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  • Annual Reviews  (23,895)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 159-191 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Liver X receptors (LXRs) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are nuclear receptors that function as intracellular sensors for sterols and bile acids, respectively. In response to their ligands, these receptors induce transcriptional responses that maintain a balanced, finely tuned regulation of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. LXRs also permit the efficient storage of carbohydrate- and fat-derived energy, whereas FXR activation results in an overall decrease in triglyceride levels and modulation of glucose metabolism. The elegant, dual interplay between these two receptor systems suggests that they coevolved to constitute a highly sensitive and efficient system for the maintenance of total body fat and cholesterol homeostasis. Emerging evidence suggests that the tissue-specific action of these receptors is also crucial for the proper function of the cardiovascular, immune, reproductive, endocrine pancreas, renal, and central nervous systems. Together, LXRs and FXR represent potential therapeutic targets for the treatment and prevention of numerous metabolic and lipid-related diseases.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 67-89 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Thrips are among the stealthiest of insect invaders due to their small size and cryptic habits. Many invasive thrips are notorious for causing extensive crop damage, vectoring viral diseases, and permanently destabilizing IPM systems owing to irruptive outbreaks that require remediation with insecticides, leading to the development of insecticide resistance. Several challenges surface when attempting to manage incursive thrips species. Foremost among these is early recognition, followed by rapid and accurate identification of emergent pest species, elucidation of the region of origin, development of a management program, and the closing of conduits for global movement of thrips. In this review, we examine factors facilitating invasion by thrips, damage caused by these insects, pre- and post-invasion management tactics, and challenges looming on the horizon posed by invasive Thysanoptera, which continually challenge the development of sustainable management practices.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 233-258 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Parasitoid wasps have evolved a wide spectrum of developmental interactions with hosts. In this review we synthesize and interpret results from the phylogenetic, ecological, physiological, and molecular literature to identify factors that have influenced the evolution of parasitoid developmental strategies. We first discuss the origins and radiation of the parasitoid lifestyle in the Hymenoptera. We then summarize how parasitoid developmental strategies are affected by ecological interactions and assess the inventory of physiological and molecular traits parasitoids use to successfully exploit hosts. Last, we discuss how certain parasitoid virulence genes have evolved and how these changes potentially affect parasitoid-host interactions. The combination of phylogenetic data with comparative and functional genomics offers new avenues for understanding the evolution of biological diversity in this group of insects.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 163-185 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Tremendous strides have been made regarding our understanding of how host plant chemistry influences the interactions between herbivores and their natural enemies. While most work has focused on plant chemistry effects on host location and acceptance by natural enemies, an increasing number of studies examine negative effects. The tritrophic role of plant chemistry is central to several aspects of trophic phenomena including top-down versus bottom-up control of herbivores, enemy-free space and host choice, and theories of plant defense. Furthermore, tritrophic effects of plant chemistry are important in assessing the degree of compatibility between biological control and plant resistance approaches to pest control. Additional research is needed to understand the physiological effects of plant chemistry on parasitoids. Explicit tests are required to determine whether natural enemies can act as selective forces on plant defense. Finally, further studies of natural systems are crucial to understanding the evolution of multitrophic relationships.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 25-44 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are oxygenated metabolites of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids. These compounds are well known for their important actions in mammalian physiology and disease. Recent work has revealed the presence and biological actions of eicosanoids in insects and many other invertebrate animals. In insects, eicosanoids mediate cellular immunity to microbial and metazoan challenge. Notably, some infectious organisms secrete factors responsible for impairing host insect immune reactions by inhibiting biosynthesis of eicosanoids. Eicosanoids also act in insect reproductive biology, in ion transport physiology, and in fever response to infection as well as in protein exocytosis in tick salivary glands. Aside from ongoing actions in homeostasis, certain eicosanoid actions occur at crucial points in insect life histories, such as during infectious challenge and important events in reproduction.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 581-608 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Although best known for cooperation, insect societies also manifest many potential conflicts among individuals. These conflicts involve both direct reproduction by individuals and manipulation of the reproduction of colony members. Here we review five major areas of reproductive conflict in insect societies: (a) sex allocation, (b) queen rearing, (c) male rearing, (d) queen-worker caste fate, and (e) breeding conflicts among totipotent adults. For each area we discuss the basis for conflict (potential conflict), whether conflict is expressed (actual conflict), whose interests prevail (conflict outcome), and the factors that reduce colony-level costs of conflict (conflict resolution), such as factors that cause workers to work rather than to lay eggs. Reproductive conflicts are widespread, sometimes having dramatic effects on the colony. However, three key factors (kinship, coercion, and constraint) typically combine to limit the effects of reproductive conflict and often lead to complete resolution.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 223-251 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The ability of animals to survive food deprivation is clearly of considerable survival value. Unsurprisingly, therefore, all animals exhibit adaptive biochemical and physiological responses to the lack of food. Many animals inhabit environments in which food availability fluctuates or encounters with appropriate food items are rare and unpredictable; these species offer interesting opportunities to study physiological adaptations to fasting and starvation. When deprived of food, animals employ various behavioral, physiological, and structural responses to reduce metabolism, which prolongs the period in which energy reserves can cover metabolism. Such behavioral responses can include a reduction in spontaneous activity and a lowering in body temperature, although in later stages of food deprivation in which starvation commences, activity may increase as food-searching is activated. In most animals, the gastrointestinal tract undergoes marked atrophy when digestive processes are curtailed; this structural response and others seem particularly pronounced in species that normally feed at intermittent intervals. Such animals, however, must be able to restore digestive functions soon after feeding, and these transitions appear to occur at low metabolic costs.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 431-459 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The FXYD proteins are a family of seven homologous single transmembrane segment proteins (FXYD1Đ??7), expressed in a tissue-specific fashion. The FXYD proteins modulate the function of Na,K-ATPase, thus adapting kinetic properties of active Na+ and K+ transport to the specific needs of different cells. Six FXYD proteins ( 1Đ??5, 7 ) are known to interact with Na,K-ATPase and affect its kinetic properties in specific ways. Although effects of FXYD proteins on parameters such as K1/2Na+, K1/2K+, KmATP, and Vmax are modest, usually twofold, these effects may have important long-term consequences for homeostasis of cation balance. In this review we summarize basic features of FXYD proteins and present recent evidence for functional effects, structure-function relations and structural interactions with Na,K-ATPase. We then discuss possible physiological roles, based on in vitro observations and newly available knockout mice models. Finally, we also consider evidence that FXYD proteins affect functioning of other ion transport systems.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 685-717 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Ion channels are pore-forming transmembrane proteins that allow ions to permeate biological membranes. Pore structure plays a crucial role in determining the ion permeation and selectivity properties of particular channels. In the past few decades, efforts have been undertaken to identify key elements of the pore regions of different classes of ion channels. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about permeation and selectivity of channel proteins from the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily. Whereas all TRP channels are permeable for cations, only two TRP channels are impermeable for Ca2+ (TRPM4, TRPM5), and two others are highly Ca2+ permeable (TRPV5, TRPV6). Despite the great advances in the TRP channel field during the past decade, only a limited number of reports have dealt with functional characterization of pore properties, biophysical aspects of cation permeation, or description of pore structures of TRP channels. This review gives an overview of available experimental and theoretical data and discusses the functional impact of pore-structure modifications on TRP channel properties.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 543-561 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The physical removal of viruses and bacteria on the mucociliary escalator is an important aspect of the mammalian lung's innate defense mechanism. The volume of airway surface liquid (ASL) present in the respiratory tract is a critical determinant of both mucus hydration and the rate of mucus clearance from the lung. ASL volume is maintained by the predominantly ciliated epithelium via coordinated regulation of (a) absorption, by the epithelial Na+ channel, and (b) secretion, by the Ca2+ -activated Cl channel (CaCC) and CFTR. This review provides an update on our current understanding of how shear stress regulates ASL volume height in normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia through extracellular ATP- and adenosine (ADO)-mediated pathways that modulate ion transport and ASL volume homeostasis. We also discuss (a) how derangement of the ADO-CFTR pathway renders CF airways vulnerable to viral infections that deplete ASL volume and produce mucus stasis, and (b) potential shear stressĐ??dependent therapies for CF.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 507-541 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: Gas exchange, the primary function of the lung, can come about only with the application of physical forces on the macroscale and their transmission to the scale of small airway, small blood vessel, and alveolus, where they serve to distend and stabilize structures that would otherwise collapse. The pathway for force transmission then continues down to the level of cell, nucleus, and molecule; moreover, to lesser or greater degrees most cell types that are resident in the lung have the ability to generate contractile forces. At these smallest scales, physical forces serve to distend the cytoskeleton, drive cytoskeletal remodeling, expose cryptic binding domains, and ultimately modulate reaction rates and gene expression. Importantly, evidence has now accumulated suggesting that multiscale phenomena span these scales and govern integrative lung behavior.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 619-647 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The aim of this review is to provide a basic framework for understanding the function of mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, particularly as they have been elucidated in heterologous expression systems. Mammalian TRP channel proteins form six-transmembrane (6-TM) cation-permeable channels that may be grouped into six subfamilies on the basis of amino acid sequence homology (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPA, TRPP, and TRPML). Selected functional properties of TRP channels from each subfamily are summarized in this review. Although a single defining characteristic of TRP channel function has not yet emerged, TRP channels may be generally described as calcium-permeable cation channels with polymodal activation properties. By integrating multiple concomitant stimuli and coupling their activity to downstream cellular signal amplification via calcium permeation and membrane depolarization, TRP channels appear well adapted to function in cellular sensation. Our review of recent literature implicating TRP channels in neuronal growth cone steering suggests that TRPs may function more widely in cellular guidance and chemotaxis. The TRP channel gene family and its nomenclature, the encoded proteins and alternatively spliced variants, and the rapidly expanding pharmacology of TRP channels are summarized in online supplemental material.
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  • 13
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 68 (2006), S. 307-343 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: In the gastrointestinal tract, phasic contractions are caused by electrical activity termed slow waves. Slow waves are generated and actively propagated by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). The initiation of pacemaker activity in the ICC is caused by release of Ca2+ from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptorĐ??operated stores, uptake of Ca2+ into mitochondria, and the development of unitary currents. Summation of unitary currents causes depolarization and activation of a dihydropyridine-resistant Ca2+ conductance that entrains pacemaker activity in a network of ICC, resulting in the active propagation of slow waves. Slow wave frequency is regulated by a variety of physiological agonists and conditions, and shifts in pacemaker dominance can occur in response to both neural and nonneural inputs. Loss of ICC in many human motility disorders suggests exciting new hypotheses for the etiology of these disorders.
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  • 14
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 113-135 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Insect odor and taste receptors are highly sensitive detectors of food, mates, and oviposition sites. Following the identification of the first insect odor and taste receptors in Drosophila melanogaster, these receptors were identified in a number of other insects, including the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae; the silk moth, Bombyx mori; and the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens. The chemical specificities of many of the D. melanogaster receptors, as well as a few of the A. gambiae and B. mori receptors, have now been determined either by analysis of deletion mutants or by ectopic expression in in vivo or heterologous expression systems. Here we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of odor and taste coding in insects.
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  • 15
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 331-357 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Invertebrate pathogens and their hosts are taxonomically diverse. Despite this, there is one unifying concept relevant to all such parasitic associations: Both pathogen and host adapt to maximize their own reproductive output and ultimate fitness. The strategies adopted by pathogens and hosts to achieve this goal are almost as diverse as the organisms themselves, but studies examining such relationships have traditionally concentrated only on aspects of host physiology. Here we review examples of host-altered behavior and consider these within a broad ecological and evolutionary context. Research on pathogen-induced and host-mediated behavioral changes demonstrates the range of altered behaviors exhibited by invertebrates including behaviorally induced fever, elevation seeking, reduced or increased activity, reduced response to semiochemicals, and changes in reproductive behavior. These interactions are sometimes quite bizarre, intricate, and of great scientific interest.
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  • 16
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006), S. 1-24 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) exist in insects and are encoded by multigene families that are expressed in the brain and other tissues. Upon secretion, these peptides likely serve as hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors, but to date, few direct functions have been demonstrated. In Drosophila melanogaster, molecular genetic studies have revealed elements of a conserved insulin signaling pathway, and as in other animal models, it appears to play a key role in metabolism, growth, reproduction, and aging. This review offers (a) an integrated summary of the efforts to characterize the distribution of ILPs in insects and to define this pathway and its functions in Drosophila and (b) a few considerations for future studies of ILP endocrinology in insects.
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  • 17
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 65-100 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This review summarizes recent information concerning the pharmacological and toxicological significance of the human flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO, EC 1.14.13.8). The human FMO oxygenates nucleophilic heteroatom-containing chemicals and drugs and generally converts them into harmless, polar, readily excreted metabolites. Sometimes, however, FMO bioactivates chemicals into reactive materials that can cause toxicity. Most of the interindividual differences of FMO are due to genetic variability and allelic variation, and splicing variants may contribute to interindividual and interethnic variability observed for FMO-mediated metabolism. In contrast to cytochrome P450 (CYP), FMO is not easily induced nor readily inhibited, and potential adverse drug-drug interactions are minimized for drugs prominently metabolized by FMO. These properties may provide advantages in drug design and discovery, and by incorporating FMO detoxication pathways into drug candidates, more drug-like materials may be forthcoming. Although exhaustive examples are not available, physiological factors can influence FMO function, and this may have implications for the clinical significance of FMO and a role in human disease.
