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  • 1
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-20
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Los modelos de comportamiento humano tienen por objetivo el predecir las conductas de los individuos. En el ámbito de las organizaciones, el contar con modelos predictivos de conductas resulta de enorme importancia, tanto en la selección de nuevos recursos humanos como también en la gestión de los mismos y en la resolución de conflictos de intereses opuestos. La evolución de los diferentes modelos de comportamiento humano ha incluido progresivamente diversas variables, agregando paulatinamente mayor poder explicativo y predictivo. El modelo ST-IT propuesto propone la inclusión de variables hasta ahora no integradas en los modelos de comportamiento humano, tales como la influencia del entorno sobre el individuo y sus valores morales respecto al trabajo; el efecto de la cultura organizacional; la influencia de los sistemas de control de las organizaciones; el grado de competitividad en el mercado laboral y el grado de proteccionismo existente en la legislación laboral, entre otros. La validación del modelo se realizó mediante un extenso estudio de campo sobre 212 casos, el cual permitió distinguir la existencia de individuos con apego al trabajo y valoración del deber cumplido, en contraposición a otras personas que consideran al cumplimiento laboral como un disvalor. Fue posible observar también que existiría una importante dependencia entre el nivel educativo alcanzado y tales valores personales respecto del trabajo y el sentido del deber cumplido. Por último, el estudio de campo permitiría también corroborar los efectos que el clima laboral, eficiencia de los controles de cumplimiento y competitividad del mercado laboral generan sobre los niveles de trabajo de los individuos estudiados.
    Description: Human behavior models aim to predict individual actions. For organizations management, predictive models of behaviors have great importance, both for the selection of new human resources as well as in their management and in the resolution of conflicting interests. The evolution of different models of human conducts progressively included several variables, gradually adding more explanatory and predictive power. The ST-IT model proposes the inclusion of variables not yet integrated in human behavior models, such as the influence of the environment on the individual and their moral values with respect to work; the effect of organizational culture; the influence of the organization's control systems; the degree of competitiveness in the labor market and the degree of protectionism in the labor legislation, among others. The validation of the model was carried out through an extensive field study on 212 cases, which allowed to distinguish the existence of individuals with attachment to work and assessment of the fulfilled duty, in contrast to other people who consider labor compliance as a disvalue. It was also possible to observe that there would be an important dependence between the level of education attained and such personal values respect to work and the sense of fulfilled duty. Finally, the field study would also corroborate the effects that the labor climate, efficiency of compliance controls and labor market competitiveness generate on the work levels of the individuals studied.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 3
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: El propósito del ensayo es sistematizar, en la tradición de Friedman y Schwartz (1963), el análisis de dos recientes coyunturas monetarias: la crisis de las hipotecas sub-prime (EEUU 2008-2011) y la corrida contra las Lebac (Argentina 2018-2019). Ambos casos son un buen ejemplo de la capacidad de desestabilización de fuerzas monetarias básicas, tales como cambios de la velocidad de circulación y el multiplicador monetario. En el primero, destacamos la agresiva política de la Reserva Federal como prestamista de última instancia. En el segundo, concluimos que a) la mayor parte del aumento del nivel de precios del período febrero 2018-febrero 2019 se debió a un aumento de la velocidad, y b) si el multiplicador no hubiera caído como lo hizo, la inflación del período habría sido bastante más alta.
    Description: The purpose of the essay is to systematize, in the Friedman and Schwartz (1963) tradition, the analysis of two recent monetary crises: the sub-prime mortgage crisis (USA 2008-2011) and the run against the Lebac (Argentina 2018-2019). Both cases are good examples of the ability to destabilize of elementary monetary forces, such as changes in the velocity of circulation and the money multiplier. Regarding the first case, we highlight the aggressive role of the Federal Reserve as last resort lender. In the second, we conclude that a) most of the price level increase in the period February 2018-February 2019 was due to an increase in velocity, and b) if the multiplier had not fallen as it fell, inflation in the period would have been much higher.
    Keywords: E31 ; E51 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 4
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: La Argentina vive una real crisis educativa, carece de sentido negarlo. Este paper presenta siete propuestas las cuales, a mi entender, le permitirían al Gobierno tomar enérgicamente la iniciativa frente a una crisis que, sin duda, ha heredado y es imprescindible que logre revertir. Siete propuestas que no se enfocan solamente en la educación de los niños, sino también de los jóvenes y adultos, muchos de los cuales subsisten gracias a planes sociales. Siete propuestas, algunas muy sencillas de implementar, otras más atrevidas. Creo que en este año electoral vale la pena discutirlas.
    Keywords: I28 ; ddc:330 ; educación ; mecenazgo educativo ; planes sociales ; libertad educativa ; educational savings accounts
    Language: Spanish
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  • 5
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: La política económica se trata en distintos planos. En particular, me refiero a la "cocina" de la política económica, al tratamiento politizado de la cuestión, al rol que me gustaría cumpliera la academia (entendida en sentido amplio, incluyendo no solamente a los trabajos profesionales, sino también a la participación de los economistas aplicados, en los debates públicos), y al tratamiento de la economía en los medios masivos de comunicación. Primero me ocupo de cada plano por separado para luego plantear la cuestión de los problemas que genera su mezcla y sugerir qué se podría hacer al respecto.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 6
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: The current research analyzes the main variables that explain the bilateral flow's behavior of foreign direct investment. This document is emphasized on the landlocked countries, a geographic variabel which is present in almost 25 percent of all countries. The research is built through a panel data composed by 9,312 bilateral flows corresponding to 97 countries in the period 2001-2012, with a total of 111,744 observations. The estimation is made within the framework of the gravity equation and Dunning's eclectic paradigm. The results have the expected estimates. It was found that landlocked countries lose about 60 percent of their flows of foreign direct investment. The cause of this loss can be explained by the isolation that the geographic characteristic generates. Finally, in a study on Bolivia, it was found that this country loses about 2.22 percent of the Gross domestic product every year because it is landlocked.
