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  • Deutschland  (1,346)
  • Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)  (1,346)
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  • 1
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-16
    Description: Quality of life and satisfaction with life are of particular importance for individuals as well as for society concerning the "demographic change" with now longer retirement periods. This study will contribute to the life satisfaction discussion and quantifies life satisfaction and pattern of explanation before and after such a prominent life cycle event, the entrance into retirement. In particular, with the individual longitudinal data and 33 waves of the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and the appropriate microeconometric causal fixed effects robust panel methods we ask and quantify if actual life satisfaction indeed is decreasing before retirement, is increasing at the entrance into retirement, and is decreasing then after certain periods back to a fore-going level. Thus, we ask if such an anticipation and adaptation pattern - as known from other prominent events - is also to discover for life satisfaction before and after retirement in Germany. Main result: Individual and family situation lift life satisfaction after retirement for many years, the (former) occupational situation, however, absorbs this effect both for pensioners and civil service pensioners. It remains only one period of improvement with close anticipation and adaptation at entering retirement but no furthermore significant change compared to pre-retirement life satisfaction. This holds for pensioners (German pension insurance, GRV) but there is no significant effect at all for civil service pensioners.
    Description: Lebensqualität und Lebenszufriedenheit ist für den Einzelnen wie aber auch für die Gesellschaft insgesamt vor dem Hintergrund des demographischen Wandels mit nun länger andauernder Phase nach dem Eintritt in den Ruhestand von besonderer Bedeutung. Die vorliegende Studie will zur Diskussion der Lebenszufriedenheit einen empirisch fundierten Beitrag leisten insbesondere die Lebenszufriedenheit vor und nach einem markanten Ereignis, dem Renteneintritt, quantifizieren und dafür Erklärungsmuster finden. Vor allem wird mit den individuellen Verlaufsdaten und 33 Wellen des Sozio-ökonomischen Panels (SOEP) und der mikroökonometrischen kausalen fixed effects robusten Panelanalyse analysiert, ob die individuelle Lebenszufriedenheit tatsächlich vor dem Renteneintritt absinkt, der Renteneintritt sie hochschnellen lässt und sie nach einer gewissen Zeit wieder auf das vorherige Niveau der Lebenszufriedenheit absinkt. Zu klären wird also zu sein, ob sich ein solches Muster herausschält und wie bedeutend Antizipation und Adaption - bekannt von anderen markanten Ereignissen - für die Lebenszufriedenheit vor und nach dem Renteneintritt in Deutschland sind. Hauptergebnis: Individuelle und familiäre Faktoren erhöhen die Lebenszufriedenheit nach dem Renteneintritt für viele Jahre. Allerdings absorbiert die (vormalige) Arbeitssituation diesen Effekt sowohl für GRV Rentner als auch für Pensionäre (Beamte). Es verbleibt nur eine Periode der Verbesserung mit Antizipation und Adaption nahe dem Renteneintritt aber keine signifikante längere Änderung im Vergleich zur Lebenszufriedenheit vor dem Renteneintritt. Dies gilt für GRV Rentner, für Pensionäre wird kein signifikanter Effekt überhaupt feststellbar.
    Keywords: I31 ; J26 ; J14 ; J17 ; A13 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; retirement ; life-satisfaction ; happiness ; anticipation and adaptation effects ; fixed-effect regression ; Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) ; Renteneintritt ; Lebenszufriedenheit ; Antizipations- und Adaptionseffekte ; Fixed-Effects-Regression ; Sozio-oekonomisches Panel (SOEP) ; Deutschland ; Germany
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-09-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Kfz-Industrie ; Kraftfahrzeug ; Dieselmotor ; Kritik ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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  • 3
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-09-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Migranten ; Qualifikation ; Migrationspolitik ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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  • 4
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-09-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftslage ; Konjunktur ; Wirtschaftsprognose ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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  • 5
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-07-27
    Description: Berlin war auch im Jahr 2016 die deutsche Gründungshauptstadt. Pro Kopf wurden deutlich mehr Betriebe sowohl im Vergleich zum Bundesdurchschnitt als auch im Vergleich zu anderen Großstädten wie beispielsweise Hamburg eröffnet. Außerdem nimmt im Bund die Gesamtzahl der Gründungen seit dem Jahr 2011 weiterhin kontinuierlich ab, während in Berlin dieser Abwärtstrend gestoppt wurde: Im Jahr 2016 starteten ähnlich viele Menschen einen eigenen Betrieb wie im Jahr 2015. Schlusslicht im Vergleich der zwölf größten deutschen Städte ist Stuttgart mit der niedrigsten Gründungsneigung. Nach wie vor fällt in Berlin vor allem die hohe Bedeutung von Betriebseröffnungen durch ausländische Bürgerinnen und Bürger auf, die fast 50 Prozent aller Gründungen ausmachen. Bei Betriebsgründungen mit Innovationspotential haben München und Köln die Nase vorn. In diesem Segment der forschungs- und wissensintensiven Gründungen verliert Berlin ähnlich wie viele andere Großstädte an Dynamik.
    Keywords: D22 ; L26 ; ddc:330 ; Start-ups ; Entrepreneurship ; Deutschland ; Berlin ; Hamburg ; Munich
    Language: German
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  • 6
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-09-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Kinderbetreuung ; Finanzbeziehungen ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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  • 7
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-13
    Description: This paper aims to show the impact of societal change on the demand and supply of long-term care workforce. As age is the major driver of the need for care the growth in the number of elderly and oldest old will increase the demand for long-term care workforce. Caregiving to the elderly is predominantly the task of the family in almost all European countries. However, the majority of European countries provide some kind of formal care either in institutions, at home or as cash benefits. The amount of provided publicly financed long-term care services and the required formal workforce spread widely across the European countries depending on the long-term care system and the financial resources. We selected five countries: Denmark, Germany, Italy, Poland and Slovakia which represent different long-term care systems and financial resources. In all studied countries the demand for long-term care workforce will increase significantly. Although also the informal care giving potential aged 50+ is expected to increase, the increase in the demand for formal care workforce is projected to be higher than the supply. The current shortage of nursing and caring personnel will be strengthened. This requires an expansion of recruitment and retention strategies.
    Description: This publication was produced as part of the NEUJOBS project, funded by the European Commission through the 7th Framework Programme under contract no. 266833 (http://www.neujobs).
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Gesundheitsberufe ; Pflegeberufe ; Gesundheitswesen ; Deutschland ; Slowakei ; Dänemark ; Italien ; Polen
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-13
    Description: Population ageing combined with a shrinking potential workforce are main factors influencing future socio-economic development and the labour market. This paper has the objective to show the impact of population change on one important sector of the economy, the health care market. As the need for health care services increases with age, the population ageing is expected to have a direct influence on the demand for services and the workforce needed. The shrinking labour force and the currently high share of elderly health professionals will have an impact of the future supply of health workforce. Based on the NEUJOBS demographic scenarios tough and friendly and age- and gender specific utilization rates the changes in the health workforce needed are calculated. Changes in labour supply and employment are shown using the results of the econometric model NEMESIS. In both scenario a decline in population size and an ageing of the population is expected. In the friendly scenario the demand for health care services is expected to increase, although the population size declines. The population ageing has a higher effect on the demand as the shrinking population size. In the tough scenario the significant decline in population dominates the demand for health workforce. Due to the demographic change also a decline in labour supply is calculated, while the employment in health care is estimated to increase in both scenarios. In 2025, the estimated employment is higher than the demand for health workforce. But on the demand side the calculations show only the pure demographic effect. Due to data restrictions we could not take into account the technological medical progress, changes in health utilization behaviour or changes in health status of the population. All these factor have an influence on the future health workforce demand.
    Description: This publication was produced as part of the NEUJOBS project, funded by the European Commission through the 7th Framework Programme under contract no. 266833 (http://www.neujobs).
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Gesundheitswesen ; Gesundheitsberufe ; Alternde Bevölkerung ; Deutschland ; Pflegeberufe ; Dänemark ; Italien ; Polen ; Slowakei ; EU-Staaten
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-13
    Description: This paper aims to show the impact of population ageing on the demand and supply of long-term care workforce. As age is the major driver of the need for care the growth in the number of elderly and oldest old will increase the demand for long-term care services. Since 1995 formal care services in institutions and at home as well as cash benefits for informal home care financed by the long-term care insurance system are available, but only for people with at least substantial impairments in activities of daily living. Thus the bulk of caregiving to the elderly is still the task of the family. In Germany the demand for long-term care workforce will increase significantly. Although also the informal caregiving potential aged 50+ is expected to increase, the increase in the demand for formal care workforce is projected to be higher than the supply. The current shortage of nursing and caring personnel will be strengthened. This requires an expansion of recruitment and retention strategies.
    Description: This publication was produced as part of the NEUJOBS project, funded by the European Commission through the 7th Framework Programme under contract no. 266833 (http://www.neujobs).
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Pflegebedürftigkeit ; Pflegeberufe ; Gesundheitsberufe ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-13
    Description: Population ageing combined with a shrinking potential workforce are main factors influencing future socio-economic development and the labour market. This paper has the objective to show the impact of population change on one important sector of the economy, the health care market. As the need for health care services increases with age, the population ageing is expected to have a direct influence on the demand for services and the workforce needed. The shrinking labour force and the currently high share of elderly health professionals will have an impact of the future supply of health workforce. Based on the NEUJOBS demographic scenarios tough and friendly and age- and gender specific utilization rates the changes in the health workforce needed are calculated. Changes in labour supply and employment are shown using the results of the econometric model NEMESIS. In both scenario a decline in population size and an ageing of the population is expected. In the friendly scenario the demand for health care services is expected to increase, although the population size declines. The population ageing has a higher effect on the demand as the shrinking population size. In the tough scenario the significant decline in population dominates the demand for health workforce. Due to the demographic change also a decline in labour supply is calculated, while the employment in health care is estimated to increase in both scenarios. In 2025, the estimated employment is higher than the demand for health workforce. But on the demand side the calculations show only the pure demographic effect. Due to data restrictions we could not take into account the technological medical progress, changes in health utilization behaviour or changes in health status of the population. All these factor have an influence on the future health workforce demand.
    Description: This publication was produced as part of the NEUJOBS project, funded by the European Commission through the 7th Framework Programme under contract no. 266833 (http://www.neujobs).
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Pflegeberufe ; Gesundheitswesen ; Alternde Bevölkerung ; Pflegeversicherung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: Perceived control is an important variable for various demands involved in successful aging. However, perceived control is not set in stone, but rather changes throughout the life course. The aim of this study was to identify cross-sectional age differences and longitudinal mean-level changes as well as rank-order changes in perceived control with respect to sex and education. Furthermore, changes in income and health were analyzed to explain trajectories of perceived control. In a large and representative sample of Germans across all of adulthood, 9,484 individuals gave information about their perceived control twice over a period of 6 years. Using LOESS curves and latent structural equation modeling, four main findings were revealed: (a) Perceived control increased until ages 30 to 40, then decreased until about age 60, and increased slightly afterwards; (b) The rank order of individuals in perceived control was relatively unstable, especially in young adulthood, and reached a plateau at about age 40; (c) Men perceived that they had more control than women did, but there were no sex differences in the development of perceived control; (d) Individuals with more education perceived that they had more control than those with less education, and there were slight differences in the development of perceived control dependent on education. Taken together, these findings offer important insights into the development of perceived control across the life span.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; perceived control ; personality development ; longitudinal ; representative sample ; Persönlichkeitspsychologie ; Altersgruppe ; Geschlecht ; Bildungsniveau ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: People gain utility from occupying a higher ranked position in the income distribution of the reference group. This paper investigates whether these gains depend on an individual's set of non-cognitive skills. Using the 2000-2008 waves of the German Socioeconomic Panel dataset (SOEP), a subjective question on Life Satisfaction, and three different sets of non-cognitive skills indicators, we find significant and robust differences across skills groups. People who are more neurotic, extravert and have low external locus of control and low negative reciprocity are more sensitive to their individual position in the economic ladder. By contrast, the Life Satisfaction reaction to changes in economic status is significantly lower among individuals who score high (low) in negative (positive) reciprocity, and are at the bottom of the distribution of neuroticism, extraversion. The heterogeneity on the importance of income comparisons needs to be taken into account when, for example, introducing them into economic models, predicting individuals' behaviour, or making welfare judgments.
    Keywords: D62 ; I31 ; ddc:330 ; life satisfaction ; income comparisons ; personality traits ; Zufriedenheit ; Einkommensverteilung ; Sozialer Status ; Nutzen ; Persönlichkeitspsychologie ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: The artistic labor market is marked by several adversities, such as low wages, above-average unemployment, and constrained underemployment. Nevertheless, it attracts many young people. The number of students exceeds the available jobs by far. A potential explanation for this puzzle is that artistic work might result in exceptionally high job satisfaction, a conjecture that has been mentioned at various times in the literature. We conduct the first direct empirical investigation of artists' job satisfaction. The analysis is based on panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Survey (SOEP). Artists on average are found to be considerably more satisfied with their work than non-artists, a finding that corroborates the conjectures in the literature. Differences in income, working hours, and personality cannot account for the observed difference in job satisfaction. Partially, but not fully, the higher job satisfaction can be attributed to the higher self-employment rate among artists. Suggestive evidence is found that superior 'procedural' characteristics of artistic work, such as increased variety and on-the-job learning, contribute to the difference in job satisfaction.
    Keywords: Z10 ; J24 ; J28 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; job satisfaction ; artists ; work-preference ; cultural economics ; Künstlerische Berufe ; Arbeitszufriedenheit ; Berufswahl ; Selbstständige ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: It is puzzling that people feel quite unhappy when they become unemployed, while at the same time active labor market policies are needed to bring unemployed back to work more quickly. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we investigate whether there is indeed such a puzzle. First, we find that nearly half of the unemployed do not experience a drop in happiness, which might explain why at least some workers need to be activated. In addition to that, we find that even though unemployed who experience a drop in happiness search more actively for a job, it does not speed up their job finding. Apparently, there is no link between unhappiness and the speed of job finding. Hence, there is no contradiction between unemployed being unhappy and the need for activation policies.
    Keywords: I31 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; happiness ; unemployment duration ; Zufriedenheit ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Dauer ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Panel ; Stichprobenverfahren ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: In most industrialized countries, the work and family patterns of the baby boomers characterized by more heterogeneous working careers and less stable family lives set them apart from preceding cohorts. Thus, it is of crucial importance to understand how these different work and family lives are linked to the boomers' prospective material well-being as they retire. This paper presents a new and unique matching-based approach for the projection of the life courses of German baby boomers, called the LAW-Life Projection Model. Basis for the projection are data from 27 waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel linked with administrative pension records from the German Statutory Pension In-surance that cover lifecycle pension-relevant earnings. Unlike model-based micro simula-tions that age the data year by year our matching-based projection uses sequences from older birth cohorts to complete the life-courses of statistically similar baby boomers through to retirement. An advantage of this approach is to coherently project the work-life and family trajectories as well as lifecycle earnings. The authors present a benchmark anal-ysis to assess the validity and accuracy of the projection. For this purpose, they cut a signif-icant portion of already lived lives and test different combinations of matching algorithms and donor pool specifications to identify the combination that produces the best fit be-tween previously cut but observed and projected life-course information. Exploiting the advantages of the projected data, the authors compare the returns to education - measured in terms of pension entitlements - across cohorts. The results indicate that within cohorts, differences between individuals with low and high educational attainment increase over time for men and women in East and West Germany. East German boomer women with low educational attainment face the most substantial losses in pension entitlements that put them at a high risk of being poor as they retire.
