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  • 1
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The objective of this text is to present and address the spending on medicines of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) from 2010 to 2016 in a budgetary perspective. The analysis was based on the budget execution of the Ministry of Health and the health departments of the states, the Federal District and the municipalities, using data from two publicly available information systems, Siga Brasil and Siops. SUS spending on medicines rose from R$ 14.3 billion in 2010 to almost R$ 20 billion in 2015 (growth of 40%), falling to R$ 18.6 billion in 2016 (-7% in the last two years), in real terms, as a probable consequence of the economic crisis on these expenditures of subnational entities and greater role of the Ministry of Health to the medicines procurement and financing, including the Farmácia Popular Program. Between 2010 and 2016, SUS expenses with medicines registered growth of 30%. There was a significant increase in drug spending in the last seven years, with a special effort by the Ministry of Health, which started directly to execute the largest portion of the its budget for the purchase of these products. The Specialized and Strategic Components, as well as the Farmácia Popular Program, are very important for this increase. The incorporation of new medicines and the increase in lawsuits on pharmaceuticals may be driven the drug spending. The share of federal spending on pharmaceuticals in public health care spending rose from 11 percent in 2010 to 16 percent in 2016. The rising trend and the factors that drive higher spending can increase the drug spending which can compromise more significant portions of the Ministry of Health budget. That may reduce the availability of resources for the supply of other health goods and services to the population, because the federal budget is limited until 2036 by the Constitutional Amendment 95, approved in 2016.
    Keywords: H51 ; H60 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; drug costs ; health expenditures ; budgets ; Unified Health System
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 2
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The paradigm of solidarity economy emerged at the end of the twentieth century as a proposal of self-management organization of work and production that involves a set of collective practices in search of new strategies of social inclusion and territorial development. Since then, it has become consolidated as a new field of research in several areas of scientific knowledge, not restricted to the social sciences. The purpose of this paper is to identify and characterize a scientific publication in indexed journals involving the field of solidarity economy in its various dimensions. It was tried to emphasize the methodological approaches used by the authors, the areas of knowledge and the main objects of analysis. This article aims at helping to understand a general picture about the production profile in the field of research, as well as new questions for new research, given a complexity of problems related academically related to the theme.
    Keywords: J23 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; solidarity economy ; bibliometric research ; self-management ; social inclusion ; social development
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 3
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper was based on some previously delimited categories to guide a reflexive debate about the production on the institutionalized social participation in the scope of the public administration in Brazil. To that end, the analytical course was organized and developed around a new concept for a generic definition of these innovations in the field of democratic practice in the country, here called "participatory deliberation institutions" (PDI), each with its particular functional characteristics. For a better operationalization of this concept, the text is ordered from three analytical pairs: i) institutionalization and structural insertion of these innovations; ii) participation and representativeness; and iii) deliberation and effectiveness. On these pairs some arguments in the literature have been embedded and problematized in order to shed light on different issues that fall within this highly complex field, aiming also for a more precise detailing of the central characteristics in terms of the democratic advances and intrinsic contradictions found dispersed in the area debate. With this, it is believed that this text makes a relevant contribution to the mapping of the "master lines" of analysis on a field of practices that, despite the rich production already existing, still makes possible and even lacks other exploratory investigations, given the dynamism inherent in the very process of democratic consolidation.
    Keywords: Z18 ; ddc:330 ; participatory deliberation institutions ; social participation ; participatory democracy ; socio-state interfaces ; political project
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 4
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Since the 1930s, Labour Justice has played very important roles in resolving labour disputes in Brazil. Nonetheless, the question that arises today is whether that justice can (or even should) continue with those roles - or whether it is possible to conceive some alternatives, which involve active participation of workers' organizations. This doubt arises from the analysis of a set of evidences, which point to the difficulties of this justice in order to present reasonable solutions to labour conflicts.
    Keywords: K31 ; K40 ; K49 ; ddc:330 ; workers ; labour conflicts ; Labour Justice
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 5
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: In the wake of the debates on Digitalized Finance, and updating some of its main findings regarding the prognoses of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, this paper presents an overview of recent developments, as well as the main tendencies of the process of digitalization of the Brazilian capital markets in the last decades. With this, it aims to shed light on an emerging phenomenon in the sector, presenting data and information that contribute to reflections on the consequences of such process for the Brazilian economy, within the framework of globally interconnected financial markets.
    Keywords: G15 ; G28 ; N26 ; O33 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; digitalization ; capital markets ; Brazil ; financialization ; ICT
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 6
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the One Computer Per Student Program (Prouca), from the National Education Development Fund (FNDE), performance in the Brazil Test (Prova Brasil) and the National High School Examination (ENEM), both at school level, using the differences-in-differences method combined with the propensity score matching (PSM), and at the student level, using the PSM. The results showed that the program had a positive impact on students' performance in the final years of the Brazil Test (Portuguese and mathematics) and in the Enem language and codes and writing tests in 2010, as well as in all tests in 2011 - including the average of the exams - except in writing. At the school level, the program had a positive impact on the writing test and the average of the Enem assessments, the analysis between 2009 and 2010, and the natural science and writing tests as well as in the total average, in the research between 2009 and 2011.
    Keywords: C32 ; D04 ; ddc:330 ; One Computer Per Student Program ; Enem ; Brazil Test ; differences in differences ; propensity score matching
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 7
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: We use data from the period 2009-15 to estimate the impact of the public policy aiming to decrease the taxes paid by companies over their payroll. The objective of this program, so called Less Taxes on the Payroll ("Desoneração da Folha de Pagamento"), was to burst the employment in the firms benefited by the tax cut. Overall our econometric results show no employment effect of this program.
    Keywords: C32 ; D04 ; ddc:330 ; tax cut ; employment ; payroll taxes ; public program evaluation ; difference in difference
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 8
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: A subject that has gained prominence in the fields of political science and public administration is the Core of Government (CoG), that is, units and/or individuals responsible for the alignment and coordination of the main objectives of the president or first-minister. Although the topic has several names, a question still deserves to be better addressed: how do the planning, coordination and management of the Executive branch's priorities operate? However, the literature of CoG is still in early stage, especially in Brazil. In order to contribute to this debate, this paper develops a broad literature review with three primary goals: to present the concepts and findings of the international literature of core of government; to map the advances of the field of study of the Executive branch in Brazil and to indicate the future research agenda in the country. As a conclusion, the diversity of analytical strategies must be seen as constructive to the extent which there is a consensus that the frameworks' variations of the core of government are the rule, not the exception. In addition, the Brazilian case constitutes an excellent research laboratory on the Executive dynamics, due to its political-institutional particularities. Therefore, this research agenda tends to contribute to the description and explanation of how the political system operates and, above all, its effects on the decision-making processes and their outputs and outcomes in terms of public policies.
