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  • Blackwell Science Ltd  (63,715)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Boston, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Business strategy review 16 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8616
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Boston, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Business strategy review 16 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8616
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Stuart Crainer and Des Dearlove Indian thinkArun Sinha Profile: Arun SinhaHugh MacArthur and Ashish Singh VCs curry favour with IndianentrepreneursManjari Singh and Sandeep K Krishnan Instep with InfosysCK Prahalad A passage from India
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Boston, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Business strategy review 16 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8616
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Boston, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Business strategy review 16 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8616
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Boston, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Business strategy review 16 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8616
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Boston, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Business strategy review 16 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8616
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Boston, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Business strategy review 16 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8616
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To improve protein delivery to the CNS following intracerebroventricular administration, we compared the distribution of a human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase:tetanus toxin fragment C fusion protein (SOD1:TTC) in mouse brain and spinal cord with that of tetanus toxin fragment C (TTC) or human SOD1 (hSOD1) alone, following continuous infusion into the lateral ventricle. Mice infused with TTC or SOD1:TTC showed intense anti-TTC or anti-hSOD1 labeling, respectively, throughout the CNS. In contrast, animals treated with hSOD1 revealed moderate staining in periventricular tissues. In spinal cord sections from animals infused with SOD1:TTC, the fusion protein was found in neuron nuclear antigen-positive (NeuN+) neurons and not glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive (GFAP+) astrocytes. The percentage of NeuN+ ventral horn cells that were co-labeled with hSOD1 antibody was greater in mice treated with SOD1:TTC (cervical cord = 73 ± 8.5%; lumbar cord = 62 ± 7.7%) than in mice treated with hSOD1 alone (cervical cord = 15 ± 3.9%; lumbar cord = 27 ±4.7%). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for hSOD1 further demonstrated that SOD1:TTC-infused mice had higher levels of immunoreactive hSOD1 in CNS tissue extracts than hSOD1-infused mice. Following 24 h of drug washout, tissue extracts from SOD1:TTC-treated mice still contained substantial amounts of hSOD1, while extracts from hSOD1-treated mice lacked detectable hSOD1. Immunoprecipitation of SOD1:TTC from these extracts using anti-TTC antibody revealed that the recovered fusion protein was structurally intact and enzymatically active. These results indicate that TTC may serve as a useful prototype for development as a non-viral vehicle for improving delivery of therapeutic proteins to the CNS.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Central neuropathic pain (CNP) is an important problem following spinal cord injury (SCI), because it severely affects the quality of life of SCI patients. As in the patient population, the majority of rats develop significant allodynia (CNP rats) after moderate SCI. However, about 10% of SCI rats do not develop allodynia, or develop significantly less allodynia than CNP rats (non-CNP rats). To identify transcriptional changes underlying CNP development after SCI, we used Affymetrix DNA microarrays and RNAs extracted from the spinal cords of CNP and non-CNP rats. DNA microarry analysis showed significantly increased expression of a number of genes associated with inflammation and astrocytic activation in the spinal cords of rats that developed CNP. For example, mRNA levels of glial fibrilary acidic protein (GFAP) and Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) significantly increased in CNP rats. We also found that GFAP, S100β and AQP4 protein elevation persisted for at least 9 months throughout contused spinal cords, consistent with the chronic nature of CNP. Thus, we hypothesize that CNP development results, in part, from dysfunctional, chronically “over-activated” astrocytes. Although, it has been shown that activated astrocytes are associated with peripheral neuropathic pain, this has not previously been demonstrated in CNP after SCI.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Antibodies against receptors that undergo transcytosis across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) have been used as vectors to target drugs or therapeutic peptides into the brain. We have recently discovered a novel single domain antibody, FC5, which transmigrates across human cerebral endothelial cells in vitro and the BBB in vivo. The purpose of this study was to characterize mechanisms of FC5 endocytosis and transcytosis across the BBB and its putative receptor on human brain endothelial cells. The transport of FC5 across human brain endothelial cells was polarized, charge independent and temperature dependent, suggesting a receptor-mediated process. FC5 taken up by human brain endothelial cells co-localized with clathrin but not with caveolin-1 by immunochemistry and was detected in clathrin-enriched subcellular fractions by western blot. The transendothelial migration of FC5 was reduced by inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, K+ depletion and chlorpromazine, but was insensitive to caveolae inhibitors, filipin, nystatin or methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Following internalization, FC5 was targeted to early endosomes, bypassed late endosomes/lysosomes and remained intact after transcytosis. The transcytosis process was inhibited by agents that affect actin cytoskeleton or intracellular signaling through PI3-kinase. Pretreatment of human brain endothelial cells with wheatgerm agglutinin, sialic acid, α(2,3)-neuraminidase or Maackia amurensis agglutinin that recognizes α(2,3)-, but not with Sambucus nigra agglutinin that recognizes α(2,6) sialylgalactosyl residues, significantly reduced FC5 transcytosis. FC5 failed to recognize brain endothelial cells-derived lipids, suggesting that it binds luminal α(2,3)-sialoglycoprotein receptor which triggers clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This putative receptor may be a new target for developing brain-targeting drug delivery vectors.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Reduced activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain – particularly complex I – may be implicated in the etiology of both Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, although these neurodegenerative diseases differ substantially as to their distinctive pattern of neuronal cell loss and the predominance of cerebral α-synuclein or tau protein pathology. To determine experimentally whether chronic generalized complex I inhibition has an effect on the distribution of α-synuclein or tau, we infused rats systemically with the plant-derived isoflavonoid rotenone. Rotenone-treated rats with a pronounced metabolic impairment had reduced locomotor activity, dystonic limb posture and postural instability. They lost neurons in the substantia nigra and in the striatum. Spherical deposits of α-synuclein were observed in a few cells, but cells with abnormal cytoplasmic accumulations of tau immunoreactivity were significantly more numerous in the striatum of severely lesioned rats. Abnormally high levels of tau immunoreactivity were found in the cytoplasm of neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Ultrastructurally, tau-immunoreactive material consisted of straight 15-nm filaments decorated by antibodies against phosphorylated tau. Many tau+ cell bodies also stained positive for thioflavin S, nitrotyrosine and ubiquitin. Some cells with abnormal tau immunoreactivity contained activated caspase 3. Our data suggest that chronic respiratory chain dysfunction might trigger a form of neurodegeneration in which accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein predominates over deposits of α-synuclein.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Microglia are the resident immune cells of the CNS. Brain injury triggers microglial activation, leading to proliferation, changes in antigenic profile, NO production and cytokine release. It is widely believed that serum factors inundating the injured tissue can prompt this activation, leading to long-term phenotypic changes. We and others have recently reported that commercial-grade preparations of thrombin, a serine protease known for its central function in blood coagulation, activate microglial cells. Recent findings, however, have called into question the involvement of thrombin itself in the induction of microglial cytokine release and led us to systematically re-investigate the ability of the protease to induce a broad spectrum of microglial activation parameters. We used a pharmaceutical-grade recombinant human thrombin (rh-thr) and compared it with a commercial-grade plasma-derived bovine thrombin (pb-thr) preparation that has been used extensively in the literature, including in our own earlier report. We investigated the effect of these two thrombin preparations on proliferation, NO production, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α release, intracellular calcium signaling and cell surface expression of CD95 (Fas) and CD40. Pb-thr induced robust responses in all variables tested. In contrast, rh-thr triggered calcium signals and induced small but significant changes in the expression of cell surface antigens, but had no effect on proliferation, NO production or cytokine release. Control studies assured equivalent thrombin potencies and excluded both species-specific effects and endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) contamination as possible causes of the disparity. Our results indicate a substantially more restricted role for thrombin itself in microglial activation than previously appreciated, but point to several potentially important co-stimulatory effects. In addition, these results suggest that previous studies examining thrombin's activation of microglia should be cautiously re-interpreted.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Polyglutamine tract-binding protein-1 (PQBP-1) is a nuclear protein that interacts and colocalizes with mutant polyglutamine proteins. We previously reported that PQBP-1 transgenic mice show a late-onset motor neuron disease-like phenotype and cell death of motor neurons analogous to human neurodegeneration. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the motor neuron death, we performed microarray analyses using the anterior horn tissues of the spinal cord and compared gene expression profiles between pre-symptomatic transgenic and age-matched control mice. Surprisingly, half of the spots changed more than 1.5-fold turned out to be genes transcribed from the mitochondrial genome. Northern and western analyses confirmed up-regulation of representative mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit 1 and 2. Immunohistochemistry revealed that COX1 and COX2 proteins are increased in spinal motor neurons. Electron microscopic analyses revealed morphological abnormalities of mitochondria in the motor neurons. PQBP-1 overexpression in primary neurons by adenovirus vector induced abnormalities of mitochondrial membrane potential from day 5, while cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation were observed on day 9. An increase of cell death by PQBP-1 was also confirmed on day 9. Collectively, these results indicate that dysfunction of PQBP-1 induces mitochondrial stress, a key molecular pathomechanism that is shared among human neurodegenerative disorders.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study was conducted to determine whether provision of preformed dietary docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6) can replace docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for brain function as assessed by spatial task performance. A newly modified artificial rearing method was employed to generate n-3 fatty acid-deficient rats. Newborn pups were separated from their mothers at 2 days of age and given artificial rat milk containing linoleic acid (LA), or LA supplemented with 1% DHA (DHA), 1% DPAn-6 (DPA) or 1% DHA plus 0.4% DPAn-6 (DHA/DPA). The animals were then weaned onto similar pelleted diets. At adulthood, behavioural tasks were administered and then the brains were collected for fatty acid analysis. The LA and DPA groups showed a lower (63–65%) brain DHA than the dam-reared, DHA and DHA/DPA groups and this loss was largely compensated for by an increase in brain DPAn-6. The brain fatty acid composition in the DPA group was the same as that in the LA group at adulthood. In the Morris water maze, the LA and DPA groups exhibited a longer escape latency than the dam-reared and DHA groups and had a defect in spatial retention. In conclusion, DPAn-6 could not replace DHA for brain function, indicating a highly specific structural requirement for DHA.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Excessive glutamate release is associated with neuronal damage. A new strategy for the treatment of neuronal injury involves inhibition of the neuropeptidase glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP II), also known as N-acetylated α-linked acidic dipeptidase. GCP II is believed to mediate the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) to glutamate and N-acetyl-aspartate, and inhibition of NAAG peptidase activity (by GCP II and other peptidases) is neuroprotective. Mice were generated in which the Folh1 gene encoding GCP II was disrupted (Folh1–/– mice). No overt behavioral differences were apparent between Folh1–/– mice and wild-type littermates, with respect to their overall performance in locomotion, coordination, pain threshold, cognition and psychiatric behavioral paradigms. Morphological analysis of peripheral nerves, however, showed significantly smaller axons (reduced myelin sheaths and axon diameters) in sciatic nerves from Folh1–/– mice. Following sciatic nerve crush, Folh1–/– mice suffered less injury and recovered faster than wild-type littermates. In a model of ischemic injury, the Folh1–/– mice exhibited a significant reduction (p 〈 0.05) in infarct volume compared with their wild-type littermates when subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, a model of stroke. These findings support the hypothesis that GCP II inhibitors may represent a novel treatment for peripheral neuropathies as well as stroke.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Members of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family of cytokines are key mediators in the regulation of host defence responses and the development of inflammation in response to acute and chronic injury to the brain. Two major agonists, IL-1α and IL-1β, bind to a membrane receptor complex composed of the type-1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI) and the accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). The discovery of new orphan members of the IL-1 receptor superfamily (including ST2/T1, IL-1Rrp2, TIGIRR1 and -2, SIGGIR, IL-18Rα and IL-18Rβ) has increased speculation that alternative IL-1 ligands signalling pathways exist in the brain. We demonstrate here that all the IL-1R-like orphan receptors are expressed by many brain cell types including astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytic progenitor cells and neurons. IL-18Rβ expression was significantly increased in response to treatment of mixed glia with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro, whereas expression of IL-1Rrp2 and TIGIRR1 was reduced. Furthermore, IL-18Rβ, IL-1Rrp2, but not TIGIRR1 expression, was increased in the brain in vivo in response to peripheral administration of LPS or middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCA). These results suggest possible roles for newly identified members of the IL-1 receptor family in CNS diseases.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) synthesizes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and is a phenotypic marker for cholinergic neurons. Cholinergic neurons in brain are involved in cognitive function, attentional processing and motor control, and decreased ChAT activity is found in several neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Dysregulation of ChAT and cholinergic communication is also associated with some spontaneous point-mutations in ChAT that alter its substrate binding kinetics, or by disruption of signaling pathways that could regulate protein kinases for which ChAT is a substrate. It has been identified recently that the catalytic activity and subcellular distribution of ChAT, and its interaction with other cellular proteins, can be modified by phosphorylation of the enzyme by protein kinase-C and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II; these kinases appear also to mediate some of the effects of β-amyloid peptides on cholinergic neuron functions, including the effects on ChAT. This review outlines a new model for the regulation of cholinergic transmission at the level of the presynaptic terminal that is mediated by hierarchically-regulated, multi-site phosphorylation of ChAT.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Interleukin-12 (IL-12, p70) a heterodimeric cytokine of p40 and p35 subunits, important for Th1-type immune responses, has been attributed a prominent role in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recently, the related heterodimeric cytokine, IL-23, composed of the same p40 subunit as IL-12 and a unique p19 subunit, was shown to be involved in Th1 responses and EAE. We investigated whether astrocytes and microglia, CNS cells with antigen-presenting cell (APC) function can present antigen to myelin basic protein (MBP)-reactive T cells, and whether this presentation is blocked with antibodies against IL-12/IL-23p40. Interferon (IFN)-γ-treated APC induced proliferation of MBP-reactive T cells. Anti-IL-12/IL-23p40 antibodies blocked this proliferation. These results support and extend our previous observation that astrocytes and microglia produce IL-12/IL-23p40. Moreover, we show that stimulated astrocytes and microglia produce biologically active IL-12p70. Because IL-12 and IL-23 share p40, we wanted to determine whether astrocytes also express IL-12p35 and IL-23p19, as microglia were already shown to express them. Astrocytes expressed IL-12p35 mRNA constitutively, and IL-23 p19 after stimulation. Thus, astrocytes, under inflammatory conditions, express all subunits of IL-12/IL-23. Their ability to present antigen to encephalitogenic T cells can be blocked by neutralizing anti-IL-12/IL-23p40 antibodies.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: EAAT1 is a major glutamate transporter in the CNS and is required for normal neurotransmission and neuroprotection from excitotoxicity. In the present study, we have identified a novel form of the human EAAT1, named here as EAAT1ex9skip, which lacks the entire exon 9. Quantitative PCR analysis indicates that this variant is expressed throughout the CNS, both in grey matter and axonal tracts, at levels ranging between 10% and 20% of the full-length EAAT1 form. When expressed in HEK293 cells, EAAT1ex9skip mRNA is translated into a truncated protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. EAAT1ex9skip has no functional glutamate uptake activity but instead, exerts a dominant negative effect over full-length EAAT1 function. In turn, co-expression of full-length EAAT1 and EAAT1ex9skip variants reduces the insertion of the former into the plasma membrane. Together, these results indicate that the EAAT1ex9skip splice variant is a negative regulator of full-length EAAT1 function in the human brain.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family is a group of neurotrophic factors with diverse biological functions. Members of the GDNF family exert their functions by interacting with a specific GDNF family receptor α (GFRα) and activation of the cRET. Here we report the identification and characterization of GDNF receptor-alpha-like (GRAL) gene. Sequence analysis indicated that GRAL is a distant homolog of the GFRα family, with 30% of its amino acid sequence identical to that of GFRα-3. There are two splice variants of GRAL: the full-length form (GRAL-A) represented by a 2080 bp mRNA and a short form (GRAL-B) represented by a 1833 bp mRNA. In adult mouse, GRAL transcripts have been found primarily in the CNS. In the developing mouse brain, the mRNA level of GRAL in the cerebrocortex and hippocampus reached a maximum at birth and declined afterwards. GRAL-A protein was localized predominantly in the plasma membrane. Overexpression of GRAL-A protected PC12 cells and cultured hippocampal neurons from serum starvation-induced cell apoptosis. The neuroprotective effect of GRAL was associated with marked inhibition of the Jun-N-terminal kinase signaling pathway. Our results suggest that GRAL belongs to a superfamily of GFRα and might take part in neuroprotection and brain development.
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  • 21
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Lesions in the CNS of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) often fail to remyelinate, resulting in neurological dysfunction. A key factor seems to be the inefficiency of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). We recently reported antibodies against heat shock protein 90β (Hsp90β) in MS patients that recognized the antigen on the OPC surface. This study investigates the mechanism and result of anti-Hsp90β antibody attack. These antibodies induced OPC death in culture in a complement-dependent fashion. Anti-Hsp90β antibody-induced, complement-mediated OPC death only operated in these cells and caused a significant reduction in the number of O4-positive pro-oligodendrocytes (pre-oligodendrocytes). Adult cultured OPCs also expressed Hsp90β on their cell surface and were attacked by anti-Hsp90β antibodies leading to a significant decrease in the pre-oligodendrocyte population. In the presence of low levels of anti-Hsp90β antibody – i.e. in the range seen in the CSF of MS patients – the complement concentration was critical to reduce the pre-oligodendrocyte population (via attack to OPCs). Higher concentrations of anti-Hsp90β antibodies and complement became extinct the pre-oligodendrocytes. Complement 1-esterase inhibitor prevented these effects in the pre-oligodendrocyte population. These findings demonstrate, for the first time in vitro, a feasible mechanism to decrease the production of new oligodendrocytes, thus limiting the possibility of remyelination.
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  • 22
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Movement disorders are a common neurological complication of immunodeficiency virus infection and are thought to result from dopaminergic dysfunction in the basal ganglia. We measured levels of dopamine, and its metabolites homovanillic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, in the putamen of healthy and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys from infection until the development of AIDS. Changes in expression levels of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor involved in the signalling pathway of dopamine, were also examined. Furthermore, we isolated microglia from the same animals and investigated their activation status in order to explore whether neurochemical findings are associated with immune activation. Plasma and CSF viral RNA load, T-cell analysis and basal ganglia histopathology provided information about disease progression in the animals. Putamen dopamine content was significantly reduced within 3 months of SIV infection, due to decreased dopamine synthesis initially, followed by loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in substantia nigra, and accompanied by a decrease in total CREB expression. Pharmacological manipulation of dopaminergic tone with l-DOPA and selegiline showed that the reduction in CREB expression was due to reduced levels of dopamine. These neurochemical changes were significantly correlated with microglia activation in the absence of gross histopathological lesions. Our data demonstrate that putamen dopaminergic function is impaired during SIV infection and indicate that microglia may trigger endogenous mechanisms involved in the dysfunction of dopaminergic systems.
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  • 23
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Experiments compared a series of phenethylamine hallucinogens with their phenylisopropylamine analogues for binding affinity and ability to stimulate serotonin 5-HT2A receptor-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidyl inositol in cells expressing cloned rat and human 5-HT2A receptors. The (±)phenylisopropylamine analogues had significantly higher intrinsic activities for 5-HT2A receptor-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidyl inositol compared to their phenethylamine analogues. With respect to the effects of the stereochemistry of the phenylisopropylamines, those with the (R) absolute configuration at the alpha carbon had higher intrinsic activities for hydrolysis of phosphatidyl inositol in a cell line expressing the human 5-HT2A receptor compared to those with the (S) absolute configuration. In virtual docking studies comparing the (R)- and (S)-phenylisopropylamines with their phenethylamine analogues, there were distinct differences in the orientations of key ligand binding domain residues that have been identified as important by previous mutagenesis studies. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that phenylisopropylamines have higher hallucinogenic potency than their phenethylamine analogues primarily because they have higher intrinsic activities at 5-HT2A receptors. Although virtual ligand binding led to significant perturbations of certain key residues, our results emphasize the conclusion reached by others that overall three-dimensional structural microdomains within the receptor must be considered.
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  • 24
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways are currently recommended for the prevention and treatment of several inflammatory diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. However non-selective blockade of COX was found to have pro-inflammatory properties, because they have the ability to alter the plasma glucocorticoid levels that play a critical role in the control of the innate immune response. The present study investigated the role of non-selective (ketorolac or indomethacin) or specific inhibitors of COX-1 (SC-560) and COX-2 (NS-398) in these effects. Mice challenged systemically with the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exhibited a robust hybridization signal for numerous inflammatory genes in vascular-associated cells of the brain and microglia across the cerebral tissue. Ketorolac, indomethacin and NS-398 significantly increased the ability of LPS to trigger such an innate immune response at time 3 h post challenge, whereas SC-560 failed to change gene expression in the brain of animals treated with the endotoxin. These data together with the crucial role of COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the increase of glucocorticoids during systemic immune stimuli provide evidence that inhibition of this pathway results in an exacerbated early innate immune reaction. This may have a major impact on the use of these drugs in diseases where inflammation is believed to be a contributing and detrimental factor.
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  • 25
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The therapeutic benefits of dopamine (DA) agonists after traumatic brain injury (TBI) imply a role for DA systems in mediating functional deficits post-TBI. We investigated how experimental TBI affects striatal dopamine systems using fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), western blot, and d-amphetamine-induced rotational behavior. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were injured by a controlled cortical impact (CCI) delivered unilaterally to the parietal cortex, or were naïve controls. