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  • 1
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    İstanbul: KARE Publishing
    Publication Date: 2019-09-07
    Description: Günümüzde kültür, teknoloji, tasarım ya da insan sermayesi gibi elle tutulur faydaları muğlak olan kavramlar en çok; bir şirketin, sanat eserinin, yazılımın ya da herhangi bir ürünün finansal değerini belirlemede etkin rol oynar hale gelmiştir. Bu durum da, bu muğlaklığın hem sektörde hem de akademide analiz edilebilmesi ve ölçülebilmesi çalışmalarını tetiklemiştir. Kentteki fiziksel çevrenin değerine etki eden önemli bir girdi olan “iyi tasarım”ın ne olduğu konusu ve ölçülebilme sorunsalı da, mimarlık alanında araştırma gündemini meşgul etmeye başlamıştır. Ne kadar çok elle tutulamayan fayda tespit ve ifşa edilirse, kentlerde o kadar daha çok “iyi” tasarım olacağı hakim görüşü, bu alanda araştırma yapanları çok kapsamlı modeller geliştirmeye yöneltmiştir. Fakat, 90’lardan itibaren başlamış bu çalışmalar, ne yazık ki, daha yaşanılır kentlerin oluşup gelişmesine beklenildiği gibi etki edememiştir. Bu bağlamda, finans sektörünün bu faydaları nasıl okuduğuyla ilgili daha içsel bir anlayış elde etmek için, “değerin güç teorisi” çerçevesinde, bu teorinin merkezine aldığı köksüz transnasyonel kapitalist sınıf lehine olan diferansiyel kapitalizasyon ve stratejik sabotaj kavramlarının fiziksel mekandaki izleri aranarak konu tartışmaya açılmış ve şehirlerdeki en büyük bütçeli projeleri finanse eden %1lik mimari patronajın mülkü olan günümüz seküler mabetlerine ve uzamsal boyutlarına bu mercekten bakılmıştır. Çalışmanın çıktısı olarak; bu mabetlerin ve onları ilgilendiren uzamsal boyutun farklı aktörler için ifade ettiği farklı değerler ve bu farklı değerlerin ya da faydaların nasıl kapitalize edildiği ve neden olduğu sabotaj biçimleri detaylandırılarak açıklanmış, ayrıca literatüre provokatif bir katkı sağlamak hedeflenmiştir.
    Description: The concepts such as culture, technology, design, or human capital, the tangible benefits of which are vague, are mostly effective in setting the financial value of a company, a work of art, a software, or any product. This situation triggered both sectoral and academic studies intended for analyzing and measuring this vagueness. The subject of what the “good design” is, which is an important input affecting the value of the physical environment in the cities, and the problematic of its measurability started to occupy the architectural research agenda. The prevalent view that the more intangible benefits are detected and disclosed the more “good” designs the cities will have has prompted the people who conduct research in this field to develop very comprehensive models. However, these studies that started in the ‘90s unfortunately failed to have the expected impact on creation and development of more livable cities. In this context, to get a better insight of how the financial sector reads these benefits, the subject has been opened up for discussion within the framework of the “power theory of value”, by searching for traces of the differential capitalization and strategic sabotage concepts in the physical space, which are in favor of the rootless transnational capitalist class that is at the center of this theory and the modern-day secular temples owned by the 1% of the architectural patronage who finance the highest budget projects in cities and its spatial dimension have been seen through this lens. As an outcome of the study, different values these temples and the spatial dimension concerning them carry for different actors, and how these different values or benefits are capitalized, and the types of sabotages they cause have been explained in detail, and it has been targeted to make a provocative contribution to the literature.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; architecture ; capital as power ; differential accumulation ; capitalization ; radical imaginary ; sabotage
    Language: Turkish
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    London: IJOPEC Publication
    Publication Date: 2018-09-21
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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  • 3
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    Istanbul: Koç University-TÜSİAD Economic Research Forum (ERF)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-05
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2020-02-05
    Description: This study asks how the Ottoman bondholders traded at the Paris stock exchange evaluated the outcomes of tax and constitutional reforms, based on the data for the most traded bond's price, i.e., the Turkish unified bond, at the Paris stock exchange from 1903 to 1909. The reforms aimed at higher tax income and decreasing arbitrary implications of the Ottoman state. The data are manually collected from The Times. The findings show that the constitutional reform was negatively related to perceived risk of the investors, since there was again a parliamentary system in the Ottoman Empire to blockage the arbitrary policies.
