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  • 1
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    Blackwell Publishing Ltd | Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell | Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2020-04-24
    Description: The introduction of the German parental leave benefit (Elterngeld) applied to all children born on 1 January, 2007 or later. The Elterngeld considerably changed the amount of transfers to families during the first two years postpartum. We show that the incentives created by using a cut-off date led more than 1,000 parents to postpone the delivery of their children from December 2006 to January 2007. Concerning potential adverse impacts on health outcomes of children we find a slight increase in average birth weight and the rate of children with high birth weight (〉4,000 g).
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; H31 ; J13
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
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  • 3
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
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  • 4
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
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  • 5
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
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  • 6
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
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  • 7
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
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  • 8
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
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  • 9
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
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  • 10
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
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  • 11
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
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  • 12
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
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  • 13
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    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: After losing two successive elections, debate has raged within the Democratic party over how to win back power without comprising the principles which the party has long stood for. This article explores the reasons why the Democrats were unable to defeat George W. Bush in 2004, despite the numerous problems of the incumbent' first term, and asks what lessons the Democrats can learn from their defeat. The second half of the article focuses on what issues and policies the Democrats should concentrate and what strategies the party should adopt in order to improve its image and broaden its popular appeal ahead of the 2008 election.
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  • 14
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    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: The first report from the national Sure Start evaluation team concludes that to date not only has the Sure Start programme not been a success, but for certain groups of disadvantaged families it has led to a worse outcome. The cost to date has been £3 billion.This is simply the latest in a series of spectacular policy failures: for example, the Child Support Agency, family tax credits, truancy reduction, lack of literacy amongst many children, reductions in access to top universities from state schools.Each has its own reasons for failure, but there are now so many examples in so many diverse areas that something more fundamental is going on. The problem is the increasingly complicated nature of the interventions of the social democratic state. These increase rather than reduce the probability of failure. Government still has an important role. But it should be as simple as possible.
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  • 15
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    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: Animal rights extremism has encouraged the media to examine the benefits and justification of animal research. There is broad support from the scientific community and government for carefully conducted animal research; however, Parliament is hindered, as many MPs are ill-informed. The recent Nuffield Council on Bioethics investigated the issue and determined that in carefully considered cases animal research is justified, scientifically valid, and has contributed to human health. The great majority of the public accept the need for animal research for medical progress when there is no alternative method available. Arguments used by anti-vivisectionists are discussed, many of which are unfounded and based on misconceptions.
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  • 16
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    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
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  • 17
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    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: Books reviewed in this article:The Rationality of Social JusticeBHIKHU PAREKH Why Social Justice Matters: The Social Democratic Alternative to the Washington Consensus, by Brian BarryVarieties of CorruptionPaul Jankowski Corrupt Histories, edited by Emmanuel Kreike and William Chester JordanAre we all republicans now?Dawn Oliver Our Republican Constitution, by Adam TomkinsDefending the NHS: Myths and RealitiesJennifer Dixon NHS plc: The Privatisation of Our Health Care, by Allyson M. PollockGlobal Non-sustainabilityDick Pountain Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive, by Jared DiamondTrade union historyNina Fishman United We Stand: A History of Britain's Trade Unions, by Alastair J. ReidBritons behaving badly?Mary Chamberlain Bloody Foreigners: The Story of Immigration to Britain, by Robert WinderOut of Yugoslavia into EuropeIlaria Favretto The Hidden Handshake: National Identity and Europe in the Post-Communist World, by Ales DebeljakMaking AmericansFiona Ross The Liberty of Strangers: Making the American Nation, by Desmond KingThe cancer of tortureVictoria Brittain The Torture Papers: The Road to Abu Ghraib, edited by Karen J. Greenberg and Joshua L. Dratel Torture and Truth: America, Abu Ghraib and the War on Terror, by Mark Danner
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  • 18
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
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  • 19
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
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  • 20
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
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  • 21
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
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  • 22
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    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: Manipulative mixed messages from candidates to voters affect what governments are entitled to do in office. A party that wins an election gains a 'mandate to rule'. But there is a second type of mandate: a 'policy mandate' to enact specific policy proposals central to the winning party's campaign. Mixed-message politics in general can undermine policy mandates, and the use of 'dog whistle politics' - telling one group of voters one thing, while allowing or encouraging another group to believe another - makes the inferring of policy mandates especially problematic. Referendums provide only a partial remedy to dog whistle politics. Winning a clear policy mandate means forgoing dog whistle politics, despite the short term electoral advantage they may deliver.
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  • 23
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    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
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  • 24
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    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: Pronounced declines in the number of young (non-) voters casting their ballots in 1997 and 2001 has raised the question: are we witnessing a generational disengagement with electoral politics? It is generally understood that voter turnout is strongly related to closeness of electoral competition. This research report examines the results of the 2005 election in the context of the debate on declining youth turnout at general elections. Did a closer competition in 2005 encourage young voters back to the polls?