    Keywords: H83 ; ddc:330 ; core of government ; coordination ; Executive branch ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 9
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The purpose of the paper is to analyze Brazilian exports data between 1962 and 2016 by industries, verifying if the export structure has been modified in recent years towards a pattern more concentrated in primary products, due to a loss of competitiveness. Brazilian exports have been analyzed between these years by six industries. It has been utilized the Constant Market Share methodology in order to identify a change in competitiveness. The main conclusion is that competitiveness has increased in initial years, due to subsidies and government incentives to more technology intensive industries and also in the period of more intense trade openness. And the two more technology intensive industries, namely Machines and Equipment and Other Industries have seen a competitiveness loss in the final years. Therefore, changes in competitiveness seem to be strongly correlated with changes in manufacturing structure and industrial policies.
    Keywords: F14 ; ddc:330 ; export concentration in primary goods ; competitiveness ; Brazilian exports ; constant market share
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 10
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper aims to identify the profile of innovation in Brazil in 2014, positioning the country in relation to the countries of the European Union. The paper analysed the indicators resulting from the innovation surveys carried out in Brazil and in these countries in 2014. Based on the results found in a study performed with the 2000 indicators, considering Evolutionary approach as the theoretical reference and the Oslo manual in its third version, the study points out to a dynamic of innovation based on typical processes of imitative economies. The results of the innovation, which presented innovation rates similar to the average of the countries analysed, as well as the low degree of novelty and the innovation based mostly in process innovative enterprises only, show that Brazil still has a profile similar to that found in 2000. The innovative process is also similar, despite the significant increase in the percentage of innovative enterprises that received public funding for innovation, with little cooperation and innovative efforts based on the acquisition of machines, equipment and software in detriment of research and development. The results of the study, which must to be in-depth, indicate the need to review and improve the innovation policy developed in the period 2000-2014.
    Keywords: O31 ; O32 ; O33 ; O38 ; ddc:330 ; innovation indicators ; innovation surveys ; innovation dynamic
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 11
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper analyzes the relationship between social mobilization (of public and private actors) and the agenda of official participatory institutions in the field of solidarity economy. More specifically, it was sought to analyze, through participatory observation and documentary analysis, how this relationship occurred during the process of social-state interface promoted by the national conferences, especially the 3rd Conaes, which occurred in 2014 and triggered the elaboration of the National Plan of Solidarity Economy. In the end, it can be said that the conference process was appropriate for the part of the civil society involved in its theme as a link between its traditional mobilization repertoires and the opening of an official channel of contact with a representation of the public power.
    Keywords: H19 ; ddc:330 ; social participation ; public policies ; solidarity economy ; national conferences ; governmental agenda
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 12
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper analyzes the personnel expenditures in the Brazilian federal civil public service using administrative records from the Executive Branch. There are two contributions which are noteworthy because they may improve the understanding of policy makers regarding the evolution of those expenses in the upcoming years. First, we undertake simulations in order to assess the effects of the Proposal for Constitutional Amendment no 287. It should be noted that this exercise disregards that the federal govern will have to replace, to some extent, those people who are leaving the public service. Hence, in what follows, we formulate replacement scenarios to try and gauge the cost of different hiring strategies. Furthermore, we report the robustness of some results with respect to specific assumptions. In a nutshell, the results indicated that the reform will bring about economies for the public coffers over the next years, mainly due to the fall in the value of the survivors' pensions. Nonetheless, given the enormous amount of people that will become eligible for retirement, the replacement policy to be followed by the government has a substantial weight on the size the payroll will reach.
    Keywords: E66 ; H55 ; H68 ; M54 ; ddc:330 ; personnel expenditures ; federal civil public service ; microsimulations ; pension reform ; replacement
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 13
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Although there is agreement that the effect of broadband expansion on the economy, from an general overview, is positive; not an unanimous voice arguments that this impact be positive on all sectors. By applying a multivariate two way panel data model and estimated by bayesian methodology, this study aims to determine the effect of broadband expansion on the sectors of the economy. In order to take into account the geographical, social and economic differences among municipalities cluster analysis was employed in order to isolate groups of municipalities with approximate characteristics. The results illustrate that the impact of broadband is not positive for all sectors, being positive in the most dynamic and technology-intensive sectors such as the industrial and service sectors; and negative where this does not happen as in agricultural sector.
    Keywords: O57 ; O47 ; L69 ; ddc:330 ; broadband ; multivariate model ; panel data ; clustering ; Gibbs sampler
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 14
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The objective of this paper was to analyze how the process of formation of a national identity of the solidarity economy movement in Brazil was developed around a mobilizing paradigm in defense of associated work and economic relations not restricted to the mercantile sphere. In this sense, we sought to identify some of its main contextual particularities, such as: its multiplicity of subjects, its organizational strategies and its political interactions. It is a pluralistic social movement, composed of distinct identities, connected around common principles of economic organization and social reproduction. The research allowed to identify a repertoire with diversified routines of collective action, and a pattern of interaction with the public power very active, taking advantage of important contextual political opportunities, especially with respect to governments permeable to these ideas in their agendas.
    Keywords: J23 ; J59 ; ddc:330 ; solidarity economy ; social movements ; public policy ; repertoires of collective action ; sociology of absences and emergencies
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 15
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The IMF has always supported the free financial flows of capital, based on the concept that they improve economic growth in itself. This perception has debilitated since the global economic crisis beginning in 2007. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution of the IMF's way of understanding this issue; weather it were or not an important improvement to guide the future exchange policies of their shareholders. Still, it's relevant to highlight the impacts of these flows on the volatility of the exchange markets, and consequently on the macroeconomic consistence of developing countries.
