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  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (406,493)
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  • 1
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    Blackwell Publishing Ltd | Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2017-08-28
    Description: The introduction of the German parental leave benefit (Elterngeld) applied to all children born on 1 January, 2007 or later. The Elterngeld considerably changed the amount of transfers to families during the first two years postpartum. We show that the incentives created by using a cut-off date led more than 1,000 parents to postpone the delivery of their children from December 2006 to January 2007. Concerning potential adverse impacts on health outcomes of children we find a slight increase in average birth weight and the rate of children with high birth weight (〉4,000 g).
    Keywords: H31 ; J13 ; ddc:330
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: We investigate the possible future of Post-Kyoto climate policies until 2020. Based on a cross-impact analysis, we first evaluate an expert poll to identify the most likely Post-Kyoto climate policy scenarios. We then use a computable general equilibrium model to assess the economic implications of these scenarios. We find that Post-Kyoto agreements will include only small reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions, with abatement duties predominantly assigned to the industrialized countries, while developing countries remain uncommitted, but can sell emission abatement to the industrialized world. Equity rules to allocate abatement duties are mainly based on sovereignty or ability-to-pay. Global adjustment costs to Post-Kyoto policies are very moderate, but regional costs to fuel exporting countries can be substantial because of distinct terms-of-trade effects on fossil fuel markets.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: Are private firms more efficient than public ones? Does privatisation improve performance? In order to answer these questions, it is necessary to disentangle the impact of ownership and competition upon business performance. This paper presents empirical evidence relating to the hypothesis that public ownership and competition are determinants of firms' productivity. It concludes that public ownership has a significant negative effect on productivity and also that privatisation has a positive impact on efficiency. Furthermore, increased competition is found to have a positive effect on productivity. These results are interpreted as confirming that privatisation is effective as a means of increasing firms' efficiency, at least in a non-regulated and relatively competitive sector, such as manufacturing.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: Investment incentives targeted at attracting multinational firms have been extensively researched, and empirical evidence has shown them to be influential. The same is not true of exit restrictions. Yet, as recent theory suggests, there may be a trade-off between entry incentives and ease of exit. This paper focuses on that trade-off in the case of US multinationals in 33 host countries. An indicator of labour market regulations is used as a measure of ease of exit. Results suggest that both entry incentives and labour market regulations are important and ignoring the latter neglects an important dimension in firms' location decision.
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  • 5
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: This paper explores the conflict of real and monetary convergence during the EMU run-up of the Central and Eastern European member states. Using a Balassa-Samuelson model of productivity driven inflation, we find a high probability of higher inflation in the new member states. We compare the policy options which make the compliance possible, i.e. fiscal tightening and nominal appreciation within the ERM2 band. Nominal appreciation within ERM2 seems the better option to achieve the compliance with the Maastricht criteria, as no discretionary government intervention is necessary, and losses in terms of real growth are smaller. Having once opted for nominal appreciation by fixing the ERM2 entry rate as the central rate (Irish model), a high degree of flexibility is provided in coping with erratic short-term capital inflows. The strategy of setting the ERM2 entry rate above the central rate (Greek model) implies a clear exchange rate path within ERM2 and thereby less exchange rate volatility. Despite the merits of nominal appreciation, countries committed to hard euro pegs, or with high budget deficits, may choose fiscal contraction as a solution.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: This paper suggests that, while medieval cathedrals served many purposes and, indeed, were some of the greatest technical achievements of their time, they served a rational economic purpose as well. Protestant entry into the market for Christian religion finally materialized in the early sixteenth century. The Roman Catholic Church did not make a ‘mistake’ in failing to forestall entry. We argue that the Church made a conscious rational effort to do so by supplying excess capacity and particular forms of capital in medieval cathedrals. While the attempt to forestall entry was ultimately unsuccessful, the extent of cathedral building helps explain why some areas of Europe remained Catholic and alternative forms of Christianity took hold in other locales.
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  • 7
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: Theory presents two channels through which profit sharing can cause workers to increase their coworkers' productivity: greater cooperation and increased peer pressure. This paper argues that these generate opposite influences on coworker relations, and that which dominates varies according to circumstances and type of worker. Using German data, we show that, for non-supervisory men, profit sharing increases cooperation, but that for those who highly value success on the job, it has no influence on cooperation, and for supervisors it reduces cooperation. Moreover, the findings show striking gender differences in the effect of profit sharing. We contend these patterns fit with underlying theoretical expectations.
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  • 8
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: The ‘market discipline’ approach to subnational finance requires that moral hazard derived from the possibility of a central government bailout be made insignificantly small. Therefore, governments interested in following this approach and willing to abide by its rules should start by creating the conditions for a default and its resolution to be possible. This article discusses the use of lending ceilings as an instrument to allow the default, without dragging in the central government.