    Keywords: C53 ; H55 ; I24 ; ddc:330 ; forecasting models ; simulation methods ; SOEP ; baby boomers ; education ; public pensions ; Lebensverlauf ; Prognoseverfahren ; Simulation ; Familiensoziologie ; Lebensstandard ; Rentner ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: Nur wenige Studien geben Aufschluss über den Gesundheitszustand der in Deutschland lebenden Migrantenbevölkerung und beschränken sich meist auf rein medizinische Kriterien. Die vorliegende Arbeit vergleicht auf Grundlage von Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) den Gesundheitszustand spezifischer Migrantengruppen mit dem der einheimischen Bevölkerung anhand des SF-12, einem mehrdimensionalen Messinstrument der gesundheitsbezogenen Lebensqualität. Der Schwerpunkt der Analysen liegt allerdings darauf, über die methodische Integration von gruppenvergleichender Faktoranalyse (MGCFA), der Schätzung latenter Mittelwerte (MACS) und dem Einbezug von Kovariaten (MIMIC) zu testen, ob der SF-12 interkulturelle Äquivalenz aufweist und dementsprechend gültige Vergleiche zwischen der einheimischen Bevölkerung und verschiedenen Migrantengruppen zulässt. Die Analysen zeigen, dass sich der SF-12 zwar als interkulturell valide erweist, allerdings finden sich unabhängig vom kulturellen Hintergrund Verzerrungen aufgrund der Frageformulierungen und der Antwortskala, die eine Modifikation des Messmodells nahelegen. Weiterhin lässt sich ein hinsichtlich einzelner soziostruktureller Merkmale unterschiedliches Antwortverhalten (Differential Item Functioning (DIF)) identifizieren. Unter Berücksichtigung dieser Drittvariableneffekte und DIF lassen sich schließlich keine signifikanten Unterschiede hinsichtlich des Gesundheitszustandes zwischen Migranten und Nichtmigranten feststellen. Es bedarf jedoch weiterer Forschung zum Einfluss alternativer Kovariaten auf die Messäquivalenz und zu den konkreten Ursachen der gefundenen DIF-Effekte.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; measurement equivalence ; Migration ; Gesundheit ; SF-12 ; health ; differential item functioning ; Migranten ; Gesundheit ; Datenerhebung ; Panel ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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  • 18
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: The German reunification, which several economists have called a natural experiment, provides the unique possibility to inquire the impact of migration on subjective well-being (SWB). The main goal of the research is to assessing the impact of adaptation, social comparison and relative deprivation on the change in SWB associated with moving from Eastern to Western Germany after the German reunification in 1989. We suspect that the gains or losses in subjective well-being after migration are affected by the way migrants adapt to their new economic conditions, by with whom migrants compare themselves (that is, their reference group), their former peers in the East or their new peers in the West, and how well they integrate into the new society, that means whether they are relatively deprived with respect to earnings or not. We estimate fixed- and random-effects Generalized Least Square panel regression models. Our results indicate a positive and lasting effect of migration on SWB, although it is strongly suppressed by dissatisfaction resulting from the comparison of migrants' income with the incomes of their former peers in East Germany and the relatively higher earnings of their new peers in West Germany. Moreover, our analyses provide an explanation for the increase of SWB associated with an increase in income found in East Germany after the reunification; a deviation from the Easterlins' paradox.
    Keywords: I32 ; J24 ; J61 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; migration ; subjective well-being ; happiness ; social comparison ; adaptation ; relative deprivation ; German panel data ; panel regression models ; natural experiment ; Migranten ; Zufriedenheit ; Soziale Integration ; Deutschland ; Neue Bundesländer ; Alte Bundesländer
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: This paper takes a labor supply perspective (neoclassical labor supply, job search) to explain the lower employment rates of older workers and women. The basic rationale is that workers choose non-employed if their reservation wages are larger than the offered wages. Whereas the offered wages depend on workers' productivity and firms' decisions, reservation wages are largely determined by workers' endowments and preferences for leisure. To shed some empirical light on this issue, we use German survey data to analyze age and gender differences in reservation and entry wages, preferred and actual working hours, and satisfaction with leisure and work.
    Keywords: J14 ; J22 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; age ; family gap ; gender ; job search ; labor supply ; reservation wages ; Arbeitsangebot ; Ältere Arbeitskräfte ; Geschlecht ; Arbeitsuche ; Anspruchslohn ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: This paper estimates the effect of involuntary job loss on smoking behavior and body weight using German Socio-Economic Panel Study data. Baseline nonsmokers are more likely to start smoking due to job loss, while smokers do not intensify their smoking. Job loss increases body weight slightly, but significantly. In particular, single individuals as well as those with lower health or socioeconomic status prior to job loss exhibit high rates of smoking initiation. The applied regression-adjusted semiparametric difference-in-difference matching strategy is robust against selection on observables and time-invariant unobservables. This paper provides an indirect test showing that the identifying assumption is not violated in the difference-in-difference estimator. The findings are robust over various matching specifications and different choices of the conditioning variables.
    Keywords: I12 ; J65 ; ddc:330 ; job loss ; smoking ; body weight ; health behavior ; difference-in-difference ; propensity score matching ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Rauchen ; Körpergewicht ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: A lack of cultural integration is often blamed for hindering immigrant families' economic progression. This paper is a first attempt to explore whether immigrant parents' ethnic identity affects the next generation's human capital accumulation in the host country. Empirical results based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) indicate that maternal majority as well as paternal minority identity are positively related to the educational attainment of second-generation youth - even controlling for differences in ethnicity, family background and years-since-migration. Additional tests show that the effect of maternal majority identity can be explained by mothers' German language proficiency, while the beneficial effect of fathers' minority identity is not related to language skills and thus likely to stem from paternal minority identity per se.
    Keywords: I21 ; J15 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; Ethnic Identity ; Second-Generation Immigrants ; Education ; Migranten ; Kulturelle Identität ; Bildungsverhalten ; Bildungsniveau ; Generationenbeziehungen ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: To explore single mothers' labor market participation we analyze specific circumstances and dynamics in their life courses. We focus on the question which individual and institutional factors determine both professional advancement and professional descent. Due to dynamics in women's life course identifying and analyzing restrictions and interruptions of employment requires a longitudinal research design. The German Socio-Economic Panel (1984-2009) provides all necessary information identifying episodes of single motherhood and employment during life courses. Since family statuses of single mothers are partially endogenous and can end in multiple ways, we use semi-parametric survival models. Competing risks estimations offer a detailed view by analyzing single mothers' transition from not being employed to full-time or part-time work and vice versa simultaneously. Estimates show that occupational careers of single mothers are influenced by both individual factors and institutional circumstances. Whereas specific problems occur shortly after becoming a single mother, these problems seem to be dealt with over time. Enhancing labor market participation or maintaining full-time employment as a single mother can be achieved when certain challenges are met such as appointed and reliable working hours. Single mothers that do not have to rely on public childcare arrangements, but are capable of finding individual solutions are more likely to balance work and family life. Among institutional determinants welfare benefits have a negative effect on the market labor participation of women in low-paid jobs.
    Keywords: C14 ; C23 ; J12 ; J13 ; J16 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; single mothers ; labor supply ; event history analysis ; Cox-regression ; Mütter ; Alleinerziehende ; Arbeitsangebot ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 23
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: This paper examines regional differences in subjective well-being (SWB) in Germany. Inferential statistics indicate a diminishing but still significant gap between East and West Germany, but also differing levels of SWB within both parts. The observed regional pattern of life satisfaction reflects macroeconomic fundamentals, where labor market conditions play a dominant role. Differing levels of GDP and economic growth have contributed rather indirectly to regional well-being such that the years since the German reunification can be considered as a period of joyless growth. In total, approximately half of satisfaction gap between East and West Germany can be attributed to differing macroeconomic conditions. Moreover, the effects of unemployment and income differ in size between regions such that one can assume increasing marginal disutility of unemployment. The comparably high levels of life satisfaction in Northern Germany are driven mostly by couples and go along with significantly higher fertility rates. Overall, we conclude that comparisons of SWB within a single country provide valid information.
    Keywords: R10 ; I31 ; ddc:330 ; subjective well-being ; regional disparities ; unemployment ; economic growth ; fertility rate ; Zufriedenheit ; Lebensqualität ; Regionale Disparität ; Regionale Arbeitslosigkeit ; Regionales Wachstum ; Fruchtbarkeit ; Deutschland ; Alte Bundesländer ; Neue Bundesländer
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: Minijobs spielen in den Erwerbsverläufen von Frauen in Deutschland eine unterschiedliche Rolle, wie dieser Beitrag - basierend auf einer Analyse von SOEP-Daten zeigt. Zum einen gibt es die Gruppe verheirateter Frauen, die Minijobs überwiegend als Ergänzung zu einem ausreichenden Partnereinkommen ausüben. Zum anderen aber gibt es Gruppen von Frauen, deren Erwerbsbiografien als Folge von Minijobs - kaum freiwillig gewählt - diskontinuierlich-prekär verlaufen. Gerade hier zeigen Minijobs in gravierender Weise ihre negativen Wirkungen, wie Einkommens- und Altersarmut. Dem Leitbild eines Adult-Worker-Modells entsprechen sie ohnehin in keinem Fall. Und offenbar führen auch Regelungen im SGB II dazu, dass Frauen häufiger in Minijobs arbeiten. Der Beitrag plädiert dafür, alle Anreizstrukturen für Frauen, Minijobs auszuüben, kritisch zu überprüfen.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Ungeschützte Beschäftigung ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Arbeitsangebot ; Armut ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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  • 25
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: In Deutschland werden die Geburtskohorten der 1956 bis 1965 Geborenen als Babyboomer bezeichnet. Diese Gruppe kennzeichnet sich nicht nur durch eine überdurchschnittliche Kohortenstärke aus, sondern diese waren Profiteure des Ausbaus des Wohlfahrtsstaates und deren Kindheit und Jugend: waren durch einen Zeitraum wirtschaftlicher Prosperität und politischer Stabilität als auch durch eine historische Phase des Wandels gesellschaftlicher Werte mit einem sozialen und kulturellen Paradigmenwechsel gekennzeichnet. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Destandardisierung und zunehmende Individualisierung der familienbiographischen Lebensläufe von Babyboomern mit Hilfe eines Kohortenvergleichs zu beschreiben. Auf Basis der SOEP-Daten zeigt sich im Vergleich zu früheren Geburtskohorten dass bestimmte Statusphasen, Ereignisse und Lebenslaufsequenzen nicht länger typisch für die Mehrheit der Bevölkerung (Familie mit Kindern vs. Kinderlosigkeit) sind, als auch eine Variation der zeitlichen Abfolge und des Timings von Lebenslaufsequenzen, die mit einem Anstieg des mittleren Heiratsalters und der Aufschub der Elternschaft verbunden sind. Darüber hinaus nimmt die Zahl der Status über das Alter zu und neue Status entwickeln sich. Des Weiteren werden Unterschiede in den Familienbiographien zwischen Ost- und Westdeutschen beobachtet.
    Keywords: J12 ; J13 ; I30 ; ddc:330 ; Babyboomer ; family life course ; SOEP ; de-standardization ; Familiensoziologie ; Lebensverlauf ; Sozialer Wandel ; Kohortenanalyse ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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  • 26
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: The paper analyzes the gender pay gap in private-sector management positions based on German panel data and using fixed-effects models. It deals with the effect of occupational sex segregation on wages, and the extent to which wage penalties for managers in predominantly female occupations are moderated by firm size. Drawing on economic and organizational approaches and the devaluation of women's work, we find wage penalties for female occupations in management only in large firms. This indicates a pronounced devaluation of female occupations, which might be due to the longer existence, stronger formalization, or more established old-boy networks of large firms.
    Keywords: B54 ; J16 ; J24 ; J31 ; J71 ; L2 ; M51 ; ddc:330 ; gender pay gap ; managerial positions ; occupational sex segregation ; gendered organization ; firm size ; Lohndifferenzierung ; Führungskräfte ; Weibliche Führungskräfte ; Berufswahl ; Geschlechterdiskriminierung ; Betriebsgröße ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 27
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: Based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), both income inequality and poverty are considered for Germany in front of and during the economic crisis 2008-2010. This comprises binary logistic regressions where it is tested whether a person is belonging to a certain income region or not. The units of analysis are differentiated by residential status, nationality, sex, age, household size/household type, employment status, etc. For instance, the likelihood of unemployed persons for being located in the low-income region weakly increased between 2007 and 2009. Those microeconomic calculations are correlated with the macroeconomic variables economic growth, inflation, and general unemployment. At the peak of the crisis - in 2009 - inequality dropped, and it increased afterwards. Poverty was not affected very much by economic developments during the crisis but at least an increase of persons, who stayed within the poverty region, occurred between 2008 and 2009 (compared with 2007/2008).
    Description: Auf der Basis von Daten des Sozioökonomischen Panels (SOEP) werden Einkommensungleichheit und -armut in Deutschland vor und während der ökonomischen Krise in den Jahren 2008-2010 untersucht. Dies beinhaltet binäre logistische Regressionen, bei denen getestet wird, ob eine Person zu einem bestimmten Einkommensbereich gehört oder nicht. Die Untersuchungseinheiten werden nach Wohnort, Staatsangehörigkeit, Geschlecht, Alter, Haushaltsgröße/-typ, Erwerbsstatus usw. differenziert. Beispielsweise ist die Wahrscheinlichkeit für arbeitslose Personen, dem unteren Einkommensbereich anzugehören, zwischen 2007 und 2009 (schwach) gestiegen. Solche mikroökonomischen Berechnungen werden mit den makroökonomischen Variablen Ökonomisches Wachstum, Inflation und allgemeine Arbeitslosigkeit korreliert. Auf dem Höhepunkt der Krise - 2009 - ging die Ungleichheit zurück; anschließend stieg sie. Die Armut wurde nicht sonderlich durch die ökonomische Krise beeinflusst; allerdings ergab sich zwischen 2008 und 2009 (im Vergleich zu 2007/2008) mindestens ein Anstieg der Zahl der Personen, welche innerhalb des Armutsbereiches verblieben.
    Keywords: D30 ; D31 ; D60 ; ddc:330 ; income and poverty ; inequality ; economic crisis ; Wirtschaftskrise ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 28
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: According to sociological theories on educational choice, risk aversion is the main driving force for class-specific educational decisions. Families from upper social classes have to opt for the academically most demanding, long-lasting courses to avoid an intergenerational status loss. Families from lower social classes by contrast, tend instead to opt for shorter tracks to reduce the risk of failing in a long-lasting and costly education and, as a consequence, entering the labor market without a degree. This argument is deeply rooted in the social structure. Yet, the importance of individual risk preferences for educational choice has been neglected in sociology of education. We discuss these different forms of risk in the context of social inequalities in educational decision-making and demonstrate how they influence the intentions for further education of students attending the most demanding, academically orientated secondary school type in Germany. According to our argument, children from upper social classes are structurally almost compelled to opt for the academically most demanding educational courses, virtually without having a choice in the matter. In contrast, working class children do have to make an active decision and, thus, individual risk aversion comes into play for these students. For our empirical analyses, we rely on data from the youth questionnaire of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) collected in the years 2003 to 2010, and estimate multinomial logit models. Our empirical findings underline the importance of the structural risk aversion. Students with a higher social background are not only less sensitive to their school performance, but individual risk aversion is also completely irrelevant to their educational plans. The opposite applies to students with a lower social background: the more risk-averse they are, the more likely they are to opt for a double qualification rather than just a purely academic university degree course.
    Keywords: I24 ; D81 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; educational inequality ; educational decision-making ; risk aversion ; tertiary education ; vocational training ; Jugendliche ; Bildungsverhalten ; Risikoaversion ; Soziale Schicht ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 29
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: This research explores how different parental leave reforms in West Germany impacted on the time mothers and fathers in couples spent on child care. I investigate indirect effects through mothers' labor market return decisions more in detail than previous studies and also examine potential direct associations of reforms of the leave period and benefits with maternal and paternal care time. The analysis uses multilevel multiprocess models for 1299 couples with a first or second birth based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (1984-2009). I estimate simultaneously the timing and extent of mothers' labor market return, selection into childbearing, and maternal and paternal child care time over the years following a first or second birth. The findings suggest that the extensions of the maximum period of low-paid or unpaid leave between 1986 and 1992 and the introduction of shorter well-paid leave and two 'daddy months' in 2007 indirectly affected maternal and paternal child care through changes in mothers' work return decisions. Even after controlling for these indirect effects and fathers' take-up of leave, the parental leave extensions were directly associated with longer maternal care time on weekdays, whereas father involvement in child care increased after the 2007 reform.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; child care ; gender division of unpaid work ; maternal employment ; parental leave policy ; parenting ; Elternzeit ; Kinderbetreuung ; Mütter ; Väter ; Arbeitsangebot ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 30
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: Previous studies report a wide range of estimates for how female labor supply responds to childcare prices. We shed new light on this question using a reform that raised the prices of public daycare. Parents respond by reducing public daycare and increasing childcare at home. Parents also reduce informal childcare indicating that public daycare and informal childcare are complements. Female labor force participation declines and the response ist strongest for single parents and low-income households. The short-run effects on cognitive and non-cognitive skills are mixed, but negative for girls. Spillover effects on older siblings suggest that the policy affects the whole household, not just targeted family members.
    Keywords: J13 ; J22 ; J18 ; ddc:330 ; Childcare ; Labor supply ; Cognitive skills ; Family Policy ; Germany ; Kinderbetreuung ; Kosten ; Familienpolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Arbeitsangebot ; Familie ; Kinder ; Kognition ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 31
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: Das Ausmaß beruflicher Mobilität wird häufig als Indikator für die Flexibilität von Arbeitsmärkten gesehen. Aus gesamtwirtschaftlicher Perspektive steht dabei die Anpassungsfähigkeit an den Strukturwandel im Vordergrund. Aus Sicht der einzelnen Arbeitnehmer eröffnen berufliche Veränderungen die Möglichkeit, in attraktivere Berufe zu wechseln. Hier werden die kurz- und langfristigen Effekte eines Berufswechsels auf die Löhne von abhängig Beschäftigten in Deutschland und Großbritannien untersucht. Dabei zeigt sich die Bedeutung institutioneller Rahmenbedingungen, die zum Teil sehr unterschiedliche Erwerbs- und Arbeitsmarktchancen für Arbeitnehmer erzeugen.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitsmobilität ; Lohn ; Arbeitsmarktflexibilität ; Vergleich ; Deutschland ; Großbritannien
    Language: German
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  • 32
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Über Rufbereitschaft und Arbeit auf Abruf liegen bisher wenig belastbare Erkenntnisse vor. Kennzeichnend für beide Arbeitszeitformen ist, dass die Beschäftigten durch einen Ruf aus ihrer unbezahlten Freizeit heraus die Arbeit aufnehmen. Dadurch werden Erholungsphasen unterbrochen und möglicherweise Stress ausgelöst. Mit Hilfe der Daten des SOEP Pretest 2010 können wir erstmals die Verbreitung von Abrufarbeit in Deutschland aufzeigen. Unter Verwendung des Modells beruflicher Gratifikationskrisen (Siegrist, 1996a, 1996b) analysieren wir die Wirkung der Freizeiteinschränkung durch Rufbereitschaft und Arbeit auf Abruf. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Rufbereitschaft Gratifikationskrisen auslösen kann, während dies bei Arbeit auf Abruf nicht der Fall ist.
    Description: Little is known so far about on-call duty such as work on demand or standby service. Both types of flexible working time arrangements have in common that employees are called for work during their leisure time. Periods of regeneration will be interrupted and may cause stress. Using data of the SOEP pretest 2011 we can show for the first time the prevalence of on-call duty in Germany. By means of Siegrist's (1996a, 1996b) effort-reward imbalance we analyze the effect of interrupted leisure time caused by on-call work on the effort-reward imbalance. We have strong evidence that employees on standby experience higher efforts and thus have a lower effort-reward imbalance whereas work on demand does not have an effect.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeit ; Subjektive Indikatoren ; Stress ; Rufbereitschaft ; Arbeit auf Abruf ; Gratifikationskrisen ; soziale Reziprozität ; SOEP ; on-call work ; standby service ; work on demand ; effort-reward imbalance ; reciprocity ; Überstunden ; Interne Kommunikation ; Freizeit ; Stress ; Austauschtheorie (Soziologie) ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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  • 33
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Studies on health effects of unemployment usually neglect spillover effects on spouses. This study specifically investigates the effect of an individual's unemployment on the mental health of their spouse. In order to allow for causal interpretation of the estimates, it focuses on an exogenous entry into unemployment (i.e. plant closure), and combines difference-in-difference and matching based on entropy balancing to provide robustness against observable and time-invariant unobservable heterogeneity. Using German Socio-Economic Panel Study data the paper reveals that unemployment decreases the mental health of spouses almost as much as for the directly affected individuals. The findings highlight that previous studies underestimate the public health costs of unemployment as they do not account for the potential consequences for spouses.
    Keywords: I12 ; J65 ; ddc:330 ; unemployment ; mental health ; plant closure ; entropy balancing ; matching ; job loss ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Psychische Störung ; Spillover-Effekt ; Ehe ; Familie ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 34
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: We investigate the accuracy of ex ante assessments of vulnerability to income poverty using cross-sectional data and panel data. We use long-term panel data from Germany and apply different regression models, based on household covariates and previous-year equivalence income, to classify a household as vulnerable or not. Predictive performance is assessed using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC), which takes account of false positive as well as true positive rates. Estimates based on cross-sectional data are much less accurate than those based on panel data, but for Germany, the accuracy of vulnerability predictions is limited even when panel data are used. In part this low accuracy is due to low poverty incidence and high mobility in and out of poverty.
    Keywords: C23 ; C52 ; I32 ; O29 ; ddc:330 ; vulnerability ; poverty ; ROC ; German panel data ; Armut ; Risiko ; Messung ; Prognoseverfahren ; Soziale Mobilität ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 35
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: The Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) accounts more workers who are employed in temporary work as the official statistic of labor contractor transfer / temporary work (ANÜSTAT) for the years 2001 to 2010. In this paper, the question is examined what causes can have such a difference and the impact a selection of employees in temporary work has with regard to the structural characteristics of employment and characteristics of temporary work, such as income, job expectations and job satisfaction.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; temporay work ; income ; job expectations ; job satisfaction ; Leiharbeit ; Datenerhebung ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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  • 36
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Human capital theory predicts pecuniary returns to regional migration, but also positive self-selection of migrants. Therefore, when estimating the causal effect of migration one has to take care of potential self-selection. Several authors recommend using fixed effects models thereby controlling for time constant unobserved heterogeneity. However, if selection operates not only on wage level but also on wage growth conventional fixed effects models are also biased. In this paper we want to investigate, whether migrants are self-selected on wage growth and if this biases conventional fixed effects estimates of the returns to migration. We use data from the SOEP 1984-2010. First we analyze the time pattern of the wage differential between migrants and stayers to see whether they are on different wage trajectories. Second we introduce a fixed effects model with individual slopes to investigate whether conventional results are biased.
    Keywords: C33 ; J61 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; regional migration ; causal- and selection-effects ; selection on wage growth ; Binnenwanderung ; Regionale Arbeitsmobilität ; Schätzung ; Bias ; Lohn ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 37
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: There are strong two-way links between parent and child happiness (life satisfaction), even for children who have grown up, moved to their own home and partnered themselves. German panel evidence shows that transmission of (un)happiness from parents to children is partly due to transmission of values and behaviors known to be associated with happiness (Headey, Wagner and Muffels, 2010, 2012). These values and behaviors include giving priority to pro-social and family values, rather than material values, maintaining a preferred balance between work and leisure, active social and community participation, and regular exercise. Both parents have about equal influence on the values and behaviors which children adopt. However, the life satisfaction of adult children continues to be directly influenced by the life satisfaction of their mothers, with the influence of fathers being only indirect, via transmission of values and behaviors. There appears to be a lifelong happiness dividend (or unhappiness dividend) due to parenting.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; life satisfaction ; inter-generational transmission ; German panel survey (SOEP) ; Zufriedenheit ; Familiensoziologie ; Generationenbeziehungen ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 38
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: This paper deals with long distance internal migration patterns of the immigrant population in Germany and addresses the question whether immigrants are more mobile than native Germans and to what extent the differences in spatial mobility behavior between immi-grants and native Germans are influenced by a) individual level characteristics, b) macro level regional economic characteristics and c) regional ties. The analysis shows in general a very low rate of long distance internal migration in Germany for native Germans as well as for immigrants. Even after controlling for individual and regional level characteristics, the immigrant population is half as mobile as native Germans. The results are more robust for the 2nd generation immigrants.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Binnenwanderung ; Migranten ; Ethnische Gruppe ; Bevölkerung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 39
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: The extensive research on the impact of educational attainment on fertility behavior has been expanded by a new dimension. According to these recent findings, not only the level but also the field of education has to be taken into account. The field of education determines a great deal about labor market options and influences opportunities to combine employment and family life. The question this paper aims to answer is: How does the educational field influence the transition to parenthood of women and men in Western Germany? The German Socio Economic Panel (1984-2010) provides the data. Discrete time event history models are applied to examine the impact of the field of education on the transition to parenthood, looking at the time after graduation until a first child is born. Educational fields are grouped according to their most salient characteristic with regard to the share of women, the occupational specificity, the share of public-sector employment, and the share of part-time employment among people educated in the field. The models take the educational level into account and control for marital status, episodes of educational enrollment, and migration background. The results show that educational fields matter for the transition to a first birth only for women. For men, the results do not show a significant impact of educational fields on the transition rates to parenthood. However, they point at the importance of the educational level for the probability of men to become fathers. High transition rates are found among women educated in both female-dominated and male-dominated fields. The finding of low transition rates among women educated in public-sector fields come as a surprise, since, given the high workplace security in the public sector, they were expected to be among the women with high transition rates.
    Keywords: J12 ; J13 ; J16 ; I24 ; ddc:330 ; field of education ; level of education ; fertility ; childlessness ; Western Germany ; Studienfach ; Bildungsverhalten ; Berufswahl ; Fruchtbarkeit ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 40
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Wie glücklich sind Migranten der ersten Generation in Deutschland heute? Wie beeinflussen formelle oder informelle Diskriminierungen ihre Lebenszufriedenheit? Welchen Einfluss haben materielle und immaterielle Ressourcen? Welche Vergleichsmaßstäbe ziehen sie zur Beurteilung ihres Glücks heran? Und wie verändert sich die Beurteilung des subjektiven Wohlbefindens (SWB) im Zeitverlauf? Wir nutzen Längsschnittdaten des Sozioökonomischen Panels und ein Mehrebenen-Verfahren, um diese Fragen statistisch zu beantworten. Dabei zeigt sich, dass die Lebenszufriedenheit der Zugewanderten zwischen 1984 und 2008 stetig gesunken ist. Diskriminierungen sind eine Determinante. Einen größeren Einfluss haben jedoch der Besitz und die Verteilung von Ressourcen - wie bei der einheimischen Bevölkerung auch. Für die Beurteilung ihrer Lebenszufriedenheit ziehen Migranten verschiedene soziale und zeitliche Vergleichsmaßstäbe heran. Das Haushaltseinkommen wird in der Regel mit der deutschen Bevölkerung verglichen. Für soziale und gesundheitliche Ressourcen spielen hingegen ethnisch-nationale Referenzgruppen eine größere Rolle. Wichtigster Referenzpunkt ist jedoch die eigene Vergangenheit. Mit dem Wechsel der Staatsangehörigkeit verliert dieser Vergleichspunkt allerdings drastisch an Bedeutung.
    Description: How happy are first-generation immigrants in Germany today? How do patterns of formal or informal discrimination affect their subjective life satisfaction? What is the effect of material and immaterial resources? What are the relevant standards for the evaluation of happiness? And how does the level of subjective well-being change over time? To answer these questions,we use longitudinal data of the German Socio-Economic Panel and a multilevel approach. Our findings show that the subjective well-being of immigrants has declined continuously between 1984 and 2008. Social discrimination has a negative effect on subjective wellbeing. Yet, the major influence comes from the ownership and control of resources - as in the domestic population. Immigrants use different social and temporal reference scales to evaluate their happiness. While household income is usually compared to local Germans, the ethnic community is the standard reference for evaluating social and health resources. The most important reference point, however, is the immigrant's individual past. Yet, the naturalization of the immigrant greatly reduces the significance of this reference.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Migration ; Subjektives Wohlbefinden ; Deutschland ; Lebensverlauf ; Alter- Kohorten- und Periodeneffekte ; Referenzgruppen ; zeitliche Vergleiche ; Diskriminierung ; soziale Ungleichheit ; Integration ; migration ; subjective well-being ; Germany ; lifecourse ; APC effects ; reference groups ; temporal comparisons ; discrimination ; social inequality ; integration
    Language: German
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  • 41
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: The paper provides new evidence on the outmigration of foreign-born immigrants. We make use of data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and employ penalised spline smoothing in the context of a Poisson-type Generalised Additive Mixed Model (GAMM), which enables us to incorporate bivariate interaction effects. A unique feature is the use of data from dropout studies to identify outmigration. For Turkish immigrants, outmigration is characterized by positive skill selection intensifying the initial negative selection process. For Non-Turkish immigrants we instead find a u-shaped pattern between human capital and outmigration. Finally, we discover substantial variation in emigration behaviour during the life-cycle.
    Keywords: C14 ; C51 ; F22 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; emigration ; self-selection ; German Socio-Economic Panel ; generalised additive mixed models ; Auswanderung ; Ausländer ; Rückwanderung ; Migranten ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 42
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: The reasons why the lower educated divorce more than the higher educated in many societies today are poorly understood. Distinct divorce risks by education could be caused by variation in pressures to the couple, commitment, or relationship skills. We concentrate on the latter explanation by looking at the distribution of personality traits across society and its impact on the educational gradient in divorce in Germany. Using data on married couples from the German Socio Economic Panel (N = 9 417) we first estimate the effect of several personality traits on divorce: the tendency to forgive, negative reciprocity, positive reciprocity, and the Big Five. We also account for and find non-linear effects of several personality traits on divorce risk, which is relevant for future research on the effects of personality. In addition, effects differ by level of education. We find personality traits that affect divorce risk to be unevenly distributed over educational groups, but contrary to expectation to favor the lower educated. Once taking into account personality the educational gradient in divorce becomes more negative. This is due to especially high scores on openness to experience for the higher educated, which is a very significant predictor of divorce risk. Overall, we find no support for the hypothesis that the lower educated have less relationship skills in Germany.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Scheidung ; Persönlichkeitspsychologie ; Bildungsniveau ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 43
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Using data from three European countries, this paper investigates whether self-reported satisfaction data are subject to panel conditioning or a panel effect, that is, whether answers depend on whether one has previously participated in the panel. The analysis proposes a way to account for panel attrition in cases where the attrition rate is substantial, and finds international evidence for a negative panel effect. This result can be of importance e.g. in the current debate on trends in life satisfaction over time), and might stimulate further research into panel conditioning for other economic data gathered via household surveys.
    Keywords: C83 ; I30 ; J10 ; ddc:330 ; Life satisfaction ; GHQ ; Panel conditioning ; Panel attrition ; Time trends ; Zufriedenheit ; Panel ; Datenerhebung ; Deutschland ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: This paper explores the difference between intentions and realizations in return migration with the help of a duration model. Using the GSOEP the results lend support to the fact that people use simplifying heuristics when trying to forecast the future; their return intentions indicate bunching in heaps of 5 years. Along these lines we find that migrated individuals systematically underestimate the length of their stay in the receiving country. We find that the difference decreases the older one gets, but is larger the more disadvantaged one feels due to ones origin as an example. The robustness checks show that the results do not hinge on a single definition, or set of explaining variables. The consistency in the underestimation may have important policy and modeling implications.
    Keywords: C41 ; D84 ; F22 ; ddc:330 ; duration analysis ; international migration ; hedonic forecasting ; utility misprediction ; Migranten ; Auslandsaufenthalt ; Dauer ; Erwartungstheorie ; Rückwanderung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: This study presents results of the validation of an ultra-short survey measure of patience included in the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Survey responses predict intertemporal choice behavior in incentive-compatible decisions in a representative sample of the German adult population.
    Keywords: D01 ; D03 ; D91 ; C91 ; ddc:330 ; time preferences ; discounting ; validation of survey measures ; Zeitpräferenz ; Befragung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Background: This study investigates possible mechanisms that can explain the association between unemployment and smoking, that is a) unemployment increases smoking probability (causation), b) smoking increases the probability to become unemployed (selection), and c) differences in both smoking and unemployment probabilities trace back to differences in socio-economic position (common cause). Methods: Longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) from the years 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008 were used to examine the effect of unemployment on smoking probability and vice versa (65,823 observations from 18,735 respondents, aged 18-60 years). Effects were estimated by using random and fixed effects logistic panel regressions. Results: Results from the random effects logistic regression model suggest that unemployed have a higher probability to smoke and that smokers have a higher probability to become unemployed. However, the fixed effects models indicate that the observed associations are driven by unobserved factors. Results indicate that both smoking and unemployment probability co-vary systematically with (childhood) socio-economic position. Conclusion: In contrast to previous studies, the present investigation suggests that there is neither a direct causal effect of unemployment on smoking behaviour nor a direct effect of smoking on unemployment probability. Rather, smoking and unemployment seem to be related through a common cause, with people from low socio-economic backgrounds being more likely to smoke as well as to become unemployed. These findings are interpreted in the frame of a life course perspective on the development of socially unequal health behaviours.
    Keywords: I12 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; health behaviour ; smoking ; unemployment ; longitudinal analysis ; life course ; health inequality ; fixed effects ; random effects ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Rauchen ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 47
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: After describing qualitatively the increasingly flexible organization of work hours in Germany, I turn to the German Socio-Economic Panel to quantify practices and trends, and assess their effects on workers and employers. Measuring flexibility as the extent to which overtime is compensated with time off, and hence receives no overtime premium, I show that hourly{paid workers have undergone a regime shift towards more flexibility since 1984, while salaried workers have maintained an already high level of flexibility. I find weak evidence that flexibility causes workers to be slightly less satisfied with their work and more satisfied with their leisure. Over the boom and bust cycle of 2004-2009, I find that for hourly-paid workers in manufacturing, paid and unpaid overtime hours were equally cyclical, but that the cycle for unpaid overtime led the cycle for paid overtime. The results suggest that while the new practices do free employers to make more cyclical adjustments in hours, they have not eliminated the need for adjustments in paid overtime. I identify as constraints ceilings on cumulated overtime hours to be compensated with time off and the window within which the compensation in time off must occur.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitszeitgestaltung ; Arbeitszufriedenheit ; Konjunktur ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 48
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Given shortages in public child care in Germany, this paper asks whether social support with child care and domestic work by spouses, kin and friends can facilitate mothers' return to full-time or part-time positions within the first six years after birth. Using SOEP data from 1993-2009 and event history analyses for competing risks, the author compares the employment transitions of West German, East German and migrant mothers of pre-school children. The results indicate that West German and migrant mothers return to work sooner if they have access to kin, and that kinship support is particularly important when public child care is unavailable. Furthermore, West German and migrant mothers are more likely to work full-time if their spouses partipate in domestic work. In contrast, social support does not affect employment transitions in East Germany where public child care is more easily accessible and continuous female employment is a prevalent social norm.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; maternal employment ; child care ; social support ; Mütter ; Berufliche Integration ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Arbeitsverhältnis ; Kinderbetreuung ; Soziales Netzwerk ; Migranten ; Deutschland ; Alte Bundesländer ; Neue Bundesländer
    Language: English
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  • 49
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: This article presents an integrated electricity dispatch and load flow model with endogenous electricity generation capacity expansion. The target is to quantify generation capacity requirements for 2030 and where within Central Europe it shall be ideally placed when taking into account the projected grid structure. We explicitly model the interdependence between grid operation and power plant placing as we investigate the contribution of centralized power plant placement on reducing the need for grid expansion. The application focuses on Germany and its neighbors and reference is made to recently published plans on grid expansion (TSO 2012). We adopt the perspective of a welfare maximizing system planner and thus determine capacity expansion levels as first-best benchmark. Results show that optimal capacity expansion levels are much lower than previous studies indicate (e.g. dena (2008); EC (2011); EWI et al. (2010); Maurer et al. (2012)). We also show that the need for grid expansion can be reduced by the appropriate placing of just a few Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) power plants as well as the use of storage and Demand-Side-Management. The presence of intra-national HVDC lines as proposed in the Grid Development Plan of 2012 (TSO 2012) is found to significantly reduce overall congestion and the need for back-up power plants. However, the contribution of the proposed HVDC lines varies greatly from project to project, calling for a prioritization of plans.
    Keywords: D61 ; D85 ; C61 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; electricity ; network planning ; renewable energies ; electricity markets ; capacity investment ; Elektrizitätsversorgung ; Kapazitätsplanung ; Standortwahl ; Elektrizitätswirtschaft ; Investition ; Regenerative Energie ; Mitteleuropa ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 50
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: This paper studies the effect of attending a high-quality secondary school on subsequent educational outcomes. The analysis is based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study in which we observe children when they make their secondary school choice (between ages 10-12) and later when they self-report on their intentions with regard to their further educational path (between ages 16-17). To identify the treatment effect, we use a regression-control framework as well as an instrumental variable approach (based on local supply of schools). In a second step, we carefully examine the influence of unobservable characteristics, using the new technique proposed by Altonji, Elder, and Taber (2005b). Our findings suggest that unobservable characteristics are indeed crucial to the validity of the research design. While we find large positive and significant effects of attending a high-quality school, we cannot rule out that the estimates are not in fact driven by selection on unobservables.
    Keywords: I20 ; I21 ; ddc:330 ; secondary school choice ; school quality instrumental variable estimation ; selection on unobservables ; Weiterführende Schule ; Schulbesuch ; Bildungsniveau ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 51
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-21
    Description: Background: In panel datasets information on environmental exposures is scarce. Thus, our goal was to probe the use of area-wide geographically referenced data for air pollution from an external data source in the analysis of physical health. Methods: The study population comprised SOEP respondents in 2004 merged with exposures for NO2, PM10 and O3 based on a multi-year reanalysis of the EURopean Air pollution Dispersion-Inverse Model (EURAD-IM). Apart from bivariate analyses with subjective air pollution we estimated cross-sectional multilevel regression models for physical health as assessed by the SF-12. Results: The variation of average exposure to NO2, PM10 and O3 was small with the interquartile range being less than 10µg/m3 for all pollutants. There was no correlation between subjective air pollution and average exposure to PM10 and O3, while there was a very small positive correlation between the first and NO2. Inclusion of objective air pollution in regression models did not improve the model fit. Conclusions: It is feasible to merge environmental exposures to a nationally representative panel study like the SOEP. However, in our study the spatial resolution of the specific air pollutants has been too little, yet.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; SOEP ; Geographically Referenced Data ; Feasibility Study ; Air Pollution ; EURAD-IM ; Physical Health ; Gesundheit ; Sozialforschung ; Umweltbelastung ; Geographie ; Region ; Panel ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 52
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-21
    Description: In Sen's Capability Approach (CA) well-being can be defined as the freedom of choice to achieve the things in life which one has reason to value most for his or her personal life. Capabilities are in Sen's vocabulary therefore the real freedoms people have or the opportunities available to them. In this paper we examine the impact of capabilities alongside choices on subjective and objective well-being. There is a lot of theoretical work on Sen's capability framework but still a lack of empirical research in measuring and testing his capability model especially in a dynamic perspective. The aim of the paper is to elaborate and test a "stock-flow" model measuring capabilities and choices to explain longer-term changes in well-being using 25 years of German and 18 years of British data. Three measures of well-being are constructed: life satisfaction for subjective well-being (SWB) and relative income and employment security for objective well-being (OWB). We ran random and fixed effects GLS models. The findings strongly support Sen's capabilities framework and provide new evidence on the way capabilities and choices matter for well-being. Capabilities indicated by human capital, trust, altruism and risk taking, and family, work-leisure, lifestyle and social choices show to strongly affect the three well-being indicators but their effect sizes differ largely dependent on the type of indicator used.
    Keywords: D3 ; D31 ; D63 ; I32 ; J21 ; J24 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Subjective and objective well-being ; happiness ; work-leisure choices ; income security ; employment security ; Sen¿s capability approach ; German and British panel data ; fixed effects GLS models ; Capability-Ansatz ; Zufriedenheit ; Lebensqualität ; Schätzung ; Deutschland ; Großbritannien
    Language: English
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  • 53
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-21
    Description: While rising unemployment generally reduces people's happiness, researchers argue that there is a compensating social-norm effect for the unemployed individual, who might suffer less when it is more common to be unemployed. This empirical study, however, rejects this thesis for German panel data and finds individual unemployment to be even more hurtful when aggregate unemployment is higher. On the other hand, an extended model that separately considers individuals who feel stigmatised from living off public funds yields strong evidence that this group of people does in fact suffer less when the normative pressure to earn one's own living is lower.
    Keywords: I3 ; J6 ; ddc:330 ; social norms ; unemployment ; well-being ; social benefits ; labour market policies ; Regionaler Arbeitsmarkt ; Zufriedenheit ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Sozialpsychologie ; Panel ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 54
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-21
    Description: Since it is still unclear to what extent time allocation retrospectively reported in questionnaires, reflects people's actual behavior, examining the accuracy of responses to time use survey questions is of crucial importance. We analyze the congruence of time use information assessed through retrospective questionnaires and through experience sampling methodology. The sample comprised 433 individuals ranging in age from 14 to 86 years. Participants completed standard survey questions on time allocation. In addition, a mobile-phone based experience sampling technology was used over a period of three weeks to obtain snapshots of, on average, 54 momentary activities in which participants participated while pursuing their normal daily routines. Experience sampling assessments were scheduled six times a day over at least nine days, including workdays, Saturdays, andSundays. Results indicate that the congruence between time allocation assessed with survey questions (i.e. in SOEP) and time allocation assessed with experience sampling methodology depends on the characteristics of the respective activities. Associations between standard survey questions and experience sampling methods are quite substantial for long-lasting and externally structured activities, such as paid work on workdays. Incontrast, associations between survey and experience sampling methods are somewhat weaker, though highly statistically significant, for less externally structured, short-term and infrequent activities, such as errands, housework, and leisure. These moderate and relatively small correlations may indicate either an error-prone estimation of the prevalence of shortterm and infrequent activities by experience sampling or respondents' overrating of sporadic and short activities in survey questions. We conclude that activities with a long duration, such as paid work, can be measured in a satisfactory manner using short survey questions. Futureresearch is necessary to elucidate which method (experience sampling method or survey questions) delivers more reliable and valid measures for shortterm and sporadic activities.Day Reconstruction Methods (DRM) should be included in this future methodological research.
    Keywords: C21 ; C83 ; C93 ; D10 ; ddc:330 ; Survey methods ; experience sampling method ; validity ; time use ; market work ; housework ; leisure ; German Socio-Economic Panel Study ; MMAA ; SOEP ; Zeitverwendung ; Messung ; Panel ; Stichprobenerhebung ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 55
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-21
    Description: The research on job satisfaction has a long history and is one of the most intensively studied subjects - not only in the field of industrial and organizational psychology. The various studies can roughly be classified into situational, dispositional, and hybrid approaches, depending on whether working conditions, personality traits or their interaction are emphasized as determinants. So far, only few studies consider all of these determinants in a common model. In addition, many studies both in the consideration of personality variables as well as the influence of factors to explain job satisfaction, do not offer a theoretical framework. This paper investigates the influence of personality characteristics and working conditions as well as the interaction of these two groups of variables on job satisfaction by means of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study. For this purpose, the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality (P. T. Costa und R. R. McCrae 1985; L. R. Goldberg 1981) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model (J. Siegrist et al. 1986) will be used as a theoretical and conceptual framework. OLS regressions show that both personality and (subjective) working conditions are relevant predictors of job satisfaction. None of the moderator variables of personality and working conditions increase the explained variance of the overall model. Working conditions (effort-reward imbalance and autonomy) have the highest explanatory power. Four of the five personality traits show highly significant effects. These findings suggest both a situational and a dispositional approach. Working conditions(especially a low effort-reward imbalance and high autonomy) and personality (especially emotional stability) play a crucial role in achieving higher job satisfaction.
    Keywords: J28 ; M12 ; ddc:330 ; Job satisfaction ; personality ; Five-Factor Model ; Big Five ; Effort-Reward Imbalance ; Arbeitszufriedenheit ; Arbeitsbedingungen ; Persönlichkeitspsychologie ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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