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  • 18
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 189-213 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The proteasome, a multicatalytic proteinase complex, is responsible for the majority of intracellular protein degradation. Pharmacologic inhibitors of the proteasome possess in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity, and bortezomib, the first such agent to undergo clinical testing, has significant efficacy against multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Preclinical studies demonstrate that proteasome inhibition potentiates the activity of other cancer therapeutics, in part by downregulating chemoresistance pathways. Early clinical studies of bortezomib-based combinations, showing encouraging activity, support this observation. Molecular characterization of resistance to proteasome inhibitors has revealed novel therapeutic targets for sensitizing malignancies to these agents, such as the heat shock pathway. Below, we review the pharmacologic, preclinical, and clinical data that have paved the way for the use of proteasome inhibitors for cancer therapy; outline strategies aimed at enhancing the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors; and review other potential targets in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway for the treatment of cancer.
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  • 19
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 411-449 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Many biological functions of heme oxygenase (HO), such as cytoprotection against oxidative stress, vasodilation, neurotransmission in the central or peripheral nervous systems, and anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, or anti-proliferative potential, have been attributed to its enzymatic byproduct carbon monoxide (CO), although roles for biliverdin/bilirubin and iron have also been proposed. In addition to these well-characterized effects, recent findings reveal that HO-derived CO may act as an oxygen sensor and circadian modulator of heme biosynthesis. In lymphocytes, CO may participate in regulatory T cell function. A number of the known signaling effects of CO depend on stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase and/or activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Furthermore, modulation of caveolin-1 status may serve as an essential component of certain aspects of CO action, such as growth control. In this review, we summarize recent findings of the beneficial or detrimental effects of endogenous CO with an emphasis on the signaling pathways and downstream targets that trigger the action of this gas.
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  • 20
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 451-480 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Retinoic acid (RA) is involved in vertebrate morphogenesis, growth, cellular differentiation, and tissue homeostasis. The use of in vitro systems initially led to the identification of nuclear receptor RXR/RAR heterodimers as possible transducers of the RA signal. To unveil the physiological functions of RARs and RXRs, genetic and pharmacological studies have been performed in the mouse. Together, their results demonstrate that (a) RXR/RAR heterodimers in which RXR is either transcriptionally active or silent are involved in the transduction of the RA signal during prenatal development, (b) specific RXRʼ̛/RAR heterodimers are required at many distinct stages during early embryogenesis and organogenesis, (c) the physiological role of RA and its receptors cannot be extrapolated from teratogenesis studies using retinoids in excess. Additional cell typeĐ??restricted and temporally controlled somatic mutagenesis is required to determine the functions of RARs and RXRs during postnatal life.
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  • 21
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 1-39 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alpha (ʼ̛), beta/delta (?‚/??), and gamma (??) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which also includes the estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticoid receptors. Recent evidence suggests that PPARs regulate genes involved in lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation in various tissues; however, the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. Anti-diabetic drugs, called glitazones, can selectively activate PPAR??, and hypolipidemic drugs, called fibrates, can weakly activate PPARʼ̛. Both classes of drugs can decrease insulin resistance and dyslipidemias, which also makes them attractive for treating the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome exhibits a constellation of risk factors for atherosclerosis that include obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemias, and hypertension. Interestingly, all three PPARs are present in macrophages and can therefore have a profound effect on several disease processes, including atherosclerosis. Macrophages are key players in atherosclerotic lesion development. Currently, the first line of defense in reducing the risk of atherosclerosis is aimed at lowering low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and raising high-density lipoproteins (HDL), but a large percentage of patients on statins still succumb to coronary artery disease. However, with the development of drugs selectively activating PPARs, a new arsenal of drugs specifically targeting to the macrophage/foam cell may potentially have a profound impact on how we treat cardiovascular disease.
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  • 22
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 101-122 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are the primary targets of endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids). These G proteinĐ??coupled receptors play an important role in many processes, including metabolic regulation, craving, pain, anxiety, bone growth, and immune function. Cannabinoid receptors can be engaged directly by agonists or antagonists, or indirectly by manipulating endocannabinoid metabolism. In the past several years, it has become apparent from preclinical studies that therapies either directly or indirectly influencing cannabinoid receptors might be clinically useful. This review considers the components of the endocannabinoid system and discusses some of the most promising endocannabinoid-based therapies.
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  • 23
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 277-300 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The main role of blood platelets is to ensure primary hemostasis, which is the maintenance of vessel integrity and cessation of bleeding upon injury. While playing a major part in acute arterial thrombosis, platelets are also involved in inflammation, atherosclerosis, and angiogenesis. ADP and ATP play a crucial role in platelet activation, and their receptors are potential targets for antithrombotic drugs. The ATP-gated cation channel P2X1 and the two G proteinĐ??coupled ADP receptors, P2Y1 and P2Y12, selectively contribute to platelet aggregation and formation of a thrombus. Owing to its central role in the growth and stabilization of a thrombus, the P2Y12 receptor is an established target of antithrombotic drugs such as clopidogrel. Studies in P2Y1 and P2X1 knockout mice and selective P2Y1 and P2X1 antagonists have shown that these receptors are also attractive targets for new antithrombotic compounds. The potential role of platelet P2 receptors in the involvement of platelets in inflammatory processes is also discussed.
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  • 24
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 481-519 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The multitude of chemically highly different agonists for 7TM receptors apparently do not share a common binding mode or active site but nevertheless act through induction of a common molecular activation mechanism. A global toggle switch model is proposed for this activation mechanism to reconcile the accumulated biophysical data supporting an outward rigid-body movement of the intracellular segments, as well as the recent data derived from activating metal ion sites and tethered ligands, which suggests an opposite, inward movement of the extracellular segments of the transmembrane helices. According to this model, a vertical see-saw movement of TM-VIĐ??and to some degree TM-VIIĐ??around a pivot corresponding to the highly conserved prolines will occur during receptor activation, which may involve the outer segment of TM-V in an as yet unclear fashion. Small-molecule agonists can stabilize such a proposed active conformation, where the extracellular segments of TM-VI and -VII are bent inward toward TM-III, by acting as molecular glue deep in the main ligand-binding pocket between the helices, whereas larger agonists, peptides, and proteins can stabilize a similar active conformation by acting as Velcro at the extracellular ends of the helices and the connecting loops.
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  • 25
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 235-276 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Nitric oxide (NO) is a small, diffusible, lipophilic free radical gas that mediates significant and diverse signaling functions in nearly every organ system in the body. The endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a key source of NO found in the cardiovascular system. This review summarizes the pharmacology of NO and the cellular regulation of endothelial NOS (eNOS). The molecular intricacies of the chemistry of NO and the enzymology of NOSs are discussed, followed by a review of the biological activities of NO. This information is then used to develop a more global picture of the pharmacological control of NO synthesis by NOSs in both physiologic conditions and pathophysiologic states.
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  • 26
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 301-315 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The roles of proteases in cancer are now known to be much broader than simply degradation of extracellular matrix during tumor invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, proteases from tumor-associated cells (e.g., fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, endothelial cells) as well as tumor cells are recognized to contribute to pathways critical to neoplastic progression. Although elevated expression (transcripts and proteins) of proteases, and in some cases protease inhibitors, has been documented in many tumors, techniques to assess functional roles for proteases require that we measure protease activity and inhibition of that activity rather than levels of proteases, activators, and inhibitors. Novel techniques for functional imaging of protease activity, both in vitro and in vivo, are being developed as are imaging probes that will allow us to determine protease activity and in some cases to discriminate among protease activities. These should be useful clinically as surrogate endpoints for therapies that alter protease activities.
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    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 355-379 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The physiological effects of many extracellular stimuli are mediated by receptor-promoted activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and consequential activation of inositol lipid-signaling pathways. These signaling responses include the classically described conversion of PtdIns(4,5)P2 to the Ca2+-mobilizing second messenger Ins(1,4,5)P3 and the protein kinase CĐ??activating second messenger diacylglycerol as well as alterations in membrane association or activity of many proteins that harbor phosphoinositide binding domains. Here we discuss how the family of PLCs elaborates a minimal catalytic core typified by PLC-?? to confer multiple modes of regulation on their phospholipase activities. Although PLC-dependent signaling is prominently regulated by direct interactions with heterotrimeric G proteins or tyrosine kinases, the existence of at least 13 divergent PLC isozymes promises a diverse repertoire of regulatory mechanisms for this class of important signaling proteins. We focus here on the recently realized and extensive regulation of inositol lipid signaling by Ras superfamily GTPases directly acting on PLC isozymes and conclude by considering the biological and pharmacological ramifications of this regulation.
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    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 215-234 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: New methods to measure thiol oxidation show that redox compartmentation functions as a mechanism for specificity in redox signaling and oxidative stress. Redox Western analysis and redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins provide means to quantify thiol/disulfide redox changes in specific subcellular compartments. Analyses using these techniques show that the relative redox states from most reducing to most oxidizing are mitochondria 〉 nuclei 〉 cytoplasm 〉 endoplasmic reticulum 〉 extracellular space. Mitochondrial thiols are an important target of oxidant-induced apoptosis and necrosis and are especially vulnerable to oxidation because of the relatively alkaline pH. Maintenance of a relatively reduced nuclear redox state is critical for transcription factor binding in transcriptional activation in response to oxidative stress. The new methods are applicable to a broad range of experimental systems and their use will provide improved understanding of the pharmacologic and toxicologic actions of drugs and toxicants.
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    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 41-64 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Most xenobiotics that enter the body are subjected to metabolism that functions primarily to facilitate their elimination. Metabolism of certain xenobiotics can also result in the production of electrophilic derivatives that can cause cell toxicity and transformation. Many xenobiotics can also activate receptors that in turn induce the expression of genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and xenobiotic transporters. However, there are marked species differences in the way mammals respond to xenobiotics, which are due in large part to molecular differences in receptors and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. This presents a problem in extrapolating data obtained with rodent model systems to humans. There are also polymorphisms in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that can impact drug therapy and cancer susceptibility. In an effort to generate more reliable in vivo systems to study and predict human response to xenobiotics, humanized mice are under development.
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    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 317-353 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Over the past four decades, treatment of acute leukemia in children has made remarkable progress, from this disease being lethal to now achieving cure rates of 80% for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 45% for acute myeloid leukemia. This progress is largely owed to the optimization of existing treatment modalities rather than the discovery of new agents. However, the annual number of patients with leukemia who experience relapse after initial therapy remains greater than that of new cases of most childhood cancers. The aim of pharmacogenetics is to develop strategies to personalize medications and tailor treatment regimens to individual patients, with the goal of enhancing efficacy and safety through better understanding of the person's genetic makeup. In this review, we summarize recent pharmacogenomic studies related to the treatment of pediatric acute leukemia. These include work using candidate-gene approaches, as well as genome-wide studies using haplotype mapping and gene expression profiling. These strategies illustrate the promise of pharmacogenomics to further advance the treatment of human cancers, with childhood leukemia serving as a paradigm.
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    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 123-149 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Inflammation and infection have long been known to downregulate the activity and expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in hepatic drug clearance. This can result in elevated plasma drug levels and increased adverse effects. Recent information on regulation of human CYP enzymes is presented, as are new developments in our understanding of the mechanisms of regulation. Experiments to study the effects of modulating CYP activities on the inflammatory response have yielded possible insights into the physiological consequences, if not the purpose, of the downregulation. Regulation of hepatic flavin monooxygenases, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, sulfotransferases, glutathione S-transferases, as well as of hepatic transporters during the inflammatory response, exhibits similarities and differences with regulation of CYPs.
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    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 151-187 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Accessory proteins involved in signal processing through heterotrimeric G proteins are generally defined as proteins distinct from G proteinĐ??coupled receptor (GPCR), G protein, or classical effectors that regulate the strength/efficiency/specificity of signal transfer upon receptor activation or position these entities in the right microenvironment, contributing to the formation of a functional signal transduction complex. A flurry of recent studies have implicated an additional class of accessory proteins for this system that provide signal input to heterotrimeric G proteins in the absence of a cell surface receptor, serve as alternative binding partners for G protein subunits, provide unexpected modes of G protein regulation, and have introduced additional functional roles for G proteins. This group of accessory proteins includes the recently discovered Activators of G protein Signaling (AGS) proteins identified in a functional screen for receptor-independent activators of G protein signaling as well as several proteins identified in protein interaction screens and genetic screens in model organisms. These accessory proteins may influence GDP dissociation and nucleotide exchange at the G subunit, alter subunit interactions within heterotrimeric G independent of nucleotide exchange, or form complexes with G or G independent of the typical G heterotrimer. AGS and related accessory proteins reveal unexpected diversity in G protein subunits as signal transducers within the cell.
