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  • 1
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: El inicio del nuevo siglo significó un sustancial aumento de los flujos de capitales desde Estados Unidos (USA) y área dólar hacia las economías emergentes, los países miembros de la Unión Europea (EU) y el mercado de commodities. La fuerte caída de la tasa de interés de referencia de la Reserva Federal y su acompañamiento por parte del Banco Central Europeo determinaron una caída en los rendimientos relativos de los bonos, generando un boom en los precios de las commodities, una caída en el costo de endeudamiento y una consistente revaluación de las respectivas monedas emergentes. El aumento del precio de las commodities determinó un aumento en valor y cantidad de las exportaciones de aquellos países productores de materias primas, la disminución del costo de endeudamiento y una tendencia a la revaluación de las monedas emergentes. Las fuertes expectativas de que la Reserva Federal de por finalizado el ciclo de tasas de interés bajas podría implicar una reversión en el flujo de capitales, dando por finalizado un período único e irrepetible de oportunidades para las economías emergentes. En este sentido es que de confirmarse la reversión en el flujo de capitales, las regiones en cuestión verán aumentados sus costos de endeudamiento, sus monedas devaluadas y una mejora en el saldo de sus cuentas corrientes con una disminución en sus saldos exportables por un deterioro de los precios internacionales.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Kapitalmobilität ; Geldpolitik ; Geldmarkt ; Korrelation ; Zentralbank ; Schwellenländer ; Lateinamerika ; USA ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The aim of the study is to offer to decision-makers the necessary data regarding European policies of social inclusion for the Roma, with focus on the practices which have shown a positive impact in the fields of education, employment, housing and health, and to accompany the analysis with policy recommendations for a more efficient and effective action in promoting Roma inclusion. The second chapter, Social Inclusion Policies at the European Level: Mainstreaming versus Targeting offers a brief historical overview of the European policy framework within which social inclusion was conceptualised and its corresponding policies were articulated, along with preoccupations with the situation of the Roma, defined as a European minority subject to centuries-long discrimination. It reminds the reader the definition of „social inclusion” mentioned in European documents and connects the development of the concept and its corresponding social policies to the discourse on the risks of poverty and social exclusion, which can be found already in the 1984 documents of the Council of European Communities. The first part of the chapter presents the emergence and evolution of the Lisbon agenda (2000) and the Open Method of Coordination in the Domain of Social Policies (OMC) that became operational soon after, along with the main indicators aimed to measure the extent and depth of poverty and social exclusion in EU member states, i.e. the Laeken indicators and the currently employed AROPE indicator. It discusses the role of the European Platform against Poverty and Social Exclusion, launched in 2010 as part of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable development that fosters social inclusion. The Platform aims to stand for a political commitment of EU member states to promote social innovation and more efficient use of European funds for the objectives of social inclusion. Recently, the European Commission also recommended adding a series of social indicators (i.e. the rate of long term unemployment and the neither-in-work-nor-in-education rate among the youth) in the monitorization of the European common market. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Soziale Integration ; Roma-Bevölkerung ; EU-Politik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 3
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Freizügigkeit ; Rumänen ; Wirkungsanalyse ; EU-Staaten ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 4
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: This study contributes to the literature on the competitiveness of Romanian exports with a new perspective over the decade 2001-2011, by overlapping of two complementary analyses: of the export performance dynamics and of the domestic revenues created by export manufacturers and their suppliers. The analyzed period includes the period of global economic growth (mainly 2003-2007) and the first years of the economic crisis (2009-2011 ). The year 2007, when Romania joined the European Union, is in the middle of the analyzed period. The dynamics of Romania's export performance was assessed through a specific method combining three different research lines(1) changes in the ranking of exported products in the reference years 2001 and 2011, (2) evolution of the performance of key products exported in 2001 and (3) the position in 2001 of key products exported in 2011. The analysis of domestic revenues created by export manufacturers and their suppliers provides, for the first time for Romania a brief study on the position of the country on the global value chain, following the logic proposed by the European Commission in its last two European Competitiveness Reports (2012 and 2013). When corroborated, the results of the two analyses can be used to discuss the extent to which the current structure of exports contributes to the generation of domestic revenues and as such might prove useful in the debate on the identification of a country brand for Romania. In order to achieve the latter goal, we conducted two detailed case studies on two reference sectors of the Romanian economy: motor vehicles and creative industries. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Export ; Performance-Messung ; Einnahmen ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; EU-Binnenmarkt ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 5
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-06-04
    Description: The present study aims, in the first part, to examine the trends evidenced at the level of international trade and extra-community trade flows and, at the same time, the new directions of the EU trade policy in relation with the rest of the world. In the second part, it brings to the forefront the main trends of the Romanian trade as well as the Romanian export competitiveness and ways towards their sustainable development. These issues are analyzed and presented in seven sections, as follows: I. Developments, trends and structural changes in international trade in goods II. Main characteristics of the extra-community trade in goods during 2000-2011. Romania's position in these exchanges III. EU trade policy and its impact on the Romanian foreign trade IV. General directions of the Romanian foreign trade during 2000-2011. Assessment of the Romanian export competitiveness. The role of FDI in promoting exports V. Benchmarking best practices in export support and promotion. Role played by national and international organizations VI. Challenges and perspectives of the Romanian exports VII. Ways towards sustainable export development. Role of the National Export Strategy. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Export ; Außenhandel ; EU-Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
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  • 6
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: La investigación analiza el desempeño de las exportaciones en Bolivia a la luz de los empleos que genera, directos e indirectos, con los siguientes resultados destacables: i) la creación de fuentes laborales se ha concentrado en los bienes no tradicionales ya que son intensivos en este factor de producción; ii) el buen desempeño del volumen de ventas al exterior en 1999-2010 posibilitó el incremento de la mano de obra derivada, empero con tasas modestas; iii) Los socios de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN) ?Colombia, Ecuador y Perú? han sido los más importantes en términos de creación de empleos; mientras que el MERCOSUR, principalmente Brasil, se destaca con la mayor participación en las exportaciones; y iv) la caída de los empleos derivados de las menores exportaciones a Estados Unidos en los últimos años ha sido significativa, aunque parte de esta disminución habría sido compensada con las mayores ventas a Venezuela en el marco de los compromisos con Bolivia.
    Description: This paper analyzes Bolivian exports focusing on their jobs results. We find that: i) employment created by exports is mainly explained by untraditional goods exports, given that they are labor intensive; ii) the high rate of exports growth during 1999-2010 generated more jobs, however, with modest rates of growth; iii) the Andean Community of Nations (CAN) members - Colombia, Ecuador and Peru - have been the most important countries for generating jobs, while MERCOSUR, mainly Brazil, stands out by its corresponding export values; and iv) during the last years, the lower exports to U.S. has had a negative and significant impact on employment, although part of this has been offset by selling more to Venezuela, as part of special commitments.
    Keywords: F01 ; F16 ; J29 ; ddc:330 ; Exportaciones ; Empleo ; Bolivia ; Exports ; Employment ; Bolivia ; Export ; Beschäftigung ; Bolivien
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Buenos Aires: Centro de Economía Internacional (CEI)
    Publication Date: 2016-11-12
    Description: At present, carbon footprint labelling is at the heart of debates on the environmental impact of products, but there are other environmental criteria related to the sustainability of products that could also have an impact on developing countries' exports in the future. Furthermore, this issue has proved to be highly dynamic and subject to constant change over time; it is thus clear that its evolution needs to be closely monitored in view of the diverse consequences it might have on the Argentine export sector. The present study shows how relevant the European Union is for Argentina as a destination market for Argentine export products that could be potentially affected by carbon footprint standards or labelling. The actions taken in the United Kingdom and France, where special attention is paid to the carbon footprint of food products sold in large retail chains, and the European Commission's initiative on Environmental Footprint of Products are outstanding examples of initiatives aimed at measuring carbon footprint. It was also found that the basket of exports likely to be affected by carbon footprint measurement schemes accounts for around one-fourth of Argentine exports to each of the destinations included in this study: the United Kingdom, France, the European Union, the United States and Japan. In 2007-2010, average exports of these products to the European Union reached USD 2.82 billion, which totalled 29.1% of Argentine exports of the affected products to the world. In turn, the United States accounted for 11.1% of total exports of affected products, whereas the share of Japan only reached 2.1%. France and the United Kingdom accounted for only a small portion of this trade: 1.8% and 2.4% respectively. A more detailed analysis - at the level of heading - reveals that the main Argentine exports which in 2007-2010 were destined to the main markets implementing carbon footprint labelling schemes corresponded to bovine meat and its preparations, wines, crustaceans and fish, citrus fruit, apples and pears and other fruit, fruit juices and natural honey. According to 2003 data, an analysis of the degree of vulnerability of Argentine products destined to other markets shows that the most vulnerable productive sectors were honey, fruit juices, tea and apples and pears as well as bovine, swine and ovine meat and meat preparations, citrus fruit, fruit, vegetables and canned vegetables, and olive oil.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Umweltbelastung ; Export ; Argentinien
    Language: Spanish
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  • 8
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; EU-Politik ; EU-Nachbarstaaten ; EU-Staaten ; Mittelmeerraum
    Language: Romanian
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  • 9
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: This paper examines the evolution of the EU's trade in services over the 2004-2008 period in comparison with its trade in goods. It aims to disentangle the main trends shaping the EU's services trade flows under the impact of increasing globalisation and the last two waves of EU enlargement. Relying on BoP trade statistics published by Eurostat and the WTO, it highlights the recent changes in the EU's services flows in terms of dynamics, composition, trade balance as well as patterns of specialisation and integration into the internal and global market. It also reveals the main trends prevailing in the evolution of extra and intra-EU trade flows, and their relevance for the process of economic integration within the EU. The purpose of the paper is to contribute to the discussion of the issues related to services trade in the EU since this topic is focusing to a far lesser extent the attention of current economic literature than trade in goods. Hence, our empirical investigation attempts to find the answers to the following questions: What is the significance of services trade flows for the EU as compared with trade in goods, and which is their role in the global economy? How relevant is trade in services from the perspective of European economic integration? What are the effects of the global financial and economic crisis on the EU's trade in services, and which are its future prospects? Following the answers to these questions, the paper is structured around five sections. The last one summarizes the main findings of the authors.
    Keywords: F14 ; F15 ; L80 ; O52 ; ddc:330 ; European Union ; trade in services ; trade in goods ; economic integration ; global financial and economic crisis ; Dienstleistungshandel ; Außenhandel mit Industriegütern ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Finanzkrise ; Wirtschaftskrise ; Regionale Wirtschaftsintegration ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
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  • 10
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: This paper analyses the justifications and stages of the elaboration of impact studies at the European level, focusing on the various working methods, be it 'impact matrix' or the 'logic of intervention', which may be adopted by law-makers, in order to improve the regulation mechanisms in the public administration field and shape up new ways in which they could be used. Attention is paid to the role and the utility of impact assessment in elaborating public policies, as well as to the importance of properly using analysis instruments, with a focus on the obstacles and risks associated to the impact assessment process, by comparing different approaches and working methods, from the European and OECD area. Various evaluation patterns from OECD and the EU are presented, with their peculiarities and challenges involved by their implementation, leading to the conclusion that the European assessment pattern is still far away from providing a universal impact analysis model due to the lack of efficient sanctioning mechanisms. The credibility of an impact assessment largely depends on its results, which means they need to be based on correct and updated information, which is at the same time transparent and easy to access and understand. The role of impact assessment and, by extension, of impact studies is to allow lawmakers to check up whether the implementation of existing regulations observes the established indicators, as well as whether the policy in question had reached its objective.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Politik ; Politische Entscheidung ; Politische Willensbildung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
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  • 11
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Stadtentwicklung ; Rumänien ; EU-Regionalpolitik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
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  • 12
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    Buenos Aires: Centro de Economía Internacional (CEI)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-20
    Description: In May 2004 ten new members are incorporated to the European Union (EU) which, considered on the whole, represent a GDP which is four times greater than the Argentine GDP. With this expansion, the EU population will increase by 24%, its surface will increase by 28%, and the GDP will increase by only 5%. From the trade viewpoint, the expansion of the EU means a potential opportunity for the Argentine Republic as well as a tangible threat: having tariff preferences in a wider market once the Mercosur - European Union free trade agreement is entered into, and the possibility that the Argentine Republic is replaced as a supplier of the current EU (15 countries) by the new partners. In this analysis, it must be taken into account that the potential impact on trade will not be abrupt, since the expansion process of the EU took place gradually, and the new partners have had tariff preferences in the EU-15 for a long time. In fact, the European Agreements, signed at the beginning of the nineties, provided an institutional framework for the bilateral relationships between the countries of Central and Western Europe, and the EU which resulted in the free trade of industrial products, while, for the agricultural products, instead, the parties agreed upon a gradual liberalization.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; EU-Erweiterung ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Argentinien ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Spanish
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  • 13
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    Buenos Aires: Centro de Economía Internacional (CEI)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-20
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Handelsabkommen ; Freihandelszone ; Regionalökonomik ; MERCOSUR-Staaten ; Amerika ; EU-Staaten ; Argentinien
    Language: Spanish
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  • 14
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    Buenos Aires: Centro de Economía Internacional (CEI)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-13
    Description: Trade relations with the European Union are of critical importance to our country. Historically, and aside from economic cycles and trade agreements that may have geographically redirected trade flows, the Old World is one of Argentina's main trade partners, both in terms of the origin of our imports as well as in terms of the destination of our sales, which points to the high degree of complementarity existing between the production structures of both regions. To this should be added other political factors -such as the importance of the European bloc in the international scenario- and economic factors -such as the possible effect on other negotiation forum, such as FTAA or WTO- , which enhance even more the importance of a free trade agreement between Mercosur and the European Union. The concessions granted in a free trade agreement between two blocs may modify exchanges between the partners. On the one hand, obtaining tariff preferences tends to lead to an increase in exports towards the new partner; on the other hand, this may involve the loss of preferential access exclusivity for the older partners (in this case Mercosur partners), which means that sales to that destination face new competition which may partially or totally displace exports. This is what creates opportunities and threats for foreign trade, through changes in exports and imports, which in theoretical terms causes trade creation and trade diversion effects.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen ; Argentinien ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Spanish
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  • 15
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: El desempeño macroeconómico de Bolivia durante el período de 1994 a 1998 es analizado y comparado con el desempeño de períodos anteriores y el desempeño de otros países en desarrollo (agrupados de acuerdo al ingreso, región y condición de su deuda). Esto permite evaluar lo alcanzado en Bolivia desde la profunda crisis de principios de la década de 1980. Se hace especial énfasis en las restricciones a la inversión, el desarrollo económico, y la redistribución, i.e. sobre el ahorro interno, el desempeño de las exportaciones, y los ingresos fiscales. El resultado es un claro sobredesempeño con respecto a la estabilización y un sub-desempeño con respecto a las restricciones al crecimiento.
    Keywords: I65 ; O11 ; ddc:330 ; estabilización ; ajuste estructural ; restricciones macroeconómicas ; desarrollo económico ; Bolivia ; Wirtschaftsreform ; Anpassungsprogramm des IWF ; Wirtschaftspolitische Wirkungsanalyse ; Wirtschaftliche Anpassung ; Entwicklung ; Bottleneck ; Sparen ; Export ; Öffentliche Einnahmen ; Armutspolitik ; Bolivien
    Language: Spanish
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  • 16
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: El documento proporciona una descripción de la vulnerabilidad de la economía boliviana por la exportación de productos primarios: minerales e hidrocarburos. Los cambios estructurales introducidos en la economía boliviana desde 1985 han disminuido la participación del Estado en la producción y exportaciones de estos productos. Esta situación ha contribuido a que las evoluciones de las finanzas públicas y la balanza cambiaria dependan en menor medida de la volatilidad de estos sectores, aunque otras variables económicas están relacionados fuertemente a sus desempeños, como es el caso de los términos de intercambio. El análisis del proceso de generación de los precios reales de los productos primarios, estaño, zinc, oro, plata y gas natural, determinaron que los shocks en los precios son de prolongada duración y, en la mayoría de los precios analizados, el proceso de raíz unitaria es una regla. Estas características imposibilitan la creación de mecanismos de estabilización. Finalmente, al estar en manos privadas la minería y los hidrocarburos, la formulación de mecanismos de cobertura deberá considerar como proteger los ingresos de este sector. Los instrumentos financieros serían los más apropiados para este fin, pero el bajo desarrollo del mercados de capitales limita sus usos.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Schock ; Rohstoff ; Export ; Bolivien
    Language: Spanish
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