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  • 25
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    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: Electoral registration is the key building block for the administration of elections. It is the gateway to voting: people cannot vote at elections in the UK if their name is not on the register. In recent times there has been much debate in media and Westminster circles about current arrangements for electoral registration and the related issue of the future of postal voting.This article presents new research published by the Electoral Commission in September 2005 investigating non-registration and its causes. It reviews the case for reform, considers the current policy debate and outlines some of the challenges involved in maximising registration rates. It summarises the Commission's policy recommendations and the reasoning behind them, focusing in particular on the suggested move from the current household-based system of registration to a system of individual registration
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  • 26
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    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: Europeans constituted their post-Second World War political identities in terms shaped by the Cold War but matters took an unexpected turn when the events of 1989/91 required acknowledgement of the hitherto largely unremarked existence of the project of the European Union. The question of the identity of Europe/Europeans moved into mainstream debate: how can the variety of 'national pasts' be reconciled, how might ideas of Europe/Europeans fit within the range of identities affirmed by Europeans, and can the project present a clear image within the international community? The European Union is the only game in town for Europeans but it is also deficient; reform is made more difficult by the struggle to define the post bloc world: reform for what becomes the issue - upgraded US ally, loose free trade area or federal polity? These are awkward questions but the continent is recovering from the catastrophe of its twentieth century and one can feel optimistic for the future.
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  • 27
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    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: In 2001 farmers in the UK seemed besieged both by domestic crises and international pressures for reductions in agricultural subsidies in order to stop trade distortions which harm developing countries. However, since then cutbacks in EU farm subsidies have failed to materialise and the reformed subsidy system is now given political cover by a new alliance with environmentalists. This follows linkage of increasing proportions of farm subsidies to environmental purposes rather than agricultural production. This article questions whether the reforms will achieve cuts in agricultural overproduction. Moreover, environmentalists who have supported the reforms may be sidelining the interests of developing countries in return for environmental gains which are at best superficial and at worse totally illusory. An alternative environmental strategy is discussed.
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    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-923X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: This article examines the recommendations contained within the Commission for Africa's report Our Common Interest, and asks what they might mean for the UK's Africa policies. After discussing the choice of the Commissioners and summarising the main recommendations made in their report, the article identifies some of the central problems raised but not resolved by the Commission in the relation to issues of security, political economy and governance. The article concludes that the Commission's report raised the profile of an important set of issues but neither resolved them conceptually nor set out a persuasive plan to implement its numerous recommendations. In particular, the Commission did not convincingly explain how neo-patrimonial regimes in Africa could be reformed to ensure that they pursue genuinely national development policies instead of the current strategies that benefit their supporters and weaken their political opponents.
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  • 29
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    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: Boardroom trouble at Deutsche Börse, the company that operates Germany's main stock market, has recently provoked an important debate about competing capitalist models. Werner Seifert, Deutsche Börse's ousted Chief Executive, was eager to portray himself as the innocent victim of aggressive Anglo-American investors who had bought into his company but failed to understand its traditional operating ethos. In this, he was ably supported by key figures within the ruling Social Democratic Party, who, in order to shore up the party's core support, had increasingly come to blame overseas hedge funds for the development of German corporate governance models which prioritised profits over jobs. I review the SPD's structural reading of the Deutsche Börse affair, whilst comparing it to an alternative interest-based reading. The latter allows me to focus more closely on the issue which, more than any other, led to Seifert's downfall: his refusal to bow to the expressed interests of his own shareholders by pressing ahead, against their wishes, with a hostile bid for the London Stock Exchange. Seifert's eventual removal foreclosed the possibility of an integrated London-Frankfurt stock market and, somewhat ironically given the SPD's response to the affair, as a consequence it also prevented the entry of London's highly capitalised institutional investors into the German market for corporate control. The actions of Deutsche Börse's overseas shareholders might still be seen as evidence of a predatory Anglo-American capitalism. However, their successful removal of Werner Seifert may well have been responsible for temporarily keeping other financial predators at bay.
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    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: Tony Blair has made no secret of his admiration for the philosophical works of John Macmurray. This article shows that Blair recognises Macmurray's contribution to the understanding of the individual in society. Blair readily acknowledges Macmurray's overriding desire for philosophy to place individuals in their rightful social setting. Yet Blair views this philosophical shift as a reinforcement of modern notions of community that emphasise an obligation to others as well as to oneself. It is my contention that this may be a misreading of the specifics that lay behind the works of Macmurray. By implication, this error in understanding could have led New Labour to pursue a social policy direction that contradicts Macmurray's visions of capitalism and its effects upon human agency, behaviour, rationality and morality. Consequently, this article examines the works of Macmurray in an attempt to show that Tony Blair and New Labour are in danger of making false assumptions on how to revive a contemporary sense of community through the bedrock of a traditional family unit supported by the model of the 'rational economic man'.