    Keywords: F32 ; F38 ; ddc:330 ; international capital flows ; emergent countries ; exchange markets volatility
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 16
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: In 2016, the causal relationship between Zika virus infection in pregnant women and the occurrence of microcephaly in infants was confirmed. However, in the previous year, when an unexpected increase in the number of live births with microcephaly was observed in Brazil, this relationship was unknown in the scientific literature. Timely and coordinated actions - with the participation of national and international health authorities, health workers and researchers - allowed the Zika virus to be proven to be implicated in the causality of a congenital syndrome and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) in a few months. This discussion paper aims to present a brief review of the history of the Zika virus epidemic and microcephaly in Brazil, from its emergence, through its evolution, to the policies and actions adopted to tackle it. Initially, the trajectory of the Zika virus in the world, from its discovery, in the Zika forest in Uganda, through its occurrence in Southeast Asia, until its emergence in Brazil is presented. Next, the process of declaring the microcephaly epidemic as a Public Health Emergency of National Concern (PHENC), by the Brazilian government, and Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), by the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as the processes triggered by those measures. One topic is dedicated to describe the findings that contributed to the confirmation of the causal relationship between Zika virus infection and the occurrence of microcephaly, as well as GBS. In another topic, the evolution of the microcephaly epidemic in Brazil is described, highlighting the nine-fold increase in the number of cases in 2015 compared to the average of the previous five years, and the occurrence of the epidemic peak in the last quarter of this year. Following the main actions aimed at confronting the Zika virus epidemic in Brazil are presented. Finally, challenges for the prevention and control of the Zika virus and the consequences in the Brazilian epidemiological scenario are highlighted. The role of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) in mobilizing all sectors necessary to confront the Zika virus epidemic is pointed and the need for resources for the continuity and improvement of the surveillance and control actions of arboviral diseases, as well as the attention to affected families, is highlighted.
    Keywords: I12 ; ddc:330 ; Zika virus infection ; Zika virus ; microcephaly ; epidemics ; international sanitary regulations ; epidemiological surveillance ; Brazilian National Health System ; Pan American Health Organization ; World Health Organization
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 17
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The object of this discussion text typology was developed with the purpose of classifying the Brazilian municipalities according your insertion scale in the process of urbanization. Has focused on changes in the relationships between the different parts of the territory, is under productive population and switching work flows and study, is about the setting and trend of socio-spatial organization of the territory. The methodology employed in the construction of the typology and its results were presented by Moura and Pêgo (2016), and unleashed a series of developments, whether on the part of the team, this analysis related to other indicators, either by other researchers institutions that come by adjusting the information base and expanding the universe of research for other countries in Latin America. Search, too, offer information and summaries that contribute to the development of strategies to support the formulation and implementation of urban, regional policy and territorial development in national, regional and range of the States of the Federation.
    Keywords: R11 ; R12 ; R14 ; R23 ; R38 ; R58 ; ddc:330 ; urbanization ; Brazilian municipalities ; urban typology ; urban agglomerations ; metropolitan
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 18
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The adequate availability of infrastructure and its related services, is mandatory condition for further development of the country's competitive advantages, intensifying the productive specialization. Due to limited financial capacity, in the course of the last three decades, there have been an increasing private participation in these sectors under privatizations, concessions and Private-Public Partnerships (PPPs). This work has the following goals: i) to summarize the evolution of the concession's system in Brazil, Mexico, Chile, Colombia and USA, aiming to identify the characteristics and alternatives developed by each country; and ii) to conduct an economic analyze of the concession contracts between the public and private entities, focusing on the economic regulation aspects. We found a learning historic evolution, based in continuous enhancement of the public policy and in different degrees of success. The economic regulation aims to evolve in several issues as the risk-sharing, application of incentives and penalization and selection criteria, in despite of the difficulties created by economic crises. It's worth highlighting some innovations as: (Brazil) use of an "Investment trigger" to require capacity expansion; Use of real demand to reset the Financial-Economic Equilibrium (EEF); Distribution of productivity gains (Factor X); Use of the concession length as a tool to reset the EEF; (Chile) MVPR as selection criteria and risk-sharing tool; MCC as exchange rate risk-sharing tool; (Mexico) use of an account to accommodate the facility return at the concession end; Penalties grading system; (Colombia) use of a Trust Fund; Minimum revenue guarantee mechanism (MGR); (USA) Legislation and financial innovations; DBFOM mechanism. Part of the foreigner experience may contribute for the improvement of the Brazilian concession model. Notoriously, learning from the Mexican and Colombian experience, there are some policies shouldn't be carried out in Brazil. From the Chilean, the MVPR stands out as a solid success, commonly replicated by other countries. It's worth noting that Brazil has the largest share of highways under concession. Furthermore, it's possible that the share is near to its own limit (around 25%), as the highways that can attract the private sector, based on the vehicle flow, are mostly already contracted. To the left part of the share there are two alternatives: sponsored PPP and/or public resources. The PPPs mechanism, which includes fee payment from the private investor and requires the highway availability, would involve a cross-subsidy between the financially viable and non-viable projects using a trust fund. This mechanism failed in Chile. Beyond that, it's worth noting that the use of cross-subsidy creates unwelcome economic signs and, since Adam Smith, it's well known that it doesn't stimulates good results. The majority of the highway network is not attractive for private investor, thanks to low intensity traffic, requiring the use of public resources.
    Keywords: L51 ; L92 ; R48 ; ddc:330 ; highway concessions ; economic regulation ; concession's agreement ; public-private partnership
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 19
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Integrating information for the purpose of articulating social protection policies is hard work. It takes from political will, to capacity for institutional cooperation, to software development and direct communication channels with citizens. Because of that complexity, countries that pursue this objective often cooperate to exchange knowledge and the Brazilian case of Cadastro Único (Single Registry), the backbone of some 20 social protection programs, is frequently cited as a success case of integration. By means of the Cadastro Único experience, this text debates some of the essential elements to constitute such instruments of social policy integration. Bringing to light some of the challenges that are still on the way, to fulfill the promise of greater integration amongst social protection programs, as well as provide greater ease of access and respect to citizens.
    Keywords: I38 ; ddc:330 ; Cadastro Único ; Bolsa Familia program ; Unified Registry ; Assistance ; Entitlements ; Family Allowances ; Food Stamp ; Means Testing ; Poverty Alleviation ; Public Assistance ; Safety Net ; Social Welfare Programs ; SSI ; Transfer Payments ; Transfers ; Welfare Effects ; Welfare Policy ; Welfare Program ; Welfare Provision ; Work Welfare
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 20
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The Índice de Vulnerabilidade Social (IVS) and the Atlas da Vulnerabilidade Social (AVS) of the municipalities and metropolitan regions arise by an effort of selection, development and georeferencing of indicators that could express conditions of social vulnerability in the different scales of brazilian territory. Such conditions may emerge from plural factors that are part of the social issue, like the contexts of income and labour, education and health, mobility, habitation and sanitation. The IVS is a sinthetic index constructed with indicators that express fragilities of this social factors. The text below presentes the process of criation of the IVS from your conceptual, methodological and statiscal aspects and limitations. After this presentation, the work will show na analysis of some IVS results, as well as your dimensions and indicatores for the years of 2000 e 2010, in order to delineate the conditions of social vulnerability in the brazilian territory and exemplify ways of data analysis available in the AVS.
    Keywords: O15 ; O18 ; R23 ; J15 ; ddc:330 ; social vulnerability ; sinthetic index ; Brazil ; public policy ; regional development
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 21
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: In the last decades, in an attempt to promote a model of agriculture of high productivity in the semiarid, successive governments have invested in the water infrastructure for the creation of several irrigation districts in the region. The purpose of this work is to analyze historically the evolution of irrigated agriculture and the policy options of the Federal Government in relation to its development in the Brazilian semiarid. From this portrait, the objective is to discuss the potential of irrigated agriculture as an inducer of agricultural development in the region and about different policy options for irrigation in the semiarid region. The success of these ventures in relation to the income and jobs generated, number of farmers settled, companies installed, among other factors, is diverse. There are those perimeters installed at the Petrolina and Juazeiro poles, which have developed over the decades until they reached the current stage, in which a modern and profitable agricultural production is turned to export. Otherwise, there are those that have not been completed and are partially operative.
    Keywords: Q1 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; semiarid ; irrigated agriculture ; national irrigation policy
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 22
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The present study - descriptive - aimed to investigate federal funds through the management block of the National Health Fund (FNS). The analysis was conducted for all Brazilian municipalities, at the most disaggregated level: Action/Strategy/Service, but also at the Component level. The analysis contemplated the years 2013 to 2016, period or the term of the mayors elected in the 2012. The authors also developed a brief analysis of selected indicators of the budget cycle, for the year 2014. The analysis of the sublevels of the management block of the FNS indicates that there is a great number of actions related to psychosocial care. However, the action that is most geographically widespread is the Program for financing actions of feeding and nutrition. Among the other supported actions, there are many that have a small number of benefited municipalities and/or small values involved. The spatial analysis indicates that there is no concentration in richer regions. On the contrary, many municipalities from the North Region and from Maranhão - one of the poorest states - obtained transfers through the block. This geographical spread is due more because of the component of Implementation of health actions and services, than because of the component of Qualification of SUS's management.
    Keywords: H51 ; I18 ; H11 ; H41 ; ddc:330 ; National Health Fund ; financing ; Unified Health System ; federalism ; basic health care
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 23
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Regarding one of the most renowned mechanisms of social participation in the recent Brazilian democracy, this paper aims to offer a typological proposal for national conferences, considering the broadened definition established by the Decree no 8243/2014 and ex post aspects of conferential processes. Thus, databases hosted by Ipea were updated and expanded, reaching the conferences held until 2016 and its approved resolutions from 2011 to 2016. This data collecting process put together a documental collection of 154 national conferences realized from 1941 to 2016, besides a database of 5,369 resolutions approved in 28 of the 42 conferences finished in the past five years. This table was submitted to a lexical analysis through the IRAMuTeQ software, according to the ALCESTE method. Briefly, five lexical worlds were observed, each holding its own characteristics. Also, the position of a specific conference in the class map can change between its editions, and this lexical displacement can occur under different ways. Some hypotheses - about lexical displacement and implicit territoriality - could be raised for further research, after this analysis. Thus, the availability of data, in a public and accessible way, may be a stimulus to the development of studies about this phenomenon or, at least, a factor for reduction of costs and efforts involved in this data collection.
    Keywords: C88 ; D73 ; Z18 ; ddc:330 ; national conferences ; databases ; lexical analysis ; social participation
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 24
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 25
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper assumes that the recognition of the diversity of popular strategies for the collective generation of jobs and income is a key step in the creation of mechanisms to the promotion of their productive potential. The aim was to analyze the main information provided by the System database Solidarity Economy Information (Sies) to draw an overview of the operational structure of the social economy enterprises in Brazil. In this sense, the work focused more directly on information to provide a more comprehensive characterization of their organizational, economic and political dimensions, also trying to capture the structural differentiation factors among solidarity economy enterprises in the country. The data discussed reaffirm the hypothesis of structural heterogeneity that characterizes these enterprises.
    Keywords: J54 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; solidarity economy ; collective enterprises ; socio-structural dimensions ; income generation ; public policy
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 26
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This text aims to analyze the data of "solidarity finance" enterprises that make up the Information System of Solidarity Economy (Sies). The most common types of projects featured in this category are: community bank, credit cooperative and revolving fund. Each has different origing and operational structure. Such experiments are generally created in order to provide lines and credit channels more streamlined, taking into account the characteristics of this type of socioeconomic organization and enable viable alternatives to the official credit system and market. As in all branches of manifestation of solidarity economy, among solidarity finance enterprises there are also different examples of successful actions, as well as structural factors of precariousness.
    Keywords: J54 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; solidarity economy ; developments of solidarity finance ; collective organization ; local development ; self-management
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 27
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This article aims to analyze the evolution of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the municipalities belonging to the Territory South Coast in the state of Bahia, in order to verify whether the inclusion in public programs of the territorial approach use is providing a greater rural development. For the analysis of data on geographic, demographic and socioeconomic, we used the statistical-descriptive method and comparative analysis. The results show that the Territory South Coast, markedly rural profile, maintained demographic characteristics that hampered territorial cohesion with a view to building a project that would overcome the rural-urban dichotomy. Their socioeconomic conditions showed improvement in poverty indicators, for example, but the territory still can not be classified as high development.
    Keywords: O18 ; D71 ; O29 ; ddc:330 ; poverty ; inequality ; territories development
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 28
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The paper is an exploratory historical analysis, based on documentary research and literature review, which focuses on the formation of the bureaucratic apparatus in the area of economic infrastructure, analyzed from the perspective of the construction of the Brazilian State and its technical, administrative and political capacities. The work explores the links between successive institutional arrangements and the construction of state capabilities of a technical and political nature. The trajectory of the institutional arrangements is analyzed based on a periodization that considers the inflections in the recent trajectory of the structuring of State functions, correspondingly, the organization of the public administration, its legal frameworks and institutional arrangements in each period. The periodization distinguishes the following moments: the beginnings of developmentalism (1930-1945); the parallel administration and developmental initiatives (1946-1963); state enterprises and the developmental State (1964-1988); and the emergence of the regulatory State and the resurgence of state activism (1988-2016). In the end, the conclusion is that it is dominant during most of the period analyzed the persistence of a vector of construction of the State apparatus that dislocates the formation of the bureaucracy away from the central administration.
    Keywords: H83 ; N46 ; O21 ; P11 ; D73 ; H54 ; ddc:330 ; bureaucracy ; infrastructure ; institutional arrangements ; state capacities ; economic development
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 29
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The objective of this paper is to quantify and qualify the technological evolution of the Brazilian textile and construction supply chains between 1985 and 2009. The main conclusion is the following: it has not been strong changes on the technological emphasis of the two supply chains; however, it has been many secondary innovations inside each emphasis.
    Keywords: L6 ; O3 ; ddc:330 ; brazilian manufacturing ; textile and construction supply chains ; technology
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 30
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper addresses different patterns of early work in Brazil, proposing a typology based both in quantitative and qualitative data. We first distinguish four categories of early work in the basis of age started to work and hours worked weekly. Applying linear regressions to quantitative data, we find that early work is statistically associated with lower levels of income during adulthood, except for those who worked during adolescence for up to 20 hours a week. With content analysis supported by the Reinert Method, we find that this last category of early work is also associated with a pedagogical orientation attempting to edges off school to work transitions. The content analysis also indicates that, in some cases, the work during childhood, although detrimental for educational and economical achievement, takes place in a caring familiar environment, a difference that may be relevant for the aim of public policies design. The quantitative data is from a Brazilian national survey: Pesquisa sobre Aspetos Sociais da Desigualdade - Instituto do Milênio, 2008. The qualitative data is from the project Radiografia do Brasil Contemporâne, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada, 2016.
    Keywords: J24 ; ddc:330 ; early-work ; child labor ; adolescent employment ; income ; education
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 31
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The results presented in the text show that, by curbing the growth of primary expenditures, Constitutional Amendment 95 has the potential to stabilize and to reduce general government gross debt, thus guaranteeing the sustainability of the Brazilian public debt. The positive effects of a greater fiscal policy credibility can extrapolate the purely fiscal issue and spread to the real economy through improving economic agents' confidence. The new fiscal regime is clearly a gradualist strategy to deal with the current serious problem of the Brazilian public accounts. The 20-year term - with the possibility of change in the mid-term - also appears to be adequate. Depending on the economic performance over the next ten years, it may be possible to adopt a softer rule after 2027. However, the two-decade horizon gives more credibility to this type of strategy.
    Keywords: H6 ; H62 ; ddc:330 ; new fiscal regime ; Brazilian public debt
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 32
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: L74 ; N60 ; O18 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 33
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This study sought to quantify the impact of demographics on the expense of the public pensions as a share (%) of the Gross Domestic Product GDP, by 2060 and 2100, based upon a simplified forecasting model. The results show a strong expansion in expenditures due to the fast and intense process of population ageing, an increase which can be alleviated by raising the retirement age, increasing the level of employment and limiting the transmission of the active workers productivity gains to retirees and pensioners and other adjustment possibilities. In any case, the government should conduct reforms in order to correct distortions and minimize risks for the financial and actuarial sustainability of the Brazilian social insurance schemes.
    Keywords: J11 ; H55 ; I00 ; ddc:330 ; demography ; social security ; pension expenditures
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 34
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This article estimates the market value of public education by comparing standardized test scores of students in public and private schools. The idea is to assign to the education of each public school student a market value equivalent to the tuition paid by private school students with similar test score results. The implementation requires an expenditure survey, or other database to provide information on tuitions, and standardized test scores available for both private and public schools. This article uses Brazilian test score data, which are particularly good. The main results are not surprising. Pre-school, primary, and secondary education are all highly progressive government transfers. Furthermore, since their market value is superior to public expenditures in each of these educational levels, they are also welfare enhancing. The flip side is that public higher education is both highly regressive and welfare reducing.
    Keywords: I24 ; ddc:330 ; public education ; value of education ; educational proficiency
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 35
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The big banks in Brazil shows excellent results at different macroeconomic contexts. In environments of business expansion, they expand its financial intermediation results, mainly through credit operations. In recession times, in turn, they expand their operations with government bonds as well as the revenue from these operations. From the accounting point of view, in addition, the performance of these institutions is propitiate by the credit revenues, especially by the tributary credits on temporary differences, which played a prominent role in the results obtained by the banks in Brazil in crisis contexts. In this perspective, this paper analyse the performance of the Brazilian banking system in the recent period, seeking to call attention to the role played by the tributary credits in the results obtained by these institutions, particularly in 2015. Thus, this study contributes to understand the role played by the tributary credits in the banks' accounting results, particularly the tributary credits on temporary differences due to allowance for loan losses, as well as to understand the performance of the banking system in Brazil and of the big banks in the recent period.
    Keywords: E44 ; E59 ; G21 ; ddc:330 ; banks performance ; tributary credits ; big banks in Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 36
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Brazil continues as one of the largest producers of beef, pork and chicken. In terms of fish production, the performance is lower than expected, presenting low insertion in the domestic and international markets. Since 2004, national aquaculture production (particularly Tilapia) has grown 14.2% a year, emerging as an activity in the meat production chain. Even with this positive trend, there are challenges of developing the production chain as a whole to sustainable growth. Despite the difficulty of obtaining statistical data, studies that analyze the evolution of the sector and the productive development of the activity are necessary to draw future diagnoses and scenarios for the planning of public policies. This text aims to make an assessment of the activity in Brazil, especially analyzing the perspectives of productive growth.
    Keywords: O13 ; Q1 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; economic development ; agriculture ; supply chain ; fish farming
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 37
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: In Brazil, it has been difficult to elaborate governmental planning surpassing the four-year spectrum from the Pluriannual Plans. Despite the fact of long-term planning attracting a wide range of sectors, it still occupies a small space in both political and State agendas. Hence, the present study intends to initiate a new cycle of debates regarding the issue as it presents questions and factors to subsidy long-term strategies. Using methodological tools from Strategic Prospective, we present both the methodological approach to scenarios and the trends and uncertainties regarding the relationship between State and Society - contemplating topics such as organization of the state apparatus, governmental planning, federative relations and social participation. This study is part of Brazil 2035, a project whose objective is to provide subsidies to formulate long-term development strategies for Brazil through Prospective Scenarios. Thus, this text presents a preliminary stage of a prospective process regarding the identification and analysis of the main variables. We do not intend to be conclusive; but rather to present some key factors and questions, which will affect Brazilian development until 2035.
    Keywords: C53 ; D73 ; L38 ; H10 ; H11 ; ddc:330 ; strategic prospective ; prospective scenarios ; long-term planning ; state ; public management ; public policy ; federalism ; social participation
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 38
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The objective of this study is to predict the potential broadband market in Brazil. This task is done by combining information from two national databases: the Demographic Census of 2010 and the National Survey by Household Sample (Pnad) of 2015. The Pnad 2015 is used to estimate the probability of the household accessing internet by broadband technology using a logit regression. The broadband market is predicted using the estimated model with the same covariates found in the Demographic Census 2010. The prediction indicated a potential market of 45 million households, an additional of 6 million households in relation to the current situation. The new size of the broadband market is estimated if there is a 10% increase in the average penetration of broadband services in the main metropolitan regions. In this scenario, it is observed that the new market reaches 50,7 million households.