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    Annual Review of Pharmacology 46 (2006), S. 381-410 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The protein variously named ABCG2/BCRP/MXR/ABCP is a recently described ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter originally identified by its ability to confer drug resistance that is independent of Mrp1 (multidrug-resistance protein 1) and Pgp (P-glycoprotein). Unlike Mrp1 and Pgp, ABCG2 is a half-transporter that must homodimerize to acquire transport activity. ABCG2 is found in a variety of stem cells and may protect them from exogenous and endogenous toxins. ABCG2 expression is upregulated under low-oxygen conditions, consistent with its high expression in tissues exposed to low-oxygen environments. ABCG2 interacts with heme and other porphyrins and protects cells and/or tissues from protoporphyrin accumulation under hypoxic conditions. Individuals who carry ABCG2 alleles that have impaired function may be more susceptible to porphyrin-induced toxicity. Abcg2 knock-out models have allowed in vivo studies of Abcg2 function in host and cellular defense. In combination with immunohistochemical analyses, these studies have revealed how ABCG2 influences the absorption, distribution, and excretion of drugs and cytotoxins.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 375-400 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Legitimacy is a psychological property of an authority, institution, or social arrangement that leads those connected to it to believe that it is appropriate, proper, and just. Because of legitimacy, people feel that they ought to defer to decisions and rules, following them voluntarily out of obligation rather than out of fear of punishment or anticipation of reward. Being legitimate is important to the success of authorities, institutions, and institutional arrangements since it is difficult to exert influence over others based solely upon the possession and use of power. Being able to gain voluntary acquiescence from most people, most of the time, due to their sense of obligation increases effectiveness during periods of scarcity, crisis, and conflict. The concept of legitimacy has a long history within social thought and social psychology, and it has emerged as increasingly important within recent research on the dynamics of political, legal, and social systems.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 487-503 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Over the past 25 years, achievement goal theory has emerged as one of the most prominent theories of achievement motivation. This chapter uses an achievement goal framework to examine the influence of classroom and school environments on students' academic motivation and achievement. Considerable evidence suggests that elementary and secondary students show the most positive motivation and learning patterns when their school settings emphasize mastery, understanding, and improving skills and knowledge. Whereas school environments that are focused on demonstrating high ability and competing for grades can increase the academic performance of some students, research suggests that many young people experience diminished motivation under these conditions. The implications of achievement goal theory for examining the impact of school reform are discussed.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 585-611 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 1-26 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: This chapter begins with a summary of a model, developed half a century ago, that distinguishes three qualitatively different processes of social influence: compliance, identification, and internalization. The model, originally geared to and experimentally tested in the context of persuasive communication, was subsequently applied to influence in the context of long-term relationships, including psychotherapy, international exchanges, and the socialization of national/ethnic identity. It has been extended to analysis of the relationship of individuals to social systems. Individuals' rule, role, and value orientations to a systemĐ??conceptually linked to compliance, identification, and internalizationĐ??predict different reactions to their own violations of societal standards, different patterns of personal involvement in the political system, and differences in attitude toward authorities and readiness to obey. In a further extension of the model, three approaches to peacemaking in international or intergroup conflicts are identifiedĐ??conflict settlement, conflict resolution, and reconciliationĐ??which, respectively, focus on the accommodation of interests, relationships, and identities, and are conducive to changes at the level of compliance, identification, and internalization.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 117-137 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: The study of the genetics of complex behaviors has evolved dramatically from the days of the nature versus nurture debates that dominated much of the past century. Here we discuss advances in our understanding of the genetics of affective and anxiety disorders. In particular, we highlight our growing understanding of specific gene-environment interactions that occur during critical periods in development, setting the stage for later behavioral phenotypes. We review the recent literature in the field, focusing on recent advances in our understanding of the role of the serotonin system in establishing normal anxiety levels during development. We emphasize the importance of understanding the effect of genetic variation at the level of functional circuits and provide examples from the literature of how such an approach has been exploited to study novel genetic endpoints, including genetically based variation in response to medication, a potentially valuable phenotype that has not received much attention to date.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 255-284 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: In this chapter we review theoretical and empirical advances in research on adolescent development in interpersonal and societal contexts. First, we identify several trends in current research, including the current emphasis on ecological models and the focus on diversity in and relational models of adolescent development. Next, we discuss recent research on interpersonal relationships, with an eye toward identifying major research themes and findings. Research on adolescents' relationships with parents, siblings, other relatives, peers, and romantic partners, and adolescents' involvement in community and society is reviewed. Future directions in research on adolescent development are discussed.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 345-374 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 453-485 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: This chapter reviews research on consumer psychology with emphasis on the topics of categorization, inferences, affect, and persuasion. The chapter reviews theory-based empirical research during the period 1994Đ??2004. Research on categorization includes empirical research on brand categories, goals as organizing frameworks and motivational bases for judgments, and self-based processing. Research on inferences includes numerous types of inferences that are cognitively and/or experienced based. Research on affect includes the effects of mood on processing and cognitive and noncognitive bases for attitudes and intentions. Research on persuasion focuses heavily on the moderating role of elaboration and dual-process models, and includes research on attitude strength responses, advertising responses, and negative versus positive evaluative dimensions.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 557-583 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Family violence occurs in many forms; the most prominent are domestic violence, child abuse, and elder abuse. Family violence affects many persons at some point in their life and constitutes the majority of violent acts in our society. Although there has been considerable study of the patterns, risk factors, and interventions for each form of family violence, great controversy still exists within each area. There is growing recognition of an overlap in the patterns, causes, and effective interventions across types of family violence. There is also an increasing awareness of the value of greater integration of theory and research across areas into a family violence approach through an ecological perspective. This review focuses on current knowledge related to these problems and suggests integrative steps to advance knowledge.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 27-53 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Traditional approaches to the study of cognition emphasize an information-processing view that has generally excluded emotion. In contrast, the recent emergence of cognitive neuroscience as an inspiration for understanding human cognition has highlighted its interaction with emotion. This review explores insights into the relations between emotion and cognition that have resulted from studies of the human amygdala. Five topics are explored: emotional learning, emotion and memory, emotion's influence on attention and perception, processing emotion in social stimuli, and changing emotional responses. Investigations into the neural systems underlying human behavior demonstrate that the mechanisms of emotion and cognition are intertwined from early perception to reasoning. These findings suggest that the classic division between the study of emotion and cognition may be unrealistic and that an understanding of human cognition requires the consideration of emotion.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 139-166 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Although the functions of sleep remain largely unknown, one of the most exciting hypotheses is that sleep contributes importantly to processes of memory and brain plasticity. Over the past decade, a large body of work, spanning most of the neurosciences, has provided a substantive body of evidence supporting this role of sleep in what is becoming known as sleep-dependent memory processing. We review these findings, focusing specifically on the role of sleep in (a) memory encoding, (b) memory consolidation, (c) brain plasticity, and (d) memory reconsolidation; we finish with a summary of the field and its potential future directions.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 227-254 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: The study of explanation, while related to intuitive theories, concepts, and mental models, offers important new perspectives on high-level thought. Explanations sort themselves into several distinct types corresponding to patterns of causation, content domains, and explanatory stances, all of which have cognitive consequences. Although explanations are necessarily incompleteĐ??often dramatically so in laypeopleĐ??those gaps are difficult to discern. Despite such gaps and the failure to recognize them fully, people do have skeletal explanatory senses, often implicit, of the causal structure of the world. They further leverage those skeletal understandings by knowing how to access additional explanatory knowledge in other minds and by being particularly adept at using situational support to build explanations on the fly in real time. Across development and cultures, there are differences in preferred explanatory schemes, but rarely are any kinds of schemes completely unavailable to a group.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 55-85 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: It is usually assumed that stressful life events interfere with our ability to acquire new information. However, many studies suggest that stressful experience can enhance processes involved in learning. The types of learning that are enhanced after stressful experiences include classical fear and eyeblink conditioning, as well as processes related to learning about threatening stimuli. Stressful life experiences do seem to interfere with processes involved in memory, often expressed as deficits in the retention or retrieval of information that was acquired prior to and was unrelated to the stressful experience. The trends are limited, as are their implications, because most studies examine adult males, yet the effects of stress on learning processes are influenced by age and sex differences. With respect to mechanisms and anatomical substrates, the effects of stress on learning are usually dependent on the action of stress hormones in combination with neuronal activities within the hippocampus, amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the prefrontal cortex.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 167-197 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Neuroecology is the study of adaptive variation in cognition and the brain. The origin of neuroecology dates from the 1980s, when researchers in behavioral ecology began to apply the methods of comparative evolutionary biology to cognitive processes and the underlying neural mechanisms of cognition. The comparative approach, however, is much older. It was a mainstay of ethology, it has been part of the study of neuroanatomy since the seventeenth century, and it was used by Darwin to marshal evidence for the theory of natural selection. Neuroecology examines the relations between ecological selection pressures and species or sex differences in cognition and the brain. The goal of neuroecology is to understand how natural selection acts on cognition and its neural mechanisms. This chapter describes the general approach of neuroecology, phylogenetic comparative methods used in the field, and new findings on the cognitive mechanisms and brain structures involved in mating systems, social organization, communication, and foraging. The contribution of neuroecology to psychology and the neurosciences is the information it provides on the selective pressures that have influenced the evolution of cognition and brain structure.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 317-344 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Couple therapy research affirms that various approaches to couple treatment produce statistically and clinically significant improvement for a substantial proportion of couples in reducing overall relationship distress. Recent studies have extended these findings in indicating the effectiveness of couple-based interventions for a broad range of coexisting emotional, behavioral, or physical health problems in one or both partners. In contrast to these encouraging results, research also indicates that a sizeable percentage of couples fail to achieve significant gains from couple therapy or show significant deterioration afterward. Research on processes of change and predictors of treatment outcome in couple therapy provides preliminary evidence regarding factors potentially contributing to variable treatment response. The chapter concludes with 12 recommendations regarding future directions in couple therapy research and clinical training.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 401-421 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Personality has consequences. Measures of personality have contemporaneous and predictive relations to a variety of important outcomes. Using the Big Five factors as heuristics for organizing the research literature, numerous consequential relations are identified. Personality dispositions are associated with happiness, physical and psychological health, spirituality, and identity at an individual level; associated with the quality of relationships with peers, family, and romantic others at an interpersonal level; and associated with occupational choice, satisfaction, and performance, as well as community involvement, criminal activity, and political ideology at a social institutional level.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 529-555 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: This chapter reviews studies published in American Psychological Association (APA) journals from 2003Đ??2004 and additional studies (received in response to listserv requests) that used the Internet to collect data (N=121 total studies). Specific examples of three kinds of Web-based research are reviewed: (a) translational (established methods and research questions are adapted to the Web), (b) phenomenological (behavior on the Web is the focus of study), and (c) novel (methodologically innovations unique to Web-based research). Among other findings, our review indicated that 21% of APA journals published at least one article that reported on Web-based research, most Web-based psychological research uses experimental methods, a surprising number use college student samples, and deception in Web-based research is not uncommon. Strengths and weaknesses of Web-based psychological research in general, and our sample of studies in particular, are reviewed with special attention to possible concerns about sampling and the use of deception.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 87-115 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: The functions of rewards are based primarily on their effects on behavior and are less directly governed by the physics and chemistry of input events as in sensory systems. Therefore, the investigation of neural mechanisms underlying reward functions requires behavioral theories that can conceptualize the different effects of rewards on behavior. The scientific investigation of behavioral processes by animal learning theory and economic utility theory has produced a theoretical framework that can help to elucidate the neural correlates for reward functions in learning, goal-directed approach behavior, and decision making under uncertainty. Individual neurons can be studied in the reward systems of the brain, including dopamine neurons, orbitofrontal cortex, and striatum. The neural activity can be related to basic theoretical terms of reward and uncertainty, such as contiguity, contingency, prediction error, magnitude, probability, expected value, and variance.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 199-226 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: What makes a face attractive and why do we have the preferences we do? Emergence of preferences early in development and cross-cultural agreement on attractiveness challenge a long-held view that our preferences reflect arbitrary standards of beauty set by cultures. Averageness, symmetry, and sexual dimorphism are good candidates for biologically based standards of beauty. A critical review and meta-analyses indicate that all three are attractive in both male and female faces and across cultures. Theorists have proposed that face preferences may be adaptations for mate choice because attractive traits signal important aspects of mate quality, such as health. Others have argued that they may simply be by-products of the way brains process information. Although often presented as alternatives, I argue that both kinds of selection pressures may have shaped our perceptions of facial beauty.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 285-315 
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    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Recent studies suggest that cognitive and behavioral interventions have enduring effects that reduce risk for subsequent symptom return following treatment termination. These enduring effects have been most clearly demonstrated with respect to depression and the anxiety disorders. It remains unclear whether these effects are a consequence of the amelioration of the causal processes that generate risk or the introduction of compensatory strategies that offset them and whether these effects reflect the mobilization of cognitive or other mechanisms. No such enduring effects have been observed for the psychoactive medications, which appear to be largely palliative in nature. Other psychosocial interventions remain largely untested, although claims that they produce lasting change have long been made. Whether such enduring effects extend to other disorders remains to be seen, but the capacity to reduce risk following treatment termination is one of the major benefits provided by the cognitive and behavioral interventions with respect to the treatment of depression and the anxiety disorders.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 423-451 
    ISSN: 0066-4308
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: Characteristics of the physical environment that influence child development are discussed. Topics include behavioral toxicology, noise, crowding, housing and neighborhood quality, natural settings, schools, and day care settings. Socioemotional, cognitive, motivation, and psychophysiological outcomes in children and youths are reviewed. Necessary methodological and conceptual advances are introduced as well.
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    Annual Review of Psychology 57 (2006), S. 505-528 
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    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Psychology
    Notes: This article argues that ideal longitudinal research is characterized by the seamless integration of three elements: (a) a well-articulated theoretical model of change observed using (b) a temporal design that affords a clear and detailed view of the process, with the resulting data analyzed by means of (c) a statistical model that is an operationalization of the theoretical model. Two general varieties of theoretical models are considered: models in which the time-related change of primary interest is continuous, and those in which it is characterized by movement between discrete states. In addition, two general types of temporal designs are considered: the longitudinal panel design and the intensive longitudinal design. For each general category of theoretical models, some of the analytic possibilities available for longitudinal panel designs and for intensive longitudinal designs are discussed. The article concludes with brief discussions of two issues particularly relevant to longitudinal researchĐ??missing data and measurementĐ??and a few words about exploratory research.
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 251-276 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: We review recent advances in understanding, modeling, and controlling oscillations in the flow past a cavity. The fundamental mechanisms underlying cavity flow oscillations have been known for at least 40 years, but suppressing these oscillations in a reliable and robust way is still a challenge today. Interest in controlling the flow past a cavity is motivated by aerospace applications, but in addition, cavity flows provide an attractive canonical problem for exploring general flow control techniques. The focus is on recent advances in modeling these flows, and in controlling them, using both open-loop and closed-loop techniques. A relatively new perspective is that cavity oscillations may not always be self-sustained, but under some flow conditions may be lightly damped resonances, sustained by external disturbances such as boundary layer turbulence. Areas in which our understanding is incomplete, and which deserve further study, are discussed, in particular the effects of high-frequency open-loop forcing, fundamental limitations of feedback control for a given configuration of sensors and actuators, and the development of a feedback design methodology that respects the limited range of validity of the available dynamical models.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 87-110 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Homeland security involves many applications of fluid mechanics and offers many opportunities for research and development. This review explores a wide selection of fluids topics in counterterrorism and suggests future directions. Broad topics range from preparedness and deterrence of impending terrorist attacks to detection, response, and recovery. Specific topics include aircraft hardening, blast mitigation, sensors and sampling, explosive detection, microfluidics and labs-on-a-chip, chemical plume dispersal in urban settings, and building ventilation. Also discussed are vapor plumes and standoff detection, nonlethal weapons, airborne disease spread, personal protective equipment, and decontamination. Involvement in these applications requires fluid dynamicists to think across the traditional boundaries of the field and to work with related disciplines, especially chemistry, biology, aerosol science, and atmospheric science.
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 111-128 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Wind tunnels have wide-ranging functionality, including many applications beyond aeronautics, and historically have been the major source of information for technological aerodynamics/aeronautical applications. There are a myriad of scaling issues/differences from flight to wind tunnel, and their study and impacts are uneven and a function of the particular type of extant flow phenomena. Typically, the most serious discrepancies are associated with flow separation. The tremendous ongoing increases in numerical simulation capability are changing and in many aspects have changed the function of the wind tunnel from a (scaled) "predictor" to a source of computational calibration/validation information with the computation then utilized as the flight prediction/scaling tool. Numerical simulations can increasingly include the influences of the various scaling issues. This wind tunnel role change has been occurring for decades as computational capability improves in all aspects. Additional issues driving this trend are the increasing cost (and time) disparity between physical experiments and computations, and increasingly stringent accuracy requirements.
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    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 395-425 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Over the past four decades, the combination of in situ and remote sensing observations has demonstrated that long nonlinear internal solitary-like waves are ubiquitous features of coastal oceans. The following provides an overview of the properties of steady internal solitary waves and the transient processes of wave generation and evolution, primarily from the point of view of weakly nonlinear theory, of which the Korteweg-de Vries equation is the most frequently used example. However, the oceanographically important processes of wave instability and breaking, generally inaccessible with these models, are also discussed. Furthermore, observations often show strongly nonlinear waves whose properties can only be explained with fully nonlinear models.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 339-369 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: We consider the hydrodynamics of creatures capable of sustaining themselves on the water surface by means other than flotation. Particular attention is given to classifying water walkers according to their principal means of weight support and lateral propulsion. The various propulsion mechanisms are rationalized through consideration of energetics, hydrodynamic forces applied, or momentum transferred by the driving stroke. We review previous research in this area and suggest directions for future work. Special attention is given to introductory discussions of problems not previously treated in the fluid mechanics literature, with hopes of attracting physicists, applied mathematicians, and engineers to this relatively unexplored area of fluid mechanics.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 277-307 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: We review mathematical models of confined bubbles, emphasizing physical mechanisms as expressed in simple geometries. Molecular interactions between liquid, gas, and the confining solid are all important and are described through the disjoining pressure concept. Methods for finding static shapes are considered. The static solution is a springboard for discussing pressure-driven and surface-tension-driven flows, both of which involve viscous effects and macroscopic films entrained near apparent contact lines. We next discuss vapor bubbles produced by thermal effects. Vaporization localized near contact lines and condensation distributed in colder parts of the interface lead to steady vapor bubbles. Their size is determined through global constraints. Unsteady vapor bubbles are discussed and we end with thoughts on open problems.
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    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 38 (2006), S. 159-192 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The review deals with drop impacts on thin liquid layers and dry surfaces. The impacts resulting in crown formation are referred to as splashing. Crowns and their propagation are discussed in detail, as well as some additional kindred, albeit nonsplashing, phenomena like drop spreading and deposition, receding (recoil), jetting, fingering, and rebound. The review begins with an explanation of various practical motivations feeding the interest in the fascinating phenomena of drop impact, and the above-mentioned topics are then considered in their experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 1-18 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Angiogenesis inhibitors for the treatment of cancer have now been approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States, and in 28 other countries including China. Clinical application of this new class of drugs is informed by certain principles from angiogenesis research. Oncogenic mutations initiate tumorigenesis, but angiogenesis is necessary for expansion of tumor mass. Two angiogenesis inhibitors have been developed that have a broad spectrum of anticancer activity, yet virtually no side effects. Endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors act as tumor suppressor proteins. The angiogenic response in vivo is based on the genetic background of the host. Several types of angiogenesis inhibitors reveal a biphasic, U-shaped curve of efficacy. "Antiangiogenic chemotherapy" is a novel approach to the treatment of drug resistance.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 207-221 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals as the result of an immune response to gluten. This immune response occurs in both the lamina propria and the epithelium of the small intestine. There is a close link to HLA DQ2 and DQ8, although these HLA genes account for only 40% of the genetic influence. Environmental factors, such as the amount and timing of gluten administration in infancy, as well as breastfeeding, influence the disease. Serologic screening studies that use sensitive and specific antibody tests have revealed the disease to be common, occurring in Đ♯1% of the population. Clinical presentations are diverse and atypical; the majority of patients lack diarrhea. Therapy is a gluten-free diet that requires avoidance of wheat, rye, and barley, although there is potential for other therapies based on our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 535-551 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Existing treatments for neuropathic pain deliver inadequate pain relief, unacceptable side effects, or both. The unmet medical need for more effective treatment is driving a large volume of research to discover new drugs. Most existing treatments are drugs introduced to treat other pain conditions or other medical conditions, such as antidepressants and anticonvulsants, which were found empirically to be effective for neuropathic pain. Only recently have drug discovery efforts have become mechanistically driven, addressing targets identified by a molecular neurobiological approach to the pathophysiology of neuropathic states.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 473-484 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We review the clinical and genetic disorders associated with exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias in patients with normal hearts. Foremost are those with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia due to abnormalities in either the ryanodine receptor 2 genes (RyR2) or the calsequestrin genes (CASQ). These patients manifest ventricular premature beats and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in response to exercise or on exposure to catecholamines. A great deal of basic information has been accumulated suggesting that these arrhythmias are caused by abnormalities in Ca2+ metabolism. The ensuing cytosolic Ca2+ overload results in delayed after-depolarizations and extrasystolic Ca2+ waves, leading to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Most of these patients will respond to beta-blocker therapy but a significant minority (30%) will require a defibrillator. Advances in genetic testing allow better understanding of this syndrome.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 331-347 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A number of genetic disorders can result in the accumulation of excess iron in the body. These causes of hereditary hemochromatosis include defects in genes encoding HFE, transferrin receptor 2, ferroportin, hepcidin, and hemojuvelin. Hepcidin, with its cognate receptor, ferroportin, has emerged as a central regulator of iron homeostasis; all of the known causes of hemochromatosis appear to prevent this system from functioning normally. The most common form of primary hemochromatosis is that caused by C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. This mutation is most prevalent among Northern Europeans. Although the frequency of the homozygous genotype is approximately 5 per 1000, the disease itself is quite rare because the clinical penetrance of the genotype is very low.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 49-63 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Prostate cancer is an attractive target for chemoprevention because of its ubiquity, treatment-related morbidity, long latency between premalignant lesions and clinically evident cancer, and defined molecular pathogenesis. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial has provided the first firm evidence that this cancer can be prevented by a relatively nontoxic oral agent. Additional agents, many of which are antioxidants with antiandrogenic effects, are being tested (or soon will be) in large clinical trials. The current body of evidence is insufficient to make a routine recommendation of any dietary or nutritional supplement for the prevention of prostate cancer.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 99-118 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Researchers have made great progress in defining genetic and molecular alterations that contribute to cancer. New therapeutic targets have been identified and targeted therapeutic agents have been developed, but our ability to evaluate potential drugs has not kept pace. Molecular imaging technologies that monitor biological processes and/or measure levels of targeted macromolecules can contribute significantly to preclinical and clinical drug evaluation. This article describes the drug discovery process, economic problems facing drug discovery and development, and successes and failures in this realm. We briefly describe the available molecular imaging tools, with emphasis on positron emission tomography. We discuss biological processes that are altered in tumors and can be measured by molecular imaging; examples include gene expression, signal transduction, tumor cell metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, hypoxia, and angiogenesis. We conclude with a proposal to integrate molecular imaging into the drug development process.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 553-574 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Although used for more than 4000 years for recreational and medicinal purposes, Cannabis and its best-known pharmacologically active constituents, the cannabinoids, became a protagonist in medical research only recently. This revival of interest is explained by the finding in the 1990s of the mechanism of action of the main psychotropic cannabinoid, ??9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which acts through specific membrane receptors, the cannabinoid receptors. The molecular characterization of these receptors allowed the development of synthetic molecules with cannabinoid and noncannabinoid structure and with higher selectivity, metabolic stability, and efficacy than THC, as well as the development of antagonists that have already found pharmaceutical application. The finding of endogenous agonists at these receptors, the endocannabinoids, opened new therapeutic possibilities through the modulation of the activity of cannabinoid receptors by targeting the biochemical mechanisms controlling endocannabinoid tissue levels.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 155-166 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Hepatitis B is a global health problem. Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) carry a significant risk to eventually develop cirrhotic liver disease. Recent therapeutic advances against CHB offer excellent potential for long-term suppression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication during antiviral therapy, and occasionally a durable remission off medication. Selection of appropriate patients for antiviral therapy depends on identification of HBV replication and an elevated alanine aminotransferase level or histologic liver injury. Pegylated interferon alpha offers potent immunomodulatory and antiviral activity with the potential for durability, but also with adverse effects and significant cost. The nucleoside or nucleotide analogs, lamivudine, adefovir, and entecavir, suppress HBV replication and are extremely well-tolerated, but long-term or even lifelong therapy is required. Most experience has been gained with lamivudine, but viral resistance occurs frequently. Newer analogs appear to be relatively free of this problem. Approaches using a combination of agents have promise, but have yet to be proven superior to individual drugs alone.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 499-511 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia and Alzheimer's disease have become an increasingly important focus of clinical research. These symptoms also pose a tremendous challenge to families and caregivers. The late afternoon/evening exacerbation of behavioral symptoms in dementia has been recognized by clinicians for 〉60 years. Researchers have utilized a variety of increasingly sophisticated tools to examine the circadian, hormonal, physiological, and epidemiological correlations with sundowning behavior. Although treatment remains largely empirical, an improved understanding of the complex relationships that drive sundowning behavior should lead to more effective therapies in the future.
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    Annual Review of Medicine 57 (2006), S. 83-97 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The use of molecular approaches has become part of the standard of care in the management of pediatric cancer patients. Molecular approaches are now included in the initial diagnosis, definition of prognostically distinct patient subgroups, selection of patients for specific therapies, prediction of risk for toxicities to therapy, and monitoring of patients receiving both conventional and novel targeted therapies. This clinical application of molecular medicine has been based on a growing molecular understanding of cancer biology. Studies of pediatric cancers have contributed to this understanding in many ways. We present a model for understanding cancer biology, using specific examples taken from pediatric oncology, and then discuss the application of molecular techniques to the clinical management of pediatric cancer patients.
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