    Keywords: F21 ; F23 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; Landlocked countries ; foreign direct investment ; eclectic paradigm ; gravity equation ; data panel
    Language: Spanish
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  • 7
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: Deforestation in Bolivia has increased considerably during the last few decades, which causes carbon dioxide emissions, biodiversity loss, changes to the hydrologic cycle, among others. This study pretends to estimate the impacts and costs of that deforestation. Since each variablehas its own complexity, the use of different methodologies is necessary. The first model used is a carbon bookkeeping model and the carbon price. The second is the BIOM model which is based on the extrapolation of species, and the use of the elasticity between consumption and absolute species richness for the quantification of costs. Finally, a spatial econometric model and a water scarcity index are used for the estimation of the costs of variation in the hydrologic cycle. The results are presented at three levels; a national level, department level and municipal level for two time periods; 1990-2000 and 2000-2010. In addition, based on the results, conclusion and recommendations are formulated about deforestation in Bolivia. This study calculates that the cost of deforestation in Bolivia exceeds 10% of GDP.
    Keywords: Q23 ; Q24 ; Q25 ; Q57 ; Q31 ; Q32 ; ddc:330 ; Deforestation ; forest ; carbon emissions ; biodiversity loss ; hydrologic cycle variation
    Language: Spanish
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  • 8
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: The right to care was recognized in the international regulatory framework. Its inclusion in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development represented a fundamental step in the framework of global agreements. Goal 5 "Achieving gender equality and empowering women and girls" includes the mandate to "recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work". Goal 5.4 establishes the responsibility of States "to provide public services, infrastructure and social protection policies, under the co-responsibility approach of care". Similarly, policies and care programs are progressing in Latin American countries. The document represents the concept of care as a social right, analyzes the demographic, family and work transformations that demand a new social organization of care, and synthesizes progress in the region to achieve two objectives: to ensure access to care for children, adolescents, older adults and persons with family responsibilities.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Care ; care policies ; Latin America ; gender equality ; social rights ; social protection ; children ; adolescents ; seniors and people with disabilities ; family responsibilities
    Language: Spanish
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  • 9
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Description: Citizens confront multiple challenges when attempting to access public services. This article focuses on an aspect yet unaddressed by existing literature on administrative burdens: the complexity of the written language used by government agencies in Latin America. It presents an impact evaluation of the Lenguaje Claro Program of Colombia's National Planning Department. A randomized control trial compared two versions of a letter - the original and one with plain language - used by the property department of the city of Bogota. The study shows that clarifying content via modifications in language, content order, and formatting can reduce citizen's learning costs. Plain language thus has positive effects for both individuals and public institutions. A complementary perception survey revealed that there is significant room for additional simplification, as both the original and the plain language letter were largely poorly rated by citizens.
    Keywords: C93 ; H11 ; H83 ; Z13 ; Z18 ; ddc:330 ; administrative burden ; language simplification ; plain language ; public services ; red tape
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Description: Gamification, or the introduction of game elements to non-game contexts, has the potential to improve learning by increasing student motivation. However, there is little rigorous evidence about its effectiveness. In this paper, we experimentally evaluate an innovative technology program that uses gamification to increase math learning in low-performing primary schools in Chile. The ConectaIdeas program involves two weekly sessions in a computer lab during which students use an online platform to solve math exercises. The platform tracks how many exercises students perform and features different types of individual and group competitions to promote student motivation. Results indicate large positive effects on math learning of about 0.27 standard deviations on the Chilean national standardized exam (no effects were found on language). The program also affected several non-academic outcomes in both positive and negative ways. On the one hand, it increased students' preference to use technology for math learning and promoted the idea among students that study effort can raise intelligence. On the other hand, the program increased math anxiety and reduced students' preferences to collaborate in teams. These results suggest that gamification could be an important tool to boost student learning, but that it may bring unintended consequences.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Education ; Gamification ; Technology ; Experiments
    Language: Spanish
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  • 11
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Keywords: C23 ; C24 ; O18 ; O54 ; R11 ; R12 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 12
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: En un sistema formado por una red de nodos emisores y receptores de información, es necesario conocer el estado de señal que tendría cada uno de esos nodos en todo momento con el fin de lograr un flujo de información adecuado. El objetivo de este trabajo es obtener un modelo matemático que describa las interacciones entre los nodos, y a partir de dicho modelo, determinar las señales temporales en cada uno de ellos. Para la elaboración del modelo se considera tiempo discreto, y para la obtención de las señales en los nodos se utiliza transformada Z. Se aplica luego el modelo para resolver un problema concreto, y posteriormente se lleva a cabo una simulación con computadora sobre ese mismo problema. Se observa que las señales que devuelve el modelo y la que surgen de la simulación coinciden perfectamente. Se podría adicionalmente ampliar el modelo para que tenga en cuenta los fenómenos de atenuación de las señales en la interacción entre nodos, y analizar cómo impacta dicha atenuación en la convergencia de las señales temporales.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 13
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Dado un conjunto con determinada cantidad de elementos, es posible calcular la cardinalidad del conjunto formado por todos los subconjuntos del conjunto dado, que cumplen con la propiedad de ser disjuntos y tal que además la unión de todos ellos sea el conjunto original. Esto es, determinar el número total de posibles particiones para el conjunto especificado. El objetivo es abordar el tema con un enfoque matricial y mediante elementos de álgebra lineal. También se analiza el caso en el cual se consideran a los elementos como indistinguibles, y por lo tanto se pretende calcular el número de clases de particiones, es decir obtener la función de partición. Se aplican las ecuaciones obtenidas a un caso puntual y se verifican con las expresiones y valores existentes con respecto a esta temática.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 14
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Sociocracia, organizaciones circulares, paradigma teal, holocracia, redes, rizomas, entre otras, han cobrado particular impulso en los últimos años, desde los comienzos en Bilthoven, Holanda, como formas de gobierno de tipo horizontal. Contrastan, cuestionan y en alguna medida complementan, a las estructuras jerárquicas arraigadas desde hace tiempo en la mayoría de las empresas y organizaciones. Esta investigación intenta, partiendo de fuentes primarias, libros y papers con referato, realizar una revisión bibliográfica desde las ideas de Auguste Conte, en el siglo XIX, intentando recomponer la línea de tiempo hasta el presente. Busca ordenar, encontrar influencias, establecer diferencias y similitudes entre los diferentes modelos de gestión y poner en evidencia algunas recientes experiencias. Se pretende generar claridad sobre conceptos, no siempre bien interpretados y al mismo tiempo abordar el dilema sobre si estos modelos horizontales, gestionados a partir de la colaboración y el poder distribuido, pueden responden de mejor forma a ciertos requerimientos del ambiente y lograr asimismo el mayor involucramiento de las personas, respecto de los modelos clásicos verticales y jerárquicos.
    Keywords: L10 ; O31 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Sociocracia ; Organización del Círculo Sociocrático ; Organizaciones Circulares ; Paradigma Teal ; Holocracia ; Redes ; Organizaciones rizomáticas
    Language: Spanish
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  • 15
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: El tema de la corrupción es un tópico frecuentemente mencionado en todos los medios públicos y privados y pareciera no haber dudas respecto de su significado. Sin embargo, esa certeza se diluye cuando se pretende profundizar en el análisis y surge la duda respecto de que debe entenderse por corrupción Un criterio bastante generalizado parece entender que se trata de un abuso que, para obtener beneficios privados, realiza una persona o entidad respecto del poder que le han encomendado. No resulta tan fácil definir la corrupción, salvo en las situaciones más evidentes, dado que los comportamientos de los implicados varían y, en general, se ocultan de la vista de la población. En el presente la población de muchos países de elevados niveles de ingresos parecen aceptar como normal la existencia de corrupción entre su clase política. Lo que no puede dejar de ignorarse es que la corrupción se convierte en una ruptura de lo que constituye el fundamento mismo de nuestra sociedad. Destruye el "bien común" para convertirlo en prenda de triunfo de una persona o grupo. Estos individuos pretenden incluso modificar el significado del término corrupción ignorando que es corrupto todo acto que tiende a destruir lo común en beneficio privado, destruyendo también los fundamentos mismos de la sociedad.
    Keywords: D73 ; H11 ; J51 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 16
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Análisis de Derechos Contingentes (CCA) ; Análisis de Sustentabilidad de Deuda (DSA) ; Modelo de Merton ; Distancia hacia el Default ; Análisis de Componentes Principales ; Modelo unifactorial ; VAR (Vectores Autorregresivos) ; Funciones de impulso-respuesta ; Simulación de Montecarlo
    Language: Spanish
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  • 17
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 18
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: El propósito del presente artículo es explorar cómo los postulados presentados por Sigmund Freud, principalmente en El malestar en la cultura así también como en otros trabajos de su autoría, pueden relacionarse con las perspectivas sobre la constitución de la sociedad y la comunidad política propuestos por diversos pensadores, haciendo en especial una comparación con las perspectivas del denominado contractualismo. Considerando que el aporte de Freud es especialmente significativo, ya que permite incorporar a la ciencia política y la sociología elementos provenientes de la psicología y del psicoanálisis en particular, se estudiarán sus impresiones y se presentarán como un complemento relevante a los aportes de intérpretes consagrados de aquellas disciplinas.
    Description: This article aims to explore how the ideas presented by Sigmund Freud, most particularly in Civilisation and its Discontents but also in other works, can be related to perspectives about the creation of society and the political community suggested by different thinkers, especially those identified to contractualism. Thinking that the contribution by Freud is substantial, as it allows political science and sociology to add elements from psychology and, most particularly, psychoanalysis, his thoughts will be studied and presented as a relevant complement to the visions of canonical thinkers of those disciplines.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Freud ; Violencia ; Estado de naturaleza ; Contractualismo ; Freud ; Violence ; State of nature ; Contractualism
    Language: Spanish
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  • 19
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    Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid
    Publication Date: 2019-10-30
    Description: Al igual que con muchos otros conceptos, una vez que se considera el concepto de poder más de cerca, surgen preguntas fundamentales, tales como si una relación de poder es necesariamente una relación de subordinación y dominación, visión que dificulta identificar formas legítimas de ejercicio de poder. Para contribuir a su claridad, tanto conceptual como normativa, en lo que sigue propongo una nueva forma de concebir el poder. Mi argumento es que sólo podemos entender qué es el poder y cómo es ejercido una vez que entendemos su naturaleza esencialmente nouménica. Sostengo que el fenómeno real y general del poder se encuentra en el reino nouménico, es decir, en el espacio de las razones, entendido como el reino de las justificaciones. De acuerdo con ello, defiendo una noción del poder normativamente neutral, que nos permite distinguir formas de poder más específicas, tales como dominio, coerción o dominación. El análisis pretende abrir camino a una teoría crítica del poder.
    Description: The same as with many other concepts, once one considers the concept of power more closely, fundamental questions arise, such as whether a power relation is necessarily a relation of subordination and domination, a view that makes it difficult to identify legitimate forms of the exercise of power. To contribute to conceptual as well as normative clarification, I suggest a novel way to conceive of power. I argue that we only understand what power is and how it is exercised once we understand its essentially noumenal nature. I claim that the real and general phenomenon of power is to be found in the noumenal realm, that is, in the space of reasons, understood as the realm of justifications. On that basis, I defend a normatively neutral notion of power that enables us to distinguish more particular forms of power, such as rule, coercion, or domination. The analysis aims to prepare the way for a critical theory of power.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; poder ; nouménico ; razones ; justificación ; crítica ; power ; noumenal ; reasons ; justification ; critique
    Language: Spanish
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  • 20
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    Buenos Aires: Banco Central de la República Argentina (BCRA), Investigaciones Económicas (ie)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-31
    Description: This paper analyzes the impact of external price shocks on the real exchange rate and the existence of the Dutch disease, in the case of the Argentine economy. We consider the effects of shocks on the terms of trade, the supply of the agricultural sector (booming sector) and the real exchange rate on the GDP of the manufacturing sector (or, alternatively, on total GDP) and unemployment rates. SVAR models, with long-term restrictions, and quarterly data, covering the 1993-2018 period, are estimated. The results show that the external price shocks and agricultural sector shocks affect positively and permanently to the manufacturing GDP and negatively to the unemployment rates, not finding substantial evidence about existence of the Dutch disease for this economy.
    Keywords: C32 ; F41 ; ddc:330 ; external price shocks ; real exchange rate ; Dutch disease ; SVAR models ; Argentina
    Language: Spanish
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  • 21
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Description: Carbon taxes are advocated as efficient fiscal and environmental policies, but they have proven difficult to implement. One reason is that carbon taxes can aggravate poverty by increasing prices of basic goods and services such as food, heating, and commuting. Meanwhile, cash transfer programs have been established as some of the most efficient poverty-reducing policies used in developing countries. Here, we quantify how governments can mitigate negative social consequences of carbon taxes by expanding the beneficiary base or the amounts disbursed with existing cash transfer programs. We focus on Latin America and the Caribbean, a region that has pioneered cash transfer programs, which aspires to contribute to climate mitigation, and faces inequality. We find that 30% of carbon revenues could suffice to compensate poor and vulnerable households on average, leaving 70% to fund other political priorities. We also quantify tradeoffs for governments choosing who and how much to compensate.
    Keywords: H22 ; H23 ; Q54 ; Q01 ; N56 ; 013 ; ddc:330 ; cash transfers ; carbon taxes ; climate change
    Language: Spanish
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  • 22
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Este paper reproduce la exposición que he realizado el lunes 1 de octubre pasado en la Academia Nacional de Educación. Al decidir el tema sobre el cual realizarla me surgió naturalmente la posibilidad de hacerlo sobre vouchers educativos, con el objetivo que hace años tengo en mente: sembrar la duda que la libertad educativa es una idea que merece ser considerada como una alternativa plausible para nuestro país. No es mi intención intentar demostrar que un sistema de vouchers educativos, o de school choice para ser más general, donde los vouchers son tan sólo uno de los instrumentos posibles, genera mejores resultados que un sistema en el cual se subsidia la oferta. La libertad es un valor en sí mismo, por ende, no resulta admisible tener que justificar porque proponer un sistema educativo que la privilegia, sino por el contrario debería justificarse porque no se lo considera una alternativa factible. Para ser eficiente utilizo citas y evidencia de diversos países en los cuales la libertad educativa, en mayor o menor grado existe, o bien es una posibilidad concreta.
    Keywords: I28 ; ddc:330 ; educación ; vouchers ; educational savings accounts ; tax credit scholarships
    Language: Spanish
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  • 23
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Bajo una hipótesis de simplicidad, los cambios sociales y tecnológicos podrán ser identificados anticipadamente. Habrá tiempo para entenderlos, tomarlos en cuenta y evitar o corregir desvíos. La estrategia podrá ser planteada como un acto formal, mecanicista, deliberado. Pero a veces, los ambientes no son simples, se los supone como tales esperando que reaccionen de forma previsible. Bajo el contexto de complejidad, volatilidad, incertidumbre y ambigüedad, las reacciones reduccionistas, mecánicas y determinísticas, pueden presentar dificultades. Algunas situaciones emergen por primera vez, en otras no es posible calcular el comportamiento desde las condiciones iniciales. Este trabajo intenta, partiendo fuentes primarias, libros y papers con referato, realizar una revisión bibliográfica de los últimos 27 años, desde que Herbert Barber, en 1991, planteó por primera vez el acrónimo V.U.C.A (volatile, uncertain, ambiguous, complex, por sus siglas en inglés). El propósito de esta investigación ha sido, generar claridad sobre un concepto donde impera cierta confusión dentro de la literatura y presentar, desde el campo de las empresas, algunas reflexiones y propuestas aplicables al desarrollo de la estrategia y la toma de decisiones.
    Keywords: L10 ; O31 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Complejidad ; caos ; ambientes V.I.C.A ; estrategia en ambientes V-I.C.A. ; decisiones en ambientes VICA
    Language: Spanish
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Description: This paper analyzes the impact of MapaRegalías on efficiency in the execution of public investment projects in Colombia. MapaRegalías is an online platform that displays geo-referenced information and data on royalties coming from the extractives sector. The purpose of the platform is to reduce the cost incurred by public officials and citizens when monitoring the use of royalties. The main finding is that after the release of MapaRegalías, public investment projects financed with royalties showed an average increase in efficiency of execution of 7.996 percentage points.
    Keywords: D73 ; O31 ; H83 ; H50 ; L78 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; digital innovation ; efficiency ; public investment ; transparency
    Language: Spanish
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  • 25
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: While more married women in cities are part of the workforce, are they doing the jobs for which they have been prepared? How are the wages of this sector of the population formed? How does the spouse/partner's income or commuting costs affect their employment decisions? What is the structure of a Latin American city with formal and informal sectors? This article proposes a theoretical model that studies the interaction between geographical disparities (home-work) and disparities in skills of married women in Latin American cities. The intrinsic characteristic of informality in these markets is included and there is an analysis of how these disparities affect the results of this labor market in particular. After conducting a welfare analysis, and finding congestion and composition externalities, three economic policies are proposed to restore the social welfare of this economy. These are: (i) subsidy to the creation of vacancies, (ii) subsidy to transportation, and (iii) the creation of day-care centers, in order to restore social efficiency.
    Keywords: J2 ; ddc:330 ; female labor market ; wages
    Language: Spanish
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  • 26
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: This study calculates the Social Progress Index (SPI) for the 9 Departments of Bolivia during the period 2012-2016. The indicators have been calculated by using secondary information from official sources. We observe that the Departments of Santa Cruz and Tarija are the ones that have the highest level of social progress, while Potosí and Pando are the most lagging. We show that the departmental SPI has correlation with the GDP per capita, the monetary poverty index and the index of unsatisfied needs, but it has a low correlation with the Human Development Index (HDI) and no correlation with public investment per capita.
    Keywords: C81 ; I30 ; R11 ; ddc:330 ; microeconomic data ; welfare and poverty ; regional economics
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 27
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: The study analyzes - direct and indirect - export employment in Bolivia, using information from both the national accounts of 2005, 2011 and 2014 and the population and housing censuses. The most important result is that the export boom, during 2005-2014, has created jobs modestly (at rates lower than the added value of the economy); given that exports have been concentrated in low labor-intensive sectors (hydrocarbons and mining). This also explains why, at the level of trading partners, MERCOSUR members accounted for 50% of total exports in 2014; but only for 11.7% of export employment.
    Keywords: F14 ; F16 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; exports ; export employment ; Bolivia
    Language: Spanish
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  • 28
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 29
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 30
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Description: The aim of this study is to design an analytical model for the reduction of the underground economy in Ecuador. With that proposal, econometric techniques were used as a model of structural MIMIC equations for the estimation of the hidden economy in the country. Moreover, a VAR model is developed to determine the simulation of the most significant variables for the reduction of the hidden economy in Ecuador. Additionally this article try to define economic policy measures that impact on those variables. In this sense, the MIMIC model shows that the variables that are statistically significant as causes of the submerged economy in Ecuador are: trade opening, unemployment, inflation, government spending, and the tax burden of a tax indirect as the VAT. Consequently, with this, the estimation of the VAR model presented that the variable that stimulates, in greater percentage, a reduction of the hidden economy is the commercial opening, with a decrease of the hidden economy in 0.8% for each point of increase in this variable. Therefore, the economic policy proposal was addressed to the incorporation of economic liberalization measures that would allow an increase in commercial openness.
    Keywords: C51 ; E26 ; ddc:330 ; Hidden Economy ; MIMIC ; VAR ; Economic Policies
    Language: Spanish
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  • 31
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 32
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Description: This research is about the returns of education in Guatemala, based on the theory of human capital and the model of Mincer, which is the most used for this type of studies with the objective of comparing the returns of the years 2002 and 2018. The database used in the estimates, using ordinary least squares, was obtained from Employment and Revenue Surveys for the years 2002, 2010 and 2018. The results reveal positive and increasing returns by educational level, although lower in 2018 compared to 2002. The reduction in returns to education is recorded more at the level of university education. The evidence shows that the returns to education evolve according to the economic cycle.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Returns to education ; experience ; human capital ; income ; Mincer equation
    Language: Spanish
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  • 33
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Description: The objective of this study is to identify the main factors that determine the success in the labor insertion of university students in Spain. Using the Survey of Labor Insertion of University Graduates (EILU), which contains data from graduates in the 2009/2010 academic year we made several indicators in order to represent labor market success. Through the regression of ordinal and binomial probit models, we seek to identify the main factors that cause such success. From the results obtained it is concluded that the success in the labor insertion is positively related to the fact of working full time during the studies period, with the persistence of the gender differences and with the absence of incidence of the programs of mobility made by students.
    Keywords: J81 ; ddc:330 ; first job ; unversitary education ; probit models
    Language: Spanish
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  • 34
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Description: The aim of this article is to analyze the bidirectional link between two key variables in economic development and social sustainability: human capital and social capital. After introducing both concepts, the influence of human capital (education, technical knowledge, experience of the individual-worker) in the individual social capital (network of interpersonal relationships of the focal subject) is approached from the theoretical point of view. In this sense, education extends the social network of the individual and broadens the set of resources that can be accessed. Likewise, and in the opposite direction, individual social capital favors both the education of the subject and the productivity of its human capital. The second part of the article contrasts from an empirical point of view the interrelation between human capital and individual social capital in the Spanish case. The results confirm the bidirectionality of the relationships and the need to deepen the causality of the processes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; human capital ; social capital ; education ; social network ; sustainability
    Language: Spanish
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  • 35
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Description: This paper analyzes the impact of external price shocks on the real exchange rate and the existence of the Dutch disease, in the case of the Argentine economy. We consider the effects of shocks on the terms of tr ade, the supply of the agricultural sector (booming sector and main exporter) and the real exchange rate on the GDP of the manufacturing sector (or, alternatively, on total GDP) and unemployment rates. SVAR models, with long-term restrictions, and quarterly data, covering the 1993-2018 period, are estimated. The results show that the external price shocks and agricultural sector shocks affect positively and permanently to the manufacturing GDP and negatively to the unemployment rates, not finding substantial evidence about existence of the Dutch disease for this economy, during the period considered.
    Keywords: C32 ; F41 ; ddc:330 ; external price shocks ; real exchange rate ; Dutch disease ; SVAR models ; Argentina
    Language: Spanish
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  • 36
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Description: The idea of North American integration fades in the political spheres; the main actor has considered that Mexico's trade surplus with him translates into loss of welfare and employment for its economy; from this point of view, the continuity of the free trade agreement seems unnecessary. This work evaluates the path of growth of the productive system of the commercial block from the structural analysis and maintains that such path conditioned the dynamic effects of the product and employment variations. This paper proofs that the US has benefited more from the spillovers from Canada and Mexico than those made to its partners, however, the feedback of trade relations between the economies and with the rest of the world have been favorable for each of them.
    Keywords: C67 ; J21 ; O41 ; O51 ; ddc:330 ; Analysis Input Output Table ; Employment ; Growth ; North America
    Language: Spanish
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  • 37
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-20
    Description: The objective of the paper is to study the intra-generational mobility of income and poverty in Argentina to understand the reasons of the stagnation in the pace of poverty reduction since 2011. Furthermore, the paper tries to characterize and quantify the movements of individuals, and therefore it analyzes poverty duration, consecutive versus transient poverty, and the probability of reentering poverty. To this effect, synthetic panel methodology is applied and two periods, which are characterized by different evolutions of the headcount ratio, are compared: 2004-2007 and 2011- 2014. The main results are four-fold: 1) the stagnation was driven by a lower exit poverty rate; 2) the individuals who are moving along the income distribution are the ones who were poor at the beginning of the periods under study; 3) in comparison with the first period, between 2011-2014 a higher proportion of individuals was poor for two or three years and transient poverty prevailed over consecutive poverty; and, 4) the probability of reentering poverty was higher during 2011-2014. Moreover, the paper validates the methodology by using the panel structure of Argentina's household survey and estimates two of the most relevant parameters necessary to employ the synthetic panel approach.
    Keywords: D31 ; I32 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; mobility ; synthetic panels ; poverty dynamic ; Argentina
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 38
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-20
    Description: This paper explores the changes in income poverty in Argentina during the period 2003-2015 using various decomposition methodologies. The results suggest that the generalized improvement in the labor market after the crisis was the main factor behind the sharp fall in poverty in the period 2003-2007. In contrast, the reduction of poverty between 2007 and 2011 is associated with the most active role played by social policy. Finally, during the period 2011-2015, no factor could contribute significantly to the reduction of poverty.
    Keywords: C15 ; D31 ; D33 ; I32 ; J31 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 39
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-20
    Keywords: O12 ; I38 ; D10 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 40
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-20
    Description: This working paper explores the effect of joint labor decisions on the study of wage regression models. The estimation of Mincer equations suffers from numerous sources of bias, including the sample selection problem generated by the fact that the agent decision to work is not independent of the wage. Most of the papers corrects this bias using a model of individual labor participation. However, recent trends in the labor market show greater participation of women in the labor force and seem to indicate that the joint decision of the spouses is increasingly relevant in determining the selection mechanism. A bivariate version of Heckman's method appears as an interesting alternative to solve this problem. Although the estimates are in line with the previous literature, the results indicate that the joint decision of the couple is a relevant factor in the selection bias.
    Keywords: C51 ; D13 ; E24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; wages ; joint labor decisions ; selection bias ; Heckman's method
    Language: Spanish
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  • 41
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-20
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 42
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-20
    Keywords: D31 ; I32 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 43
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-20
    Keywords: C67 ; C68 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin : : Duncker & Humblot,
    Keywords: Law Philosophy. ; Jurisprudence ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (299 pages).
    ISBN: 9783428466474 (e-book)
    Series Statement: Schriften zur Rechtstheorie ; Heft 136
    DDC: 340/.1
    Parallel Title: Print version: Olivé, León ; Salmerón, Fernando, 1925. Philosophie und Rechtstheorie in Mexiko.
    Language: German , Spanish
    Note: In German and Spanish.
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  • 45
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-20
    Description: This paper studies the evolution of skill premia and its relationship with the productive structure for sixteen countries in Latin America, using microdata from household surveys and information from National Accounts for the period 1991-2015. The evidence suggests that the change in the productive structure is significantly correlated to the dynamics of wage inequality. In particular, when the share in total value added of sectors that are more intensive in high-skilled labor grows, the skill premium increases significantly.
    Keywords: D31 ; I26 ; J21 ; J31 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 46
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-20
    Keywords: D31 ; D33 ; I32 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Bern : : Peter Lang,
    Keywords: Economic history. ; Economic policy. ; Financial crises. ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (316 pages)
    ISBN: 9783034336482 (e-book)
    DDC: 330.9
    Parallel Title: Print version: Nuevos Estudios Sobre Traduccion para el ambito Institucional y Comercial.
    Language: Spanish , English
    Note: In Spanish and English.
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Birmingham ; : Packt Publishing,
    Keywords: Web services. ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (790 pages)
    Edition: Second edition.
    ISBN: 9781789613711 (e-book)
    DDC: 006.76
    Parallel Title: Print version: Tankariya, Vipul. AWS certified developer-associate guide : your one-stop solution to passing the AWS developer's 2019 (DVA-C01) certification.
    Language: Spanish
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  • 49
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    Jerusalem and Montreal: The Bichler and Nitzan Archives
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Las teorías convencionales del capitalismo están sumidas en una profunda crisis: tras siglos de debates todavía son incapaces de decirnos qué es el capital. Tanto liberales como marxistas se refieren al capital como una entidad ‘económica’ que puede ser contabilizada en unidades universales de ‘utilidad’ o de ‘trabajo abstracto’. Pero estas unidades son totalmente ficticias. Nadie ha sido capaz de observarlas ni medirlas, y esto por una buena razón: no existen. Y dado que liberalismo y marxismo dependen de estas unidades inexistentes, sus teorías están suspendidas en el aire. No pueden explicar el proceso que más importa: la acumulación de capital. Este libro ofrece una alternativa radical. De acuerdo con los autores, el capital no es una entidad económica estrechamente identificable, sino una cuantificación simbólica del poder. Tiene poco que ver con la utilidad o el trabajo abstracto, y se extiende más allá de las máquinas y las líneas de producción. El capital, afirman Bichler y Nitzan, representa el poder organizado de los grupos del capital dominante para reconfigurar –o creordenar– su sociedad. Escrito en un lenguaje simple, accesible a lectores neófitos y expertos, este libro desarrolla una economía política novedosa. Conduce al lector a través de la historia, los supuestos y las limitaciones de la economía dominante y sus teorías políticas asociadas, examina la evolución del pensamiento marxista sobre la acumulación y el Estado, y articula una innovadora teoría del ‘capital como poder’, así como una nueva historia del ‘modo de poder capitalista’.
    Description: Conventional theories of capitalism are mired in a deep crisis: after centuries of debate, they are still unable to tell us what capital is. Liberals and Marxists both think of capital as an 'economic' entity that they count in universal units of ‘utils’ or 'abstract labour', respectively. But these units are totally fictitious. Nobody has ever been able to observe or measure them, and for a good reason: they don’t exist. Since liberalism and Marxism depend on these non-existing units, their theories hang in suspension. They cannot explain the process that matters most – the accumulation of capital. This book offers a radical alternative. According to the authors, capital is not a narrow economic entity, but a symbolic quantification of power. It has little to do with utility or abstract labour, and it extends far beyond machines and production lines. Capital, the authors claim, represents the organized power of dominant capital groups to reshape – or creorder – their society. Written in simple language, accessible to lay readers and experts alike, the book develops a novel political economy. It takes the reader through the history, assumptions and limitations of mainstream economics and its associated theories of politics. It examines the evolution of Marxist thinking on accumulation and the state. And it articulates an innovative theory of 'capital as power and a new history of the 'capitalist mode of power'.
    Keywords: P16 ; ddc:330 ; capital as power ; corporation ; differential accumulation ; dominant capital ; finance ; inflation ; capitalization ; value theory ; modes of power ; mergers and acquisitions ; sabotage ; stagflation ; profit ; state ; redistribution ; power
    Language: Spanish
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  • 50
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: This paper documents the level and trends of monetary inequality in developing countries based on Povcalnet data up to the year 2015. On average, during the first half of the current decade, inequality declined in developing economies, although at a rate substantially lower than that experienced during the 2000s. The current average level of the Gini coefficient is above the value of the early 1980s, which shows the difficulties in moving towards societies with significantly lower levels of economic inequality.
    Keywords: D31 ; I32 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: There is a strong gap in school enrollment rates between young girls with and without children in Uruguay. This paper aims to explain if this gap responds to a cause-effect relationship, identifying the impact of becoming a teen mother on the educational outcomes of young girls. Our identification strategy takes advantage of a reform in Uruguay allowing voluntary termination of pregnancy since December 2012. This reform made Uruguay the only Latin-American country - except from Cuba, Guyana and Mexico City - where abortion on demand is legal. However, the supply of legal abortion services faced several drawbacks in some geographical areas where a high share of gynecologists refused to induce abortions, since the law protects the right to exercise 'conscientious objection' with respect to abortion. Thus, the supply of abortion services varied substantially across departments. Differences in the timing and degree of implementation provide a source of identification for estimating the causal effect of teenage fertility on education using an Instrumental Variables approach. Local abortion rates - carried out under the new legal framework - are used to instrument teenage fertility rates. This is the first study to have official information on the number of legally terminated pregnancies in Uruguay since abortion reform in 2012. Results suggest that access to legal abortion reduced teenage fertility. We provide an exogenous instrument for teenage fertility - legal abortion rates - and this is one of the main contributions of the paper. Second-stage results indicate the causal effect of teenage fertility on educational attainment is null for the group of compliers. This suggests that poor educational performance of teenage mothers cannot be attributed to early motherhood per se, but to pre-existing disadvantages.
    Keywords: I21 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Teenage fertility ; Abortion ; Education ; Instrumental Variables ; Latin America ; Uruguay
    Language: Spanish
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  • 52
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-12-05
    Description: El enfoque de las capacidades es un marco conceptual apropiado para identificar no la felicidad o satisfacción de las personas, sino más bien, lo que estas pueden o no ser o hacer. En consecuencia, el enfoque de las capacidades se centra en la libertad real de las personas y se aleja (sin excluir) de los medios que permiten la libertad (ingresos y recursos). Sobre la base de lo anterior, el presente documento se fija como objetivo proporcionar una aproximación al enfoque de las capacidades.
    Description: The capabilities approach is an appropriate conceptual framework to identify not the happiness or satisfaction of the people, but rather, what they may or may not be or do. Consequently, the capabilities approach focuses on the real freedom of people and moves away (without excluding) the means that allow freedom (income and resources). Based on the foregoing, this document sets as an objective to provide an approximation to the capabilities approach.
    Keywords: I31 ; I32 ; D63 ; ddc:330 ; Capabilities approach ; Amartya Sen ; functionings
    Language: Spanish
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  • 53
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Through a VECM, during 1961-2017 in Argentina, we found cointegration between the Multilateral Real Exchange Rate and four fundamental variables: Net Foreign Assets, Public Expenditure, Terms of Trade, and Productivity. Defining the Real Exchange Rate as domestic prices in dollars, we estimate a positive relationship with its fundamentals except for the Terms of Trade. The model anticipates the large devaluations that occurred in 1975 (Rodrigazo), 1981 (Martínez de Hoz), 2002 (end of the Convertibility) and 2015 (end of the "cepo cambiario"). The speed of adjustment is 30% per year. Finally, during 2012-2017 the model estimates an average misalignment (real appreciation) of 15% per year.
    Keywords: C13 ; F14 ; F31 ; ddc:330 ; Argentina ; multilateral real exchange rate ; net foreign assets ; public expenditure ; terms of trade ; productivity ; VECM
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 54
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Being able to manage growth, improve results, change behavioral attitudes and innovate are legitimate aspirations in the search for an improved performance, even though they are not the only ones. At the beginning, it was believed that productive specialization and scale would be sufficient to reach the objective. Man had to follow the machines, and processes needed to be studied and improved. Consequently, clear objectives as well as reward and punishment were considered to be enough. Nevertheless, a Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous (VUCA) environment is currently the norm when attempting to measure modern times. Against this backdrop, managers and leaders must introduce changes in their management system so that empowered people may be able to adopt the behavioral attitudes allowing to develop the performance. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how motivation-based management may contribute to the development of intrinsic factors. It will seek to depict the Argentine companies' lack of sufficient knowledge about the topic due to an excessive use of extrinsic factors, such as salary and variable compensations and incentives.
    Keywords: L1 ; M1 ; ddc:330 ; Personalführung ; Leistungsmotivation ; Ballungsraum ; Buenos Aires ; Argentinien
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Ökonomen ; Meinung ; Lebensverlauf ; Argentinien
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: En diciembre de 2012 he publicado en esta serie de Documentos de Trabajo un paper en el cual analizaba 22 notas de opinión que había escrito a lo largo de casi dos años y medio en diversos matutinos porteños. De las mismas se podía concluir que la educación Argentina se encontraba en crisis, las postales presentadas así lo evidenciaban. A partir de entonces realicé anualmente una nueva etapa de este viaje, visitando los diversos eventos que marcaron la educación argentina entre 2013 y 2016. Hoy presento el diario de viaje del año 2017, reproduciendo y analizando 37 columnas de opinión que he publicado en Ambito Financiero, Buenos Aires Herald, Clarín, El Cronista Comercial, El Economista, Infobae, Perfil, la Revista Criterio y la Voz del Interior. Todas las notas comparten una misma metodología de análisis. En primer lugar, la descripción del hecho que dio origen a la misma, luego su análisis a la luz de la teoría de precios y finalmente, en varias ocasiones, propuestas de políticas públicas en base a la experiencia de otras sociedades que han enfrentado problemas similares. La mayoría de las notas se encuentra precedida de una introducción en la cual extiendo la descripción del evento que dio origen a la misma y propongo referencias para el lector interesado. El paper culmina con una sección dedicada a proponer y fundamentar, al igual que en los años anteriores, políticas públicas que podrían mejorar la calidad de vida de muchos argentinos.
    Keywords: I28 ; I38 ; ddc:330 ; planes sociales ; asistencialismo ; Padre Pedro Opeka ; sistema de educación dual alemán ; educard ; desnutrición infantil ; Fernando Monckeberg ; CONIN
    Language: Spanish
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Keywords: I31 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; ICTs for development ; wellbeing ; capability approach ; Boliva ; STEP ; SEM
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
    Publication Date: 2019-11-29
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Keywords: I14 ; I24 ; I25 ; J12 ; J16 ; J18 ; O12 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Description: Energy subsidies have been criticized due to their economic inefficiency and promotion of wasteful usage of energy and associated carbon emissions. Conversely, environmental taxes are advocated as efficient policy instruments. Nonetheless, removing subsidies and taxing energy can be politically challenging because vulnerable households rely on low energy prices. This study analyzes the impact of energy price increases on different income quintiles groups in eleven Latin American and Caribbean countries using an energy-extended input-output approach. Our results show that higher-income groups benefit more from low energy prices than low-income groups when tracing both the direct and indirect (supply chain) effects of energy price variations. Energy subsidies are a very expensive option to transfer income to poor households. Across the countries considered, using energy subsidies it would cost about $12 to transfer $1 of income to households in the poorest quintile. Recycling a small fraction of fiscal revenues from energy subsidy removal or energy taxation could be sufficient to compensate vulnerable households from the effects of price hikes. Our findings suggest that cash transfers to poor households and targeted subsidies for public transportation or food are the most effective measures to compensate households for welfare loss.
    Keywords: H22 ; H23 ; Q01 ; N56 ; 013 ; ddc:330 ; distributional impact ; energy taxes ; subsidy removal ; input-output analysis ; carbon taxes ; environmental tax reform ; political acceptability
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Konsumentenverhalten ; Nationalkultur ; Vergleich ; Argentinien ; Welt
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Argentina is known for its tax system, that has various mechanisms to collect taxes in advance, causing large immobilizations in illiquid tax credits in most companies. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects that these tax advances regimes would generate on the payment capacity and financing needs of companies that belongs to the construction sector, which are characterized by long productive cycles and long time for assets collection. To this end, the financial statements of forty-seven companies belonging to this sector were studied between 2004 and 2016, in relation to the proportion of tax credits over assets, payment ratios, financing needs through loans and levels of profitability. It was observed that at higher levels tax credits immobilization, payment ratios decreased rapidly, as also greater use of financial liabilities (loans) were needed for financing them, which would result in higher financial costs to sustain than immobilization. That phenomenon is worse on those companies with lower levels of profitability. These findings would allow to conclude the harmful effect of the advance tax regimes for undermining the competitiveness of companies and their capacity for development and investment.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Steuersystem ; Bauwirtschaft ; Unternehmensbesteuerung ; Befolgungskosten ; Betriebliche Liquidität ; Unternehmensfinanzierung ; Argentinien
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Anlageverhalten ; Internetnutzung ; Presseagentur ; Großunternehmen ; Informationswert ; Experiment
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Public-private partnership (PPP) contracts are frequently used in the provision of public services. One of the key points to consider in these contracts (and from which much of its convenience derives) is the allocation of risks to the party that has the best capacity to avoid them or, if they occur, mitigate them. This paper analyzes the distribution of risks in public-private partnership (PPP) contracts applied to the water and sanitation services concession in seven Latin American cities. Based on the analysis carried out, a series of recommendations are proposed to improve future PPP contracts in relation to the distribution of risks between the parties, such as providing for a direct and agile dispute resolution mechanism; establish the classification, identification and assignment of risks, indicating the criteria that will be applied to determine their occurrence and the mechanisms by which the party that supports them will take charge of them and include special provisions for the case of public opposition risk to the project.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Öffentlich-private Partnerschaft ; Infrastrukturinvestition ; Vertragsrecht ; Risikomanagement ; Wasserversorgung ; Abwasser ; Lateinamerika
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: H55 ; ddc:330 ; jubilaciones y pensiones ; Argentina ; indicadores ; cobertura ; intensidad ; sostenibilidad financiera
    Language: Spanish
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    Sevilla: Universidad Pablo de Olavide
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: The process of dismantling a nuclear power plant involves a series of economic activities, linked to economic sectors other than energy, which represent an opportunity for economic development, not only for the local communities where the power plant is located, but also for the rest of the society. Currently, the Spanish nuclear power plants have an average operating life of 33 years and in a decade will end its design life, so it is of interest to know the economic impact that will have its dismantling. For this, in this paper a multisectorial model is developed with which the impact of the dismantling process is analyzed, which includes both the closure of the plants, as well as the substitution of other energy sources and the management of radioactive waste.
    Keywords: C67 ; Q43 ; Q53 ; ddc:330 ; nuclear dismantling ; economic impact ; input-output model
    Language: Spanish
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2019-03-22
    Description: The goal of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the innovation promotion programs carried by the National Research and Innovation Agency (ANII). A combination of non-experimental methods was used to quantify the effects of public support to innovation in three dimensions of the firms' behavior: innova - tion investment, innovation results and economic performance. The results show evidence of crowding-in of public support to innovation. Also, beneficiaries of the programs show larger probability of successfully introducing new products and processes. We do not find impact in the economic performance indicators of the firms.
    Keywords: D22 ; O38 ; C21 ; H43 ; H54 ; ddc:330 ; Impact evaluation ; innovation ; ANII ; Uruguay
    Language: Spanish
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    Sevilla: Universidad Pablo de Olavide