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  • 9
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: There is a growing interest in the academic and policy making communities in understanding the effects of sectoral specialisation on labour market performance. The existing empirical evidence, mainly based on US data, generally finds a positive correlation between sectoral specialisation and labour market indicators such as wages and unemployment. The policy implication one can draw from these results is that fostering sectoral diversification may reduce unemployment. However, this lesson may not hold for all countries. In particular, in the case of Europe, the diversity of labour market institutions may play a distinct role in shaping the relationship between sectoral specialisation and labour market performance.In this paper, we investigate the relationship between regional sectoral specialisation and regional unemployment rate in the context of different collective bargaining institutions in the EU countries. We find that collective bargaining institutions do play a role in shaping the unemployment rate differentials across regions belonging to the same country. Furthermore, the relationship between regional specialisation and the regional unemployment rate is stronger in countries with intermediate and decentralised collective bargaining institutions in comparison to countries with centralised collective bargaining institutions.Our results suggest that labour market institutions are likely to influence the outcome of policies aiming at fostering regional diversification. While such policies may result in reducing regional unemployment in countries with decentralised and intermediate levels of collective bargaining, they may not make a big difference in countries with centralised collective bargaining institutions.
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  • 10
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 11
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 12
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: A meta-analysis of thirty-four restriction tests from nine studies of the natural rate of unemployment hypothesis (NRU) finds the statistical trace of a false empirical hypothesis. A theme of bias and misspecification among those studies that tend to be more supportive of NRU emerges. When combined with a separate meta-analysis of NRU's falsifying hypothesis, unemployment ‘hysteresis’ (Stanley 2004a), the natural rate hypothesis may be regarded as empirically ‘falsified’ (Popper 1959). Monte Carlo simulations validate the meta-regression methods used here to integrate different restriction tests and to identify their limitations.
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  • 13
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: This paper distinguishes four types of ‘Prisoners’ Dilemma games – provision, the commons, selfishness, and altruism – based on the public character of benefits and costs. Although each of these four games has the same 2 × 2 ordinal game form, each differs in terms of strategic, dynamic, and policy implications. Similar differences characterize the n-person representations of the four games. When paired in 3 × 3 representations, the least-desirable Nash equilibrium of the two embedded 2 × 2 games results. The four types of PD games also have different evolutionary and informational requirements for cooperation. Applications include the environment, biology, counterterrorism, and international relations.
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  • 14
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: ‘Policymakers’ efforts to boost trend output growth may be hampered by the presence of a trade-off between productivity gains and job creation. This paper presents empirical evidence that the negative relationship between productivity growth and employment growth that prevailed in the 1960s and 1970s has disappeared since then. This finding is robust to using alternative measures and including other explanatory variables. The improved trade-off may be good news for policymakers who aim at raising the ‘speed limit’ of the economy.
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  • 15
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: The importance of aesthetic considerations is widely acknowledged in mathematics and the natural sciences. Beauty motivates mathematical and scientific discoveries and serves as a criterion for their acceptance by the scientific community. In contrast, there is little attention to beauty in the models, theorems and other objects of economic theory. This holds even though mathematics is an important tool of economic analysis. The pure theory of international trade provides useful examples to discuss the role of aesthetics in economic theory. The central feature of the discipline of economics which distinguishes it from the natural sciences and appears to explain the paucity of beauty in economics is that economic models lack generality.
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  • 16
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: Both the economic theory of federalism and international environmental economics are interested in finding conditions under which countries or groups of countries would like to start cooperation with other countries. In the framework of the standard public-good model this paper presents a criterion for individually rational and thus voluntary international cooperation aiming at the provision of an international public good. This basic criterion can be traced back to Wicksell and Rawls and reflects the idea of reciprocity. In a further step, it is used to specify determinants that affect the decision of a group of countries to enter a coalition. It turns out that in this context the adjustment behavior of the original coalition members as well as that of the remaining outsiders is of particular importance. Finally the theoretical considerations are confronted with actual behavior of countries and groups of countries (as the EU, US and the developing countries) in the Kyoto process leading to a discussion of further prospects for global climate-change policy.
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  • 17
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: We explore the economic implications of the possible Turkish accession to the European Union. We focus on three main changes associated with Turkish membership: (i) accession to the internal European Market; (ii) institutional reforms in Turkey triggered by EU-membership; and (iii) migration in response to the free movement of workers. Overall, the macroeconomic implications for EU countries are small but positive. European exports increase by around 20%. Turkey experiences larger economic gains than the EU: consumption per capita is estimated to rise by about 4% as a result of accession to the internal market and free movement of labour. If Turkey would succeed in reforming its domestic institutions in response to EU-membership, consumption per capita in Turkey could raise by an additional 9%. These benefits would spill over to the EU.
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  • 18
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: This article shows that therapeutic advice for behavior within the family is to create a functioning property-rights system and to emulate voluntary transactions within a competitive economic market. The optimal organization of the family requires that relations are structured so that non-cooperative game playing is minimized and transaction costs are reduced. The article employs economic analysis to explain why ‘setting limits’ is preferred to punishment (Pigouvian taxes). It also explains why there is conflict between children and their parents even when the parent's utility is the present discounted value of the child's utility function.
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  • 19
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 20
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 58 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
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  • 21
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1467-646X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Previous studies have found that companies use income-increasing positive discretionary accruals (DAC) prior to initial public offerings (IPOs) to inflate earnings as a signal to anticipate future income and future dividends. This study, directly explores the role of DAC in prospectus information of 691 A-shares IPOs in China during the period 1995–2002 and its relationship with market-adjusted returns. The results suggest that in China, pre-IPO non-discretionary accruals (NDAC) as well as DAC have informative value in explaining first-day returns as well as first-year adjusted returns. However, in yearly cross-sectional models, I find that firms use income-decreasing accruals (conservative accounting) in prospectus financial statements. This downward manipulation or income “understatement” creates a regulatory setting that could explain initial underpricing and abnormally high IPO returns for A-shares. In addition, the results show that as state ownership (SO) increases, cash flow also increases, exacerbating agency costs and adverse selection problems. These findings may suggest that managers might be using more conservative accounting in Prospectus financial data to offset the agency costs related to high cash flow, and high SO, by “banking income” and possibly therefore “smoothing” the effects of possible future suboptimal earnings.
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  • 22
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8357
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Art History
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  • 23
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8357
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Art History
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  • 24
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Art History
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  • 25
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Art History
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  • 26
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Art History
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  • 27
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Art History
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  • 28
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8357
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    Topics: Art History
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  • 29
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Art History
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  • 30
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Art History
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  • 31
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Art History
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  • 32
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Art History
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  • 33
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    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
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  • 34
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    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
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  • 35
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
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  • 36
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    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
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  • 37
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    The @art book 12 (2005), S. 0 
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  • 38
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1467-8578
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Education
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  • 39
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1467-8578
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Education
    Notes: In March 2005, Barry Carpenter, OBE, Chief Executive and Director of Research at Sunfield, an education and residential care centre for children with severe and complex learning needs, gave his inaugural professional lecture at University College Worcester. This article is based on that lecture. In it, Barry Carpenter reviews international trends in early childhood intervention and relates these to changing patterns of childhood disability, family needs, practitioner-led service development and Government policy initiatives. He describes a political climate in the UK which is ripe for the development of a nationally cohesive programme of early childhood intervention and proposes a number of key factors hat are crucial to the consolidation of the plethora of initiatives that have taken place in the UK in recent years. These include: early interventions that are delivered from the point of diagnosis; practice that is transdisciplinary; and high quality training for professionals. At the heart of this process, however, must be the voice of the family - guiding, informing, sharing, engaging. The key to successful early childhood intervention, Barry Carpenter argues, is responsivity - to society, to its families, but most of all to its children.
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  • 40
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1467-8578
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Education
    Notes: The desirability of parents and professionals in special education working in partnership continues to be expressed through Government policy and legislation and through voluntary sector initiatives. Moreover, partnership working attracts significant financial investment. Yet effective, working parent - professional partnerships often remain elusive in practice. In this article, Susanna Pinkus, a teacher, consultant and teaching practice supervisor who recently completed her PhD, describes her research into partnerships between parents and professionals. She bases her assertions on the daily experiences of 14 parents based in four London education authorities and attributes an absence of effective collaboration to lack of understanding about how partnerships between parents and professionals do, and should, function in the special educational context. In order to bridge this gap between the rhetoric of policy and the difficulties that are frequently reported in developing parent-professional relationships in practice, Susanna Pinkus identifies and discusses four principles as being central to forming effective partnerships.
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  • 41
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1467-8578
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Education
    Notes: As trends in favour of inclusion continue, questions arise concerning the extent to which teachers in mainstream schools feel prepared for the task of meeting pupils' special educational needs. Little previous research has considered how the subject taught impacts upon the attitudes of mainstream teachers towards pupils with special educational needs. In this article, Jean Ellins, research fellow at the University of Birmingham, and Jill Porter, senior lecturer at the University of Bath, report on their research into the attitudes of teachers in one mainstream secondary school. Building a detailed case study using documents, records of pupil progress, an interview and a questionnaire using a Likert-type attitude scale and open-ended questions, these researchers set out to explore distinctions between the attitudes of teachers working in different departments. Their findings suggest that the teachers of the core subjects, English, mathematics and science, had less positive attitudes than their colleagues. Further, pupils with special educational needs made least progress in science where teacher attitudes were the least positive. Jean Ellins and Jill Porter review the implications of these findings and make recommendations for future practice and further enquiry.
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  • 42
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1467-8578
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Education
    Notes: In this article, originally submitted to B J S E‘s Research Section, Chris Abbott of King's College, London, and Helen Lucey of the Open University report on the outcomes of a survey of special schools in England. The aim of the research, funded by the Nuffield Foundation, was to understand the nature and extent of symbol use for communication and literacy. A questionnaire was used to collect data on topics including: the types of symbols in use; the methodologies operated; ownership of symbol choice; and agreed policies within and outside school. The researchers had an excellent response in this important survey, undertake n after a period of rapid growth in symbol use in special schools and elsewhere. Chris Abbott and Helen Lucey provide a discussion of the results of their survey and of the issues that arise from the findings and the many comments added by respondents. They close their article with a call for further detailed research, both in the UK and in co-operation with practitioners in other countries, into the ways in which symbol use can meet the needs of learners.
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  • 43
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Education
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  • 44
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1467-8578
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Education
    Notes: Angela Jacklin is a senior lecturer in education and director of student support at the University of Sussex. William Farr is a teacher at a primary school in Sussex, and a former MA student at Sussex University. In the project reported in this article, they worked together to consider how valuable the computer may be as a medium to enhance social interaction with pupils with autistic spectrum disorders. The research took place in a special school for pupils with severe learning difficulties in the South East of England and involved 12 children from the school's unit for pupils with autism. From this initial group, three pupils were selected for more focused study. Using a mix of qualitative data gathering and analysis stragegies, the research highlighted the importance of social interaction a round the computer and indicated that the computer could be a useful tool for enhancing social interaction. This was found to relate in part to the adult's ability to follow the child's lead, as well as the complex intermingling of events known as ‘tricky mixes’. Where this happened, use of the computer appeared to result in more sustained and more positive interactions for young people with autistic spectrum disorders.
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    Notes: Nurture Groups have come to play a key role in the mainstream education of young children experiencing social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. In this article, Paul Cooper, Professor of Education, and Yonca Tiknaz, EdD Research Associate, both of the School of Education at the University of Leicester, explore the perceptions of mainstream and Nurture Group staff about the nature, purposes and impact of Nurture Group practice. Their analysis is based on data from three case studies, carried out in 2003, of Nurture Groups for pupils in Years 1 and 2 of their primary education.A key feature of this article is its focus on some of the challenges faced by apparently successful Nurture Groups in achieving a coherent and sustained form of intervention in the context of a whole-school approach. The authors show that mainstream and Nurture Group staff value Nurture Groups and see them as making a significant contribution to the progress of pupils, particularly in the areas of social and emotional development and behaviour. These findings are consistent with earlier studies. However, the lack of effective communication between Nurture Group staff and mainstream staff and difficulties over balance in Nurture Groups are highlighted as important factors that may, in some circumstances, inhibit educational progress. This paper helps to extend our understanding of some of the ‘opportunity costs’ and ‘opportunity gains’ that might be associated with the Nurture Group approach because of the temporary separation of children in Nurture Groups from mainstream schooling.
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  • 46
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  • 47
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    Notes: Book reviewed in this article: Physical Interventions and the Law Christina M. Lyon & Alexandra Pimor Parenting a Child with Asperger Syndrome Brenda Boyd Children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder David Sugden and Mary Chambers (eds) Dyslexia Action Plans for Successful Learning Glynis Hannell Leadership and SEN: meeting the challenge in special and mainstream settings Nick Burnett Removing Barriers to Learning in the Early Years Angela Glenn, Jacquie Cousins and Alicia Helps Dramatherapy: developing emotional stability Penny McFarlane Research on Counselling Children and Young People: a systematic scoping review Belinda Harris and Sue Pattison
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  • 48
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  • 49
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  • 50
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    Notes: In this article, Mary Kellett, of the Children's Research Centre at the Open University, draws on case study evidence to illustrate how an 11–year-old girl's quality of life was transformed in the last few months before she died when an Intensive Interaction intervention approach was adopted. The study raises issues about the way we respond to individuals with the most profound disabilities who are hardest to reach and have fragile life expectancies. It also examines the role of the researcher in situations where a participant dies; how this impacts on data processing - particularly where this involves video footage of a participant -and the complex ethics which need to be considered. Initially, the sadness of the situation and the incompleteness of the data overshadowed the findings. Due attention was not given to the contribution Catherine's data could make to our knowledge and understanding of the lived experiences of children like her and the implications this has for policy and practice. However, ‘interrupted’ findings from her case study point to the effectiveness of the Intensive Interaction approach in developing sociability, particularly with regard to eye contact and the ability to attend to a joint focus. This article affirms the principle that it is never too late to start an intervention; that severity of impairment should not be a barrier to this; and that the social interaction Intensive Interaction promotes can make a crucial difference to quality of life.
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  • 51
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    Notes: In this article, Dr Amanda Kirby, medical director at the Dyscovery Centre in Cardiff, Rhys Davies, a researcher for the School of Education at the University of Wales, and Amy Bryant, a psychology student at Cardiff University, report on their investigations into teachers' and general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge of six specific learning difficulties. It was hypothesised that the knowledge of both groups would be similar. The recent development of a labelling culture has resulted in confusion over the terms and the actual difficulties encountered by the individual. The authors asked 105 teachers and 105 GPs to define six categories of learning difficulties (dyspraxia; developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD); attention deficit disorder (ADD); deficit in attention, motor control and perception (DAMP); Asperger's syndrome; and dyslexia) on a questionnaire.The teachers gave significantly more correct definitions than the GPs. However, knowledge from both professional groups was limited, with correct responses only demonstrating a cursory awareness. There are implications for both groups of professionals. Teachers will not be able to recognise or accommodate the child with learning difficulties in class if their knowledge is limited. Similarly GPs will find it difficult to detect and appropriately refer children with learning difficulties. Finally, and most importantly, there are implications for the identification and support of the child, in both the short term and the long term, and associated psychological issues such as lowered self-esteem, depression and anxiety. Amanda Kirby, Rhys Davies and Amy Bryant make suggestions for improving the level of knowledge among professionals through training and discuss, in this engaging and frequently amusing article, some of the issues surrounding the current labelling system.
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  • 52
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    Notes: Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) characteristically display a lack of shared attention behaviours and the lack of these behaviours impacts on their ability to develop social interactions and relationships with others. Steve Solomons, assistant headteacher at Rectory Paddock School and Research Unit in the London Borough of Bromley, set out to explore these issues as an aspect of practice when he was working at St. Ann's School in the London Borough of Merton. He carried out this research as part of his MEd in special education at the University of Birmingham, for which he received the prestigious Annie Deakins prize in 2003. The aim of his study was to investigate whether aromatherapy massage could increase shared attention behaviours in a sample of four children with autistic spectrum disorders and severe learning difficulties (SLD). Aromatherapy massage was introduced into the daily timetable and children's responses were observed. The results indicate that children's shared attention behaviours increased during aromatherapy massage and that other aspects of their behaviour also changed over the course of the research. Family involvement in the study enabled these changes to be transferred from school to home. In this article, Steve Solomons explores the implications of his research for new teaching and learning opportunities for children with autistic spectrum disorders and severe learning difficulties.
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  • 53
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    Notes: Dr Lesley Cullen-Powell and Professor Julie Barlow are both chartered health psychologists and both work at the Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Health at Coventry University where Lesley Cullen-Powell is a research fellow and Julie Barlow is a director. In this article, they assess the benefits of a ‘self-discovery programme’ for children aged six to seven years attending one mainstream primary school. Staff at the school selected 18 pupils, many of them considered to be at risk of exclusion, to participate in the study. The children were allocated either to an ‘intervention’ or ‘non-intervention’ group. The children in the intervention group experienced the self-discovery programme over two terms.Results suggest that the programme was well received by the children. They became more confident, respectful and calm and they displayed less aggressive behaviours during the self-discovery programme. Lesley Cullen-Powell and Julie Barlow are cautious in the interpretation of their findings, but suggest that the self-discovery programme has the potential to help children to feel more positive about themselves and their peers and to re-engage with learning. The authors argue that a wider implementation of the programme, with a controlled study, is now required to evaluate the self-discovery programme in more depth and detail.
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  • 54
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    Topics: Education
    Notes: In a recent issue of BJSE, Sioned Exley published the outcomes of her school-based research into effective teaching strategies for students with dyslexia ‘based on their preferred learning styles’. She reported improvements in performance and attainment in spelling and recommended a more wide-scale adoption of approaches focused on learning styles.In this article, Tilly Mortimore, author of a recent book on dyslexia and learning style, and lecturer in inclusion at the University of Southampton, argues for caution. She suggests that practitioners need to look more closely into recent research into learning style and dyslexia before committing themselves to dramatic shifts in their ways of working. She presents here a review of the research context for learning styles and some reflections on Exley's selection of a research focus. While welcoming practitioner research, Tilly Mortimore suggests ways in which the theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of small-scale enquiries could be strengthened in order to increase their impact upon policy and practice.
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  • 55
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  • 56
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    Notes: A placement at the National Institute of Conductive Education (NICE) in Birmingham for children with motor disorders is strongly preferred over mainstream or special schools by some parents, but it has been noted that this is usually refused following the current statementing process. Although funding constraints have been articulated, Angela Morgan, a Research Fellow at the Wolverhampton University Policy Research Institute, and Kevin Hogan, also at the University of Wolverhampton, contend in this article that other explanations are possible, as variability remains in placement decisions. The experiences of education administrators working within the special educational needs departments of local education authorities who make the ultimate decision regarding school placement have hitherto been unexplored. This study offers findings from an exploratory qualitative study, which suggests that administrators are working from disparate understandings of conductive education within an arena fraught with conflict. Recommendations derived from the study include further in-service training for education administrators and prior training for individuals seeking a career in education administration to enhance collaborative working partnerships between administrators and parents.
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  • 57
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    Notes: As part of a larger study regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream classroom settings, Ellen Murphy, of the D Clin Psych programme at NUI Galway, with Ian Grey and Rita Honan, from Trinity College, Dublin, reviewed existing literature on co-operative learning in the classroom. In this article, they identify four models of co-operative learning and specify the various components characteristic of each model. They review recent studies on co-operative learning with the aim of determining effectiveness. These studies generally indicate that co-operative learning appears to be more effective when assessed on measures of social engagement rather than academic performance. Finally, Ellen Murphy, Ian Grey and Rita Honan present their account of the factors that contribute to the successful implementation of co-operative learning for students with difficulties in learning.
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  • 58
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  • 59
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  • 60
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    Notes: Book reviewed in this articles: School Inclusion in Iceland: the cloak of invisibility Dora S. Bjarnason Researching Learning Difficulties: a guide for practitioners Jill Porter and Penny Lacey Siblings – coming unstuck and putting back the pieces: stories of everyday life with children who are different Kate Strohm Inclusive Education – readings and reflections Gary Thomas and Mark Vaughan (eds) The Adolescent with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD) Amanda Kirby ADHD: How to Deal with Very Difficult Children Alan Train Psychology for Teaching Assistants Christopher Arnold and Jane Yeomans
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  • 61
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    Notes: Phyllis Jones is assistant professor in the Department of Special Education at the University of South Florida. In this article, she describes the work she did while acting as consultant to an Early Years Childcare Development Partnership (EYCDP) in the north of England. Part of this process entailed developing a Charter for Inclusion for the Partnership. Phyllis Jones and her colleagues decided to draw upon the views of children and designed a picture booklet, with questions, in order to encourage a small group of children, aged between six and 14 years, to talk about inclusion. Parents or primary care workers worked through the booklet with the children, exploring what inclusion may mean for them from general and personal perspectives. A total of 14 booklets were returned, with responses exemplifying the strong contribution children are able to make, not only to the philosophical drive for greater inclusion, but also to our understanding of what helps and hinders inclusive practice. Phyllis Jones reviews those ideas here and also reflects on some of the methodological issues that arise when researching the views of children in innovative and imaginative ways.
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  • 62
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    Notes: Literacy for pupils in the secondary phase of education is a key concern for practitioners and policy makers alike. Tony Lingard is the SENCo at a large comprehensive school in the south-west of England but he is also involved in staff development and school improvement initiatives across the UK. Literacy Acceleration is an intervention strategy for pupils with literacy difficulties that he and his team at school have been developing over many years. He undertook the research reported in this article at a comprehensive school where Literacy Acceleration was well established and being delivered by experienced staff. The research found that Year 7 and 8 pupils with literacy difficulties who followed Literacy Acceleration made significant progress with reading and spelling while similar pupils, who only had access to National English Strategy classes, did less well over the period of the study. The research also found that most of the pupils who experienced Literacy Acceleration in small groups, as well as mainstream English lessons, preferred being taught in smaller Literacy Acceleration groups where they also felt that they were making more progress. In concluding his article, Tony Lingard argues that pupils with literacy difficulties need specific, targeted interventions and that it may be a mistake to assume that the normal secondary English curriculum effectively meets their needs. This small-scale study therefore offers a challenge to a widely accepted policy. It suggests that abandoning strategies that focus on addressing the particular needs of pupils with literacy difficulties (of which Literacy Acceleration is one example) may not best serve the interests of a significant group of learners.
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  • 63
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    Notes: Current research highlights the prevalence of potentially undetected communication difficulties, often associated with major difficulties in literacy and learning, among pupils identified as having behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD). In this article, Sarah Heneker, who is a speech and language therapist working mainly with adults with learning disabilities in a Primary Care Trust in Surrey, reports on a pilot project that provided speech and language therapy to a group of pupils in a pupil referral unit (PRU). The research involved formal assessment of 11 pupils aged between five and 11 years. These assessments confirmed that ten out of the 11 pupils experienced some degree of difficulty in communication. Six of these pupils, whose significant difficulties warranted the intervention, were offered speech and language therapy for one term. All these pupils made progress in the areas targeted for intervention and gained confidence generally in their communication. The pupils who worked on word knowledge made the greatest measurable progress. Sarah Heneker reports on these and other benefits to the pupils involved and reveals that the success of her pilot project has led directly to a sustained programme of speech and language therapy input for the pupils in this PRU. This may be a response that education providers in other localities will wish to emulate.
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  • 64
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    Notes: In 2000, 25 speech and language therapy projects were established in schools in England, funded through the Standards Fund. An evaluation commissioned by the Government reported positive results and gave an overview of all the projects at a point approximately six months after their inception. Although there were common themes, it was quite clear that the projects differed widely in their structure and interpretation of the original brief.In this article, Sue Roulstone, Professor of Speech and Language Therapy at the University of the West of England, and Rosalind Owen and Lucy French, both specialist speech and language therapists working for the United Bristol Healthcare NHS Trust, provide an in-depth report of one of the projects and its evaluation after 18 months.The project, based on a systems analysis approach, targeted its interventions at the individual child, the parents, the teachers and therapists, the classrooms and schools, and more strategic levels in the health and education services. The article gives details of the ‘interventions’ for each component. An independent evaluation gathered qualitative and quantitative data that suggest that the new service had a positive impact on all aspects of the system. Children made gains in their speech and language; parents were informed and involved; therapists and teachers were more satisfied about their knowledge base; and systems changed within the schools to reflect and support the collaboration. The outcomes of the project led to a rolling out of the model to two more cluster groups of schools. A number of organisational structures were identified which support the ongoing collaboration. Details given in this article will enable others to identify whether or not this model might suit their local circumstances and be replicable in their context.
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  • 66
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    Notes: As we move towards a more inclusive education system in the UK, there is a real need to equip teachers to work in more diverse classrooms from the start of their teaching careers. In this article, Gill Golder, teaching and research fellow (physical education), Brahm Norwich, Professor of Educational Psychology and Special Educational Needs, and Phil Bayliss, senior lecturer in special educational needs and education studies, all based in the School of Education and Lifelong Learning at the University of Exeter, describe developments in Exeter's secondary phase Post Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) programme. The authors set their account in the context of policy requirements in England and international trends towards more inclusive teacher education. They report on an initiative designed to enhance the knowledge, skills and attitudes of trainee teachers and to equip them to differentiate their teaching to meet the individual needs of all pupils, including those with special educational needs. This initiative involved all trainees working intensively with one pupil, supported by the SENCo in their teaching practice school. Building towards a form of dispersed teacher preparation that may have applications in other contexts, the programme offered student teachers a systematic strategy for individualised teaching and the support of web-based resources. Gill Golder, Brahm Norwich and Phil Bayliss include evaluations from student teachers, SENCos and principal subject tutors in their report. They conclude that this is a promising way of working, which highlights the national and international need to develop practical ways of enhancing initial teacher education in relation to special educational needs and inclusion.
