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  • 1
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: The underlying rationale in shifting the analytical focus of the competitive development policy rests on the political-economic and socio-cultural characteristics of a habitat that indeterminably amplify or scale down the benefits of economic activities. The permanence of spatial developmental disparities suggests that the strategic directions of any initiative targeting regional competitiveness should follow the lines of (1) maximizing its competitive impact and (2) matching the territorial specificity. According to this perspective, the paper discusses an original theoretical construct and points to graphical representations of operational forms that may configure a policy of territorial development along four co-existent levels: (1) urban fields, (2) clusters, (3) development areas, and (4) disadvantaged areas. The main implication for public policy initiatives resides in smoothing the progress towards building up such a potential for growth.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Regionalentwicklung ; Räumliche Verteilung ; Räumlicher Wettbewerb ; Regionalpolitik ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: Due to the enlargement of the European Union towards the Central and Eastern Europe, the EU's external policy priorities have changed. Its frontier moving further to the East, it was necessary to adapt, and even reshape the institutional framework and the policies addressing its new immediate neighbourhood. In this context, a European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) was put in place. Later on, the ENP consolidation and reform aims led to the setting up and promotion of new initiatives such as the Union for Mediterranean, the Eastern Partnership, which, together with the Black Sea Synergy project, intend to focus more upon the regional and multilateral dimension of the neighbourhood policy, being complementary to the bilateral basics of ENP. Romania has endorsed and continues to support the goal of a secure and stable area in its Eastern neighbourhood, mostly given its increased responsibilities derived from the Member State status at the Eastern border of the Union. An active supporter of the European perspective of the Republic of Moldova, and also a promoter of the regional and cross-border cooperation, Romania has set off a series of cooperation initiatives for the Black Sea area. It will be important to follow to what extent these projects will prove their efficiency in practical terms, especially in the new framework, generous in instruments, work mechanisms and actions, proposed by the European Neighbourhood Policy.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; EU-Nachbarstaaten ; Internationale Zusammenarbeit ; Rumänien
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: This paper analyses the justifications and stages of the elaboration of impact studies at the European level, focusing on the various working methods, be it 'impact matrix' or the 'logic of intervention', which may be adopted by law-makers, in order to improve the regulation mechanisms in the public administration field and shape up new ways in which they could be used. Attention is paid to the role and the utility of impact assessment in elaborating public policies, as well as to the importance of properly using analysis instruments, with a focus on the obstacles and risks associated to the impact assessment process, by comparing different approaches and working methods, from the European and OECD area. Various evaluation patterns from OECD and the EU are presented, with their peculiarities and challenges involved by their implementation, leading to the conclusion that the European assessment pattern is still far away from providing a universal impact analysis model due to the lack of efficient sanctioning mechanisms. The credibility of an impact assessment largely depends on its results, which means they need to be based on correct and updated information, which is at the same time transparent and easy to access and understand. The role of impact assessment and, by extension, of impact studies is to allow lawmakers to check up whether the implementation of existing regulations observes the established indicators, as well as whether the policy in question had reached its objective.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Politik ; Politische Entscheidung ; Politische Willensbildung ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: The article deals with the export credit promotion in the Czech Republic. The development and structure of Czech trade and export support is presented first and it is followed by the econometric analysis of the gravity model of Czech trade. The econometric results show that the credit support provided by specialized government agency, Czech Export Bank, has a positive but statistically weak influence on export. The other determinants of the Czech export in our model are GDP, distance, gross fixed capital formation, and policy risk.
    Keywords: F14 ; G28 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; Credit ; Export ; Government Support ; Exportkredit ; Außenwirtschaftsförderung ; Gravitationsmodell ; Tschechische Republik
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: Three original microeconomic models of an externality market are described: (1) model of the marketable permits for exhalations emission, (2) model of optimal financial satisfaction of a damage caused by a negative externality in the economy with agents maximizing probability of their survival (generalized Coase theorem) and (3) model of optimal financial favor for agents provided a positive externality.
    Keywords: D62 ; D01 ; ddc:330 ; negative externalities ; marketable permits for exhalations ; generalized Coase theorem ; maximizing of the probability of an economic survival ; positive externalities ; Externer Effekt ; Coase-Theorem ; Theorie
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: Kooperativní chování je nezbytnou podmínkou pro existenci moderních komplexních společenství a ekonomik, jak je známe dnes. Z pohledu společenských věd je proto zajímavé porozumnět, jak takové chování může převažovat i v situacích, kdy jednoduchá úvaha vede k opačnému očekávání, tedy že chování jedinců bude spíše charakterizované tendencí sledovat vlastní, raději než společenský zájem. Model vývoje kooperativního chování, který je prezentován v této práci, navazuje na studie, kde struktura interakcí má podobu sítě ([31], [23], [22]) a vznikl rozšířením jednoduchého modelu popsaného v [31]. Na rozdíl od původního modelu je v naší práci kladen důraz na prvek imitace a jeho vliv na rozvoj kooperativního (resp. nekooperativního) chování v simulované populaci agentů. Hlavní motivací pro nás bylo otestovat, zda evoluční dynamika vězňova dilematu hraného na komplexních sítí je skutečně ovlivňována především samotnou topologií sítě nebo je spíše souběžně determinovaná jak topologií tak dalšími evolučními mechanismy, v našem případě konkrétní podobou imitace.
    Keywords: C15 ; C73 ; D85 ; C15 ; C73 ; D85 ; ddc:330 ; kooperativní chování ; vězňovo dilema ; sítě ; simulace ; Gefangenendilemma ; Kooperation ; Simulation
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: In this paper I am trying to provide the reader with a brief overview of contemporary discussion about recently frequently mentioned topic of economics and happiness. In the last few years the number of publications related to happiness from the economic perspective growth exponentially. As the importance of this topic seems to grow significantly, I modestly intend to provide Czech public with a very starting reference point for further research in this field. In the first part I sum up the basic terms of subjective well-being and Easterlin paradox and give an overview of the most striking empirical observations. The second part shortly describes approach to the happiness problem of selected key historical personalities, namely Aristotle, Smith and Genovesi. In the third part I outline present key challenge for the economic theory - tackling with the reciprocity phenomenon.
    Keywords: A11 ; B19 ; B59 ; D64 ; ddc:330 ; happiness ; Easterlin paradox ; reciprocity ; Anthonio Genovesi ; history of economic thought ; Zufriedenheit ; Lebensqualität ; Austauschtheorie (Soziologie) ; Wirtschaftswissenschaft ; Dogmengeschichte
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: V tomto článku překládám nástin jednoho z možných přístupů, jakým může ekonomická teorie reagovat na aktuální výzvu, kterou představuje Easterlinův paradox. Klíčové téma vyžadující hlubší pochopení a uchopení ekonomickým aparátem je sociální povaha člověka, charakterizovaná reciprocitou v mezilidských vztazích. Ta je však individualistickou metodologií ekonomie hlavního proudu neuchopitelná. Inspirován postklasickými směry ekonomického myšlení vycházím z metodologického realismu vedoucího k organistickému chápání člověka. Jako reakci procedurálně racionálního jedince na prostředí fundamentální nejistoty identifikuji zvykové chování, a to nejen na úrovni behaviorální, ale i percepční. Použitá motivační teorie vychází z Maslowova přístupu hierarchizace potřeb a teorie posilování založené na zvykové povaze jednání. V rámci navrženého modelu, který výše uvedené postřehy odráží, identifikuji jako optimální chování formu altruismu charakterizovanou sledováním pravidla maximalizace součtu užitků. Srovnáním modelu a reality docházím k problematice vlivu společenství na zvykovou výbavu jedince a dále aplikuji závěry plynoucí z modelu na kooperativní a nekooperativní chování.
    Keywords: B41 ; D6 ; ddc:330 ; Easterlinův paradox ; reciprocita ; procedurální racionalita ; zvyky
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
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    Unknown
    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: The paper reviews (in Czech) the main qualitative tools applied by (micro)economic analysis and surveys the main literature on the topic. Economics is often being criticised by its opponents for the use of unrealistic assumptions. On the contrary, my claim is that if economics has anything to contribute to legal analysis, it is above all exactly these assumptions and their unrealism. Not in the sense in which assumptions help economic modelling but in the sense that by spelling out expressly what our world is not like, economics alerts the lawyer to imperfections and frictions that he or she all too often fails to reflect in his or her legal analysis. I call this up-shot of the assumptions used by microeconomics a reversed codification of the imperfections of our world and in the paper, I go over the bulk of the more important ones and try to show how the fact that the world is not as assumed by the various economic schools of thought might affect human behaviour and therefore the rules of law aimed at regulating that behaviour. I start the review with the rational maximisation assumption and then go over the many carve-outs from it. First, I discuss the limits of rationality and of human cognitive abilities and how they impact on contracts and legal rules. Secondly, I turn to what might go wrong when people act too rationally - i.e. when adverse selection and moral hazard are introduced. In this part, I deal with Jensen and Meckling's agency problems, with collective choice issues and with several game theoretical concepts that help predict the effects of self-interested human behaviour. I then explain how the Coase theorem might enlighten the legal mind not in its original expression but rather in its reversal, i.e. in the claim that in a world in which transaction costs are pervasive, rules of law may very well determine how rights will be allocated. In this context, I also mention externalities. In the third part, I introduce normative law and economics and its main tools, Pareto and Kaldor-Hicks efficiency. I briefly review the philosophical controversy about the normative use of economics in the law and explain my own provisional stance on the issue. I close the paper with several observations on how the methodology used by positive economics may assist the legislator, whether it follows paternalistic or liberal policies. I conclude by saying that while that methodology should not be expected to displace other frames of reference used by lawyers, without it, legal theory, in particular in the private law field, will be incomplete while the legislator and the judiciary may promulgate rules that will complicate rather than facilitate private ordering.
    Keywords: B41 ; K00 ; ddc:330 ; economic analysis of law ; microeconomic methodology ; assumptions used in microeconomics ; Wirtschaftswissenschaft ; Mikroökonomik ; Rechtsökonomik ; Privatrecht ; Theorie
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 11
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    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: The theory 'corporate social responsibility' (CSR) is characterized in the paper. The paper expresses the authors' opinion, that CSR as a mere proclamation of necessity of the firms' ethic behavior does not enforce this into praxis. The internal economic motivation to CSR it is the necessary condition to firms to invest in CSR. The conditions for such motivation are than formulated.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; corporate social responsibility ; ethic firms' behavior ; trust ; credibility ; economic motivation ; Corporate Social Responsibility ; Unternehmensethik ; Glaubwürdigkeit ; Firmenimage ; Theorie
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 12
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    Unknown
    Bucharest: European Institute of Romania
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Stadtentwicklung ; Rumänien ; EU-Regionalpolitik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Romanian
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 13
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    Unknown
    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: Employment or, more precisely, participation of women on the labor market is one of the most apparent gender inequalities on the labor market. Economic theories explaining the segregation can be divided into three broader categories: neo-classic and human capital theories, theory of discrimination and finally institutional theory and labor market segmentation theory. The elimination of causes of these inequalities by appropriate policies implementation would help the better use of women working potential and the higher labor market effectivity. There are applied several policies in the Czech Republic which not only does not support the female participation but have rather negative influence. In this study, I investigate the impact of the two policy means, which can negatively influence the labor supply of women in the Czech Republic. First, joint taxation of spouses was enabled. The marginal tax-rate of women increases very often in case of profiting spouses; women might therefore lower their labor supply. Second, the system of the parental leave influences the female participation. The current Czech system can create significant barrier to women in entry and return to the labor market. Therefore, it leads to an excessive loss of the women human capital which markedly lowers their further employability.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; gender inequality ; female participation ; neo-classic theory ; human capital theory ; theory of discrimination ; institutional theory ; labor market segmentation theory ; joint taxation ; parental leave ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Arbeitsmarktsegmentierung ; Geschlechterdiskriminierung ; Familienbesteuerung ; Elternzeit ; Familienpolitik ; Tschechische Republik ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 14
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    Unknown
    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Institute of Economic Studies (IES)
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: The fact that Europe is lagging behind in comparison with its main competitors in the research and innovation activities is generally known. In 2000 EU countries launching the Lisbon strategy linked with the opening of the European research area were expecting to do away with the remaining barriers between them also in the area of knowledge, technology and research personnel mobility. The paper analyzes research initiatives presented by the Commission, the proposal of the 7th framework programm for research and technological development, the new financial perspective of the EU for the period 2007-2013, the report by an expert group headed by the former Finish prime minister Esko Aho (Creating an Innovative Europe) and finally the follow-up communication of the Commission presenting a broad-based innovation strategy for the EU.
    Keywords: O3 ; O5 ; ddc:330 ; Research and development ; European Research Area ; EU research policy ; 7th framework program for research and technological development ; innovation strategy ; Forschung ; Europäische Forschungs- und Technologiepolitik ; Innovationspolitik ; Innovationswettbewerb ; EU-Staaten
    Language: Czech
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 15
    Book
    Book
    Berlin ; München [u.a.] : Langenscheidt
    Keywords: Tschechisch ; Deutsch ; Wörterbuch ; Tschechisch ; Deutsch
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: 1002 S. , 16 cm
    Edition: völlige Neubearb., 1. [Dr.]
    ISBN: 9783468113635 , 3468113633
    Series Statement: Langenscheidts Taschenwörterbücher
    DDC: 491.86331
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German , Czech
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