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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Lima ; Boston : Latinoamericana Editores | Lima : inti-SOL editores y distribuidores S.A. ; Año 1, no 1 (1er. semestre 1975)-
    Keywords: Zeitschrift
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
    Language: Spanish , Portuguese
    Note: Volltext auch als Teil einer Datenbank verfügbar
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press | Austin, Tex. | Pittsburgh, Pa. : LASA ; 1.1965 -
    Keywords: Lateinamerika ; Zeitschrift ; Lateinamerika
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    ISSN: 1542-4278
    URL: Volltext  (kostenfrei)
    URL: Volltext  (kostenfrei)
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
    Language: English , Spanish , Portuguese
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin ; New York : de Gruyter | München : Hueber | Madrid : Ed. Alcalá | Tübingen : Niemeyer ; 1.1969 - 3.1971[?]; N.F. 1.1974 - 3.1975; 4.[1975]; 5.1976(1980) - 6.1977(1980); 7.1978 -
    Keywords: Zeitschrift
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    ISSN: 1865-9039 , 1865-9039
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
    Language: German , Spanish , Portuguese
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  • 4
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: This Discussion Paper deals with the institutional and economic aspects of the Brazilian federative state according to the 1988 Constitution. The context of vertical coordination of urban infrastructure investments is then examined. Previous studies have shown that the benefits of economic efficiency in this type of investment between 2013 and 2015 - made possible by the Caixa Econômica Federal (CEF) intermediation and administration of federal resources - depended much on local institutional aspects of the federative coordination. Based on new evidence, the text examines the state of local execution of federal investment projects in the period 2015-2019. For this analysis, data gathered by the Tribunal de Contas da União (TCU) were used. The most recent performance of these projects is then evaluated vis-à-vis the performance of federal investments as a whole - and, particularly, vis-à-vis the performance of those projects listed in the (by now terminated) Programa de Aceleração Econômica (PAC). Thus, the consequences of an altered state of federative coordination on the economic efficiency of local investments are inferred. It is concluded that technical difficulties and budget restrictions due to an altered state of federative coordination strongly impacted (in a comprehensive and differentiated way) the performance of investments carried out with federal resources. Finally, it is recommended to regularize the financing of recoverable projects and to seek improvements in vertical coordination for the successful local execution of investments financed with federal resources.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; E61 ; E65 ; H11 ; H54 ; H60 ; H70 ; H73 ; H77 ; federalism ; federative coordination ; public investment ; local governments
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: From the 1980s to the present, transformations in the industrial structure of the states that make up the Midwest region drove industrial growth in this regional space. All of this was the result of a strategy to integrate this regional space into the national market and, from the 1990s, to international markets. Excess of raw material, proximity to consumer markets, tax incentives and benefits, public and private financing, labor in abundance, all of this played an important role in the increase of the industrial product of the Midwest. In this sense, the objective of this work is to describe the industrial structure of the Midwest region in what concerns the effects of the structural and differential components for the years 2007 to 2014. Therefore, the works of Rodrigo Simões, João Cerejeira e António de Matos highlight that the regions present sectorial differences in their industrial growth rates. Therefore, this paper will empirically test this evidence for the case of the states of the Midwest with the aim of verifying whether there is validity in this assertion. Roughly speaking, it is observed that the industrial sectors of Mato Grosso do Sul contributed positively to its industrial growth, as they presented a positive total net variation both for the structural component, as well as for the differential. Then came the industrial sectors of the state of Mato Grosso that contributed positively to the state's industrial growth, since the total net variation was positive, but with the structural component thinking positively and the differential component negatively. In the case of the state of Goiás, it can be seen that the industrial sectors that most contributed positively to industrial growth presented a positive total net variation, however, with the negative structural and differential components. And, finally, the industrial sectors of the Federal District that presented a positive total net variation , that is, that contributed, favorably, to the industrial growth of the state, in the period from 2007 to 2014, were those related to the structural component, to the whereas, the differential component did not have the strength to boost the industrial product of the Federal District above the national average.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; R11 ; regional development ; Midwest ; shift-share model
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 6
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: Regardless of their scope and nature, Public policies, government programs, or strategies for the modernization of the State involve the performance of public officials as one of their fundamental variables. Their motivations, perceptions, and adherence to specific practices and objectives are decisive factors in understanding how policies are adopted and implemented. It is the same in considering state governance policies. This study focuses on attitudes regarding the process of implementing risk management in federal agencies. The survey was based on the application of a questionnaire to a group of public servants occupying leadership positions in direct and indirect federal public administration - Direction and Superior Advice of levels 4 and 5. In total, 148 completed questionnaires were obtained. The survey encompassed a considerable scope of perceptions about organizational life and attitudes concerning everyday factors involving public servants' personal and professional challenges, especially regarding the internal and external locus of control construct. In conclusion, the research shows different profiles or orientations regarding a more significant engagement in tasks related to implementing risk management.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; M10 ; risk management ; public bureaucracy ; organizational psychology ; internal locus of control ; external locus of control
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Q13 ; L66 ; Landwirtschaft ; Agroindustrie ; Ländlicher Raum ; Agrarproduktion ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: The allocation of federal resources through parliamentary amendments (PA) to the Unified Health System (SUS) has been growing since the budget execution of these resources became mandatory, contributing to the reduction of the share of resources allocated to public health actions and services (ASPS) by the Ministry of Health (MS) programming. In addition, deficits in transparency in the budgetary-financial execution of these resources have made it difficult to account the expenses by areas of operation of the SUS. So, the objective of this text is to propose a method for estimating expenditure on public health actions and services (ASPS) through parliamentary amendments (PA) of the Ministry of Health (MoH), with each municipality favored, according to areas of resource allocation, from 2015 to 2020. It is a contribution to future studies on financing and public spending on health in Brazil. To this end, the methodological investigation was based on an exploratory analysis of the MoH budget-financial execution reports from 2015 to 2020. Three sources of information were used: i) Siga Brasil: information system on the Union budget, which is maintained by the Federal Senate; ii) an electronic spreadsheet provided by the National Health Fund (NHF), obtained from a request for access to information, containing data on execution by PA; and iii) the NHF Parliamentary Amendments Panel, which provides data on PA execution by the MoH on the internet. The procedures for identifying expenses by PA in Siga Brasil were detailed. The result of the report analysis of each these three sources was that, according to the criteria of accessibility, methodological clarity, coverage, and consistency, Siga Brasil is the most adequate source for obtaining information on expenses by PA of the MoH with each favored municipality. Procedures for estimating expenditure on primary and medium and high-complexity care for the period from 2015 to 2018 were proposed, obtaining, in the end, the expenditure by PA of the MoH with each municipality, according to these and other areas of resource allocation, for the entire period investigated (2015 to 2020). It is concluded that the proposed method is feasible and reproducible, but that problems in the registration of expenditures by the federal public administration affect the transparency and quality of information, especially for the years 2015 and 2016.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; H51 ; I18 ; health expenditures ; budgets ; health care rationing ; federal government ; Unified Health System
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: Public policies of national scope in the context of Brazilian federalism contain a diversity of challenges for their implementation, given the complexity of the contexts in which they face and the territorial magnitude of their scope. The theme of school feeding, structured around the National School Feeding Program (PNAE), present in all municipalities, is largely faced with these challenges. This study proposed to raise different administrative, political and institutional responses adopted, within the scope of the local application of federal resources transferred by the PNAE, to promote the purchase of food from family farming, pursuant to article 14 of Law No. 11,947/2009. For this purpose, four municipalities were chosen - Bonfinópolis de Minas and Brasilândia de Minas, in the state of Minas Gerais, and Ourém and Santa Izabel do Pará, in Pará - which, despite having similar geographic characteristics, record different performances in complying with this new rule. The cases analyzed express a set of methods aimed at understanding the dynamics surrounding the State in action, demonstrating concrete aspects of the challenges and potentials associated with the insertion of this public in institutional markets, while emphasizing possible factors for the potentialization of this instrument in Brazilian territory.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; H83 ; J23 ; school feeding ; family farming ; public administration ; federalism ; local development
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 10
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: The Constitutional Funds were established by art. 159, item I, paragraph c of the Federal Constitution of 1988 with the objective of contributing to the "reduction of inequalities" existing between the peripheral regions of the North, Northeast and Center-West vis-à-vis the central regions of the Southeast and South. In this sense, its role as a financier of productive investments in these peripheral regions has increased in recent decades. Thus, the objective of this investigation was to understand the profile of spatial associations in the cities of Goiás through some economic variables. Additionally, to verify how the variables FCO and GDP per capita behaved in certain regions with different profiles in the period from 2002 to 2018. Therefore, the argument woven in the work started from the premise that the productive structure of Goiás is marked, by its historical formation and economic, due to a structural heterogeneity that sets limits to the reach and depth that impulses from the modernization process can reach the productive systems of agricultural units and industrial sectors in the state of Goiás. quali-quantitative that aimed to unveil the regularities and uniformities of the phenomenon related to disbursements in the FCO in the productive structures of the immediate regions of Goiás in the period from 2002 to 2018. Finally, it is observed that, in nominal values, the directed resources of the FCO for the immediate regions in Goiás corroborate the evidence presented by the economic literature. what is about the FCO, that is, that they point to a concentration in those regional spaces with greater economic dynamism. On the other hand, when the behavior of these disbursements is observed, in terms of variations, it appears that, even marginally, FCO resources are stimulating changes in the productive structures of immediate regions that are still rooted in traditional and subsistence economies as is the case of Flores de Goiás.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; R11 ; Constitutional Fund of the Midwest ; structural heterogeneity ; Goiás
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 11
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: Technological innovation is considered an increasingly important factor for the sustainable use of natural resources. With technology, it may be possible to maintain the quantity produced of a given good by reducing pressure on the environment. However, the gain in efficiency in the direct use of natural resources does not necessarily mean a significant reduction in this pressure. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to be inserted in a sustainable production chain. That is, the efficiency gain must not only occur in the direct use of these resources, but also in the volume of natural resources needed to input used in this good production, the so-called indirect use. The objectives of this paper are to map the use of water along the supply chain in Brazil and to estimate the impacts of adopting less water-intensive technologies on total water intensity and water withdrawal. For this, the national input-output model was used for the year 2017. These impacts were estimated based on the hypothesis of the adoption of less water-intensive technologies by agriculture, industry and sanitation. Among the main results, it is highlighted that a considerable part of the total water intensity of economic activities refers to indirect intensity and the adoption of more efficient technologies in the use of water by some economic activities has the potential to reduce the total water intensity of other activities and to change the participation of different final consumers in the demand for embedded water in goods and services.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Q25 ; R15 ; Q55 ; technology ; water ; input-output model
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 12
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the evolution of wage inequality components in Brazil, specifically the evolution of the return to unobserved skills, in the period of 2003 to 2013. We use a method similar to that proposed by Cortes e Hidalgo-Pérez (2015), based on a hypothesis of invariance of the dispersion of unobserved skills for a group of workers who remain employed between two consecutive years. We incorporated two rules into this method. First, we allowed the evolution of wage inequality to be affected by unobservable characteristics of firms. Second, it considers different sets of workers for whom the hypothesis of invariance of the dispersion of skills not observed between two consecutive years would apply. Our results obtained from Rais-Identified data show that the first extension affects the results, which are robust to the alternatives considered for the second extension of the method. The results of our preferred specification point to a growth in the return (price) to unobserved skills, much more intense than what occurs without considering the influence of unobservable characteristics of firms on workers' wages.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; J31 ; J24 ; O15 ; wage inequality ; unobserved skills ; return to skills
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 13
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: This Discussion Paper analyzes the implementation of underground networks and their impacts on the energy and telecommunications sectors, through the main benefits, lessons learned regarding international benchmarking and an economic-financial analysis. The implementation of underground distribution networks is a reality all over the world and although the sharing of this infrastructure brings mutual benefits to the sectors involved, in Brazil the penetration of this type of grid remains quite low, mainly due to the high investment required. Regarding to the power quality, underground networks improve the system reliability, presenting better values of continuity indicators in relation to those of aerial networks. This improvement causes an economic gain for the electricity companies, reducing the cost of undistributed energy and the compensation paid to consumers due to violations on these indicators limits. Therefore, the current work presents a methodology to quantify the increase in billing for electricity companies due to the implementation of underground networks and compare the economic viability of this type of network in relation to aerial networks. For this, a hypothetical case study in ten different regions in Brazil is conducted in order to show how economic viability varies from region to region. The results showed that for regions with a very high load density and high values of energy interruptions, underground networks are more economically viable than the aerial ones.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; K23 ; K32 ; L94 ; L96 ; underground networks ; infrastructure sharing ; power quality ; reliability ; undistributed energy
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 14
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: Due to the growing importance of environmental policies in the United States of America and the European Union, including the impact on international trade, the authors propose a comparative analysis of the rules and institutions that govern the environmental issue in these two actors. After considering the concept of power in terms of environment and trade, the authors identify the impact of EU and US environmental measures on the international trading system. Subsequently, the text analyzes the two policies separately, identifying institutions and environmental rules, highlighting changes arising from the set of environmental measures recently announced by both. The article concludes that, despite important differences, especially in the way the two environmental policies are built internally, both have important similarities in the intentional connection between foreign trade and the environment, a characteristic exemplified in the simultaneity of the proposed border carbon tax, whose effects are uncertain for the environment and predictable for traditional industrial sectors in both markets.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; F18 ; environmental policy ; international trade ; WTO ; United States ; European Union ; border carbon tax
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 15
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: The main objective of this paper is to seek an explanation for the gap between the estimated remote work potential for Brazil and the remote work actually observed in the country. For this, at first, the teleworking potential is estimated based on the methodology of Dingel and Neiman (2020) applied to the Brazilian PNAD Contínua research based on the period prior to the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic. In the research's second stage, this potential is compared with remote work measurement provided by the PNAD Covid-19 survey, which was carried out between May and November 2020. A potential and effective telework gap was found, and we sought to investigate its causes based on the first PNAD Contínua interviews conducted in 2019, which contains information on people's domicile. The results indicate that about a fifth of workers in occupations that can be performed remotely live-in households without the necessary means to be in a home office, such as a computer with internet access or even continuous electricity. With this, the potential for remote work in the country was reestimated considering these factors and it went from 22.7% to 16.7%, significantly closer to that observed in May 2020, whose percentage was 13.3%.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; J21 ; J22 ; J01 ; Covid-19 ; remote work ; labor market
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 16
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: This study seeks, in a preliminary way, to evaluate national and international experiences in the use of cross-subsidies applied to transport infrastructure concessions with less commitment from the public budget. Alternatives to the adopted concession models are analyzed, such as the use of public funds, the concession through bundles of projects and clearing house systems, in order to identify the specificities, advantages and disadvantages of the selected models. We conclude that the improvement and strengthening of the Brazilian institutional framework with regard to fiscal management is essential to ensure the success of concession models involving cross-subsidy with the use of public resources.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; G32 ; L98 ; R42 ; transportation ; cross-subsidization ; public funds
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 17
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: The objective of this text is to identify different models of organization of pharmaceutical services (PS) in outpatient care and factors that influence this organization. A comparative analysis of the forms of PS organization in outpatient care adopted by 25 countries was carried out. To do so, the theoretical model proposed by the Pan American Health Organization (Paho) was based on the factors that influence its organization. For the characterization of the models, a table was elaborated that summarizes the relations between the main functions to be performed and the structures, policies and processes commonly used by the countries. Two factors that influence the models were investigated for being considered more relevant and for the availability of information, health policy and financing. The relationship between having a cooperation agreement with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the implementation of a specific model was also analyzed. Public documents and data were used to prepare the description of the PS organization in each country. These descriptions were processed with the support of the Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires (Iramuteq) software, enabling the identification of three different models of PS organization. A logistic regression analysis was performed using the RStudio software, finding as a predictor variable of one of the models the national per capita income in dollars per purchasing power parity (PPP). It is concluded that there are similarities in the execution by countries of various functions related to PS. However, differences related to the financing of medicines, the management of the logistics and the dispensation of medicines generate the three identified models, with the country's income being a relevant factor in determining the adoption of one of them.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; I1 ; pharmaceutical services ; health systems ; organizational models ; international cooperation
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 18
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: Investment Screening Mechanisms (ISM) are legal rules created to control and assess the entry of direct investments from foreign jurisdictions. This discussion paper is premised on the observation of a marked increase in the institutionalization and implementation of ISM in recent years, regardless of the type of domestic economy. It selects fifteen ISM for a descriptive analysis of their organizational structures and procedures, including: Australia, Canada, China, Germany, India, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Portugal, Russia, South Africa, Spain, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union. Although the criteria for controlling and evaluating foreign investment contains national security as a shared concern, this paper identifies a significant diversity regarding the profile of the institutions responsible for investment screening, including their scope and their procedures for assessment. As a final remark, the paper raised critical concerns about ISM based on its analysis and the literature.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; F21 ; G11 ; H00 ; H56 ; O16 ; O20 ; foreign investment ; screening mechanisms ; national security
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 19
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: Infrastructure is traditionally considered a necessary condition for a country's economic development. However, despite so many arguments in favor of the importance of infrastructure for productivity, growth and welfare, the empirical literature on the impact of infrastructure is controversial. This article first presents a systematic review of the literature on empirical growth models that incorporate infrastructure among their production factors. From this, a meta-analysis of these articles is carried out, based on a technique known as meta-regression. The meta-regression comprised 52 parameters in 41 articles that use a comparable methodology between 1983 and 2006, and provides public capital elasticities ranging from 13.0% to 17.1% (with a sample average of 15.9%).
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; E22 ; H54 ; infrastructure ; public capital ; public investment ; elasticity ; meta-analysis ; metaregression
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 20
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: The interaction between the sea and the economy gives this environment enormous strategic importance. The forms of economic exploitation are diverse and include sectors such as energy, fishing, tourism, transportation, biotechnology, and shipbuilding. For Brazil, country with an extensive coastline and vast maritime space, its relevance is especially evident. In this scenario, it is fundamental to elaborate public policies aimed at maritime economic activities. For this purpose, a survey of the numbers referring to such activities is essential for a correct understanding of their dimension. Thus, the objective of this text is to point out the importance of measuring in a continuous and systematic way the Brazilian Maritime GDP, through a specific methodology, as well as to identify the main motivation for this initiative. Based on the descriptive inference method and on bibliographic survey, it was possible to verify the need to use updated data to support the formulation of public policies and decision-making on the subject, as well as to broaden the debate within other actors, such as academia, private sector and civil society.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; H41 ; O13 ; O25 ; Q20 ; Q55 ; Q56 ; blue economy ; maritime GDP ; Blue Amazon ; maritime economy ; public policies ; Science ; Technology and Innovation
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 21
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: Ministries are government structures that are located at the intersection between cycles of public policies, political party relations and the organizational design of direct public administration. Despite their relevance, the trajectory of the ministries over time is poorly understood, with an explanatory gap persisting as to the factors that lead to the creation, stability, transformation and extinction of these structures. Faced with this gap, this Discussion Paper sought to address the following central question: is there an underlying pattern to the trajectory of ministerial structures in different countries? To this end, a comparative analysis of the trajectories of ministries pertaining to 21 countries over a period of thirty years (1990-2020) was undertaken, with the aim of capturing convergent and divergent dynamics in view of the political systems of the countries studied and the thematic areas of the ministries. Preliminary findings indicate that ministries are strongly prone to stability regardless of the political system of the country in question, while changes in competence are the most frequent category of transformation. In addition, the longest running ministries are those with thematic areas related to the structuring activities of the State, such as justice and foreign affairs
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D73 ; H11 ; ministry structures ; administrative organization ; institutional trajectory ; comparative analysis
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 22
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: The aim of the study is to estimate the effects of domestic support subsidies from third countries on Brazilian agricultural exports. The study contributes to the existing literature by applying to the dataset the subsidies provided by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for different levels of disaggregation of government support. The gravity model is applied to agricultural flows aggregated and disaggregated by products and to Brazilian and world exports, which allows comparison of results. When considering exports of all agribusiness products, the direct support to the producer (producer support estimate - PSE) has a negative effect on shipments from Brazil in the period analyzed. Considering the General services support estimate (GSSE) and consumer support estimate (CSE), which deal with general subsidies to the sector and support to consumers of agricultural products, respectively, they did not show statistical significance. Starting with a more detailed analysis at the sectoral level, the results were different for different sectors: in relation to soybeans, the main product in the Brazilian agricultural export basket, the product-specific subsidy (single commodity transfers - SCT) did not show statistical significance on Brazilian shipments. In addition, Brazil's corn, pork and beef exports appear to have a positive relationship with subsidies provided by competing countries, while sugar shipments appear to be negatively affected. In the Fisheries and Aquaculture sector, the unavailability of data affected the achievement of econometric results for Brazil, but when considering world exports, it was possible to observe a positive relationship between subsidies and exports, that is, the subsidies provided to fisheries and aquaculture by countries may have contributed to the increase in exports in this sector.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Q1 ; F1 ; subsidies ; domestic support ; trade policy ; exports
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 23
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: Deforestation is considered a highly undesirable practice due to the destruction of local biomes and its effects on global warming. Governments around the world are seeking to adopt measures to control this activity and the international trade in wood and derivatives. Brazil, with the second largest area of forest in the world, also has an arsenal of measures aimed at combating illegal deforestation and the export of these products. However, considering the period 2010 to 2020, it led the international ranking of average net loss of forest areas. The beef and soy export sectors were linked to deforestation in conservation areas and the target of international criticism of the production of commodities. In part, this is expressed in the increase in non-tariff measures issued by the US and the European Union regarding beef and soy. However, it is expected that this concern is also present for wood consumption. It is important that all countries establish strict control over deforestation, and strive in the same direction, regardless of the type of imported product.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; F18 ; Q27 ; wood ; deforestation ; non-tariff measures ; meat ; soybeans
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 24
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: This text details the technical procedures used in the construction of a panel data base of public servants and employees and military personnel working in the public administrations of Brazilian States. Six sets of procedures are presented. The first set deals with the extraction of the raw data on public servants and employees and military personnel of Brazilian States in the Relação Anual das Informações Sociais (Rais) database. The second deals with pairings of Rais data with the data available in the States's Transparency Portals. The third deals with imputations based on longitudinal analyses. The fourth deals with comparisons with data from alternative databases. The fifth deals with the estimation of the number of years each public servant/employee or member of the States military worked in the formal sector before getting their current jobs. Finally, the sixth deals with how the database itself is presented in R format.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C55 ; H11 ; J45 ; M5 ; the structure of public administration ; public servants ; military personnel ; state public administration ; panel data
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 25
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: In response to the Covid-19 pandemic, governments mobilized scientists to help them design, implement and evaluate policies. These scientists analysed the available scientific evidence and worked to incorporate it into policies, being in this way an essential interface between governments and scientific community. They played the role of "knowledge brokers", filtering, synthesizing or distilling scientific evidence from a broader universe of scientific knowledge - and transforming it into knowledge that could be directly used by governments. In Brazil, in a context of decentralized and fragmented policies against Covid-19, state governments created 69 scientific committees, groups of experts, or crisis committees. This work compares these institutional arrangements, assessing whether - and to what extent - they had the following characteristics: i) timely creation; ii) comprehensive and precise scope; iii) participation of experts; iv) interdisciplinarity; v) transparency; and vi) proximity to the political process. This work also investigates the use of information not based on scientific evidence in government policies or recommendations. These could be related to so-called "early treatment" of Covid-19, other forms of treatment or prevention of Covid-19 not based on scientific evidence, discouragement of social distancing, or support to herd immunity via disease transmission. I compared the characteristics of these institutional arrangements quantitatively, based on which I calculated an indicator that measures the extent to which Brazilian states adopted mechanisms that favoured the incorporation of scientific evidence into policies. Data indicate that most states created good mechanisms of knowledge brokerage. The states with the highest values in the indicator were Paraíba, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Espírito Santo, and Rio Grande do Norte. Other states, however, lacked good mechanisms, such as Alagoas, Amapá, Mato Grosso, and Roraima. Rio de Janeiro showed the greatest instability, having initially a good arrangement, but replacing it by other with limited capabilities. Also, institutional arrangements were better in some points than in others. On the one hand, most governments created these arrangements early in the pandemic, experts played a central role, and arrangements were usually influential. On the other hand, in many cases their scope was not comprehensive, they lacked precision, transparency was limited, and interdisciplinarity was weak. Interdisciplinarity was the weakest point (among those assessed) in state governments' institutional arrangements. Finally, there were in fifteen states policies or recommendations not based on scientific evidence, especially those related to the so-called "early treatment".
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; I18 ; covid-19 ; evidence-based policies ; knowledge brokers ; federalism ; policy evaluation ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 26
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: This paper estimates the dispersion of GDP per capita among Brazilian municipalities, from 1920 to 2016, and between it's states, from 1939 to 2017, by Gini index calculus. The results confirm Williamson's hypothesis (1965), that the dynamic of regional inequalities describe an inverted U pattern throughout national economic development, with an inequality peak at the year of 1970. Calculus for each of the five Brazilian macro-regions showed important different dynamics, and Gini index decomposition revealed major changes in wealth rankings among Brazilian municipalities, from 1920 to 1970.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; R11 ; C14 ; C82 ; N9 ; 047 ; regional inequalities ; economic development ; income convergency ; a century data analisys
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 27
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: High trade costs make it difficult to fully exploit comparative advantages and reduce the level of income. This paper estimates the cost of trade and its main determinants in the period 1995-2015 using information on domestic sales and exports by destination country of the input matrix product between OECD countries. The results indicate in this period the median cost of bilateral trade fell 8.7% in high-income countries, 14.9% in middle-income countries and 15.5% in low-income countries, and the drop was more pronounced in the period 1995-2005 than in the period 2005-2015. The tariff policy - unilateral or by trade agreements - and the management of the logistics chain are the instruments that cause the greatest impacts on trade costs.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; F13 ; trade cost ; tariff ; logistic chain
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 28
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: Policies aimed at favoring the attraction of FDI have been gaining strength on the agenda of national governments, largely supported by the so-called Investment Promotion Agencies (APIs). The purpose of this Discussion paper is to analyze the list of instruments adopted by such agencies. The methodology used in this research is based on bibliographic research, documentary research and analysis of secondary data. Based on the present study, it is possible to state that the range of mechanisms adopted by the APIs are not restricted to services that occur during the stages of definition and establishment of FDI projects, such as promoting visits to the place where the investment will take place and the promotion of working meetings with local stakeholders. This range also includes the provision of additional assistance, already after the implementation of MNCs in that location, in order to favor the decisions of expansions and reinvest ments made by such companies, such as the availability of a database of local suppliers and ombudsman services. This study also indicates the importance of APIs engaging in the creation and permanent review of strategic planning. Such document assumes the function of subsidizing the elaboration of the instruments of attraction and retention of FDI to be adopted by the Agencies. In addition, this Text for Discussion indicates the importance of the process of evaluating the policies practiced by the APIs, with a view to ascertaining the effectiveness of these policies, in addition to indicating the need for any adjustments, changes in priorities, as well as the range of instruments used.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; F21 ; G28 ; investment ; ombudsman ; foreign ; agency
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 29
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: This paper describes changes that occurred in the Brazilian tertiary education system considering information from household surveys and from administrative data collected by the Ministry of Education. A movement toward democratizing access occurred especially in public universities and in the period 2005-2015. As a result, a higher share of government investment in public universities has reached socially worse-off strata, and the public investments in tertiary education no longer contribute to increase income inequality.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; I0 ; I21 ; I23 ; I24 ; I28 ; inequality ; tertiary education ; social investment
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 30
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: This Discussion Paper addresses the main open government initiatives active in the Federal Government in 2019, in an attempt to trace the characteristics of the Brazilian scenario of internet use and promotion of transparency. After a theoretical discussion on the subject of digital democracy and its main sub-areas, this exploratory study presents the initiatives of the Secretariat of Digital Government of the Ministry of Economy; the Federal Ombudsman's Office and the Directorate of Transparency and Social Control of the Comptroller General of the Union. In order to collect necessary information, interviews were conducted with managers and technicians responsible for these topics, followed by consultation of the documentation mentioned by them. In its conclusions, the study points out the central roles played by these bodies in the theme of open government and presents some preliminary hypotheses to be developed in future research.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; O33 ; H83 ; D73 ; digital democracy ; open government ; open data
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 31
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: This study aims to investigate the patterns and patterns of distribution of funds from the National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES) on industry and infrastructure, with emphasis on the sectorial and regional vectors of its performance in Brazil. The approach is based on the use of analytical, descriptive and statistical methods and based on data that are registered by the BNDES and the Annual List of Social Information (RAIS) for the period 2000-2018. The results suggested for the BNDES in the most recent period, expanded the financing of the Brazilian industry and infrastructure in all macro-regions, demonstrating, even on a modest scale, a process of deconcentration. As more consolidated industrial agglomerations, they still retain great relevance in the absorption of resources (both for industry and infrastructure) and are located, mainly, in the proximity of the main capitals and coastal strip. However, the results are evident when the BNDES carries out actions of smaller size agglomerations, mainly those belonging to regions targeted by the regional policy (North, Northeast and Midwest), a process that can be considered in the edition of new local productive arrangements.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; R11 ; G32 ; L50 ; O20 ; BNDES ; financing ; transformation industry ; infrastructure ; regional development
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 32
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: Between 2007 and 2018, federal agencies in Brazil confiscated around 1,300 cargoes of smuggled or counterfeit pesticides. These products are often described by industry bodies as more toxic than those legally traded or as ineffective against pests, but there is little information about this type of crime. This article presents a profile of this type of crime in Brazil, based on a dataset with 3,690 observations, drawn from information about confiscated pesticides in forensic reports from the Brazilian Federal Police. Based on evidence from this dataset, this article concludes that: the volume of pesticide smuggling is probably small when compared to the volume of pesticides consumed in Brazil; there is no evidence that smuggled products are more toxic than those traded in the legal market, although they may be of greater environmental risk; smuggled goods are rarely counterfeit; smuggling is caused by price differences rather than bans on the use of certain active ingredients; pesticides in unlabelled packings are more toxic than those in labelled packings; the main origin of smuggled pesticides is China, which commonly enter into Brazil through Paraguay and Uruguay; confiscations tend to grow in periods of pre-planting or planting; there is some evidence that organized groups are involved with this type of crime, but it is mainly conducted by petty smugglers. In summary, evidence indicates that pesticide smuggling does not bring substantial additional risks to public health, occupational health or the environment, besides those already observed in products bought in the legal pesticide market. Although smuggling must be repressed, this topic may be mainly of symbolic importance. In a context in which various actors within and outside the state mobilize in favour of greater restrictions on pesticides and higher levels of taxation on this sector, emphasising the potential negative consequences of smuggling contributes to associate the sector to a responsible behaviour and to expand their networks with government officials.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; K42 ; Q17 ; pesticides ; smuggling ; Brazil ; public health ; environment ; special interest groups
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 33
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; H54 ; Öffentliches Kreditprogramm ; Entwicklungsbank ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Ingenieurbüro ; Bauwirtschaft ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 34
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: This working paper investigates the Marshall Plan from an unprecedented angle: that of strategy formulation, policy design, and the coordination of policy implementation. Through an in-depth case study, the Marshall Plan proves to be a far-reaching experience that still brings to light chronic and crucial problems for those interested in ex ante policy analysis. The conclusion is that the plan can be reinterpreted as an approach to complex and multi-causal problems (wicked problems) in search of building integrated solutions and government action as coordinated as possible. The approach consists of striving for strategic definitions centered on the correct choice of priority problems and the identification of their causal chain. Around these definitions, the policy design seeks to balance short-term responses with attention to long-term causes. Such assumptions precede issues such as, for example, the efficient budget allocation and the optimization of administrative and regulatory resources - concerns which are more focused on consequences than on root causes. With these preliminaries guaranteed, the policy design establishes a policy governance with due command and central control over the strategy, but with managerial autonomy over the programs. It leaves an open part of the process of formulating alternatives so that they adjust to a decentralized and capillarized implementation, with a technical cooperation network that remains close to the street-level bureaucracy.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; H11 ; D04 ; B15 ; Marshall Plan ; policy design ; ex ante analysis of public policies ; economic history ; political economy
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 35
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: In this text for discussion, a synthesis of the trajectory of the line of research on the Regions of Influence of Brazilian Cities, developed by IBGE, whose content excels in the longevity, systematcity and timeliness of complex research that expresses the Brazilian urban network since the 1960s, is elaborated. In addition to history of this trajectory, some results and advances of the most recent research, available in 2018, are highlighted in the text. It highlights the importance of studies on urban hierarchy and regions of influence of cities, and general considerations are made about the historical and methodological aspects of research, with emphasis on quality and ease of access to the information produced. In the historical construction, it approaches that the improvement of operational procedures did not compromise methodological comparability and results, which ensured to follow the evolution, over time, of the positioning of each city on the scale of the urban network. Returning to the structuring of the urban network, the text presents the results of an exercise that sought to demarcate the changes and permanence of cities in the hierarchical scale throughout the analyzed period. There were also important changes in the variation of centrality levels, related to the rise or fall in rescheduling over the period. The international connections of the cities of the land border strip and the long-distance international connections of all cities also deserved to be highlighted in the text that is presented, for the novelty in the series of researches considered. Finally, the importance of the research and the firmness of IBGE in the production of a series of high quality and constant periodicity is renewed. It is emphasized how much its results point to the urgency of a reflection on the federative pact, since the socio-spatial dynamics increasingly ignore snow and borders.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; R11 ; R23 ; R58 ; Regic ; urban hierarchy ; urban network ; regions of influence of cities
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 36
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: This study investigates the performance of interest groups in standing committees from the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies, in the 2011-2015 legislature. It is based on the premise that two activities are the main strategies of these groups to influence the legislative process: corporate campaign financing and lobbying activities. For the empirical analysis, four committees were selected: Economic Development, Industry, Trade and Services (CDEICS); Agriculture, Livestock, Supply and Rural Development (CAPADR); Finance and Taxation (CFT); and Labor, Administration and Public Service (CTASP). The methodology involves network analysis and descriptive statistics. The results show that, within committees, the expression of organized interests was revealed in two ways. As for campaign financing, we observed in the CAPADR a bias in the financing of its members by companies from economic sectors potentially affected by its decisions. In the other committees, corporate funding is high, but the bias cannot be generalized. As for lobbying, we noticed the centrality of business interest groups in the policy networks formed around the committees. But the business community does not have equal centrality in all committees. In arenas such as the CTASP, businessmen lose prominence to the workers' central unions and to the powerful civil servants' unions. The protagonism of business groups, however, is verified in committees relevant to economic activity, such as the CDEICS and the CFT.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D72 ; campaign financing ; lobbying ; interest groups ; parliamentary committees ; Chamber of Deputies
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 37
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: The objective of this text is to analyze the contribution of the main drivers of the direct expenditure of the Ministry of Health (MS) in medicines that are part of the list of Pharmaceutical Assistance Programs (PAP) from 2010 to 2019. Acquisitions data included in the information system called SIASG were used. The drugs were categorized according to the ATC/DDD (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System/ Defined Daily Doses) of the World Health Organization. The physical units of purchase of the products were transformed into the number of defined daily doses (DDD) for each drug. And the unit price was converted to price per DDD. With the support of RStudio software version 1.3.1056 and the statistical package IndexNumR, the contribution of the main drivers of expenditure on medicines was measured: price, quantity, and residuals (therapeutic choices). The results show a wide variation in the expenditure of the Ministry of Health on medicines in the list of PAP from 2010 to 2019, with a greater or lesser contribution of each main driver in the observed oscillation. However, it is important to note the expenditure reduction in some years, mainly driven by a decrease in the quantity of drugs purchased in two consecutive years, which may result in a drop in the availability of these products in the Unified Health System.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; H51 ; drug expenditure ; drivers ; pharmaceutical preparations ; Unified Health System ; health expenditures
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 38
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: This paper discusses the interruption of teaching and learning activities at Brazilian federal universities at the time the Covid-19 pandemic broke out, as well as the extent to which the lack of access to the internet would prohibit remote resumption of those activities. Political-educational strategies in line with WHO recommendations are addressed. Then the universities' immediate responses to the necessary suspension of face-to-face activities are debated. Finally, official data are used to estimate the numbers of higher education students without internet access at home. Given that 98% are connected to the internet, it is rather a matter of ensuring internet access and e-skills to those few who are not - there seem to be no consistent justifications for persisting with the interruption. Emergency remote teaching (ERT) boosts amid the pandemic but it is blended learning methodologies that tend to perpetuate in the aftermath of Covid-19 - sooner or later requiring new attitudes and strategies from the Brazilian federal universities. Universalizing internet access among its students does not suffice, but it is a necessary and first-order condition to make ERT and blended learning possible at the universities. Along with the considerations about the resumption of classes during the pandemic and about the future of federal universities beyond the Covid-19 pandemic, the main contribution of this text is to present estimates of the size of the problem of lack of internet access at home among university students. As the estimates suggest, that is too small a problem to justify the complete and prolonged interruption of teaching and learning activities.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; I21 ; I23 ; I28 ; higher education ; access to the internet ; blended learning ; Covid-19
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 39
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: The present work presents an analysis of rural education compared to the urban education to support the formulation of educational policies for the rural areas. This area suffered for many years with the absence of specific educational policies, especially since the 1960s, when agricultural modernization took place in the countryside. Despite some policies implemented over the years, mainly in the 2000s, the differentials are still striking between the two realities. For the analysis of education in the area, the most recent data from the School Census, National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) and Demographic Census were used. The work begins with a discussion on development and educational public policies in rural areas, followed by a brief history of education in the Brazilian field. The following sections present socioeconomic information on the rural population, considering income and education, the profile of Brazilian basic education and the results of the Basic Education Assessment System (Saeb), with a focus on rural results.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; I21 ; P25 ; rural development ; public policies ; rural education
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 40
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: This study investigates the pattern of overeducation among Brazilian graduates between 1980 and 2010. Making use of information from the last four population censuses, estimates show that changes in workers' demographic characteristics and shifts in the workers' distribution across fields of study represent around 30% of the 10 percentage points increase in the rate of overeducation verified during this three decades period. Although the distribution of workers across fields of study played an important role, the increase in the rate of overeducation would be substantial even if the workers' profile remained fixed at the 1980 level, when a quite small share of the Brazilian population had a graduate degree.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; J24 ; I21 ; I23 ; J11 ; overeducation ; tertiary education
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 41
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: In a pay-as-you-go system (SPR) receives contributions from active generations to finance the benefit of inactive people, making their financial balance depend on the proportion of inactive people in the population, a proportion that will double in Brazil in the next 30 years, making it inevitable to change the rules to mitigate the imbalance financial. In this system financial balance is achieved by increasing the contribution or reducing the benefit of agents, and these changes modify the rules of distribution, impacting agents born in the same cohort and in different cohorts differently. In this exercise, we are going to evaluate the SPR in force in Brazil in 2019/2020, where agents are heterogeneous, are inserted in a job market where there is informal employment and agents do not always contribute to social security, and there are rules that guarantee a value minimum for the benefit, and minimum income for the poor elderly. The model uses scenarios for the future evolution of productivity, the likelihood of contributing, education and demographics, to project the effect of different SPR rules on the financial results of each type of agent over the generations, and to project the financial imbalance SPR each year. To avoid the need for parametric reforms that are generally politically costly and time-consuming, we consider mechanisms for adjusting contributions and benefits that guarantee the financial balance they regulate, between active and inactive and between types of agents, the burden of canceling the imbalance.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; H55 ; H62 ; I24 ; breakdown pension ; deficit ; inequality
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 42
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: This paper presents a brief review of the main sociological theories on socioeconomic inequality between blacks and whites in Brazil, and indicators of racial income inequality for the period 1986-2019, based on the National Household Survey (PNAD). The indicators show that, despite all the change in racial relations in the period, such as the debunking of the myth of racial democracy, the growing appreciation of blackness and the greater denunciation and repudiation of racism and discrimination, in the income dimension there was only a tiny reduction of inequality. Racial income inequality persists without substantive upheavals. The average income of whites is at least twice that of blacks, and this difference, according to the decomposition of the Theil L indicator, accounts for 11% of the Brazilian income inequality. The contribution of income inequality among blacks to total inequality in Brazil increased, together with the share of the population that declares being preto and pardo in the PNAD, which became the majority in the period.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; I30 ; J15 ; J62 ; J71 ; racial inequality ; income inequality ; PNAD ; PNAD Contínua
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 43
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: This text aims to analyze the evolution of employment in Brazil, taking as reference the periods 2000-2014 and 2015-2018. It addresses the current situation and the evolution of formal employment in Brazil, through a regional and multiscale analysis, according to the basic principles recommended by the National Policy for Regional Development (PNDR). It seeks to analyze the performance of the Brazilian labor market at different scales, such as macro-regions or by urban hierarchy, in addition to conducting a regionalized sectorial analysis. However, its emphasis is on the level of the geographic micro-regions (MRG) of IBGE, with special attention to the Sub-regional Typology of the PNDR. The text discusses the determinations that acted on the Brazilian regional dynamics and its labor market in the period. In the second section, the movement of the Brazilian economy is analyzed in its macroeconomic dimension and in its regional repercussions, and it seeks to assess its impacts on the labor market. In the third and fourth sections, the labor market is analyzed at different levels of regional aggregation. In the third section, look at the labor market indicators for the Brazilian MRGs, based on data from the IBGE demographic censuses, for the years 2000 and 2010, and has the PNDR typology as a reference. In the fourth section, an analysis is made of the evolution of formal employment in Brazil, between the years 2002 to 2014 and 2015 to 2018. In this part, we consider the macro-regions, micro-regions, and the position of urban centers in the urban-regional hierarchy.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; J21 ; R11 ; R23 ; economic growth ; regional economy ; formal employment ; labor market ; National Policy for Regional Development (PNDR)
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 44
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-11
    Description: This text investigates how public policies focused on racial equality were inserted in the governmental agenda and how they were implemented by the Brazilian federal government from 2000 to 2014. The research strategy was a case study, using process tracing to analyze the facts in this period. Based on this tool, a timeline was developed, consisting of three periods and a background section. The first period (2000 to 2002) refers to the time of preparation for the Durban Conference in 2001 and its immediate effects. In the second period (2003-2009), the institutionalization of the racial equality policy within the federal government was marked by the rise of the government of the Workers' Party (PT) and by the creation of a dedicated department on ministerial level - Secretaria de Políticas de Promoção da Igualdade Racial (the Secretariat of Policies for the Promotion of Racial Equality). The last period (2010-2014) incorporates the policy consolidation, in which developed norms and decisions established the legitimacy of the undertaken policies and allowed their expansion. To investigate each period in relation to the stated aims, questions and assumptions, the research was divided into three non-linear steps. In the first stage, the focus is to trace the timeline, with the main events of each period and with the main causal mechanisms that led to the institutional change. The second stage focuses on qualifying the institutional change, characterizing its main aspects. In the third stage, it tries to identify how the categories of the various protagonists, contexts and institutions acted in the process of institutional change. The investigation was based on documental, bibliographical and interview research. It is concluded that the process of insertion of racial equality policies in the Brazilian federal government in the period from 2000 to 2014 was promoted by causal mechanisms such as international pressure, institutional tension and normative validation, configuring a layered institutional change trajectory, which also lead towards processes of change by conversion and by drift.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Z18 ; racial equality ; institutional change ; causal mechanisms ; process tracing
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 45
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-10-08
    Description: Except for Brazil, Latin American countries considerably expanded their bilateral investment treaties (BITs) networks during the 1990s in an attempt to expand FDI inflows. Although the theory on the subject predicts a positive relationship between the inflow of FDI and the conclusion of these agreements, the empirical literature is not conclusive about what impacts TBIs have on FDI, making uncertain the effects that these agreements have had on investment decisions in the region. This article contributes to the literature by analyzing the extent to which these agreements have contributed to the volume of greenfield FDI in Latin American countries. A gravitational model has been estimated for this purpose and the results indicate that for Latin American countries TBIs have no statistically significant effect on FDI. The size of economies, economic growth, trade openness, the similarity in return on capital has explained why this type of FDI has been directed to countries in the region. It was also evident that countries with better regulatory quality attract more FDI. Countries that have ratified most TBI have responded to some claims in arbitration courts have their investment flows reduced. Finally, taking into account sectoral fixed effects, the estimation of the gravitational model suggested that TBIs have no positive effect on investments in the industrial, services and natural resource extraction sectors.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; F21 ; F23 ; F53 ; O16 ; C33 ; investment treaties ; FDI ; gravity model
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 46
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-10-08
    Description: The reform process in the energy sector in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and in emerging countries started in the 1990s, aimed at reducing the role of the state as a shareholder, but not in its function as coordinator, regulator and planner. Also, it should be stressed that the transition to a low carbon economy in the 21th century has enlarged the state's agenda, in particular towards reaching the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 7: Acessible and clean energy. The state remains an important actor in the energy sector, in the search for energy security, efficiency and sustainability. As a first step, this study attempts at defining the rationality, the participation and the diversity associated with the state in the energy sector, at the same time suggesting the beneficial effects of the state-private sector partnership. In a second instance, the PMR OECD database is analysed for the energy sector, in the light of the reforms and governance structures for selected countries, at the same time establishing a parallel with Brazil's performance in terms of state ownership, regulatory aspects and liberalization degree.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Q48 ; energy sector ; reforms ; efficiency ; sustainability ; security
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 47
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-10-08
    Description: The last three decades have witnessed important changes in transportation, communication and data processing, with effects over productive processes, trade flows and the international movement of capital. From the viewpoint of developing economies this led to the recommendation of adhering to this process as a tool to foster economic and social development. As for the Brazilian economy, its participation in the process of globalization has been limited so far, except for the movement of capital. Its share in total merchandise trade is low, as is the number of preferential trade agreements. It has not been possible to reduce the 'economic distance' towards the high-income economies.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; F13 ; F21 ; F43 ; F50 ; O57 ; globalization ; deglobalization ; economic development ; convergence
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 48
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-10-08
    Description: This paper aims to investigate earnings losses of workers who become unemployed in Brazil, comparing the results for different stages of the business cycle. Estimates using longitudinal data from the continuous PNAD for the period between 2012 and 2017 show that workers who transited from employment to unemployment and were reemployed during a period of strong labor market conditions experienced small and usually non-signifi cant earnings declines. However, earnings losses are estimated between 10% and 15% for those who became unemployed and were able to fi nd a new job under weak labor market conditions. Part of this reduction seems to be due to the workers fl ow to jobs in the informal sector, which is higher during periods of high unemployment rates compared to times of better labor market conditions.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; J30 ; J63 ; E24 ; unemployment ; labor earnings ; labor market conditions
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 49
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-10-08
    Description: The cultivation of arboreal cotton, which represented almost a quarter of the national production and occupied half of the area harvested in the 1970s, was practically extinct, while the production of herbaceous cotton grew and consolidated since the 2000s. This study evaluated the productivity of herbaceous cotton from 1974 to 2019, a period in which the country minimized external dependence and became a reference in the international market, accounting for 15.6% of world exports. An attempt was made to verify a possible structural break in productivity. The weevil plague, the optimization of natural resources and technological improvement, as well as the creation of producer organizations and associations, stimulated the productive restructuring, in which the production units were relocated in the territory. The results indicated that productivity changed in intercept and trend in 1999. The annual growth rate was 2.03% before and 2.43% afterward. The level change was 81.91%. Institutional and productive transformations were responsible for productivity gains, which allowed for productive expansion and contributed to a land-saving effect of 12.2 million hectares over time.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Q1 ; O4 ; R1 ; cotton crop ; productive restructuring ; structural rupture ; productivity
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 50
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-10-08
    Description: This paper results from the project "Brazil's external agenda for Africa: evaluations and proposals", within which we analyze Brazil's performance in the international investment facilitation and protection regime, in order to take stock of the effects of the new Agreement of Cooperation and Investment Facilitation (ACFI) for Brazilian investments in Angola and Mozambique. We present the historical context of the emergence of bilateral investment treaties; the growing criticism of a political, economic and social nature about the effects of the treaties on public policies of the signatory countries, as well as the current context of reforms of the agreement models, in which the Brazilian ACFI is placed; the insertion of African countries in the international investment regime, with their domestic, bilateral and regional legislative framework to facilitate and protect foreign investment; and, finally, we provide an overview of public policies relevant to foreign investment in Angola and Mozambique, showing a comparative chart of the ACFI signed with Brazil and the other bilateral investment treaties in force in each of these countries.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; F53 ; F55 ; F59 ; F63 ; foreign direct investment ; bilateral investment treaties ; Brazil ; Africa
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 51
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-10-08
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; E51 ; G21 ; O43 ; R58 ; Entwicklungsbank ; Kreditgeschäft ; Räumliche Verteilung ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 52
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-10-08
    Description: This paper assesses the Brazilian National Defense Policy considering the objectives established by the National Defense Policy (PDN), the National Defense Strategy (END) and the National Defense White Paper (LBDN). It seeks to clarify whether the goals listed in such documents have been achieved, especially with regard to technological autonomy and the strengthening of the Industrial Defense Base (IDB) in Brazil. To this end, we analyzed the sector's budget allocation as provided by the 2016-2019 Pluriannual Plan (PPA), relating actions, objectives and targets to the Ministry of Defense (MD) Strategic Programs. It is concluded that, despite the adverse economic situation registered in the country over the period, there was a growth in investments in projects with relatively high technological content. However, the research also showed that the same trend did not occur in areas equally important for National Defense, such as the nuclear and space sectors.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; H56 ; H61 ; O21 ; O22 ; National Defense Policy ; Pluriannual Plan ; defense budget ; technological innovation ; strategy
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 53
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-10-08
    Description: The economies of the Midwest region, since the 1990s, have been undergoing a change in their development style, as external factors have become more pulsating vis-à-vis internal factors as determinants in the transformation of productive structures of this regional space. More connected to international markets, these local economies accelerated the process of modernizing their productive structures, but without breaking with their condition of underdevelopment. It is in this context that the whole plot of this investigation is woven, that is, to verify whether there is any reduction in the gap between the average labor productivity of the industrial sectors due to competitiveness factors in the states that form the Midwest region vis-à-vis the state of São Paulo in the period from 1996 to 2016. For this purpose, the historical-structural method is adopted as a means to test and validate the empirical evidence that the average productivity differential of the industrial sectors due to centralostatic competitiveness factors vis-à-vis -vis to the state of São Paulo has been decreasing in the interstitium from 1996 to 2016. In this sense, the industrial sectors due to competitiveness factors in the Midwest region that showed greater convergence in terms of industrial labor productivity vis-à-vis the state from São Paulo were those based on natural resources, differentiated, intensive in scale and intensive in work. With the exception of the Federal District, no state in the Midwest showed a reduction in the gap between the productivity differential of industrial work vis-à-vis the state of São Paulo in what concerns the science-based sector. Thus, it is important to underline that the degree of heterogeneity between the industrial sectors that constitute the states of the Midwest and São Paulo presented, in the interstitium from 1996 to 2016, a decline, since their values were closer to the average of each signaling, therefore, that the diffusion of technical progress has followed the path of greater interregional homogenization. However, it is important to emphasize that this did not mean that these states have overcome the duality between the companies that modernized and those that still remained clinging to the fetters of archaic and traditional techniques. This reinforces the technological dependence of this regional space in relation to the technological standard established in the central countries, since the states of the Midwest region have little capacity for endogenous generation of science, technology and innovation (CT&I). This fact reinforces the need to formulate state strategies in science, technology and innovation (ST&I) to reduce the dependence of these states vis-à-vis the technological innovations that are produced in central countries.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; R11 ; technical progress ; structural heterogeneity ; Midwest
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 54
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-10-08
    Description: The goal of the study is to analyze family farmers in Brazilian Northeast Region, based on a brief approach and the Pronaf insertion in that area. Exploratory analysis was developed based on 2017 agricultural census. Results highlight great number of agricultural units which raise animals or dedicated to some kind of farming, especially medium size animal, horticultural production and plant extractivism. There is notable family units and non-family units income disparity. In family units, agricultural activities from Pronaf farmers are the major income responsible, although income arising from non-agricultural activities cannot be denied. Other public policies deserve to be improved in that region, that is, infrastructure, rural extension, and agricultural insurance. There are several contingency factors especially relevant for local small and Pronaf producers, that is, the technological base and the guarantee assets asked for concluding the Pronaf loans. Moreover, local migratory process has diminished the number of young producers, a critical point for long-term Pronaf's impact and, fi nally yet importantly, the water disputes in Brazilian Northeast.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Q10 ; Q18 ; Brazil ; Northeast region ; agricultural ; Pronaf ; agricultural census
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 55
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-10-08
    Description: The BRICS are characterized by the diversity of energy systems, socioeconomic structures, and institutional frameworks. Therefore, the energy transition process assumes particular trends in each country. Despite the high share of fossil fuels in the energy mix, the BRICS are engaged in promoting clean energy sources. Expanding cooperation in the area of energy is seen as a way to seize opportunities for complementarity. This study analyzes the initiatives and opportunities for cooperation in the BRICS energy transition process at bilateral and multilateral levels, with a focus on the diffusion of renewable sources and natural gas. The first part of the study describes the evolution of the BRICS energy mix and policies for the diffusion of renewable energies and natural gas as a way to mitigate CO2 emissions. The second part of the report addresses energy cooperation among the BRICS, presenting the initiatives already developed, prospects and opportunities.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; F15 ; O13 ; P18 ; Q42 ; Q48 ; BRICS ; cooperation ; renewable energy ; natural gas ; energy efficiency ; CO2 emissions
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 56
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-10-08
    Description: This study deals with state action through the analysis of the main administrative instruments with planning and budgeting, aiming to illustrate the different characteristics between the planning and budgeting instruments under the multi-annual perspective and to present possible risks of becoming a substitute and multi-annual devices, not complimentary, within the political process of public decision. The budget is a political-political instrument with an allocation structure of public resources and expenditure on entities considered to be of public interest. Planning, in turn, is closely linked to the State's distributive function, to the problems of identifying social demand, public choice, and prioritizing public goods. Both the allocative function of the budget and the distributive function exercised using planning are integrated or interrelated but are limited to the fi scal and fi nancial conditions of the State for maintaining macroeconomic balance. Among the four constitutional amendments pending in the National Congress on planning and budget, only one brings an interpretation of the multi-annual budget as a substitute for the Multi-Annual Plan (PPA), under the national medium-term scope of the federal government. In this context, the possibility of removing the constitutional requirement of the PPA to be a law without a clear proposal to replace it does not fail to create an institutional instability about the fate of planning and budgeting in Brazil. In this sense, this work brings subsidies to stimulate the necessary debate with society regarding the project that is on the legislative table to, for the time being, extinguish the PPA to implement and a multi-annual budget.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; H ; H1 ; H11 ; H5 ; H53 ; H6 ; H61 ; planning ; budget ; multiannual ; public choice ; federal constitution
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 57
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-10-08
    Description: The aim of this study is to investigate three relevant dimensions of Brazilian inequality in the labor market, gender, race and age, in the period 2012-2020. More specifically, we analyze how these statistics were affected by the crisis due to Covid-19. It is observed that inequalities in participation, unemployment, occupation and informality rates are not reduced during the 2020 crisis. On the contrary, there is an increase in the difference of employment to population ratio by race and age. The results also indicate that 2020 is characterized by an unusual increase in the chances of job loss and a reduction in the chances of getting a job. It is important to note that even when controlling for other personal or job characteristics, women, blacks and young people are more likely to lose their jobs. Nonetheless, this disadvantage is not specific of the 2020 crisis.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; J15 ; J16 ; J21 ; Covid-19 ; inequality ; labor market ; gender ; race ; age
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 58
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2021-10-08
    Description: In this study we examine how the use of private and public transport has changed since the early 2000s in Brazilian cities. We analyzed data on the changing patterns of consumption of transportation goods and services by Brazilian families over the last 20 years. We also analyzed how urban transportation costs, the demand for public transport, and the country's vehicle fl eet have evolved in that period. All the analyses conducted pointed to a gradual and persistent trend of households moving away from public transportation towards individual modes of transport, mainly among the middle and lower classes in medium and small cities. These changing patterns caused a continuous deterioration of mobility conditions in Brazilian cities, signifi cantly increasing the time people tend to spend in traffi c. Furthermore, we demonstrate how people are unequally affected by poor mobility conditions according to their socioeconomic status, gender, and color. Finally, we show how the economic and public health crisis generated by the Covid-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on urban mobility patterns, causing a sharp decline in the numbers of daily public transport passengers across the country. Those fi ndings indicate that the Covid-19 pandemic will likely deepen the vicious cycle of passenger loss and increasing public transport fares, thus accelerating the historical trend of modal shifts from public transportation to individual modes of transport in Brazilian cities. At the end of the study we point to a few urban and transport policies that could help mitigate this trend.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; R40 ; R41 ; R48 ; R00 ; urban mobility ; public transport ; motorization ; demand ; consumption behavior ; inflation ; commute time ; Covid-19
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 59
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)