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    The @political quarterly 76 (2005), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: For New Labour to achieve the 'progressive consensus' to which it aspires, it needs to develop a transformative, cultural politics. This would engage in a battle of hearts and minds with the electorate, seeking to shape its preferences rather than accommodating them. Much of the accumulated criticism of New Labour focuses on its failure to develop an overarching political narrative to fulfil this task. However, critics have also shown that New Labour does have a definite vision of the type of society and individual it is constructing in the face of social change. Unfortunately for progressives, this is based on an image of the acquisitive individual, culturally conservative community and a fatalistic understanding of modernisation. Entrenching a progressive consensus requires a political strategy that resonates with contemporary experiences of social change, while showing how it can be steered in more progressive directions.
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  • 32
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9493
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9493
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: This article broadly positions the successful establishment of the field of French tropical geography in the immediate postwar period against developments stemming from a longer history of French colonial engagement in Africa, Asia and South America, and clarifies the seemingly late timing of, and paradoxes involved in, the creation of a body of French scientific knowledge about the tropics. Colonial scientific research did not develop in France until the end of the nineteenth century. However, the colonial geography appearing at this time did not rely on fieldwork but, rather, catered to the demands of the business class for overseas expansion and to public curiosity. Even while the medical geography of tropical areas and knowledge of tropical soils and ecology progressed greatly between 1900 and 1940, there were still only a few French geographers working in the tropics. With the advent of the Second World War, when “big science” appeared in France and its colonial empire, the number of French geographers involved in tropical research grew rapidly. The field of tropical geography built up by Pierre Gourou was a synthesis of approaches developed in South America, Africa and Indochina. Although it soon came under strong criticism for its pessimistic view of prospects for industrialisation and urbanisation in the tropics, it seduced French geographers because it matched the contemporary interest in zonality and relied on a genre de vie analysis of, typically, rural areas. Thus, the postwar blossoming of tropical geography shaped by Gourou was more a response to various internal dynamics within French geography than an exercise in imperialism. Its demise was not due to the eclipse of French colonialism but, rather, its inability to deal with the modernisation of tropical societies.
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9493
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: This paper discusses four key phases in the study of the tropical milieu of monsoon Asia by French geographers and colonial actors over the last 150 years. First, it sees how the natural milieu initially occupied a central and determining place in French colonial and scientific assessments of Indochina, and how the notion of monsoon Asia appeared within the framework of an academic geography (and formatively in the two regional theses produced by Charles Robequain and Pierre Gourou). It then shows how, after the Second World War, francophone geographers developed a “tropicalist” approach to monsoon Asia, one that was inextricably linked with the culturalist approach that was pioneered by Gourou, which later evolved into new, model-building and interdisciplinary approaches to the study of tropical systems. It argues that these successive phases have marked a shift from a centred tropicality - a system of knowledge anchored in French colonialism and centring on debate about the determinist influence of the natural milieu - to a decentred tropicality that rejects environmental determinism, questions the ethnocentric character of tropical geography and integrates the study of tropical geography into the wider social sciences. The paper concludes with the suggestion that tropicality has had an epistemologically stronger and more institutionalised relationship with francophone geography than was the case in anglophone geography.
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9493
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: In important respects, the disciplinary field of “tropical geography” is a uniquely French field of study, and Pierre Gourou is conventionally seen as its founder and doyen. Yet Gourou did not see himself as the creator of a new paradigm or research school, and geographers were generally more influenced by his writings than by his teaching or any personal connection. With particular reference to French geographical research in and on tropical Africa during the second half of the twentieth century, it is suggested that the development of tropical geography as a subfield - and tropicalism as a research orientation - can be put down to a variety of factors and circumstances. Geographical research on Africa was pivotal, as was the rise to prominence in French research institutes of some of Gourou's disciples. But African academics also played a part, as did criticism of tropical geography for its marginalisation of issues of development and geopolitics. The paper examines this postwar intellectual history and attempts to draw from it a positive and forward looking legacy - a reinvigorated and interdisciplinary “tropicalism”, the main axis of which would be the analysis of the specific characteristics of tropical ecology, and its use and transformation by the societies that live from it. Such a project may help us to confront the contemporary world ecological crisis, and forge critical research projects on globalisation (altermondialisme) that can discern and deal with the complex local-global, and rural-urban, articulations of this phenomenon.
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: This article discusses the relevance of the work of Pierre Gourou for Vietnamese and non-Vietnamese scholarship on colonial and postcolonial rural society in Vietnam. The term “tropicality” is used to situate Gourou's work within the framework of both French and Vietnamese regimes of truth. It is argued that Gourou was aware of the complex human geographies of the tropics and monsoon Asia and the challenges this posed to both Western and “tropical” peoples. Gourou and the issue of tropicality is used to show that Vietnamese scholars did not completely reject French colonial systems of knowledge, and that decolonisation did not herald a complete shift in knowledge about rural Vietnam. Rather, since the 1940s there has been antagonism and accommodation between colonial and postcolonial, French and Vietnamese modes of knowledge production. While Gourou underscored the otherness of the tropics, and there are colonial overtones in his work, he had an immense influence on indigenous ethnography and geography in Vietnam and elsewhere in the formerly colonised world. The article traces this important influence and how it has been both questioned and affirmed since independence in the Vietnamese context. It is suggested that the humanistic approach that Gourou pioneered in his 1936 study of the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam has outlived and been able to overcome the setbacks and drawbacks of both colonial and revolutionary/Vietnamese politico-intellectual projects.
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9493
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: The paper examines how land and forest management policies were elaborated in French Indochina circa 1900–40. It places their development in the context of a scientific and economic discourse about the value of land and forest resources, the most appropriate ways in which they might be exploited and the relationship between colonial science and indigenous knowledge. By focusing on debates and laws relating to the development of small-scale and plantation farming systems (Land Code legislations) and forest management and exploitation (Forest Code legislations) the paper seeks to ground arguments about Western conceptions of the “tropics” within a discussion of national policy development and impacts. Focusing primarily on Cochinchina and Annam (southern and central Vietnam) and drawing on materials from French archives, the paper shows how changes in both attitudes and legislation have had lasting consequences on systems of property rights in forest management and on the place and status of indigenous peoples in Indochina.
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: Books reviewed in this article: ‘Letting Them Die’: Why HIV/AIDS Prevention Programmes Fail. Catherine Campbell Red Hills: Migrants and the State in the Highlands of Vietnam. Andrew Hardy Sri Lankan Society in an Era of Globalization: Struggling to Create a New Social Order. S.H. Hasbullah and Barrie M. Morrison (eds.) Female Labour Migration in Southeast Asia: Change and Continuity. Christina Wille and Basia Passl (eds.) Unauthorized Migration in Southeast Asia. Graziano Battistella and Maruja M.B. Asis (eds.)
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: Despite recent interest in sacred (fetish) groves as remnant forests, few studies have investigated their sustainability and conservation role in West Africa. This article employs a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) analysis of time series images (1960-98), comprehensive social surveys and ecological field methods to evaluate four sacred groves and eight unprotected tree stands in the coastal savanna of Ghana and compare these with vegetation in the distant forested hinterland. There were strong similarities and substantial differences in tree species between different sacred groves, and between these and the unprotected stands and proximate deciduous forests. In addition, far fewer tree losses were documented in the sacred groves than in the local unprotected stands. Although these sacred groves were on average only partially representative of deciduous forest vegetation, their stronger sustainability compared with unprotected tree stands may be important to consider in detail for conservation.
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  • 43
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: This paper aims to examine how seafarers from the Pacific Republic of Kiribati cope with the experience of working with crews of different nationalities, and, further, how the exposure to different cultures during their journeys through international waters influences both their own identity as well as their perceptions of I-Kiribati culture. Based on examples from open and semi-structured interviews with seafarers working on German merchant ships and Japanese fishing vessels, the paper questions the application of concepts of “hybridity” in the case of these I-Kiribati men in favour of the idea of “cultural flexibility”. It further considers to what degree seafarers strongly rooted in the clearly confined cultural values of Kiribati have adapted the values received through their training and employment by German or Japanese and Korean companies and officers. The paper adds to the framework of transnationalism by advancing the notion of emporion, in which the circular and transversal journeys of seafarers are viewed as a connecting space between land-based areas; a space which provides a basis for an extended knowledge and understanding of different cultural outlooks as well as relations between nations.
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  • 44
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: This paper focuses on the large-scale land use and land cover changes that have taken place in Sarawak state, East Malaysia over the three decades of 1972-2002. Results are presented from a detailed land use and cover change (LUCC) study in the Niah River catchment using satellite imagery, questionnaire surveys and interviews. Successive waves of land cover changes have taken place. Large forest areas have been logged and gradually replaced by oil palm plantations, which now occupy more than 40 per cent of the total land area in the catchment. Concurrently, small-scale farming systems have also changed. Formerly dominant Iban shifting cultivation practices are increasingly being replaced by cash crop production on permanent fields and impacted by off-farm activities involving many ethnic groups. It is argued that land cover changes are continuous and complex processes involving a large number of variables which can be analysed for different time periods at various scales.
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  • 45
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9493
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: This paper adopts ideas from critical geopolitics to explore how Western human rights discourses have been enabled and used to construct Myanmar by Australian governments and nongovernmental aid organisations. Three distinct human rights scripts are observed that position donors as either punishers, saviours or partners. It is argued that the scripts are enabled by factors external to the actual abuses themselves, including the traditional scripting of Burma within Australian geopolitical memories; the feminine Burmese identity and the networks embodied by the opposition leader, Daw Suu Kyi; and Australia's shifting geopolitical interests in the Southeast Asia region. The case study is used to argue for a broader geography of human rights that recognises their spatiality. Such geographies can improve and broaden human rights politics and debates beyond state-based campaigning, ensuring that campaigns are in the interests of the most marginalised, rather than the most vocal.
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  • 46
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9493
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: It has been posited that small-scale industry – businesses with less than 30 workers – provides a large share of employment and income in Ghana. This paper examines the proposition that while such enterprises in the informal sector are said to act as a sponge to soak up surplus labour in marginal activities, they are unprofitable. Using data from a survey in 1998 of 175 micro and small-scale enterprises in the Central Region of Ghana, the paper also confirms problematic aspects of employment in this sector including the lack of formal contracts, irregular pay, low remuneration, non-existent social protection and only marginal employment growth. The implication is that the small-scale industry sector is not economically sustainable in its present form in Ghana.
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  • 47
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9493
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: Advocacy of the advantages accruing to business clusters in developing economies has followed that in developed economies. With doubts emerging about the evidence for these in developed economies, it is therefore appropriate to review the experience in the developing world. A model of cluster emergence and growth has guided accounts of developing country clusters. Drawing on experience from Indonesia, doubts are raised about that model's prediction of the emergence of successful joint action in maintaining cluster advantages. Any advantages from clustering are insufficient to face development challenges arising from the globalisation of economic activity. The significance of business clusters in low income economies needs to be reviewed in the light of actual experience and the reappraisal emerging in developed or high income countries.
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
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  • 49
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  • 50
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  • 51
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: Book reviewed in this article: Romance on a Global Stage: Pen Pals, Virtual Ethnography, and “Mail Order” Marriages. Nicole Constable The Globalization of Nothing. George Ritzer Southeast Asia Transformed: A Geography of Change. Chia Lin Sien (ed.) Indonesian Sea Nomads. Money, Magic and Fear of the Orang Suku Laut. Cynthia Chou Indonesia's Small Entrepreneurs: Trading on the Margins. Sarah Turner
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  • 56
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  • 57
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  • 58
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Geography
    Notes: The EPIC (Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator) crop model, developed by scientists of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), has been successfully applied to the study of erosion, water pollution, crop growth and production in the US but is yet to be introduced for serious research purposes in other countries or regions. This paper reports on the applicability of the EPIC 8120 crop model for the assessment of the potential impacts of climate variability and climate change on crop productivity in sub-Saharan West Africa, using Nigeria as the case study. Among the crops whose productivity has been successfully simulated with this model are five of West Africa's staple food crops: maize, millet, sorghum (guinea corn), rice and cassava. Thus, using the model, the sensitivities of maize, sorghum and millet to seasonal rainfall were demonstrated with coefficients of correlation significant at over 98 per cent confidence limits. The validation tests were based on a comparison of the observed and the model-generated yields of rice and maize. The main problems of validation relate to the multiplicity of crop varieties with contrasting performances under similar field conditions. There are also the difficulties in representing micro-environments in the model. Thus, some gaps appear between the observed and the simulated yields, arising from data or model deficiencies, or both. Based on the results of the sensitivity and validation tests, the EPIC crop model could be satisfactorily employed in assessing the impacts of and adaptations to climate variability and climate change. Its use for the estimation of production and the assessment of vulnerabilities need to be pursued with further field surveys and field experimentation.
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    Topics: Geography
    Notes: Data collected on rainfall events covering one wet season in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria, were found to be highly correlated with the rate of erosion on all the representative land surface types found in the city – namely bare land, fallow land, short grass and tall tree cover. Of all the rainfall components, rainfall total was best at predicting the rate of soil erosion on all these surfaces. In addition, the study found that a significant constituent of all surfaces, silt which fell through seiver grades 1.18 mm did not cohere, therefore increasing the rate of erosion. However, when grass cover (regenerating with the rains) was at least 95 per cent, erosion was well controlled. Therefore, grass coverage before the onset of the wet season is recommended as an efficient and simple measure to manage erosion in this typical developing urban centre in Nigeria.
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    Singapore journal of tropical geography 26 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Geography
    Notes: Rural-urban classification constitutes an important framework for the collection and compilation of population data in many countries. While “urban” is often specifically defined, “rural” is treated simply as a residual category. The criteria defining urban also differ from country to country. This paper argues that these rural and urban statistical categories are also highly significant for local governance, increasingly so in recent years given the emphasis on local governance and its restructuring. In India, constitutional amendments have given constitutional status to local bodies in the federal structure of the country. Local bodies are thus now expected to draw up their own plans and initiate development works, which requires them to generate their own resources and lessen their dependence on central government funding. It is thus necessary to reorganize urban space into viable spatial units in terms of their revenue base. While rural-urban classification is the task of the Census of India, state governments are responsible for granting municipal status to urban centres. This paper examines the criteria and limitations of the rural-urban classification followed by the Census, its congruence with the dynamics of state-accorded municipal/non-municipal status and some implications for municipal governance in India.
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    Topics: Geography
    Notes: This paper explores the activities and problems of indigenous women's organisations in Ghana. The survey data that form the basis of the analysis were collected in 1998 from a sample of 66 women's organisations in the districts of Atebubu and Techiman of Brong Ahafo Region in Ghana. The results suggest that despite the debilitating impacts of patriarchy, poverty and illiteracy, the women in both districts have managed to use their grassroots organisations to improve the socioeconomic circumstances of their members in particular and their communities in general. Given the dearth of theoretical and empirical analyses on grassroots mobilisation of women in sub-Saharan Africa, the results presented here are intended to stimulate further research and discussion on the subject.
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    Topics: Geography
    Notes: Using a general statistical model, this study attempts to characterise the trend of deforestation in the northeast region (Isan) of Thailand between 1975 and 1991, a period when the kingdom had sustained high rates of economic growth and steady increases in population. Using data obtained directly from government bodies on the 17 provinces comprising this heavily deforested region, the study examines the correlations between forest area and a set of six variables: population density, agricultural area, real per capita income, accumulated irrigated area, agricultural credit levels, and distance from Bangkok, the national political and economic centre. It also considers the effect of the two logging bans instituted in 1979 and since 1989. The study found a negative correlation between forest area and population density in particular, followed in ranking by agricultural credit, per capita income, the logging bans and distance from Bangkok. Viewed together with more recent data showing that rates of deforestation in the kingdom as a whole have slowed and appear to be stabilising, these results also suggest the beginnings in the 1990s of a forest transition – from an industrial to a post-industrial stage in forest utilisation – in Thailand.
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    Journal of contingencies and crisis management 13 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1468-5973
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    Topics: Political Science
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    Journal of contingencies and crisis management 13 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: On January 20, 2005, a national strategic leadership exercise was held in Switzerland. The theme being the first day response to an epidemic outbreak. Special attention was paid to cooperation and coordination among the various federal departments, the definition of responsibilities within the leadership organisation, and the level of information and communication that served the leadership process, and how these elements played out under time pressure, during a crisis situation and within a federal and international setting. The evaluation of this exercise concludes that short term crisis management could be considered as adequate but strategic decision making was mostly absent. The value of this large scale exercise is considered positive for the preparation on crisis management because of heightened political attention which for example is visible in the swift implementation of the recommendations of the evaluation.
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: Books reviewed:Walter L. Friedrich, Fire in the Sea – The Santorini Volcano: Natural History and the Legend of Atlantis
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    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: Books reviewed:James David Meernik, The Political Use of Military Force in US Foreign PolicyJ.F. Gustin, Fairmont, Cyber Terrorism: A Guide for FacilityManagersAnnika Brändström, Marjan Maleŝiĉ, Elanders Gotab, Crisis Management in Slovenia: Comparative Perspectives
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    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: To date, little social science understanding has been developed about what it would mean to strategically build resilience in the context of such rich interdependencies between social, technical and natural worlds. We argue that shifts in strategies to deal with urban crises marks a turn from the politics of urgency, characteristic of crisis management, towards a governance of preparedness, characterised by strategies to build urban resilience. Social science needs to develop research agendas that critically engage with different understandings of resilience and the challenges of building resilience across different scales of urban governance.
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    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: In recent months, pictures of millions of homes flattened and washed away by the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 26th December, 2004, have been seen on the media. Housing vulnerability is an obvious component of the disaster; the centrality of housing to the material losses suffered, the apparent ease with which so many dwellings were destroyed or rendered uninhabitable, the effect on the residents of the economic and material shock of losing their homes and property. This article looks at housing and vulnerability at several levels within the context of daily life, and of mitigating the effects of disasters on housing and its occupants. It begins by setting the context of housing loss within disasters in recent times. This is followed by an examination of the benefits which housing provision can bring to the need to reduce vulnerability, through how and by whom it is constructed and the opportunities it provides for income earning.
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    Topics: Political Science
    Notes: The important interrelationships between problems, ideas and time mean that there can be several facets to institutional vulnerability. Thus conditions at a moment in time can make an institution open to the introduction of new ideas, but these ideas may compete over time. In this context, a policy problem may demand a solution that satisfies the immediate situation, but can find itself overtaken by the effects of time.The case study examines an environmental mitigation package signed in association with construction of the second runway at Manchester Airport. The instrument attempted to deal with two competing ideas in the form of economic growth and sustainable development. However, economic growth was firmly grounded in the institutional strength of the Airport, while the demands of sustainable development required careful management over time. The article concludes that time emerges as a powerful variable in shifting the terms of the policy debate.
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    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  ICD-10 and DSM-IV include similar criterial symptom lists for conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but while DSM-IV treats each list separately, ICD-10 considers them jointly. One consequence is that ICD-10 identifies a group of children with ODD subtype who do not receive a diagnosis under DSM-IV.Methods:  We examined the characteristics of this group of children using the Great Smoky Mountains Study of children in the community aged 9–16. This study provided child and parent reports of symptoms and psychosocial impairment assessed with standardised diagnostic interviews.Results:  Children who received an ICD-10 diagnosis but not a DSM-IV diagnosis showed broadly similar levels of psychiatric comorbidity, delinquent activity and psychosocial impairment to those who met DSM-IV criteria in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.Conclusions:  These results indicate that DSM-IV excludes from diagnosis children who receive an ICD-10 diagnosis of CD (ODD sub-type), and who are substantially disturbed. Methods of redressing this situation are considered.
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    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Objective:  We investigated the role of genetic and environmental factors in the developmental association among symptoms of eating disorders, depression, and anxiety syndromes in 8–13-year-old and 14–17-year-old twin girls.Methods:  Multivariate genetic models were fitted to child-reported longitudinal symptom data gathered from clinical interview on 408 MZ and 198 DZ female twin pairs from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioural Development (VTSABD).Results:  Model-fitting revealed distinct etiological patterns underlying the association among symptoms of eating disorders, depression, overanxious disorder (OAD), and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) during the course of development: 1) a common genetic factor influencing liability to all symptoms – of early and later OAD, depression, SAD, and eating symptoms; 2) a distinct genetic factor specifically indexing liability to early eating disorders symptoms; 3) a shared environmental factor specifically influencing early depression and early eating disorders symptoms; and 4) a common environmental factor affecting liability to symptoms of later eating disorders and both early and later separation anxiety.Conclusions:  These results suggest a pervasive genetic effect that influences liability to symptoms of over-anxiety, separation anxiety, depression, and eating disorder throughout development, a shared environmental influence on later adolescent eating problems and persistent separation anxiety, genetic influences specific to early eating disorders symptoms, and a shared environmental factor influencing symptoms of early eating and depression.
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    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Some previous studies have linked Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with a bias in spatial awareness away from the left. As genetic research suggests that ADHD may be better viewed as an extreme on a continuum rather than a distinct entity, here we examined this issue in boys from the normal population.Method:  From an initial sample of 1811, two groups of boys characterised by very high (n = 58) or very low (n = 68) levels of ADHD-type behaviours were formed. The groups completed the spatially sensitive Line Bisection test and more general measures of (non-spatial) attention and intellectual function.Results:  Boys whose bisections were consistent with relative inattention to the left indeed had higher ratings of ADHD-type behaviours and performed significantly more poorly on tests of sustained attention and executive function than boys whose bisections were in the normal range. In contrast, boys who showed extreme bisections in the opposite direction were not unusual either in ratings or test performance.Conclusions:  The results support an association between poor attention and a relative rightward bias in visual awareness that may stem from right hemisphere inefficiency.
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    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
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    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Phonological awareness is known to be an excellent predictor of later reading acquisition. It remains unclear, however, whether phoneme manipulation alone best explains this association or whether an additional direct contribution of onset-rime awareness is predictive. This issue is explored here.Method:  A longitudinal study is reported predicting national test and teacher-assessed performance of 351 children aged 7 from phonological awareness measures, pupil baseline attainment and background measures at age 5.Results:  Explicit phoneme manipulation skills at age 5 correlated most strongly with literacy skills at age 5. Phoneme manipulation at age 5 predicted all four reading measures taken at age 7 after pupil background, baseline data and onset-rime awareness were controlled in regression analyses. Onset-rime manipulation did not predict reading at 7 in parallel analyses. After controlling for initial reading at age 5, phoneme manipulation still predicted reading comprehension, and teacher-assessed reading and writing at age 7.Conclusions:  Results support the existence of a route from phoneme manipulation, but not an additional direct route from explicit onset-rime manipulation at 5, to reading at 7. Practically, findings show that professionals can augment baseline and pupil background data with phoneme manipulation screening in the early identification of learning needs.
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    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  The delayed oculomotor response (DOR) task requires response inhibition followed by movement of gaze towards a known spatial location without a current stimulus. Abnormalities in response inhibition and in the spatial accuracy of the eye movement are found in individuals with schizophrenia and in many of their relatives, supporting the use of these saccadic abnormalities as endophenotypes in genetic studies. It is unknown whether school-age children, either with psychosis or as relatives of a schizophrenic proband, can be included.Method:  One hundred eighty-seven children, ages 5.8–16.0 years – 45 children with childhood-onset schizophrenia, 64 children with a first-degree relative with schizophrenia, and 84 typically developing children – completed DOR tasks with 1 and 3 second delays.Results:  Children with childhood-onset schizophrenia demonstrated impaired response inhibition and impaired spatial accuracy compared to both relatives and typicals; however, relatives and typicals did not differ from each other.Conclusions:  Children with childhood-onset schizophrenia have saccadic abnormalities similar to those found in adults with schizophrenia, supporting the continuity of executive function deficits in childhood-onset with adolescent and adult-onset schizophrenia. However, saccadic tasks are not sensitive to genetic risk in non-psychotic children and 6–15-year-old children should not be included in genetic studies utilizing this endophenotype.
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  • 77
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  There is growing literature suggesting that some children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can show a significant bias in attention away from left space. Here we examine mechanisms that may underpin these effects in both clinical and non-clinical child populations. Unilateral spatial inattention (unilateral neglect) is a commonly reported consequence of stroke in adults. Although for most patients the problem is relatively transient, persistent forms of neglect are almost exclusively associated with right hemisphere lesions. It has been suggested that this chronicity may result from co-existing disruption to right hemisphere dominant systems that mediate alertness. Here we present two studies examining the relationship between sustained attention and left spatial awareness in childhood.Method:  In the first, normal children without the ADHD diagnosis were administered a non-spatial test of sustained attention/alertness. Children who performed poorly at this task, relative to their more attentive peers, showed a modest but reliable delay in awareness of left-sided visual information. Furthermore, attention towards the left declined for both groups as a function of time-on-task, suggesting a significant within-subject modulatory effect of alertness on spatial awareness. The second study examines this relationship in children referred to clinical services for attention problems. Irrespective of their final diagnosis, children were divided into two groups according to their performance in sustained attention/alertness tasks.Results:  The results suggest that, regardless of the children's clinical diagnosis, diminished sustained attention/alertness levels formed the strongest predictor of relatively delayed awareness of information presented within left visual space. Two children within this group exhibited signs of hitherto undetected spatial neglect as severe as that observed in some brain-injured adults.Conclusions:  Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. Keywords: Sustained attention, visuo-spatial attention, normal 6–7-year-old children.
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  • 78
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  Despite the huge youth population, there is a lack of psychiatric diagnostic instruments with reported psychometric properties in Chinese. This study reports the development of the Chinese version of DISC-IV and examines its test–retest reliability.Method:  Seventy-eight parents and 79 youths (mean age 13.1 years) attending child psychiatric clinics were interviewed twice using the Chinese DISC-IV (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV) about 22 days apart.Results:  The kappa coefficients were good to excellent for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) (both youth (Y) and parent (P) versions), major depressive disorder (MDD) (P), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (P); fair for anxiety disorder (P), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (P, Y), MDD (Y); but poor for anxiety disorder (Y) and ADHD (Y). Parent informants had better test–retest reliability than youth informants.Conclusions:  The Chinese DISC-IV had comparable test–retest reliability with the original English version.
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  • 79
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    The @journal of child psychology and psychiatry 46 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background:  This introductory guide presents the main two analytical approaches used by molecular geneticists: linkage and association.Methods:  Traditional linkage and association methods are described, along with more recent advances in methodologies such as those using a variance components approach.Results:  New methods are being developed all the time but the core principles of linkage and association remain the same. The basis of linkage is the transmission of a marker along with a disease within families, whereas association is based on the comparison of marker frequencies in case and control groups.Conclusions:  It is becoming increasingly clear that effect sizes of individual markers on diseases and traits are likely to be very small. As such, much greater power is needed, and correspondingly greater sample sizes. Although non-replication is still a problem, molecular genetic studies in some areas such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are starting to show greater convergence. Epidemiologists and other researchers with large well-characterized samples will be well placed to use these methods. Inter-disciplinary studies can then ask far more interesting questions such as those relating to developmental, multivariate and gene–environment interaction hypotheses.
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