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  • 68
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    Notes: In 2002, Neil Humphrey and Patricia Mullins published their research into personal constructs and attribution for academic success and failure in dyslexia in BJSE's‘Research Section’. Their work suggested that pupils with dyslexia, in a range of settings, experience real challenges to their self-esteem and that dyslexia leads to ‘negative consequences for their self-development’. This article by Robert Burden, Professor of Applied Educational Psychology at the University of Exeter, and Julia Burdett, an experienced teacher and part-time research assistant, challenges those findings.Robert Burden and Julia Burdett interviewed 50 boys, aged between 11 and 16, attending an independent special school for pupils with dyslexia. The research tools explored the pupils’ attitudes to learning and their sense of personal identity. The general levels of depression and ‘learned helplessness’ revealed were low in sharp contrast to the positive feelings of self-efficacy, locus of control and commitment to effort as an essential learning strategy reported by the pupils. Burden and Burdett explore the consequences of such cognitive self-appraisal for successful learning outcomes in pupils with dyslexia and speculate about the influence of specialist provision upon the positive self-image of the pupils in their study. They state their intention to take their research further with pupils in mainstream settings.
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  • 70
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    Notes: Book reviewed in this article: Learning Without Limits Susan Hart, Annabel Dixon, Mary Jane Drummond and Donald McIntyre (2004) Through Loss Elizabeth Bruce and Cynthia Schultz (2004) Listening to Children 2004 Stuart Aitken and Sally Millar (2004) The New Teacher's Survival Guide to Behaviour Sue Roffey (2004) Asperger Syndrome – what teachers need to know Matt Winter (2003) Handbook of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties Peter Clough, Philip Garner, John D. Pardeck and Francis Yuen (2004)
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  • 71
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    Notes: In 1995, on the occasion of his ‘retirement’, Professor Klaus Wedell wrote a leading article for BJSE entitled ‘Making inclusive education ordinary’. Last October, Professor Wedell, also known to BJSE's readers as the author of the regular ‘Points from the SENCo-Forum’ column, delivered the Gulliford Lecture at Birmingham University. Here he makes the text of his lecture accessible to a wider audience.In this article, Professor Wedell places some of the ideas he discussed in 1995 in a contemporary context. He explores the systemic rigidities that create barriers to inclusion; he offers creative ideas for new ways to approach the challenges of inclusion; and he argues persuasively for much greater flexibility, at a range of levels, in order to facilitate change, development and innovation. Building on these themes, Professor Wedell summarises a series of implications for policy and practice. These concern teaching and learning; staffing and professional expertise; and grouping and locations for learning. In concluding his article, Professor Wedell calls on the Government to consider in more depth the issues that are raised by moves towards inclusion – particularly those issues that concern the individual learner in relation to the shared curriculum. This article will be of interest to anyone who recognises these and other tensions in the movement towards inclusion.
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    Notes: In this article, Hazel Lawson, principal lecturer in education at the University of Plymouth, Sue Waite, a researcher at the University of Plymouth, and Christopher Robertson, lecturer in special and inclusive education at the University of Birmingham, discuss the curriculum for students with severe and profound and multiple learning difficulties at ages 14 to 16. This phase of schooling, referred to as Key Stage 4 in the English system, is characterised, in mainstream settings, by examination processes. Drawing upon research work carried out for the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, they argue that developing a distinctive curriculum offer for students with severe and profound and multiple learning difficulties in Key Stage 4 presents both opportunities and challenges. Setting their argument in the context of current proposals for the reform of education between the ages of 14 and 19 in England, they highlight issues including the desire to maintain breadth and balance while meeting individual needs and preferences; progression towards more facilitative pedagogies and a diversity of contexts for learning; and tensions between providing continuity and introducing change intended to promote increased student autonomy. This article will be of direct interest to policy makers and practitioners in mainstream and specialist settings.
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    Notes: Helen May recently completed her doctoral studies at the University of Leeds. Her EdD thesis, written with the benefit of extensive experience of practice, focused on the engagement of children with learning difficulties in interactions in primary classrooms. In this article, Helen May draws on her familiarity with the literature to explore the topic of pupil participation. This issue has attracted considerable attention in recent years, especially since it is on the Government's agenda for education in the UK. Here, Helen May examines the political, research and pedagogical contexts in which pupil participation is currently being addressed. She notes that the adult role in bringing about pupil participation is currently emphasised in each of these contexts and expresses concern that pupil participation is therefore being portrayed as requiring professional intervention. By calling for greater exploration of pupil participation from the perspectives of pupils themselves, Helen May makes a persuasive case for seeking a more balanced recognition of the active roles that pupils and professionals can play in this area.
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    Notes: This article written by Peter Lloyd Bennett, educational psychologist, and Carole Dyehouse, headteacher, provides a personal account of how one primary school responded to the death of a pupil. The authors describe the process by which bereavement within the school community became a valued learning opportunity within the school curriculum. Involving the parents as soon as possible was considered important and the responses of the parents of the bereaved child influenced the arrangements made by the school. Staff were available to children to help them come to terms with their bereavement and the tragic nature of the child's death. Decisions about the arrangements involved the school management team, the governors, the teaching staff, the non-teaching staff and the pupils represented by the school council consisting of elected members of each class. Staff were sensitive to children who were enabled to contribute in their own way and all parents were encouraged to involve themselves at the level at which they felt comfortable. At the end of this honest and moving article, the authors provide reflective and analytical comments about their shared experiences and offer a list of resources that will be of great relevance to practitioners.
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Education
    Notes: Recent legislation in England has encouraged the use of disagreement resolution and mediation and emphasised the need to involve pupils in their own schooling. These policies apply in the educational system generally, but are particularly significant in the area of special educational needs (SEN). Kirstie Soar, a lecturer in the School of Psychology at the University of East London; Katie Burke, a PhD student at Salford University, Manchester; Katia Herbst, an independent researcher offering research and development services to the not-for- profit sector; and Professor Irvine Gersch, Director of the MSc educational psychology programme at the University of East London, set out to examine how pupil involvement in informal disagreement resolution has developed across 11 English regions since its introduction. The research consisted of 12 in-depth interviews with local education authority (LEA) SEN officers, mediators and parent partnership officers (PPOs) involved in informal special educational needs disagreement resolution. The aims of the study were to determine how far children were actually involved in mediation and what, if any, barriers existed which were seen to restrict such pupil involvement. A thematic analysis of interview content was conducted. Four major themes emerged, including: the distinction between direct and indirect pupil involvement; the importance of the child's view and how it is elicited; the role of other agencies; and other barriers to pupil involvement in informal disagreement resolution. Direct pupil involvement was found to be limited and variable, but indirect pupil involvement was more prevalent. In this article, the authors note a series of recommendations concerning pupil involvement in the mediation process and, in conclusion, put forward the implications of their work for future policy, practice and research.
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    ISSN: 1467-8578
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Education
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  • 77
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    ISSN: 1467-8578
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Education
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  • 78
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    ISSN: 1467-8578
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Education
    Notes: Many practitioners are now grappling with the practical realities involved in collaborations between mainstream and special schools. Colin Gladstone is a teacher at Greenside, a special school in Hertfordshire. In this article he describes his experience of running a Young Enterprise Scheme project linking teenage students with severe learning difficulties with students from a mainstream secondary school. Colin Gladstone used a Best Practice Research Scholarship (BPRS) and his MEd studies to carry out sustained research into the processes and outcomes of this project named, by the students, ‘The Green Team’. The project was clearly a success on many levels, promoting teamwork, collaboration and friendship between the students. It led to accreditation for some and enhanced personal autonomy for others. Colin Gladstone's conclusions will be relevant to practitioners wishing to expand the curriculum for students with and without learning difficulties; to policy makers who wish to promote more active links between mainstream and special schools; and to researchers who wish to engage students in enquiry processes.
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  • 79
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    ISSN: 1467-8578
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Education
    Notes: Books reviewed in this article: Intellectual Disabilities: genetics, behaviour and inclusion Jean Rondal, Robert Hodapp, Salvatore Soresi, Elizabeth Dykens and Laura Nota (2004) Helping Children with Feelings , A series of books by Margot Sunderland and Nicky Armstrong (2003) Helping Children Locked in Rage or Hate , Guide and children's book –How Hattie Hated Kindness Helping Children with Fear , Guide and children's book –Teenie Weenie in a Too Big World Helping Children with Loss , Guide and children's book –The Day the Sea Went Out and Never Came Back Helping Children with Low Self-Esteem , Guide and children's book –Ruby and the Rubbish Bin Looking After Children and Young People Karen Mosedale and Jo Hathaway (2004) The Behaviour Management Toolkit , Margaret Sutherland and Colin Sutherland (2004) Brothers and Sisters of Disabled Children , Peter Burke (2004) The Trouble with Maths: a practical guide to helping learners with numeracy difficulties , Steve Chinn (2004)
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  • 80
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    R & D management 35 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9310
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
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    R & D management 35 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9310
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: High-performing project teams are crucial for effective research and development (R&D). To become high performing, teams need to make use of their different skills and reflect upon their collective actions, thereby combining knowledge that could lead to value-adding activities for the company. This article describes the use of team coaching in supporting team reflection and learning in global R&D project teams. A collaborative research approach was used during the 8 months of coaching, with several inquiry methods being employed. The results indicate that coaching interventions have a positive effect on team performance, both from an efficiency perspective as well as from a creativity and climate perspective. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed, as is future research.
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  • 82
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    R & D management 35 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9310
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: One crucial yet relatively unexamined perspective on issues of concern to both organizations and nations, the creativity and productivity of scientific efforts, is the insider perspective. Insiders are privy to confidential information – in this study, first-hand observations of good and bad leadership – because of their position within the laboratory. The insider perspective can help answer such questions as: What are scientists' lived experiences of effective management? What have they observed as some of the impacts of ineffective management? What worries them in terms of their own capacity to lead and manage? This paper describes interim results of an ongoing, exploratory study of insiders in academia, government, and industry. For the past 5 years, more than 200 scientific researchers from Europe, Asia, and the US have been asked open-ended questions about (1) the best example of scientific leadership they have encountered; (2) the worst example; and (3) their most difficult problems leading scientific endeavours. Their responses to date have included unexpected and surprising results. Good leaders are most frequently described as caring and compassionate (in contrast to the expected description of technically competent). Bad leaders are most frequently described as (surprisingly) abusive. The other important (and ‘unintended’) finding is that gender inequity persists. These responses illuminate some of the challenges facing those who manage research and development (R&D), who study the management of R&D, and who are responsible for national policies regarding R&D.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource