ; Qualifikation ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Studierende ; Bildungsniveau ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Hungarian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: Measuring non-cognitive skills in evaluations of education policy interventions is an increasingly important task. At the same time, choosing the adequate measures is difficult. Contrary to cognitive development, there is a shortage of reliable and valid measures of personality and behavioral traits that can be used in large scale longitudinal evaluations or in any other research contexts where time constraints limit the number of adoptable questionnaire items. Our study presents the theoretical background and the details of the design of the measurement instrument adopted in the evaluation of the education integration program launched by the National Integration Network (OOIH) of Hungary in 2003. It also demonstrates general points of the design of such measurement instruments. The results and methods of the impact evaluation research were criticized in a paper published (in Hungarian) in Magyar Tudomány, March 2010. This study answers the criticism on the measurement of non-cognitive skills. A separate study answers the criticism of sampling and methodology. In both papers we show that the critiques are unfounded.
    Keywords: I20 ; I38 ; C81 ; ddc:330 ; Bildungspolitik ; Bewertung ; Qualifikation ; Messung ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Ungarn
    Language: Hungarian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: The actors of economy and politics all over the world have long debated about the effect private equity investments make on economy. The debate focuses on the effect of a narrow group of private equity investments, namely, Leveraged Buyouts (LBO), while nobody questions the positive impact of venture capital investments in the early phase of the development of companies. Amidst the crisis, the question raised has a particular edge to it: is private equity indeed such an ownership model that is able to induce the permanent improvement of the companies purchased, or is it only simple financial engineering, which takes advantage of the tax allowances and merely rearranges incomes. All in all, research did not confirm that private equity investors cash in on huge yields through ripping off the portfolio companies. Nor do they prove that the buyouts have a negative effect on the growth or competitiveness of the sectors concerned, or that they would make the financial and economic systems unstable.
    Keywords: G24 ; G34 ; ddc:330 ; Venture Capital ; Private Equity ; Merger & Acquisition ; Corporate Restructuring ; Corporate Governance ; Private Equity ; Risikokapital ; Wirkungsanalyse
    Language: Hungarian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 11
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: This paper analyses the justifications and stages of the elaboration of impact studies at the European level, focusing on the various working methods, be it 'impact matrix' or the 'logic of intervention', which may be adopted by law-makers, in order to improve the regulation mechanisms in the public administration field and shape up new ways in which they could be used. Attention is paid to the role and the utility of impact assessment in elaborating public policies, as well as to the importance of properly using analysis instruments, with a focus on the obstacles and risks associated to the impact assessment process, by comparing different approaches and working methods, from the European and OECD area. Various evaluation patterns from OECD and the EU are presented, with their peculiarities and challenges involved by their implementation, leading to the conclusion that the European assessment pattern is still far away from providing a universal impact analysis model due to the lack of efficient sanctioning mechanisms. The credibility of an impact assessment largely depends on its results, which means they need to be based on correct and updated information, which is at the same time transparent and easy to access and understand. The role of impact assessment and, by extension, of impact studies is to allow lawmakers to check up whether the implementation of existing regulations observes the established indicators, as well as whether the policy in question had reached its objective.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Politik ; Politische Entscheidung ; Politische Willensbildung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 12
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economics
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: It is well known that the size of the informal (black or grey) economy causes serious fiscal problems for Hungary. This study makes an attempt to quantify the budgetary and macroeconomic effects of different ways of widening the formal sector (whitening”) with the help of a model. It turns out that if only negative incentives were involved (better enforcement scenario) the real effects would be painful: reduced disposable income and higher labor costs would result in lower consumption, exports, and, a fortiori, GDP growth. Obviously, unemployment would increase, and. less obviously, inflation would pick up. The tradeoff between the reduction of public debt and macroeconomic equilibrium seems to be quantitatively unfavourable. The major alternative policy option is a positive incentives scenario. The simplest measure consists of a substantial reduction in the comparatively large social security contribution rate. Its positive real effects (lower wage costs would lead to higher export growth, GDP and consumption) appear slowly, but after the second year their size would be apprehensible. However, the negative impact on the budget deficit is immediate, and though the real effects would turn the tide eventually, the initial public debt increase would worsen public indebtedness significantly within 2 years. Running scenarios under several behavioral” assumptions, but fixing the current structure of the government finances, we could not find any possibility to simultaneously improve macroeconomic performance and reduce public debt by using the social security contribution rate as the chief vehicle of reform. Combining the incentive scenario with improved enforcement (principally by raising the effective VAT rate) would ameliorate the situation as higher export growth would still be the decisive factor for GDP. On the other hand in this version higher inflation would constitute the main policy concern. Combining incentives with a cut in government investment spending is not necessarily alluring: it would require a very large reduction to undo the negative budgetary impact, while its negative demand effect would also undo the positive effects on GDP and consumption. To summarize: better enforcement alone would be a socially counterproductive way to reduce government debt. The incentive scenario would work out well in the long term, but it would certainly create short term budgetary, and therefore, longer term debt problems. To avoid this it must be combined with better enforcement and, possibly, with a significant expenditure cut.
    Keywords: E17 ; E62 ; E65 ; ddc:330 ; informal economy ; tax incentives ; quantitative macroeconomic modelling ; Schattenwirtschaft ; Informelle Wirtschaft ; Anreiz ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Ungarn
    Language: Hungarian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 13
    Book
    Book
    Berlin ; München [u.a.] : Langenscheidt
    Keywords: Tschechisch ; Deutsch ; Wörterbuch ; Tschechisch ; Deutsch
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: 1002 S. , 16 cm
    Edition: völlige Neubearb., 1. [Dr.]
    ISBN: 9783468113635 , 3468113633
    Series Statement: Langenscheidts Taschenwörterbücher
    DDC: 491.86331
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German , Czech
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  • 14
    Book
    Book
    Berlin ; München [u.a.] : Langenscheidt
    Keywords: Tschechisch ; Wörterbuch ; Deutsch ; Tschechisch ; Wörterbuch ; Deutsch
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: 1005 S.
    Edition: 2. Aufl.
    ISBN: 3468113617
    Series Statement: Langenscheidts Taschenwörterbücher
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German , Czech
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  • 15
    Book
    Book
    Leipzig : Verl. Enzyklopädie
    Keywords: Tschechisch ; Wörterbuch ; Deutsch ; Tschechisch ; Wörterbuch ; Deutsch
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: XVIII, 194 S.
    Edition: 10., unveränd. Aufl.
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: Czech , German
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