    Keywords: G1 ; N25 ; N45 ; ddc:330 ; Tax reform ; Constitutional monarchy ; the Ottoman debt management ; Price fluctuations ; the Turkish unified bond
    Language: Turkish
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  • 5
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-08-07
    Description: 1914 ve 1918 yılları arasında, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu iktisadi anlamda yıkım yaratan Birinci Dünya Savaşı’na dahil olmuştu. Savaşın sonunda ülke işgal edilmiş ve işgal kuvvetleri ile çatışmalar ortaya çıkmıştı. Tarihsel çalışmalarda, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun Bulgaristan’ın Eylül 1918 tarihinde yaptığı ateşkes teklifi ve iktisadi yaşamında yarattığı baskı ile savaştan çekilme noktasına geldiği iddia edilmekteydi. Yazı, çatışmaların sonlanmakta olduğu süreçteki barış çabalarının Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda ortaya çıkartmış olduğu iktisadi etkileri Tasvir-i Efkar ve Vakit gibi Osmanlı gazetelerindeki yazılar, İstanbul Borsası’na ait döviz kuru ve mal fiyatı verileri ile incelemiştir. Sonuçlar, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun Ekim 1918 tarihi itibariyle savaştan çıkışına kadar olan dönem içerisinde iktisadi olarak iyileşmeler ile karşı karşıya kaldığını ifade etmektedir.
    Description: Between 1914 and 1918, the Ottoman Empire was involved in the World War I, leading to disruptions in economic life. The end of the war created the occupation of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies and struggle against the Allies' occupation. The historical literature argued that when Bulgaria asked for an armistice in September 1918, it was realized that the end of the war was approaching, as the Ottoman economy went into recession. Based on articles in the Ottoman newspapers, i.e., Tasvir-i Efkar and Vakit, in addition to data of foreign exchange rates and prices in the çIstanbul Bourse, this paper examines how the Ottoman economy was affected by the end of the World War I. The findings imply the presence of the higher economic recovery by October 1918 when the Ottoman Empire asked for armistices.
    Keywords: G1 ; N25 ; N45 ; ddc:330 ; The World War I ; the armistice of Salonica ; İstanbul Stock Exchange ; foreign exchange rates ; prices ; economic recovery ; Birinci Dünya Savaşı ; Selanik Mütarekesi ; İstanbul Borsası ; döviz kurları ; mal fiyatları ; ekonomik iyileşme
    Language: Turkish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-08-07
    Description: Bu yazıda özellikle iktisat alanında değişmenin önemini vurgulayan açıklamalar sunacağım. Açıklamalarımda önce dünyada ve Türkiye’de özellikle son zamanlarda yaşanan değişimleri özetleyeceğim. Sonra sırasıyla kapitalizmde, teknolojide, küreselleşmede ve iktisat biliminde meydana gelen, önemli saydığım değişmeleri anlatacağım. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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  • 7
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    Istanbul: Koç University-TÜSİAD Economic Research Forum (ERF)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: Bu calisma, Turkiye'nin 2001 krizi sonrasinda uyguladigi maliye politikasina butce harcamalari perspektifinden baktiktan sonra, 2016 ve sonrasinda beklenen dusuk buyume doneminde genisleyici bir maliye politikasinin ekonomik buyume uzerindeki etkilerini tartismaktadir. Calismanin son bolumunde ise kamu harcamalarinin buyumeye katki verecek sekilde dagitilmasi, dinamik bir model cercevesinde incelenmektedir. Sonuclar, 2001 sonrasinda izlenen maliye politikasinin butce disiplini uzerindeki olumlu etkilerini gostermekle beraber, son donemde butcenin harcama katiliginda ve yapisal butce dengesinde bazi olumsuzluklari da tartismaya acmaktadir. Bununla beraber, mevcut kamu borc stoku ve butce disiplini altinda, kamunun tuketim harcamalari yoluyla onumuzdeki dusuk buyume doneminde ekonomiye bir ivme kazandirabilecegi sonucu da elde edilmektedir. Yuksek buyume doneminde ise genisleyici bir maliye politikasinin olumsuz bir etki yapacagi da bulgular arasindadir. Kamu harcamalarinin dagiliminin incelendigi son bolumde, kamunun uretimi arttiracak altyapi yatirimlarina daha fazla agirlik vermesi gerektigi bulunmaktadir. Egitim ve sagliga ayrilan kamu sermaye stokunun buyume uzerindeki etkileri ise fiziksel altyapi yatirimlarina ayrilan kamu sermaye stoku kadar yuksek degildir. Harcama dagilimi ile ilgili bir baska bulgu ise kamunun sermaye yatirimlarina daha fazla agirlik verirken hane halki transferlerini azaltmasi gerektigidir. Son olarak, kamunun idari harcamalarinda verimlilik yoluyla saglanacak bir azalmanin toplumsal fayda uzerinde onemli ve pozitif etkileri gorulmektedir. Bu sonuc da, onumuzdeki donemde kamu verimliligini arttirip idari harcamalari kisacak onlemlerin bir politika onceligi olmasi gerektigini soylemektedir.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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  • 9
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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  • 10
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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  • 11
