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  • 1
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Madrid and Cartagena: Spanish Accounting and Business Administration Association (AECA) and Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UPCT)
    Publication Date: 2020-09-23
    Description: La pandemia actual -COVID19- ha llevado a muchos gobiernos a tomar medidas drásticas en respuesta a la crisis de salud global. Las medidas de bloqueo como respuesta a la crisis han frenado aún más las actividades económicas a nivel mundial. En este contexto destaca la importancia del papel de los emprendedores para acelerar la recuperación económica. Este trabajo se centra en analizar cómo los emprendedores enfrentan la situación causada por la COVID-19 a través de un estudio cuantitativo con una muestra de 236 emprendedores españoles ubicados geográficamente en la Región de Murcia. Los resultados muestran cómo los emprendedores han tenido que adaptarse a estas nuevas circunstancias enfrentándose a desafíos como la necesidad de digitalización, la falta de financiamiento, la disminución del capital humano o la percepción de nuevas oportunidades que se conviertan en negocios viables.
    Description: The current pandemic (COVID19) have led many governments to take drastic measures in respond of the global health crisis. The lockdown measures as a response to the crisis has further slowed global economic activities. In this context highlights the importance of the role of entrepreneurs to accelerate economic recovery. This paper focuses on analyzing how entrepreneurs face the situation caused by COVID-19 through a quantitative study with a sample of 236 Spanish entrepreneurs from the Region of Murcia. Results show how entrepreneurs have had to adapt to these new circumstances, facing challenges regarding the need for digitization, the lack of financing, the decrease in human capital or the perception of new opportunities that become viable businesses.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; I18 ; L21 ; L23 ; L26 ; entrepreneurship ; COVID-19 ; economic crisis ; challenges ; policies to promote entrepreneurship ; emprendimiento ; COVID-19 ; crisis económica ; desafíos ; políticas de estímulo del emprendimiento
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 3
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    Washington D.C. y Ginebra: Banco Interamericano de Desarollo y Organización Internacional del Trabajo
    Publication Date: 2020-11-26
    Description: Los signatarios del Acuerdo de París han acordado emprender iniciativas para limitar el calentamiento global a entre 1,5 °C y 2 °C. A la vez, los gobiernos están centrados en la recuperación económica y social con énfasis en la creación de empleo. Es crucial avanzar en todos los frentes. El empleo en un futuro de cero emisiones netas cuantifica las pérdidas y las ganancias de empleos en la transición hacia una economía de cero emisiones netas y revela que se pueden crear 15 millones de empleos netos en la región para 2030. Las transformaciones en sectores como agricultura, silvicultura, energía, transporte, turismo, construcción y gestión de residuos hacen posible la descarbonización y pueden crear puestos de trabajo, generar beneficios economicos y sociales y ayudar a proteger el inigualable tesoro conformado por los recursos naturales de la región. Al leer este informe, técnicos y tomadores de decisión entenderán mejor el papel del diálogo social, el trabajo de construcción conjunta entre los interesados públicos y privados, y la participación de los ministerios de Medio Ambiente, Trabajo y otros ministerios competentes en el diseño de políticas públicas y estrategias de desarrollo que puedan propiciar una transición justa hacia una economía sin emisiones de carbono.
    Description: An English version is available here: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/222572
    Description: The signatories of the Paris Agreement have agreed to pursue efforts to limit global warming to between 1.5C and 2C. At the same time, governments are now focused on economic and social recovery with an emphasis on job creation. It is crucial to advance on all fronts. Jobs in a Net-Zero Emissions Future quantifies job losses and job gains in the transition to a net-zero carbon economy. It finds that 15 million net jobs can be created in the region by 2030. Transformations in agriculture, forestry, energy, transport, waste management, tourism, and construction make decarbonization possible and can create jobs, unlock economic and social benefits, and help protect the regions unique natural resource treasures. By reading this report, decision-makers and technicians will gain insight into the role of social dialogue, co-construction with public and private stakeholders, and the involvement of environment, labor, and line ministries in the design of public policies and development strategies that can deliver a just transition towards inclusive carbon-free prosperity.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C67 ; J58 ; empleo ; cambio climatico
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:book
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  • 4
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    Madrid and Cartagena: Spanish Accounting and Business Administration Association (AECA) and Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UPCT)
    Publication Date: 2020-09-23
    Description: El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar si los auditores son capaces de detectar la gestión de resultados en sus empresas auditadas y si ante un incremento en el esfuerzo, el nivel de devengos discrecionales será menor. Como singular contribución, se mide el esfuerzo del auditor mediante las horas efectivamente empleadas, al contrario que trabajos anteriores que se basan en honorarios u horas estimadas o subrogados de estas. Asimismo, la muestra utilizada está compuesta por pequeñas y medianas firmas de auditoría, lo que le aporta un valor añadido por ser este segmento del mercado de auditoría más competitivo. Los resultados evidencian que el cliente reduce los devengos anormales positivos del resultado ante un incremento del esfuerzo del auditor, poniendo así en valor su figura como garante de la información financiera, contribuyendo al debate sobre la calidad de las pequeñas firmas. En lo que respecta a los ajustes por devengo negativos, se puede interpretar una pasividad del auditor ante el conservadurismo contable y un efecto aprendizaje en el cliente, que aumenta la manipulación negativa de resultados conforme se incrementa la duración contractual con el auditor.
    Description: The objective of this paper is to analyze if small and medium auditors are able to detect the earning managments in their audited companies and, in that case, if the increase of the audit effort produces a lower level of discretionary accruals. As a particular contribution, the auditor's effort has been measured through the hours actually spent, unlike previous work based on estimated or subrogated fees or hours. Similarly, the sample used is composed of small and medium-sized audit firms, which gives added value for this segment of the most competitive audit market. The results show that the client reduces the positive abnormal accruals if the audit effort increases, thus valuing his figure as guarantor of the financial information, contributing to the debate on the quality of small firms. Regarding the negative accrual adjustments, it could be interpreted as an auditor passivity against the accounting conservatism and a learning effect on the client, which increases the negative discretional accruals as the contractual relationship with the auditor increases.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; M41 ; M42 ; accruals ; audit effort ; small auditing firms ; ajustes por devengo ; esfuerzo del auditor ; pequeños auditores
    Language: Spanish
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  • 5
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    Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG)
    Publication Date: 2020-09-12
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Manchester: Manchester University Press
    Publication Date: 2020-11-25
    Description: 'Capitalismo de deuda' es un esfuerzo por descifrar cómo la tecnología de la deuda se ha convertido en uno de los mayores obstáculos para las aspiraciones democráticas y racionales de la sociedad moderna. 'Capitalismo de deuda' es un esfuerzo por descifrar cómo la tecnología de la deuda se ha convertido en uno de los mayores obstáculos para las aspiraciones democráticas y racionales de la sociedad moderna. Richard Robbins y Tim Di Muzio muestran que la deuda, entendida como una tecnología de poder, es un engranaje insertado en el corazón del capitalismo. En la deuda se anudan un mecanismo que transfiere riqueza desde los asalariados hacia los capitalistas, un instrumento de control político sobre las poblaciones de todo el mundo y un algoritmo que presiona a las economías a producir y consumir por encima de los límites físicos de la naturaleza. La deuda está en el origen del Estado moderno y en las innovaciones más recientes de los mercados financieros. Está implicada en las formas más descarnadas de violencia y control social y en las técnicas más refinadas de especulación financiera. Opera en las grandes transferencias de riqueza (como en los rescates bancarios) y en las transacciones ordinarias del día a día (pues bajo el vigente sistema monetario, el dinero es creado como deuda). La deuda es ubicua: es impagable y es uno de los motores del capitalismo contemporáneo. ¿Queda algo por hacer ante una tecnología social tan extendida y enraizada? ¿Es imaginable que al poder de la deuda pueda oponerse una lucha política fundada en el poder de los deudores? 'Capitalismo de deuda' es una excelente herramienta para adentrarse en la tarea de dar una respuesta a estas interrogantes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; P16 ; H63 ; capital as power ; capitalization of the state ; national debt ; money ; power ; war
    Language: Spanish
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  • 7
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    Madrid and Cartagena: Spanish Accounting and Business Administration Association (AECA) and Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UPCT)
    Publication Date: 2020-09-23
    Description: El objetivo de esta investigación consiste en caracterizar la capacitación en las empresas lideradas por mujeres y determinar si existe relación con las características de la empresa y la empresaria. Para ello, se aplicó un cuestionario directo estructurado a una muestra de 272 empresarias de la Ciudad de México. Los principales hallazgos del análisis exploratorio realizado muestran que la mayoría de las empresarias consideran importante la capacitación, sin embargo sólo la mitad se han capacitado, siendo el promedio anual de horas de capacitación 45. Además, únicamente una tercera parte ha implementado programas de capacitación para sus empleados y las acciones de capacitación han sido principalmente en áreas operativas o de producción. Se ha encontrado también una relación significativa entre algunas características de las empresas y empresarias y la capacitación.
    Description: The objective of this research was to characterize the training in companies led by women and determine if there is a relationship with the characteristics of the company and the businesswoman. A structured direct questionnaire was applied to a sample of 272 voluntary businesswomen from Mexico City. The main findings from this exploratory study show that most women entrepreneurs consider training important; nevertheless only half have been trained, the average annual training hours being 45. In addition, only one third have implemented training programs for their employees, and the training topics have been mainly in operational or production areas. It was also found a significant relationship between some characteristics of companies and entrepreneurs and training.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; J16 ; J24 ; L26 ; M53 ; training ; businesswomen ; SMEs ; human capital ; capacitación ; empresarias ; PYMEs ; capital humano
    Language: Spanish
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  • 8
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    Madrid and Cartagena: Spanish Accounting and Business Administration Association (AECA) and Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UPCT)
    Publication Date: 2020-09-23
    Description: El análisis de la literatura especializada en la educación empresarial permite ver las dudas existentes en torno a su validez y la dificultad de comparación y generalización de los resultados obtenidos por las investigaciones previas sobre esta educación, al no existir un consenso en su definición y terminología. Por tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es establecer y delimitar una definición que integre las diferentes perspectivas existentes en la literatura previa y se consiga, de este modo, un lenguaje unificado que contribuya a definir programas formativos que alcancen los objetivos deseados, aumenten las intenciones empresariales y mejoren las competencias empresariales.
    Description: The analysis of the specialized literature on entrepreneurship education shows the existing doubts about its validity and the difficulty of comparing and generalizing the results obtained by previous research on this education, as there are many difficulties in its definition and terminology. Therefore, the objective of this work is to establish and delimit a definition that integrates the different perspectives existing in the previous literature and thus, to be achieved a unified language that contributes to define training programs that achieve the desire objectives, increase the entrepreneurial intentions and improve entrepreneurial skills.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; A23 ; I25 ; L26 ; entrepreneurship education ; entrepreneurship ; education ; concept ; educación empresarial ; emprendimiento ; educación ; concepto
    Language: Spanish
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  • 9
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    Buenos Aires: Banco Central de la República Argentina (BCRA), Investigaciones Económicas (ie)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-31
    Description: This paper analyzes the impact of external price shocks on the real exchange rate and the existence of the Dutch disease, in the case of the Argentine economy. We consider the effects of shocks on the terms of trade, the supply of the agricultural sector (booming sector) and the real exchange rate on the GDP of the manufacturing sector (or, alternatively, on total GDP) and unemployment rates. SVAR models, with long-term restrictions, and quarterly data, covering the 1993-2018 period, are estimated. The results show that the external price shocks and agricultural sector shocks affect positively and permanently to the manufacturing GDP and negatively to the unemployment rates, not finding substantial evidence about existence of the Dutch disease for this economy.
    Keywords: C32 ; F41 ; ddc:330 ; external price shocks ; real exchange rate ; Dutch disease ; SVAR models ; Argentina
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Description: Gamification, or the introduction of game elements to non-game contexts, has the potential to improve learning by increasing student motivation. However, there is little rigorous evidence about its effectiveness. In this paper, we experimentally evaluate an innovative technology program that uses gamification to increase math learning in low-performing primary schools in Chile. The ConectaIdeas program involves two weekly sessions in a computer lab during which students use an online platform to solve math exercises. The platform tracks how many exercises students perform and features different types of individual and group competitions to promote student motivation. Results indicate large positive effects on math learning of about 0.27 standard deviations on the Chilean national standardized exam (no effects were found on language). The program also affected several non-academic outcomes in both positive and negative ways. On the one hand, it increased students' preference to use technology for math learning and promoted the idea among students that study effort can raise intelligence. On the other hand, the program increased math anxiety and reduced students' preferences to collaborate in teams. These results suggest that gamification could be an important tool to boost student learning, but that it may bring unintended consequences.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Education ; Gamification ; Technology ; Experiments
    Language: Spanish
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  • 11
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Description: Citizens confront multiple challenges when attempting to access public services. This article focuses on an aspect yet unaddressed by existing literature on administrative burdens: the complexity of the written language used by government agencies in Latin America. It presents an impact evaluation of the Lenguaje Claro Program of Colombia's National Planning Department. A randomized control trial compared two versions of a letter - the original and one with plain language - used by the property department of the city of Bogota. The study shows that clarifying content via modifications in language, content order, and formatting can reduce citizen's learning costs. Plain language thus has positive effects for both individuals and public institutions. A complementary perception survey revealed that there is significant room for additional simplification, as both the original and the plain language letter were largely poorly rated by citizens.
    Keywords: C93 ; H11 ; H83 ; Z13 ; Z18 ; ddc:330 ; administrative burden ; language simplification ; plain language ; public services ; red tape
    Language: Spanish
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  • 12
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Description: Carbon taxes are advocated as efficient fiscal and environmental policies, but they have proven difficult to implement. One reason is that carbon taxes can aggravate poverty by increasing prices of basic goods and services such as food, heating, and commuting. Meanwhile, cash transfer programs have been established as some of the most efficient poverty-reducing policies used in developing countries. Here, we quantify how governments can mitigate negative social consequences of carbon taxes by expanding the beneficiary base or the amounts disbursed with existing cash transfer programs. We focus on Latin America and the Caribbean, a region that has pioneered cash transfer programs, which aspires to contribute to climate mitigation, and faces inequality. We find that 30% of carbon revenues could suffice to compensate poor and vulnerable households on average, leaving 70% to fund other political priorities. We also quantify tradeoffs for governments choosing who and how much to compensate.
    Keywords: H22 ; H23 ; Q54 ; Q01 ; N56 ; 013 ; ddc:330 ; cash transfers ; carbon taxes ; climate change
    Language: Spanish
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  • 13
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Keywords: C23 ; C24 ; O18 ; O54 ; R11 ; R12 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 14
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Description: This paper analyzes the impact of MapaRegalías on efficiency in the execution of public investment projects in Colombia. MapaRegalías is an online platform that displays geo-referenced information and data on royalties coming from the extractives sector. The purpose of the platform is to reduce the cost incurred by public officials and citizens when monitoring the use of royalties. The main finding is that after the release of MapaRegalías, public investment projects financed with royalties showed an average increase in efficiency of execution of 7.996 percentage points.
    Keywords: D73 ; O31 ; H83 ; H50 ; L78 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; digital innovation ; efficiency ; public investment ; transparency
    Language: Spanish
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  • 15
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: La política económica se trata en distintos planos. En particular, me refiero a la "cocina" de la política económica, al tratamiento politizado de la cuestión, al rol que me gustaría cumpliera la academia (entendida en sentido amplio, incluyendo no solamente a los trabajos profesionales, sino también a la participación de los economistas aplicados, en los debates públicos), y al tratamiento de la economía en los medios masivos de comunicación. Primero me ocupo de cada plano por separado para luego plantear la cuestión de los problemas que genera su mezcla y sugerir qué se podría hacer al respecto.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 16
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Los modelos de comportamiento humano tienen por objetivo el predecir las conductas de los individuos. En el ámbito de las organizaciones, el contar con modelos predictivos de conductas resulta de enorme importancia, tanto en la selección de nuevos recursos humanos como también en la gestión de los mismos y en la resolución de conflictos de intereses opuestos. La evolución de los diferentes modelos de comportamiento humano ha incluido progresivamente diversas variables, agregando paulatinamente mayor poder explicativo y predictivo. El modelo ST-IT propuesto propone la inclusión de variables hasta ahora no integradas en los modelos de comportamiento humano, tales como la influencia del entorno sobre el individuo y sus valores morales respecto al trabajo; el efecto de la cultura organizacional; la influencia de los sistemas de control de las organizaciones; el grado de competitividad en el mercado laboral y el grado de proteccionismo existente en la legislación laboral, entre otros. La validación del modelo se realizó mediante un extenso estudio de campo sobre 212 casos, el cual permitió distinguir la existencia de individuos con apego al trabajo y valoración del deber cumplido, en contraposición a otras personas que consideran al cumplimiento laboral como un disvalor. Fue posible observar también que existiría una importante dependencia entre el nivel educativo alcanzado y tales valores personales respecto del trabajo y el sentido del deber cumplido. Por último, el estudio de campo permitiría también corroborar los efectos que el clima laboral, eficiencia de los controles de cumplimiento y competitividad del mercado laboral generan sobre los niveles de trabajo de los individuos estudiados.
    Description: Human behavior models aim to predict individual actions. For organizations management, predictive models of behaviors have great importance, both for the selection of new human resources as well as in their management and in the resolution of conflicting interests. The evolution of different models of human conducts progressively included several variables, gradually adding more explanatory and predictive power. The ST-IT model proposes the inclusion of variables not yet integrated in human behavior models, such as the influence of the environment on the individual and their moral values with respect to work; the effect of organizational culture; the influence of the organization's control systems; the degree of competitiveness in the labor market and the degree of protectionism in the labor legislation, among others. The validation of the model was carried out through an extensive field study on 212 cases, which allowed to distinguish the existence of individuals with attachment to work and assessment of the fulfilled duty, in contrast to other people who consider labor compliance as a disvalue. It was also possible to observe that there would be an important dependence between the level of education attained and such personal values respect to work and the sense of fulfilled duty. Finally, the field study would also corroborate the effects that the labor climate, efficiency of compliance controls and labor market competitiveness generate on the work levels of the individuals studied.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 17
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Bajo una hipótesis de simplicidad, los cambios sociales y tecnológicos podrán ser identificados anticipadamente. Habrá tiempo para entenderlos, tomarlos en cuenta y evitar o corregir desvíos. La estrategia podrá ser planteada como un acto formal, mecanicista, deliberado. Pero a veces, los ambientes no son simples, se los supone como tales esperando que reaccionen de forma previsible. Bajo el contexto de complejidad, volatilidad, incertidumbre y ambigüedad, las reacciones reduccionistas, mecánicas y determinísticas, pueden presentar dificultades. Algunas situaciones emergen por primera vez, en otras no es posible calcular el comportamiento desde las condiciones iniciales. Este trabajo intenta, partiendo fuentes primarias, libros y papers con referato, realizar una revisión bibliográfica de los últimos 27 años, desde que Herbert Barber, en 1991, planteó por primera vez el acrónimo V.U.C.A (volatile, uncertain, ambiguous, complex, por sus siglas en inglés). El propósito de esta investigación ha sido, generar claridad sobre un concepto donde impera cierta confusión dentro de la literatura y presentar, desde el campo de las empresas, algunas reflexiones y propuestas aplicables al desarrollo de la estrategia y la toma de decisiones.
    Keywords: L10 ; O31 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Complejidad ; caos ; ambientes V.I.C.A ; estrategia en ambientes V-I.C.A. ; decisiones en ambientes VICA
    Language: Spanish
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  • 18
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: La Argentina vive una real crisis educativa, carece de sentido negarlo. Este paper presenta siete propuestas las cuales, a mi entender, le permitirían al Gobierno tomar enérgicamente la iniciativa frente a una crisis que, sin duda, ha heredado y es imprescindible que logre revertir. Siete propuestas que no se enfocan solamente en la educación de los niños, sino también de los jóvenes y adultos, muchos de los cuales subsisten gracias a planes sociales. Siete propuestas, algunas muy sencillas de implementar, otras más atrevidas. Creo que en este año electoral vale la pena discutirlas.
    Keywords: I28 ; ddc:330 ; educación ; mecenazgo educativo ; planes sociales ; libertad educativa ; educational savings accounts
    Language: Spanish
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  • 19
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    Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid
    Publication Date: 2019-10-30
    Description: Al igual que con muchos otros conceptos, una vez que se considera el concepto de poder más de cerca, surgen preguntas fundamentales, tales como si una relación de poder es necesariamente una relación de subordinación y dominación, visión que dificulta identificar formas legítimas de ejercicio de poder. Para contribuir a su claridad, tanto conceptual como normativa, en lo que sigue propongo una nueva forma de concebir el poder. Mi argumento es que sólo podemos entender qué es el poder y cómo es ejercido una vez que entendemos su naturaleza esencialmente nouménica. Sostengo que el fenómeno real y general del poder se encuentra en el reino nouménico, es decir, en el espacio de las razones, entendido como el reino de las justificaciones. De acuerdo con ello, defiendo una noción del poder normativamente neutral, que nos permite distinguir formas de poder más específicas, tales como dominio, coerción o dominación. El análisis pretende abrir camino a una teoría crítica del poder.
    Description: The same as with many other concepts, once one considers the concept of power more closely, fundamental questions arise, such as whether a power relation is necessarily a relation of subordination and domination, a view that makes it difficult to identify legitimate forms of the exercise of power. To contribute to conceptual as well as normative clarification, I suggest a novel way to conceive of power. I argue that we only understand what power is and how it is exercised once we understand its essentially noumenal nature. I claim that the real and general phenomenon of power is to be found in the noumenal realm, that is, in the space of reasons, understood as the realm of justifications. On that basis, I defend a normatively neutral notion of power that enables us to distinguish more particular forms of power, such as rule, coercion, or domination. The analysis aims to prepare the way for a critical theory of power.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; poder ; nouménico ; razones ; justificación ; crítica ; power ; noumenal ; reasons ; justification ; critique
    Language: Spanish
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  • 20
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: En un sistema formado por una red de nodos emisores y receptores de información, es necesario conocer el estado de señal que tendría cada uno de esos nodos en todo momento con el fin de lograr un flujo de información adecuado. El objetivo de este trabajo es obtener un modelo matemático que describa las interacciones entre los nodos, y a partir de dicho modelo, determinar las señales temporales en cada uno de ellos. Para la elaboración del modelo se considera tiempo discreto, y para la obtención de las señales en los nodos se utiliza transformada Z. Se aplica luego el modelo para resolver un problema concreto, y posteriormente se lleva a cabo una simulación con computadora sobre ese mismo problema. Se observa que las señales que devuelve el modelo y la que surgen de la simulación coinciden perfectamente. Se podría adicionalmente ampliar el modelo para que tenga en cuenta los fenómenos de atenuación de las señales en la interacción entre nodos, y analizar cómo impacta dicha atenuación en la convergencia de las señales temporales.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: The current research analyzes the main variables that explain the bilateral flow's behavior of foreign direct investment. This document is emphasized on the landlocked countries, a geographic variabel which is present in almost 25 percent of all countries. The research is built through a panel data composed by 9,312 bilateral flows corresponding to 97 countries in the period 2001-2012, with a total of 111,744 observations. The estimation is made within the framework of the gravity equation and Dunning's eclectic paradigm. The results have the expected estimates. It was found that landlocked countries lose about 60 percent of their flows of foreign direct investment. The cause of this loss can be explained by the isolation that the geographic characteristic generates. Finally, in a study on Bolivia, it was found that this country loses about 2.22 percent of the Gross domestic product every year because it is landlocked.
    Keywords: F21 ; F23 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; Landlocked countries ; foreign direct investment ; eclectic paradigm ; gravity equation ; data panel
    Language: Spanish
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: Deforestation in Bolivia has increased considerably during the last few decades, which causes carbon dioxide emissions, biodiversity loss, changes to the hydrologic cycle, among others. This study pretends to estimate the impacts and costs of that deforestation. Since each variablehas its own complexity, the use of different methodologies is necessary. The first model used is a carbon bookkeeping model and the carbon price. The second is the BIOM model which is based on the extrapolation of species, and the use of the elasticity between consumption and absolute species richness for the quantification of costs. Finally, a spatial econometric model and a water scarcity index are used for the estimation of the costs of variation in the hydrologic cycle. The results are presented at three levels; a national level, department level and municipal level for two time periods; 1990-2000 and 2000-2010. In addition, based on the results, conclusion and recommendations are formulated about deforestation in Bolivia. This study calculates that the cost of deforestation in Bolivia exceeds 10% of GDP.
    Keywords: Q23 ; Q24 ; Q25 ; Q57 ; Q31 ; Q32 ; ddc:330 ; Deforestation ; forest ; carbon emissions ; biodiversity loss ; hydrologic cycle variation
    Language: Spanish
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: The right to care was recognized in the international regulatory framework. Its inclusion in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development represented a fundamental step in the framework of global agreements. Goal 5 "Achieving gender equality and empowering women and girls" includes the mandate to "recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work". Goal 5.4 establishes the responsibility of States "to provide public services, infrastructure and social protection policies, under the co-responsibility approach of care". Similarly, policies and care programs are progressing in Latin American countries. The document represents the concept of care as a social right, analyzes the demographic, family and work transformations that demand a new social organization of care, and synthesizes progress in the region to achieve two objectives: to ensure access to care for children, adolescents, older adults and persons with family responsibilities.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Care ; care policies ; Latin America ; gender equality ; social rights ; social protection ; children ; adolescents ; seniors and people with disabilities ; family responsibilities
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: El propósito del presente artículo es explorar cómo los postulados presentados por Sigmund Freud, principalmente en El malestar en la cultura así también como en otros trabajos de su autoría, pueden relacionarse con las perspectivas sobre la constitución de la sociedad y la comunidad política propuestos por diversos pensadores, haciendo en especial una comparación con las perspectivas del denominado contractualismo. Considerando que el aporte de Freud es especialmente significativo, ya que permite incorporar a la ciencia política y la sociología elementos provenientes de la psicología y del psicoanálisis en particular, se estudiarán sus impresiones y se presentarán como un complemento relevante a los aportes de intérpretes consagrados de aquellas disciplinas.
    Description: This article aims to explore how the ideas presented by Sigmund Freud, most particularly in Civilisation and its Discontents but also in other works, can be related to perspectives about the creation of society and the political community suggested by different thinkers, especially those identified to contractualism. Thinking that the contribution by Freud is substantial, as it allows political science and sociology to add elements from psychology and, most particularly, psychoanalysis, his thoughts will be studied and presented as a relevant complement to the visions of canonical thinkers of those disciplines.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Freud ; Violencia ; Estado de naturaleza ; Contractualismo ; Freud ; Violence ; State of nature ; Contractualism
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: El propósito del ensayo es sistematizar, en la tradición de Friedman y Schwartz (1963), el análisis de dos recientes coyunturas monetarias: la crisis de las hipotecas sub-prime (EEUU 2008-2011) y la corrida contra las Lebac (Argentina 2018-2019). Ambos casos son un buen ejemplo de la capacidad de desestabilización de fuerzas monetarias básicas, tales como cambios de la velocidad de circulación y el multiplicador monetario. En el primero, destacamos la agresiva política de la Reserva Federal como prestamista de última instancia. En el segundo, concluimos que a) la mayor parte del aumento del nivel de precios del período febrero 2018-febrero 2019 se debió a un aumento de la velocidad, y b) si el multiplicador no hubiera caído como lo hizo, la inflación del período habría sido bastante más alta.
    Description: The purpose of the essay is to systematize, in the Friedman and Schwartz (1963) tradition, the analysis of two recent monetary crises: the sub-prime mortgage crisis (USA 2008-2011) and the run against the Lebac (Argentina 2018-2019). Both cases are good examples of the ability to destabilize of elementary monetary forces, such as changes in the velocity of circulation and the money multiplier. Regarding the first case, we highlight the aggressive role of the Federal Reserve as last resort lender. In the second, we conclude that a) most of the price level increase in the period February 2018-February 2019 was due to an increase in velocity, and b) if the multiplier had not fallen as it fell, inflation in the period would have been much higher.
    Keywords: E31 ; E51 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Dado un conjunto con determinada cantidad de elementos, es posible calcular la cardinalidad del conjunto formado por todos los subconjuntos del conjunto dado, que cumplen con la propiedad de ser disjuntos y tal que además la unión de todos ellos sea el conjunto original. Esto es, determinar el número total de posibles particiones para el conjunto especificado. El objetivo es abordar el tema con un enfoque matricial y mediante elementos de álgebra lineal. También se analiza el caso en el cual se consideran a los elementos como indistinguibles, y por lo tanto se pretende calcular el número de clases de particiones, es decir obtener la función de partición. Se aplican las ecuaciones obtenidas a un caso puntual y se verifican con las expresiones y valores existentes con respecto a esta temática.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Sociocracia, organizaciones circulares, paradigma teal, holocracia, redes, rizomas, entre otras, han cobrado particular impulso en los últimos años, desde los comienzos en Bilthoven, Holanda, como formas de gobierno de tipo horizontal. Contrastan, cuestionan y en alguna medida complementan, a las estructuras jerárquicas arraigadas desde hace tiempo en la mayoría de las empresas y organizaciones. Esta investigación intenta, partiendo de fuentes primarias, libros y papers con referato, realizar una revisión bibliográfica desde las ideas de Auguste Conte, en el siglo XIX, intentando recomponer la línea de tiempo hasta el presente. Busca ordenar, encontrar influencias, establecer diferencias y similitudes entre los diferentes modelos de gestión y poner en evidencia algunas recientes experiencias. Se pretende generar claridad sobre conceptos, no siempre bien interpretados y al mismo tiempo abordar el dilema sobre si estos modelos horizontales, gestionados a partir de la colaboración y el poder distribuido, pueden responden de mejor forma a ciertos requerimientos del ambiente y lograr asimismo el mayor involucramiento de las personas, respecto de los modelos clásicos verticales y jerárquicos.
    Keywords: L10 ; O31 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Sociocracia ; Organización del Círculo Sociocrático ; Organizaciones Circulares ; Paradigma Teal ; Holocracia ; Redes ; Organizaciones rizomáticas
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: Este paper reproduce la exposición que he realizado el lunes 1 de octubre pasado en la Academia Nacional de Educación. Al decidir el tema sobre el cual realizarla me surgió naturalmente la posibilidad de hacerlo sobre vouchers educativos, con el objetivo que hace años tengo en mente: sembrar la duda que la libertad educativa es una idea que merece ser considerada como una alternativa plausible para nuestro país. No es mi intención intentar demostrar que un sistema de vouchers educativos, o de school choice para ser más general, donde los vouchers son tan sólo uno de los instrumentos posibles, genera mejores resultados que un sistema en el cual se subsidia la oferta. La libertad es un valor en sí mismo, por ende, no resulta admisible tener que justificar porque proponer un sistema educativo que la privilegia, sino por el contrario debería justificarse porque no se lo considera una alternativa factible. Para ser eficiente utilizo citas y evidencia de diversos países en los cuales la libertad educativa, en mayor o menor grado existe, o bien es una posibilidad concreta.
    Keywords: I28 ; ddc:330 ; educación ; vouchers ; educational savings accounts ; tax credit scholarships
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: El tema de la corrupción es un tópico frecuentemente mencionado en todos los medios públicos y privados y pareciera no haber dudas respecto de su significado. Sin embargo, esa certeza se diluye cuando se pretende profundizar en el análisis y surge la duda respecto de que debe entenderse por corrupción Un criterio bastante generalizado parece entender que se trata de un abuso que, para obtener beneficios privados, realiza una persona o entidad respecto del poder que le han encomendado. No resulta tan fácil definir la corrupción, salvo en las situaciones más evidentes, dado que los comportamientos de los implicados varían y, en general, se ocultan de la vista de la población. En el presente la población de muchos países de elevados niveles de ingresos parecen aceptar como normal la existencia de corrupción entre su clase política. Lo que no puede dejar de ignorarse es que la corrupción se convierte en una ruptura de lo que constituye el fundamento mismo de nuestra sociedad. Destruye el "bien común" para convertirlo en prenda de triunfo de una persona o grupo. Estos individuos pretenden incluso modificar el significado del término corrupción ignorando que es corrupto todo acto que tiende a destruir lo común en beneficio privado, destruyendo también los fundamentos mismos de la sociedad.
    Keywords: D73 ; H11 ; J51 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Análisis de Derechos Contingentes (CCA) ; Análisis de Sustentabilidad de Deuda (DSA) ; Modelo de Merton ; Distancia hacia el Default ; Análisis de Componentes Principales ; Modelo unifactorial ; VAR (Vectores Autorregresivos) ; Funciones de impulso-respuesta ; Simulación de Montecarlo
    Language: Spanish
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  • 32
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: While more married women in cities are part of the workforce, are they doing the jobs for which they have been prepared? How are the wages of this sector of the population formed? How does the spouse/partner's income or commuting costs affect their employment decisions? What is the structure of a Latin American city with formal and informal sectors? This article proposes a theoretical model that studies the interaction between geographical disparities (home-work) and disparities in skills of married women in Latin American cities. The intrinsic characteristic of informality in these markets is included and there is an analysis of how these disparities affect the results of this labor market in particular. After conducting a welfare analysis, and finding congestion and composition externalities, three economic policies are proposed to restore the social welfare of this economy. These are: (i) subsidy to the creation of vacancies, (ii) subsidy to transportation, and (iii) the creation of day-care centers, in order to restore social efficiency.
    Keywords: J2 ; ddc:330 ; female labor market ; wages
    Language: Spanish
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: The study analyzes - direct and indirect - export employment in Bolivia, using information from both the national accounts of 2005, 2011 and 2014 and the population and housing censuses. The most important result is that the export boom, during 2005-2014, has created jobs modestly (at rates lower than the added value of the economy); given that exports have been concentrated in low labor-intensive sectors (hydrocarbons and mining). This also explains why, at the level of trading partners, MERCOSUR members accounted for 50% of total exports in 2014; but only for 11.7% of export employment.
    Keywords: F14 ; F16 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; exports ; export employment ; Bolivia
    Language: Spanish
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: This study calculates the Social Progress Index (SPI) for the 9 Departments of Bolivia during the period 2012-2016. The indicators have been calculated by using secondary information from official sources. We observe that the Departments of Santa Cruz and Tarija are the ones that have the highest level of social progress, while Potosí and Pando are the most lagging. We show that the departmental SPI has correlation with the GDP per capita, the monetary poverty index and the index of unsatisfied needs, but it has a low correlation with the Human Development Index (HDI) and no correlation with public investment per capita.
    Keywords: C81 ; I30 ; R11 ; ddc:330 ; microeconomic data ; welfare and poverty ; regional economics
    Language: Spanish
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Description: This research is about the returns of education in Guatemala, based on the theory of human capital and the model of Mincer, which is the most used for this type of studies with the objective of comparing the returns of the years 2002 and 2018. The database used in the estimates, using ordinary least squares, was obtained from Employment and Revenue Surveys for the years 2002, 2010 and 2018. The results reveal positive and increasing returns by educational level, although lower in 2018 compared to 2002. The reduction in returns to education is recorded more at the level of university education. The evidence shows that the returns to education evolve according to the economic cycle.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Returns to education ; experience ; human capital ; income ; Mincer equation
    Language: Spanish
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Description: The objective of this study is to identify the main factors that determine the success in the labor insertion of university students in Spain. Using the Survey of Labor Insertion of University Graduates (EILU), which contains data from graduates in the 2009/2010 academic year we made several indicators in order to represent labor market success. Through the regression of ordinal and binomial probit models, we seek to identify the main factors that cause such success. From the results obtained it is concluded that the success in the labor insertion is positively related to the fact of working full time during the studies period, with the persistence of the gender differences and with the absence of incidence of the programs of mobility made by students.
    Keywords: J81 ; ddc:330 ; first job ; unversitary education ; probit models
    Language: Spanish
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  • 38
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Description: The aim of this article is to analyze the bidirectional link between two key variables in economic development and social sustainability: human capital and social capital. After introducing both concepts, the influence of human capital (education, technical knowledge, experience of the individual-worker) in the individual social capital (network of interpersonal relationships of the focal subject) is approached from the theoretical point of view. In this sense, education extends the social network of the individual and broadens the set of resources that can be accessed. Likewise, and in the opposite direction, individual social capital favors both the education of the subject and the productivity of its human capital. The second part of the article contrasts from an empirical point of view the interrelation between human capital and individual social capital in the Spanish case. The results confirm the bidirectionality of the relationships and the need to deepen the causality of the processes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; human capital ; social capital ; education ; social network ; sustainability
    Language: Spanish
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  • 39
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Description: The idea of North American integration fades in the political spheres; the main actor has considered that Mexico's trade surplus with him translates into loss of welfare and employment for its economy; from this point of view, the continuity of the free trade agreement seems unnecessary. This work evaluates the path of growth of the productive system of the commercial block from the structural analysis and maintains that such path conditioned the dynamic effects of the product and employment variations. This paper proofs that the US has benefited more from the spillovers from Canada and Mexico than those made to its partners, however, the feedback of trade relations between the economies and with the rest of the world have been favorable for each of them.
    Keywords: C67 ; J21 ; O41 ; O51 ; ddc:330 ; Analysis Input Output Table ; Employment ; Growth ; North America
    Language: Spanish
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  • 41
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Description: The aim of this study is to design an analytical model for the reduction of the underground economy in Ecuador. With that proposal, econometric techniques were used as a model of structural MIMIC equations for the estimation of the hidden economy in the country. Moreover, a VAR model is developed to determine the simulation of the most significant variables for the reduction of the hidden economy in Ecuador. Additionally this article try to define economic policy measures that impact on those variables. In this sense, the MIMIC model shows that the variables that are statistically significant as causes of the submerged economy in Ecuador are: trade opening, unemployment, inflation, government spending, and the tax burden of a tax indirect as the VAT. Consequently, with this, the estimation of the VAR model presented that the variable that stimulates, in greater percentage, a reduction of the hidden economy is the commercial opening, with a decrease of the hidden economy in 0.8% for each point of increase in this variable. Therefore, the economic policy proposal was addressed to the incorporation of economic liberalization measures that would allow an increase in commercial openness.
    Keywords: C51 ; E26 ; ddc:330 ; Hidden Economy ; MIMIC ; VAR ; Economic Policies
    Language: Spanish
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  • 42
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2020-02-11
    Description: This paper analyzes the impact of external price shocks on the real exchange rate and the existence of the Dutch disease, in the case of the Argentine economy. We consider the effects of shocks on the terms of tr ade, the supply of the agricultural sector (booming sector and main exporter) and the real exchange rate on the GDP of the manufacturing sector (or, alternatively, on total GDP) and unemployment rates. SVAR models, with long-term restrictions, and quarterly data, covering the 1993-2018 period, are estimated. The results show that the external price shocks and agricultural sector shocks affect positively and permanently to the manufacturing GDP and negatively to the unemployment rates, not finding substantial evidence about existence of the Dutch disease for this economy, during the period considered.
    Keywords: C32 ; F41 ; ddc:330 ; external price shocks ; real exchange rate ; Dutch disease ; SVAR models ; Argentina
    Language: Spanish
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Keywords: O12 ; I38 ; D10 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Description: This paper studies the evolution of skill premia and its relationship with the productive structure for sixteen countries in Latin America, using microdata from household surveys and information from National Accounts for the period 1991-2015. The evidence suggests that the change in the productive structure is significantly correlated to the dynamics of wage inequality. In particular, when the share in total value added of sectors that are more intensive in high-skilled labor grows, the skill premium increases significantly.
    Keywords: D31 ; I26 ; J21 ; J31 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 47
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Keywords: C67 ; C68 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 48
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Description: This working paper explores the effect of joint labor decisions on the study of wage regression models. The estimation of Mincer equations suffers from numerous sources of bias, including the sample selection problem generated by the fact that the agent decision to work is not independent of the wage. Most of the papers corrects this bias using a model of individual labor participation. However, recent trends in the labor market show greater participation of women in the labor force and seem to indicate that the joint decision of the spouses is increasingly relevant in determining the selection mechanism. A bivariate version of Heckman's method appears as an interesting alternative to solve this problem. Although the estimates are in line with the previous literature, the results indicate that the joint decision of the couple is a relevant factor in the selection bias.
    Keywords: C51 ; D13 ; E24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; wages ; joint labor decisions ; selection bias ; Heckman's method
    Language: Spanish
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  • 49
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Keywords: D31 ; I32 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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  • 50
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Description: This paper explores the changes in income poverty in Argentina during the period 2003-2015 using various decomposition methodologies. The results suggest that the generalized improvement in the labor market after the crisis was the main factor behind the sharp fall in poverty in the period 2003-2007. In contrast, the reduction of poverty between 2007 and 2011 is associated with the most active role played by social policy. Finally, during the period 2011-2015, no factor could contribute significantly to the reduction of poverty.
    Keywords: C15 ; D31 ; D33 ; I32 ; J31 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Description: The objective of the paper is to study the intra-generational mobility of income and poverty in Argentina to understand the reasons of the stagnation in the pace of poverty reduction since 2011. Furthermore, the paper tries to characterize and quantify the movements of individuals, and therefore it analyzes poverty duration, consecutive versus transient poverty, and the probability of reentering poverty. To this effect, synthetic panel methodology is applied and two periods, which are characterized by different evolutions of the headcount ratio, are compared: 2004-2007 and 2011- 2014. The main results are four-fold: 1) the stagnation was driven by a lower exit poverty rate; 2) the individuals who are moving along the income distribution are the ones who were poor at the beginning of the periods under study; 3) in comparison with the first period, between 2011-2014 a higher proportion of individuals was poor for two or three years and transient poverty prevailed over consecutive poverty; and, 4) the probability of reentering poverty was higher during 2011-2014. Moreover, the paper validates the methodology by using the panel structure of Argentina's household survey and estimates two of the most relevant parameters necessary to employ the synthetic panel approach.
    Keywords: D31 ; I32 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; mobility ; synthetic panels ; poverty dynamic ; Argentina
    Language: Spanish
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-21
    Keywords: D31 ; D33 ; I32 ; ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Ciudad de México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Faculdad de Economía
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The paper reviews the factors accounting for Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As). It then discusses the evolution of M&A trades, their relative importance and the economic sectors that have been influenced by M&As in sixteen Latin-American economies during 1990-2014. An integral model is developed with the aim of assessing both the impact of M&As on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the link between the value of M&A transactions and profits so as to determine the effects of profit share changes on private consumption, private investment and exports. The conclusion is reached that the elasticity of GDP with respect to the value of M&As is negative in countries such as Chile, Peru and Mexico. A larger value of M&As tend to redistribute income towards profits and impart a negative impact on output. The impact for other Latin American economies in our sample is either slightly positive or uncertain.
    Keywords: D33 ; E12 ; G34 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; Mergers and acquisitions ; Latin America ; macroeconomic impacts
    Language: Spanish
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    Ciudad de México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Faculdad de Economía
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Electricity prices have seen a consistent upward trend since the implementation of Mexico's electricity market reform (EMR). This has been interpreted by some as a failure of the EMR. In this paper we study the determinants of such price increases. We calculate the generation cost curve of the Federal Electricity Commission prior to the entry into force of the reform. We then construct daily data on average prices during the EMR. We also finally study the relationship between prices and transmission congestion rents. Our main results indicate that the most profitable types of generation technology are the ones resulting from the EMR. Likewise, price increases have taken place despite the existence of a considerably larger number of competitors in the generation sector. Lastly, the strong correlation between prices and congestion revenues is evidence that the increase in prices under the EMR is mainly due to the growing congestion in the national electricity transmission network rather than due to an inefficient competitive market design in the generation sector.
    Keywords: D21 ; D47 ; L50 ; L51 ; Q41 ; ddc:330 ; Electricity reform ; electricity generation ; congestion rents ; nodal prices ; Mexico
    Language: Spanish
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    Ciudad de México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Faculdad de Economía
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: This paper looks at the hypothesis of conditional convergence of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for a set of eighteen Latin American countries establishing a positive link with the growth rate of those economies. To that purpose, Ø-convergence, σ-convergence and Ú-convergence analyses are conducted. Furthermore, with the aim of identifying spatial heterogeneity the relationship among neighbor territorial units and product levels are studied applying the I Moran statistics. By and large, a regional convergence path with high conditional Ø-convergence, a lower dispersion of per capita incomes and a lesser mobility of countries along the ranking are shown to exist.
    Keywords: O54 ; O47 ; R12 ; ddc:330 ; Economic growth ; regional convergence ; spatial effects ; Latin America
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:article
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    Ciudad de México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Faculdad de Economía
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: This paper displays an analysis of the economic growth rates of Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico during the period 1961-2017. Explanations related to total factor productivity and to capital ac- cumulation are here contrasted in a context of growth external constraint. The following conclusiones are reached on empirical grounds: Technological progress is an endogenous variable reacting to variations in aggregate demand necessary to fulfill the dynamic equilibrium of the trade balance; growth rates in those countries are closely linked to the growth rate of their economic capacity; the process of growth acceleration in these economies corresponded to high rates of capital accumulation.
    Keywords: F43 ; O40 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; Latin America ; total factor productivity ; capital accumulation ; growth external constraint
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:article
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    Ciudad de México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Faculdad de Economía
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Technological innovation is a process linked to the generation of knowledge and the way in which companies learn and develop innovations. It depends on the particular context in which firms operate. As the potential of biotechnology has to support a wave of growth in other sectors, this study focuses on identifying and measuring innovation capabilities, as well as the determinants of such capabilities in the Mexican biotechnology companies. The results show that the existence of networks (financial, knowledge, collaboration, among others) that allow generating both an adequate flow of knowledge and the capacities of companies to take advantage of such knowledge, are determining factors of the innovative dynamism.
    Keywords: L69 ; O31 ; O32 ; ddc:330 ; Biotechnology ; innovation ; knowledge networks
    Language: Spanish
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    Ciudad de México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Faculdad de Economía
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: We inquire whether the uncertainty of international oil prices affected Mexico's economic activity during 1983:2-2017:4. To measure such impact we use a bivariate structural vector autoregressive (VAR) model with a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) in-mean process that captures the impact of oil price volatility on economic growth and gross fixed capital formation. Our results show that the said uncertainty has a negative influence on Mexico's economic activity. Further, they reveal the presence of asymmetric effects, as the output growth rate increases (decreases) after a negative (positive) oil price shock. These results highlight the importance of adopting public policies aimed at mitigating the effects of oil market uncertainty and help stabilize economic activity.
    Keywords: E32 ; C32 ; ddc:330 ; Oil price volatility ; economic activity ; multivariate var-garch in-mean ; asymmetric effects ; Mexico
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:article
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    Ciudad de México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Faculdad de Economía
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: This research is aimed to test the hypothesis that the real effective exchange rate between Spain's manufacturing sectors and its European Union partners has been governed by the relative vertically integrated unit labor costs and the intrasectoral differences of the profit rate during 2000-2014. Using panel cointegration techniques, the results suggest that there exists a stable long-run relationship between those three variables. Likewise, cointegration vectors indicate that the Spanish manufacturing competitiveness is positively associated with the decrease in unit costs of production, while it is negatively related to the increase in the intrasectoral profitability gap.
    Keywords: B51 ; C01 ; F10 ; F20 ; ddc:330 ; Spain ; European Union ; panel cointegration ; competitiveness ; uneven development
    Language: Spanish
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    Ciudad de México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Faculdad de Economía
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: We estimate the Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment (NAIRU) for Mexico (2002Q1-2018Q2) with Ball and Mankiw's (2002) methodology using the Generalized Method of Moments. We prove that, with this methodology, the calculation of NAIRU is more efficient than the one calculated with the HP filter. We show that: a) the Dot Com and the Great Recession crises have had real and lasting effects on the labor market; b) Mexico's monetary policy has been stabilizing, and c) the relationship between unemployment and inflation has strengthened over the last years.
    Keywords: C26 ; E12 ; E24 ; E52 ; E58 ; ddc:330 ; NAIRU ; brecha de desempleo ; política monetaria ; GMM ; cambio estructural
    Language: Spanish
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    Ciudad de México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Faculdad de Economía
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The Mexican economy has shown four decades of slow growth; still it would be reasonable to expect changes in its productive structure along such a long period of time considered, as a result either of the embodied technical change or as a result of the economic policies, that have sought the integration with the US economy, among other causes. According to the so called "Kaldor-Verdoorn law", growth is explained by the behaviour of both output and the manufacturing productivity; hence, in Mexico this sector must have lost its ability to induce growth in the economy as a whole. This paper examines such hypothesis from a structural perspective, considering such law, estimating also the output multipliers á la mode de Miyazawa.
    Keywords: O41 ; O47 ; C67 ; D57 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; Economic growth ; Input-Output model ; Kaldor-Verdoorn law ; Mexican economy
    Language: Spanish
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    Ciudad de México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Faculdad de Economía
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of financial development on economic growth. The contribution of both capital and credit market movements on the dynamics of Mexico's gross domestic product (GDP) over the period 1996-2017 is empirically tested using an Autoregressive Distributive Lag model. The main findings show that the deepening of the financial system generates bivalent effects on the evolution of GDP. The evidence also suggests an inverse relationship with bank intermediation and a positive one with stock market capitalization.
    Keywords: C32 ; O47 ; G10 ; ddc:330 ; Financial development ; economic growth ; Autoregressive Distributive Lag model
    Language: Spanish
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    Ciudad de México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Faculdad de Economía
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Spanish
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    Madrid: Grupo de Investigación en Gobierno, Administración y Políticas Públicas
    Publication Date: 2020-07-08
    Description: Este artículo presenta algunas contribuciones conceptuales y metodológicas del proyecto LATINNO para la investigación sobre innovaciones democráticas y participación ciudadana. Primero, se discuten las lagunas en el conocimiento preexistente que dieron origen al proyecto. Segundo, se presentan el marco metodológico y los aportes originales que permitieron registrar datos comparables sobre el contexto, diseño institucional e impacto de más de 2,600 casos. Tercero, se discuten los desafíos encontrados a la hora de evaluar el impacto de las innovaciones. Finalmente se señalan algunas direcciones para el desarrollo de una agenda regional sobre innovaciones democráticas que pueda explotar las potencialidades de la base de datos de LATINNO.
    Description: This article presents some conceptual and methodological contributions of the LATINNO project for research on democratic innovations and citizen participation. First, the gaps in the preexisting knowledge that gave rise to the project are discussed. Second, the methodological framework and the original contributions that allowed registering comparable data on the context, institutional design and impact of more than 2,600 cases are presented. Third, the challenges encountered when evaluating the innovations impact are discussed. Finally, some directions are indicated for the development of a regional agenda on democratic innovations that can exploit the potential of the LATINNO database.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; innovaciones democráticas ; participación ciudadana ; proyecto LATINNO ; democratic innovations ; citizen participation ; LATINNO Project
    Language: Spanish
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    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Birmingham ; : Packt Publishing,
    Keywords: Web services. ; Electronic books.
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 online resource (790 pages)
    Edition: Second edition.
    ISBN: 9781789613711 (e-book)
    DDC: 006.76
    Parallel Title: Print version: Tankariya, Vipul. AWS certified developer-associate guide : your one-stop solution to passing the AWS developer's 2019 (DVA-C01) certification.
    Language: Spanish
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    Madrid and Cartagena: Spanish Accounting and Business Administration Association (AECA) and Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UPCT)
    Publication Date: 2020-09-23
    Description: En tiempos modernos la competitividad es un desafío y oportunidad para las organizaciones. La globalización de los mercados y la introducción de las nuevas tecnologías en los nuevos modelos de negocios, las grandes empresas, y más las Pymes, requieren de estrategias que las impulsen hacia el fortalecimiento de su competitividad y el aumento de la rentabilidad. Para ello, las Pymes están incorporando acciones que se derivan de las capacidades dinámicas, entre las que se destacan la orientación hacia el emprendimiento, el aprendizaje organizacional, la I+D, y las estrategias de mercado. El objetivo principal es analizar si las capacidades dinámicas y la orientación emprendedora, tienen influencia sobre las actividades de Innovación y la Rentabilidad que se manifiesta en la Pyme. El estudio se focaliza en una muestra de 1,012 Pymes de la región Noroeste de México; la recolección de los datos se realizó a través de una encuesta estructurada dirigida al gerente de la empresa durante el periodo de septiembre a diciembre del año 2016. La técnica estadística basada en el análisis de la varianza a través del Método de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM) con apoyo de Partial Least Square (PLS), fue utilizada para la comprobación de las hipótesis. Los resultados revelan que las capacidades dinámicas tienen una fuerte influencia sobre las variables: orientación emprendedora, la actividad innovadora y la rentabilidad de la Pyme. Además, encontramos que la orientación emprendedora y las actividades de innovación influyen de forma significativa en la rentabilidad de la Pyme. La investigación contribuye al desarrollo de la literatura de las capacidades dinámicas y de la orientación emprendedora.
    Description: In modern times, competitiveness is a challenge and opportunity for organizations. The globalization of markets and the introduction of new technologies in new business models, large companies and especially SMEs, require strategies that encourage them to strengthen their competitiveness and increase profitability. For this, SMEs are incorporating actions derived from the dynamic capabilities, among which the orientation towards entrepreneurship, organizational learning, R&D, and market strategies stand out. The main objective is to analyze if, the dynamic capabilities and the entrepreneurial orientation, have influence on the activities of innovation and the profitability that is manifested in the SME. The study focuses on a sample of 1,012 SMEs from the Northwest region of Mexico; the data collection was made through a structured survey directed to the company manager during the period from September to December 2016. The statistical technique based on the analysis of variance through the Structural Equation Method (SEM) with the support of Partial Least Square (PLS), it was used to test hypotheses. The results reveal that the dynamic capabilities have a strong influence on the variables: entrepreneurial orientation, innovative activity and the profitability of the SME. In addition, we found that entrepreneurial orientation and Innovation activities significantly influence the profitability of SMEs. The research contributes to the development of the literature of the dynamic capabilities and of the entrepreneurial orientation.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; L20 ;