    Keywords: L51 ; L96 ; ddc:330 ; broadband ; internet ; logit regression ; potential market ; prediction
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 39
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The Bolsa Família programme (PBF) has, since its inception, given priority to women as the recipients of the cash benefit. This arrangement makes the connection between the PBF and changes in gender relations the object of several research interests. The purpose of this text is to discuss the findings of this research. The conclusion is that, although its design can reinforce the idea that caregiving is a female responsibility, the PBF leads to the questioning of male authority and broadens the social networks of women, with the potential to yield changes in the structure of gender relations.
    Keywords: I38 ; ddc:330 ; government policy ; provision and effects of welfare programs
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 40
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Investment funds are key institutions for understanding the dynamics of a country's financial wealth and for analysing the interaction between wealth owners and the macroeconomic policy management. This text has three fundamental objectives: firstly, it seeks to construct a profit proxy of the investment fund industry for the analysis of its evolution in Brazil, from 2003 to 2015. The first task is to conceptualize it, the second is its measurement under the various possible cuts, given the availability of data. Secondly, it seek to analyse how the wealth managed by the sector moved, under three distinct lenses: by class of funds, by type of assets and by segment of investor. Finally, the changes in the portfolios managed by the five largest fund managers - which in December 2015 were responsible for the management of 70% of the total net assets of the investment funds - BB-DTVM, BRAM (Bradesco Asset Manager), Caixa, Itaú and Santander are examined. The final section of the paper brings the main conclusions of the research.
    Keywords: G23 ; ddc:330 ; institutional investors ; investment funds ; profits
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 41
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This study is part of Brasil 2035 a project whose objective is to provide subsidies to formulate long-term strategies for Brazil through Prospective Scenarios. The present text uses the prospective methodology, in order to present tendencies and uncertainties for public security. The article is divided in three areas, which are: crime and the sense of security; public security policies; and law enforcement policies. On the conclusion of the text, we recognize the limits of the work and highlight the importance of the actors to change the future, worrying tendencies, desirable objectives and the need for long-term planning for Brasil.
    Keywords: O29 ; D63 ; K14 ; K38 ; K42 ; L38 ; ddc:330 ; planning ; development ; prospective ; public policy ; public security ; crime ; violence
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 42
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of broadband on the GDP taking into account regional differences. This is done by using the econometric model of panel data based on database of 5564 municipalities from 2007 to 2014. In order to incorporate the regional differences we use information derived from cluster analysis that isolates homogeneous groups of municipalities. Simultaneous causality between broadband and GDP is identified through instrumental variable method. Regional differentiated effects of broadband among municipalities were observed. The greatest impact of broadband occurs on those municipalities with the highest income per capita and high urban concentration followed by ones with a strong concentration in the service, commerce and construction sectors. The impact of broadband is also significant in the municipalities linked to the dynamic agricultural sector. In poorer municipalities the effect of broadband also occurs although with less intensity. Finally, we test the hypothesis that the effect of broadband on the output has an "inverted U" form that indicates that the effect rises to a certain level of access, but decreases after it is exceeded. The econometric results do not indicate that this hypothesis can be denied so that the impact is more intense in the intermediate levels of access of broadband.
    Keywords: C21 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; broadband ; cluster analysis ; K-means ; panel data ; instrumental variable
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 43
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: J15 ; K14 ; ddc:330 ; Sterblichkeit ; Gewalt ; Schwarze ; Ethnische Diskriminierung ; Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung ; Rio de Janeiro ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 44
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: In accordance with the Brazilian Forest Legislation, nearly 12.5 million hectares of native vegetation must be restored over the next 20 years in the country. The feasibility of this process will depend on the existence of a supply of seeds and native seedlings with adequate quality, diversity and quantity to be planted in these areas. This text aims to present a public policy proposal to promote the production of seeds and native forest seedlings to support Brazil's environmental regulation. A historical analysis of the country's forest policy shows that there have been few official incentives for structuring the chain of forest restoration, unlike the reforestation with exotic species. Among the main challenges encountered in the production growth of seeds and native seedlings are the lack of a continuous demand and the bureaucratic obstacles to its commercialization. To overcome such challenges it was proposed the creation of a public policy of government procurement, to which it was suggested the name Seeds and Native Seedlings Acquisition Program. The elements of the proposal were based on the example set by the Foods Acquisition Program and on the experience of the networks of Brazilian seeds. The proposed program will allow the purchase of seeds and native forest seedlings directly from family farmers without bidding, which gives it a social and environmental character. Besides supporting the environmental regulation, it will generate employment and income for family farmers.
    Keywords: Q23 ; Q28 ; ddc:330 ; public policy ; native forest seeds ; forest restoration ; Forest Code ; National Institute of Colonization and Agrarian Reform (Incra)
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 45
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The construction of public policies is a concrete social process that mobilizes actors and ideas. The Programa Arte Cultura e Cidadania - Cultura Viva mobilizes a significant number of actors. The main idea under discussion is that the program works on a network. The following text discusses the conceptual agreements and disagreements on the concept of network within the program in the context of Grupo de Trabalho Cultura Viva and in the context of public policy analysis.
    Keywords: Z18 ; ddc:330 ; public policy analysis ; public policy network ; programa Cultura Viva
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 46
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This article presents a simulation of Public-Private Partnership for the maintenance and operation of all paved federal highways. To do so, we evaluate the distribution of benefits and costs between taxpayers, government and road users as a way to set toll values bankable by users, easing the tax burden on all taxpayers with regard to spending on highways. Then, we propose the use of a concession model in which part of the concessionaire's revenue comes from toll collection and part from payment for availability by the government. In addition, the concessionaire must pay the government a grant value per vehicle, so that the total amount of the grant is variable with the demand. Such a mechanism, in addition to reducing the demand risk allocated to the concessionaire, allows cross-subsidization of highways with high traffic volume for the low volume ones. Considering the average costs of operation and maintenance of highways under concession, we evaluate if the collection with the proposed tolls would be sufficient to cover the costs. The results indicate that even considering only the roads not conceded yet, generally low traffic, the fiscal costs of such a model would be smaller than the average expenditures executed by DNIT with maintenance and operation of federal highways. And also ensure higher level of quality, with direct benefits to users and indirect ones to the whole society.
    Keywords: H54 ; H43 ; O22 ; ddc:330 ; concessions ; roadways ; costs and benefits distribution
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 47
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The demand for sustainable mobility in Brazil is driven by the Brazilian cities growing urban density, the increased travel time in different transportation modes, the increasing number of motorcyclists deaths who migrated from active modes driven by household income growth as well as drivers, pedestrians and cyclists deaths, and the worsening air pollution level linked to combustion engines which has serious consequences for health. Brazil has more bikes than cars, respectively 50 million to 41 million. Around 7% of all trips are made by bicycle with a potential to reach 40%. This qualitative research tried to understand what are the cycling networks future scenarios and sustainability factors that can guide the empowering of cycling policies and the sustainable mobility in Brazil. It used the pressure-state-response methodology associated with life cycle thinking methodology (PCV) to understand the cycling networks stakeholder perceptions from academia, government, cycling associations and business associations. Short-term scenarios indicated a database construction to support the development of social, economic and environmental indicators, and the empowering of the social actors' participation in the cycling policy institutionalization. Medium-term scenarios indicated the construction of strategic alliances among stakeholders and the strengthening of bicycle culture or "bike wave" through events and production of information to social actors in different territory scales (local, national and international). The sustainability factors to empower cycling policies were: the policy implementation timing; the mobility approach strand used to guide the cycling policy; the levels of economic and tax incentives; the participatory methodologies use; the database on number and location conflicts among drivers, pedestrians and cyclists; the level of cycling policy integration with other public policies; and the urban space available area for the expansion of cycling networks. Moreover, the Life Cycle Thinking methodology indicated the development of a life cycle assessment (LCA) that models the impacts on each transportation mode and its available urban space (pedestrian, bicycle, subway, train, and bus). This LCA can produce indicators that support an integrated sustainable mobility where the bicycle may have multiple roles: transportation mode, integration vehicle among modes and sustainability symbol.
    Keywords: R40 ; ddc:330 ; mobility ; sustainable ; urban ; bike ; bicycle path
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 48
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This text discusses the dynamics of cultural funding in the Brazilian federal government from 1995 to 2013. It describes the historical context and faces some of the arguments present in the public debate on the principles that can justify reforms in the administration of culture and reconfiguration of the stock financing model public in the area. Moreover, it faces discussion of these general ideas in the light of the plurality of criteria and instruments used by the public administration. The dialectic between general ideas, tools and practices allows for more precise delimitation between the financing paradigms or models.
    Keywords: Z18 ; ddc:330 ; financing of public policies ; cultural policies ; cultural spending
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 49
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper uses Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to evaluate the financial sustainability of the Brazilian electricity distributors taking into account financial statements, regulatory and quality information in the period between 2011 and 2014. It also analyzes characteristics of the companies such as size, private or state ownership and controlling group. The results show that while Elektro, Coelba, Mux Energia and CPFL Paulista are benchmarks in most indicators, the majority of the other firms presents poor performances when compared to them. The finds also indicate that whether scale is not an important financial performance determinant, state owned companies had critically worse indicators than their private peers.
    Keywords: C61 ; G31 ; L94 ; ddc:330 ; Distribution of electricity ; economic and financial efficiency ; DEA
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 50
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: I280 ; ddc:330 ; Bildungspolitik ; Verwaltungskontrolle ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 51
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The present study has the main objective to analyze the labor market dynamics in the Matopiba region and to compare it with the evolution of the Brazilian agribusiness labor market as a whole. The paper is part of a broader research project that aims to make a diagnosis of the socioeconomics and the institutional conditions of the Brazilian Northeast and North macro-regions, in order to subsidize the implementation of public policies. Using the data from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (Pnad) Contínua between the first quarter of 2012 and the first quarter of 2016, it was clear that, on the one hand, although agribusiness generated an increasingly smaller number of jobs within the sector itself, on the other, managed to boost the labor market of Matopiba, increasing the average income of the employed population of the region and improving the local services sector. Behind this seemingly contradictory dynamic there is the success of Brazilian agribusiness, which, through more capital-intensive and labor-saving technologies, has been able to increase its productivity and generate increasing income, freeing up workforces to other sectors. In Matopiba, the income generated by agribusiness has warmed the service sector, which in turn has boosted the local labor market, allowing the incorporation of a larger volume of employees. Although this dynamic was clear in Matopiba, in the rest of the country it is possible to observe only that agribusiness reduced the employed population in its activities.
    Keywords: Q1 ; Q12 ; ddc:330 ; labor market ; Matopiba ; agribusiness ; regional development ; agricultural frontier
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 52
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: M11 ; H40 ; O18 ; ddc:330 ; Infrastrukturinvestition ; Projektmanagement ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 53
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper calculates indexes for the funding levels of municipal retirement systems in Brazil using actuarial valuations and budget reports aiming to test hypotheses regarding the reasons which have driven underfunding in the past years notwithstanding the 1998 and 2003 reforms and the greater supervision exercised by the federal government since 2004. Data are for the years of 2008 and 2012. The results are in line with the tax-smoothing hypothesis and show that electoral politics may be relevant, although part of the variation is related to general trends. ln times of fiscal deterioration, the incumbent chooses to accumulate pension liabilities rather than increasing taxation or cutting other expenses. More candidates relative to the number of seats in the legislative chamber reduces the intertemporal deficit. Mayors enjoying support from the majority of the councilmen improve the long-run position, but the lame-duck ones care less about the local pension fund.
    Keywords: D72 ; H21 ; H75 ; ddc:330 ; public employees' retirement systems ; municipalities ; funding levels ; tax-smoothing ; electoral politics
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: H41 ; L78 ; O18 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The National Policy for Agroecology and Organic Production (Pnapo) was created in 2012 to integrate, articulate and adjust the existing public policies concerning sustainable production of chemical-contaminant-free products. The referred policy combines rural development, conservation of natural resources and valorization of traditional communities' knowledge. This article presents part of the results of an ongoing study about Pnapo. It analyses the constructive process of the program according to representatives of social and governmental institutions that manage this policy. In order to collect the historical background of Pnapo, main participants of the policy building were interviewed. The results of this research show that agroecology and organic production programs were slowly structured inside the government through pressure of organized groups in society. Another relevant factor to this development was the growth in social involvement in councils and commissions. Regarding Pnapo's conception, it was observed that dialogue spaces provided by the National Commission for Agroecology and Organic Production (Cnapo) (composed by representatives from the government and from civil society) and the Interministerial Chamber of Agroecology and Organic Production (Ciapo) (composed by representatives from the ministries that participates in the policy), have provided participative construction between government and society and stimulated an interministerial approach inside government. The main challenges are to improve the intersectional management of the program and to enforce the importance of Pnapo inside the government. It is concluded that the continuance of this policy will depend heavily on the society's acknowledgement of its importance, demanding from the government its maintenance and the enlargement of already acquired spaces.
    Keywords: Q01 ; Q18 ; Q28 ; ddc:330 ; agroecological transition ; public policy ; organic agriculture ; Planapo ; family farming
    Language: Portuguese
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The objective of this text is to discuss the relevance of the production and use of cost information from the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS), as an input for decision making processes on its financing and management. Technical-scientific literature on the subject is considered to present concepts and discuss methodological questions involving the costing and health cost management. The relevance of cost information to the SUS is discussed under two aspects: financing and management of the system, dealing with two perspectives for the use of information, that of the system managers at the three government spheres and that of the health units' managers. International experiences on the production and use of cost information are presented to illustrate some possibilities that may be considered for the Brazilian case, as well as national experiences developed by hospitals and federal government agencies. Finally, some recommendations for the systematic production and use of cost information in SUS are presented as initial reflections and subsidies for the formulation of a national policy on the subject.
    Keywords: H51 ; H83 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; cost accounting ; health cost management ; health expenditure ; public administration ; Unified Health System
    Language: Portuguese
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Owner-occupied housing and public infrastructure services are a relevant part of the income distribution whose impacts have not yet been adequately studied, at least not from the distributive point of view. This paper suggests a way to find the market value for these services using hedonic prices. While far from new, this methodology is nevertheless useful in assigning values to these services. The paper uses Brazilian data from 1995, 2004, and 2014 to impute rental values for owner occupied housing and the associated infrastructure services. The results are that imputation of housing services considerably reduces inequality and that public infrastructure services have become more progressive as their expansion brings these services to increasingly poorer households.
    Keywords: D31 ; ddc:330 ; hedonic prices ; public infrastructure services ; imputed rent ; income distribution
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: K23 ; L51 ; D73 ; H54 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Based on the hypothesis that the rulers of monetary and fiscal policy in Brazil may have been submitted to different regimes, the present study applies Leeper model (1991; 2005) in order to identify the chronology of policy regimes regarding their active and passive character. The policy rules are estimated by the Markov Switching (MS) model in which the regimes are endogenously identified. The results obtained allow us to place that fiscal dominance occurred in 2010 and between 2013 and 2014 while monetary dominance happened in much of 2003 and during the period from 2005 to 2007. The model still seeks to explain why the rate of Inflation during 2015 remained on the rise even though the monetary policy imposed by Central Bank was active.
    Keywords: E52 ; E58 ; E62 ; ddc:330 ; active monetary policy ; fiscal dominance ; reaction function ; regime change ; Markov-Switching model
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The objective of this research was to compare the economic impacts, in Brazil, of the New Forest Code considering two possible scenarios: in the first case there is no Environmental Reserve Quotas (ERQ); and in the second case there is no amnesty to small landowners. The methodology integrates two models: Globiom-Brazil and Term-BR. The results showed that the impacts in the value of macroeconomic aggregates, in the cumulative period from 2005 to 2030, compared to the baseline, for the first (without ERQ) and second scenario (without amnesty), respectively decrease in: 0.12% and 0.51% in real GDP; 0.11% and 0.43% in consumption; 0.11% and 0.45% in government expenditure; 0.84% and 3.09% in real investment; 0.14% and 0.4% in imports. Although, for the same period of analysis, there were exports increased by 0.43% and 1.89%. In the first scenario, the most economically affected state was Mato Grosso (-4.52% in GDP) and in the second scenario Goias (-4.25% in GDP). In addition, it was observed that soy and cattle breeding are the most negatively affected by such changes in environmental policy.
    Keywords: Q1 ; Q5 ; Q51 ; ddc:330 ; economic impacts ; New Forest Code ; Globiom-Brazil ; Term-BR
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The urban population growth in developing countries, the middle class expansion and the increase in per capita income have increased the demand for food. This work aims to identify, from the Constant Market Share (CMS) method, the sources of growth of agricultural exports among the main countries that operate in international trade. This paper analyses two periods: i) from 1992 to 2001; and ii) from 2002 to 2013. At the same time, it was studied the following countries: Brazil, Argentina, Germany, France, United States, India and Argentina. It was verified that Brazil and Argentina stood out in the comparison, although the competitiveness has reduced in the time. On the other hand, India has maintained a strong rise, which has been first associated to world growth than to gains in competitiveness. The United States had a growth rate exports lower than the world average, a factor that can be explained by the loss of competitiveness. In European Union, France has lost ground to Germany, which unlike the French economy presented notorious performance in exports. China experienced a decline in its exports in the whole period analyzed, a movement associated to the expansion of domestic market. Finally, the results point to a growing representation of emerging countries with natural resource potential (Brazil, Argentina and India), while developed economies (the United States and European countries) plus China (this country due to its own internal dynamics) lose space in international market.
    Keywords: Q17 ; Q10 ; F10 ; ddc:330 ; foreign trade ; growth ; agriculture ; market share ; agribusiness
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The paper's main goal is to map trends in terms of management principles and directives, as well as transformations that permeate the public administration in the last decades. Grounded on the recent academic production, central issues are discussed in order to understand the changes in the public sector and to contribute to the theoretical debate and to future empirical investigations in an analytical framework of functions and, above all, innovative experiences. As a result, the literature converges to a perception of the principles and directives of post-NPM administration as a process of continuity or incrementalism rather than a rupture with the previous paradigm. However, when compared to the original assumptions of the Movement, regarding the dimensions of focus, inspirational source, strategic, fundamental beliefs, among others, the post-NPM differs categorically. In addition, the trends, as well as in the NPM, are present different forms, varying according to the context and institutional framework of each government. That is, institutions and history, endogeneously developed, matter for the understanding of the public administration framework. The most emblematic feature of the current public management is the prevalence of the governance, which in different formats can aggregate a significant part of the post-NPM principles and directives mapped in the literature. Finally, another central aspect of the debate is the incongruity of pure and complete overcoming of management paradigms, between NPM and traditional bureaucracy or between post-NPM and new public management. The literature suggests an incremental and disorderly process, independent of the country or the moment analyzed.
    Keywords: H83 ; ddc:330 ; reform ; public administration ; management ; federal government
    Language: Portuguese
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: I11 ; I18 ; D4 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The objective of this article is to understand the main socioeconomic determinants of family cohabitation and new household formation by young adults in Brazilian urban areas. Methodologically, the study adapts the models of De Vos (1989) and Granado and Castillo (2002) to the Brazilian case, using microdata from Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics - IBGE 2009 National Household Survey - PNAD. The work also intends to verify to what extent the family cohabitation and new household formation are related to the conditions prevailing in the housing market, in order to subsidize the elaboration of housing policies more appropriate to the needs of the young population.
    Keywords: R15 ; R21 ; R31 ; R38 ; C33 ; J32 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; cohabitation ; new household formation ; adulthood transition ; leaving parental home ; housing demand ; housing policy ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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