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-08-07
    Description: Bu çalışmanın amacı uluslararası emtia piyasalarından kaynaklanan asimetrik ve doğrusal olmayan fiyat hareketlerinin iç fiyatlara geçişkenliğini Türkiye için ölçmektir. Bu amaçla 2003M02-2015M02 dönemine ait aylık bazda(145 gözlem) çeşitli uluslararası emtia fiyatları(petrol ve gıda fiyatları) ve iç fiyatları temsilen tüketici fiyat endeksleri ele alınmıştır. Çalışmanın ekonometrik tahminlemesinde yakın zamanda geliştirilen Doğrusal Olmayan Gecikmesi Dağıtılmış Otoregresif (NARDL) Modeli kullanılmıştır. Böylece uluslararası emtia fiyatlarının pozitif ve negatif “Kısmi Ayrıştırma Toplamları” kullanılarak kısa ve uzun dönem doğrusalsızlık ve asimetrik etkiler eşanlı olarak test edilmektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre uluslararası petrol ve gıda fiyatlarından yurtiçi enflasyon oranlarına doğru asimetrik bir fiyat geçişkenliğinin olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Öte yandan, pozitif ve negatif uluslararası emtia fiyat şoklarına karşı iç fiyatların verdiği kısmi tepkiler “Asimetrik Dinamik Hızlandıran” yaklaşımı kullanılarak ölçülmektedir. Buna göre yurtiçi enflasyon oranlarının petrol ve gıda fiyat şoklarına verdiği tepki asimetrik ve sırasıyla 20 ve 15 ay olduğu görülmüştür.
    Description: The aim of this paper is to measure asymetric and nonlinear pass-through of international commodity prices to internal prices in the Turkish case. For this purpose, monthly data set of various international commodity prices(oil and food prices) and internal prices (ie. consumer price indices) fort the period 2003M02-2015M02 (145 observations) are utilized. The econometric estimation of the study is based on the recently developed NARDL Model. This model offers a proper possibility to simultaneously test the short and long-run nonlinearity through positive and negative 'Partial Sum Decompositions' of the international commodity prices to internal prices (ie. consumer price indices). According to our findings, it is concluded that there is a pass-through from international oil and food prices to domestic prices or inflation rate in an asymmetrical sense. The NARDL Model, in hand, also allows us to quantify the respective responses of the internal prices to positive and negative commodity price shocks from the 'Asymetric Dynamic Multipliers'. Hence, domestic inflation rates' response to international oil and food prices is asymmetrical respectively in 20-month and 15-month periods.
    Keywords: C22 ; Q40 ; Q47 ; ddc:330 ; international commodity price shocks ; NARDL Model ; asymetric pass-through ; Uluslararası emtia fiyat şokları ; NARDL Modeli ; asimetrik geçişkenlik
    Language: Turkish
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  • 12
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: D31 ; ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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  • 13
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Increasing income inequality has made economists focus on income mobility issue which enables individuals to relocate their income position up to higher income groups. Income mobility and its effects on inequalities have begun to be investigated following 2000s and rather for developed countries while there are only a limited number of studies to reach a general conclusion regarding the issue. This study aims to contribute to the literature by analyzing income inequality and income mobility together for a developing country Turkey which is one of the countries having most unequal income distributions. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; i) income mobility increases over time but this mobility raises income inequality instead of reducing it. ii) the individuals at the two tails of the distribution are more mobile with respect to the ones in the middle. iii) 30 percent of the individuals at the lowest income group become unemployed while only 1.5 percent of them move up to the highest income group in the considering sub-periods.
    Keywords: D31 ; D63 ; J60 ; ddc:330 ; Income Mobility ; Income Inequality ; Turkey
    Language: Turkish
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  • 14
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: The present paper examines the effects of the Customs Union (CU) and Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) on Turkey's extensive and intensive margins. For this purpose, using highly disaggregated product-level data at the six-digit product level of Harmonized System, we first decompose Turkey's export to 172 countries over the period 1996-2011 into extensive and intensive margins, following the decomposition approach by Hummels and Klenow (2005). We then investigate the effects of the CU and FTAs on Turkey's extensive and intensive margins using a standard gravity model. The same analyses are carried out for different categories of goods (final goods and intermediate goods exports). The empirical analyses show that the effects of the CU and FTAs on the extensive and intensive margins are statistically significant. Furthermore, the results suggest that the CU has larger impact on the extensive and intensive margins than FTAs.
    Keywords: F12 ; F14 ; F15 ; ddc:330 ; Free Trade Agreements ; Customs Union ; Extensive Margin ; Intensive Margin
    Language: Turkish
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  • 15
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-08
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: German , English , Polish , Turkish , Romanian , Russian
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 16
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    Istanbul: Koç University-TÜSİAD Economic Research Forum (ERF)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: Increasing income inequality has made economists focus on income mobility issue which enables individuals to relocate their income position up to higher income groups. Income mobility and its effects on inequalities have begun to be investigated following 2000s and rather for developed countries while there are only a limited number of studies to reach a general conclusion regarding the issue. This study aims to contribute to the literature by analyzing income inequality and income mobility together for a developing country Turkey which is one of the countries having most unequal income distributions. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; i) income mobility increases over time but this mobility raises income inequality instead of reducing it. ii) the individuals at the two tails of the distribution are more mobile with respect to the ones in the middle. iii) 30 percent of the individuals at the lowest income group become unemployed while only 1.5 percent of them move up to the highest income group in the considering sub-periods.
    Keywords: D31 ; D63 ; J60 ; ddc:330 ; Income Mobility ; Income Inequality ; Turkey
    Language: Turkish
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  • 17
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    Istanbul: Koç University-TÜSİAD Economic Research Forum (ERF)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: Turkiye, 1980 askeri darbesiyle ara verilen demokrasiye yedi yil sonra yapilan serbest secimlerle geri dondu. Bu makalede, Turkiye imalat sanayiinde reel ucretler ve isyeri duzeyinde emek ve toplam faktor verimliliginin 1987’de demokrasiye gecis sonrasindaki hareketleri incelenmektedir. 1988’den 1993’e imalat sanayiinde ortalama reel ucretler %120 artti. Yine ayni donemde toplam faktor ve emek verimliliginde daha once rastlanmayan duzeyde artislar gerceklesti. O donemdeki siyasi ve ekonomik gelismeleri yakindan izleyen iktisatcilar olarak, bu gozlemlerden yola cikarak reel ucret artislarinin rekabet guclerini kaybetmek istemeyen sirketleri, emek ve toplam faktor verimliligini artirmaya zorladigi hipotezini test ediyoruz. Isyeri duzeyinde zaman serilerini kullanarak yaptigimiz Granger nedensellik testleri, nedenselligin reel ucretlerden verimlilige dogru oldugunu ortaya koymaktadir. Bu bulgular, Turkiye’nin yani sira 1980’lerin sonunda demokrasiye gecis surecini sorunsuz bir sekilde gerceklestiren G. Kore, Sili ve Tayvan gibi ulkelerde gecis doneminde yasanan hizli verimlilik artislarini da dolayli olarak aciklamakta, “demokrasiler daha yuksek ucret oderler” hipotezini (Rodrik, 1999) desteklemektedir.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Demokratik gecis ; Sendikalar ve grevler ; Reel ucretler ; Toplam faktor verimliligi ; Emek verimliligi ; Uzun-vadeli buyume.
    Language: Turkish
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  • 18
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: I20 ; I21 ; I22 ; ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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  • 19
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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  • 20
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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  • 21
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Son yıllarda iktisat yazınında disiplinler arası çalışmaların sayısı giderek artmaktadır. Bu ilginin altında, doğrusal ve statik modellere dayanan klasik iktisat teorisinin modellerinin, gerçekte kompleks/karmaşık özellik gösteren yapıları çözümlemede yetersiz kalması yatmaktadır. Ekonomi doğası gereği heterojen aktörlerden müteşekkil, birbirinden etkilenen ve birbirini etkileyen çeşitli değişkenler üzerine kurulu sistemlerden ve yapılardan oluşmaktadır. Son yıllarda birçok iktisatçı klasik iktisat teorisinin yetersizliğinin farkına vararak, doğrusal olmayan süreçlerin anlaşılmasına yönelik modeller geliştirmeye çalışmışlardır. Oyun teorisi, davranışsal iktisat, davranışsal oyun teorisi, evrimci oyun teorisi, nöro-iktisat, deneysel iktisat, ağ iktisadı, hesaplanabilir iktisat gibi yeni alanlarla birlikte özellikle karmaşıklık iktisadı ve ajan-temelli hesaplanabilir iktisadın (AHI) giderek önem kazanmaya başlaması bu gelişmelerin bir sonucudur. Karmaşıklık iktisadı ve AHI, özellikle doğrusal olmama ve çoklu denge gibi unsurları içermeleri açısından iktisat bilimine önemli açılımlar getirmektedirler. Bu çalışmada ilk önce 1930’lu yıllardaki Avusturya Okulu-Neo Klasik iktisat tartışmalarına kompleksite, AHI tartışmaları çerçevesinde yeniden bakılacaktır. Tartışma birçok açıdan Post Keynesci iktisat ve Neo klasik iktisat tartışmasını da çağrıştırmaktadır. Daha sonra Kompleksite iktisadı ve AHI ele alınacaktır.
    Description: The number of interdisciplinary studies in the economics literature is increasing in the recent years. The reason for this increasing interest is the inadequecy of the linear and static models of classical economics for representing the complex structures of the real world. Economy is composed of systems and structures that consist of heterogeneous agents and variables interacting with each other. In recent years, many economists have come to realize the insufficiency of the classical economic models and started to develop new models for understanding the nonlinear processes. Along with the new topics such as game theory, behavioral economics, behavioral game theory, evolutionary game theory, neuroeconomics, experimental economics, network economics, computational economics; especially the rise of complexity economics and agent-based computational economics (ACE) is a result of these developments. Since complexity economics and ACE include the concepts such as nonlinearity and multiple equilibrium, they provide new oportunities to the theory of economics. In this study, firstly, Austrian School of Economics and Neoclassical Economics debate of 1930's will be reconsidered from the viewpoint of complexity and ACE. This debate also evokes the Post-Keynesian and Neoclassical economics debate in many respects. Then complexity economics and ACE will be discussed.
    Keywords: B41 ; D50 ; C60 ; ddc:330 ; competition ; compexity ; agent-based modeling ; Agentenbasierte Modellierung ; Dogmengeschichte ; Theorie
    Language: Turkish
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  • 22
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: G01 ; G15 ; E50 ; F32 ; ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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  • 23
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: In this study, the main purpose is to analyze the factors that stimulate the probability of financial crises. The period of analysis covers the years of 1970-2008, thereby including the impact of recent global financial crisis. The analysis aims to make a comparison for the developed and developing country financial crises separately. Panel logit estimation technique is used for the analysis which includes 24 developed and 26 developing countries, amounting to 50 countries as total. According to estimation results, current account deficit carries the risk of raising the probability of financial crises significantly both in advanced countries and developing countries. Furthermore, credit booms during the last five-year period, as well as monetary expansion, contributed to the probability of financial crises especially in developed countries.
    Keywords: G01 ; C33 ; G18 ; G21 ; G28 ; ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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  • 24
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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  • 25
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
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    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
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    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Küreselleşme süreci, bir taraftan ulus-devletlerin kendi aralarındaki bölgesel bütünleşme hareketlerini hızlandırırken, diğer taraftan da bu devletlerin yerel yönetimlere (mahalli idarelere) verdikleri önemi artırmıştır. Gelişen teknoloji ile birlikte, bölge ve alt bölgeler dünya sistemi ile doğrudan etkileşim içerisine girmiştir. Sanayi toplumundan bilgi toplumuna geçiş olarak da karakterize edilebile-cek olan bu süreçte, gerek bölge kavramının tanımı ve gerekse bölgesel geliş-me alanındaki yaklaşımlar değişmiştir. Artık büyük ölçekli kamu/özel kesim yatırımlarının ağırlıkta olduğu bölge planları yerine, daha küçük ölçekli, sür-dürülebilirlik, katılımcılık ve her (alt) bölgenin kendine özgü potansiyelleri olabileceği ve bu yörelerin bilgi toplumunda rekabet edebileceği prensiplerini benimseyen, mekansal sürekliliğin geri planda olduğu strateji ağırlıklı planlar önem kazanmaya başlamıştır. Böylece, planların müdahale alanının standart bir yaklaşım yerine, o yörenin kendine özgü koşulları, ekonomik, sosyal, çevre ve mekansal yapıları ile insan kaynaklarının durumu gözönünde bulundurula-rak belirlenmesi yaklaşımı önem kazanmıştır. Bu anlayış değişikliği ile birlikte, bölgesel kalkınma amacıyla kullanılan araçlar da, söz konusu bölgenin potansiyellerine, özelliğine ve bölge dışı fak-törlerle etkileşimine bağlı olarak, değişiklik göstermeye başlamıştır. Son yıllar-da, özellikle gelişmiş ülkelerde bölgesel gelişme alanında, “Kalkınma Ajansla-rı”, “Tek Köy-Tek Ürün” ve “Girişimciler Için Tek Durak Ofis” gibi araçlar yaygın olarak kullanılır olmuştur. Bu çalışma ortaya çıkan yeni anlayış ve po-litika araçlarını değerlendirmektedir.
    Description: Glabalization has accelerated the process towards regional integrations among the nations by bringing to the fore the complementarity between the nations. Furthermore, thanks to the rapid developments in transportation and commu-nication technologies, regions and sub-regions within each nation have been able to develop direct interaction with the world. During this process, both the definition of the region and the approaches to regional development have changed considerably: Ambitious regional de-velopment plans that are extensive in their coverage and have been replaced by regional plans that are smaller in scale, emphasizing the principles of sustaina-bility, complementarity and participation with a view that sub-regions could have specific potentials and be competitive. Under the new approach, the in-tervention area is accordingly determined with regard to specific economic, social and environmental conditions, as well as spatial structures and human resources within th region under consideration. This paper reviews various policy tools and institutional set-ups that are be-ing used for the purpose of regional development in relation to potential and specific features of the region and their interaction with external factors.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bölgesel kalkınma ; Bölgesel plan ; Kurumlar ve politika araçları ; Regional development ; Policy tools and agencies
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Development Stages of W.W Rostow have five basic stages: Traditional Society, Society at the Preparatory Period for Take Off (Transitional Society), Society at the stage of Take off, Society at the stage of Drive to Maturity and Society at Age of High Mass Consumption. Introducing the similarities and dissimilarities of the country's economic history, Rostow tried to put the development level of countries in his theory which holds all development levels from poor agricultural community to mass consumption economy. As one of the most important industrial and commercial centers of Turkey, Gaziantep has a great economic power with its wide variety of rich outputs produced in industry and trade in both its region and country. With its hectic pace of growth, Gaziantep has become a model for developing cities. Gaziantep had experienced the stage of Traditional Society prior to 1930's, years between 1930 and 1979 could be defined as Transitional Stage then it has passed to Take Off Stage at 1980's and still experiences that stage. It is possible for Gaziantep to pass to the Maturity Stage soon, if the dynamism on its economy that carry the desire of becoming a brand city could be carried on and the investments towards education, culture and innovation could be increased.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Rostow ; development ; growth ; take off ; economy of Gaziantep
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
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    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
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    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
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    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
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    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, Türkiye'de özel ve kamu tasarruflarının zaman içinde seyrini ortaya koymak ve bunları etkileyen makro unsurları araştırmaktır. Bu amaç çerçevesinde önce bu değişkenlerin yıllık verilerinden üç-aylık değerleri hesaplanmış, sonra özel tasarrufları açıklamak üzere elde edilen bir denklem, uzun ve kısa dönemler için tahmin edilmiştir. Bu tahminler, reel kur ve kamu tasarruf dengesinin özel tasarrufları önemli ölçüde etkilediğini göstermiştir.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Gaziantep is one of the cities that have not got a serious public investment. While having capital accumulation over time, Gaziantep has never been supported in terms of investment by the Government and its economic growth profile is greater than the Turkey's average economic performance. In this study, relationships between some selected macroeconomics variables and regional employment for Gaziantep province are investigated.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Economic Development ; Regional Development ; Employment
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
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    Language: Turkish
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    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Dünya ekonomik konjonktürü Japonya’nın Asya Krizi sonrası bocalaması ve AB’nin kendi iç sorunlarıyla meşgul olması nedeniyle ABD’deki konjonktürden doğrudan etkilenir hale gelmiştir. Globalleşme adı verilen ve tek tek ülke ekonomilerinin dünya ekonomisine eklemlenmesi diye adlandırdığımız bu sürecin son dönemdeki başat özelliği finansal liberalizasyondur. Kendi iç dinamikleriyle büyüyen finans sermayesi reel ekonomik yapıdan bağını koparmıştır. Eksik talep, kar oranlarının düşmesi gibi reel ekonomiyi doğrudan ilgilendiren krizlerin ertelenmesini sağlasa bile reel ekonomiden kopuk bir oransal büyüme içinde olan finans sektörü finansal krizler dediğimiz krizlerin peşpeşe patlak vermesine de yol açmaktadır. Türkiye’'deki krizin başlıca sorumlusu kamu açıklarıysa da kamu açıklarının sürdürülemez boyutlara varmasının nedeni, bu kamu açıklarını kısa süreli spekülatif sermaye hareketleriyle kapatma yöntemidir. Bu sermaye girişleriyle talep itişli ve istikrarsız bir büyüme patikasına giren Türkiye ekonomisi, sürdürülemez boyutlara varan cari işlemler açıkları sonucu kaçınılmaz olarak parasını devalüe etmeden önce ve ettikten hemen sonra ülkeyi hızla terk eden yabancı sermayenin ardında bıraktığı banka krizini yaşamaktadır. Oysa Türkiye ekonomisinde kriz,yatırımlardaki duraklama ve tasarruf oranlarının artmayan seyri ile yıllar öncesinden başlamıştı. Bunun sorumlusu finansal liberalizasyonu kamu açıklarını kapatma aracı olarak kullanan hükümetlerdir. Öyle ki, bu politikasızlığın sonucu, hükümetler, bütçe gelirleri ile faiz ödemelerinden başka bir faaliyet yapamaz duruma düşmüşlerdir.
    Description: Due to the accelerating pace of globalization, world economic and financial development has become closely tied to the ups and downs of the US economy. This process has become particularly visible after the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The most notable characteristic of globalization is the massive amounts of financial capital flowing across national borders. Following the financial liberalization in the late 1980s, Turkish economy has attracted significant amounts out of the short-term capital floating around the world, particularly because of the governments' tendency to finance excessive public spending through the sale of government bonds. The governments' reluctance to cut spending or increase taxes has pushed (real) interest rates so high up that Turkey has, at times, become the recipient of sizable short-term capital, causing Turkish Lira (TL) to appreciate and get overvalued. This inflow of short-term capital was quickly reversed, as soon as it became clear that the overvaluation of the TL could not be sustained, due to the resulting problems in the current account. Thus, the increasing degree of openness made the Turkish economy susceptible to the effects of shortterm capital movements, sometimes contributing to the outbreak of severe crises. This paper describes the making of recent crises in the Turkish economy by focusing on the role of large public deficits and short-term capital movements.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Finansal Liberalizasyon ; Kısa dönemli sermaye hareketleri ; Kamu açıkları ; Aşırı değerli kur ; Cari açıklar ; Banka krizi ; Financial liberalization ; Short-term capital flows ; Public deficits ; Overvaluation-Current Account Deficits ; Banking crisis
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: The main aim of this study is to determine current human development level of Southeastern Anatolia region which is one of the least developed regions of Turkey. To reach this aim, main human development indicators are being analyzed depending on the global and national human development reports. This analysis is focused on the provinces of the region. Almost all the provinces of the region held the lowest human development indicators of the country, and they have not been able to change their relative position through time. Therefore, the provinces within the Southeastern Anatolia region, with the possible exception of Gaziantep province, did not only remain below the country averages but they also ranked considerably far away from the international human development standards. If we consider socio-economic development level of the provinces within the region, we can also face with the same picture. As a matter of fact, it might be emerged that the region is the one which, at most heavily, deals with the property problems. Besides, significant portion of the observed human development problems in the provinces of Southeastern Anatolia Region is originated from the gender differences. Compared with men, women are relatively in worse position with respect to both education and per capital income levels. But, at the same time, this situation creates an opportunity to enhance human development level of the region. The national human development performance might relatively be improved as long as the gender differences could be reduced.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Development ; Human Development ; Human Development Index ; Southeastern Anatolia Region ; Human Poverty
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
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    Keywords: ddc:330
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Bu çalışmada, 1975-2006 yılları arasında geçen 32 yıllık dönemde özel tasarruf davranışlarını belirleyen makroekonomik ve sosyal değişkenler yardımıyla Türkiye için bir özel tasarruf modeli tahmin edilmiştir. Tahmin sonuçları özel tasarrufları belirleyen en önemli faktörlerden birinin atalet olduğu hipotezini desteklemektedir. Ayrıca, kamu tasarruflarının özel tasarrufları azaltıcı etkiye sahip olduğu görülürken bu durum Ricardocu denklik kuramını desteklemektedir. Türkiye'de gelirlerdeki, reel faiz oranlarındaki ve ticaret haddindeki artışlar beklendiği gibi özel tasarruflar üzerinde pozitif bir etki göstermelerine rağmen istatistikî olarak anlamsız bulunmuştur. Fakat büyümenin, finansal derinliğin ve enflasyonun beklentilerin aksine özel tasarrufları azaltıcı etkileri olduğu görülmüştür. Türkiye'deki dış ticaret açığı da özel tasarrufları azaltıcı yönde etkilemektedir. Türkiye'de 1988 yılından itibaren süregelen finansal serbestleşme ile birlikte finansal piyasalardaki gelişmelerin özel tasarrufları arttırıcı etkisi olduğu görülmüştür. Ayrıca, menkul değerler piyasasındaki gelişime bağlı olarak, borçlanma sınırlarının yükselmesinin de Türkiye'de özel tasarrufları azalttığı görülmektedir. Genç nüfus ve yaşlı nüfus bağımlılık oranları ile kentleşme de özel tasarrufları azaltıcı yönde etkilemiştir. Beklentilerin aksine, yüksek öğrenim diplomasına sahip bayanların özel tasarruflar üzerinde negatif ve istatistikî olarak anlamlı bir etkisi olduğu görülürken, kadınların işgücüne katılım oranının istatistikî olarak anlamsız fakat beklentilere uygun olarak özel tasarrufları arttırıcı bir etkisi olduğu bulunmuştur. Öte yandan üniversite eğitimine sahip kişilerin özel tasarrufları arttırıcı etkileri olduğu görülmüştür.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Today it is seen that local development policies have been very important concept in macroeconomic policies of the countries. Countries spend great effort to integrate with global economy on one side and to integrate internally on the other side. On the other hand, globalization process in the world economy since 1970s has brought substantial changes about the local development concept and policies. Thus, uncovering and activating new local dynamics have become very important in this respect.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Local Economic Development
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: C22 ; E21 ; E22 ; ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Bu çalışmada, eğitim ve sağlık politikalarının ve bu alanlarda yapılan harcamaların tasarruf eğilimleri üzerindeki etkisi araştırılmaktadır. Burada kaynak olarak gösterilen uygulamalı ve kuramsal çalışmalar, eğitim ve sağlık harcamalarının tasarrufları arttırdığını göstermektedir. Bu çalışmalarda ayrıca, bu alanlardaki harcamaların pozitif dışsallık özelliği göstermesinden dolayı bu sektörlerde etkin kamu politikalarına ihtiyaç duyulduğu vurgulanmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın son bölümünde Türkiye ekonomisindeki sağlık ve eğitim harcamalarının sanayileşmiş ülkelerle karşılaştırmalı bir incelemesi sunulmaktadır.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Small-Medium Sized Companies(SMEs) are very important in the perspectives of employment, innovation, production and as well as exportation. But as opposed to their importance, they have faced a big problem to finance investments known as financing capabilities. Since it is not easy for them to penetrate in financial markets, it is especially needed to create new ways and instruments to them to finance themselves. One way in this perspective is securities' markets. In those markets they finance themselves through issuing securities such as shares and bonds. To sell securities to the public they must supply sufficient and efficient information (public disclosure) to the existing and potential investors. On the other hand, those markets are very much in need of liquid secondary markets, stock exchanges and organized secondary markets such as over-the-counter markets. In this article besides financing needs and problems of those SMEs, social capital and Basel II issues are also examined for the SMEs and as a result of those role and importance of Stock Exchanges for the SMEs are discussed in this perspectives.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Securities Markets ; Social Capital ; Small and Medium Size Companies ; Small and Medium Size Companies' Finance ; Basel II and Stock Exchanges for SMEs
    Language: Turkish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Klasik gelenek, konjonktür dalgalarını piyasa mekanizmasının kendiliğinden ortadan kaldırabileceği geçici sapmalar olarak değerlendirirken; kapitalizmin doğası gereği istikrarsız olduğunu kabul eden Keynesçi gelenek, aktivist politikalarla konjonktür dalgalarının önlenmesi gerektiğini ileri sürmektedir. 2007-2009 Küresel Krizi, iktisat çevrelerinde ana akım konjonktür teorileri konusunda büyük bir hayal kırıklığı yaratmıştır. Krizi öngörmeye, anlamaya, açıklamaya, hafifletmeye ve önlemeye çalışan ortodoks makro iktisat teorilerinin yetersizliği, bu teorileri krize düşürmüştür. Keynesçi aktivist politikalar dışında, ana akım makro iktisat teorileri kriz karşısında suskunluk içindedir. Krizin açıklanmasında post Keynesçi ve Avusturyacı konjonktür teorileri gibi heterodoks yaklaşımlar, ana akım makro iktisat teorilerine meydan okumaktadır. Iktisat biliminde ortodoks yaklaşımlarla heterodoks yaklaşımları uyumlaştırmanın zamanı gelmiştir.
    Keywords: B51 ; B53 ; B59 ; E32 ; E44 ; E52 ; E58 ; ddc:330
    Language: Turkish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper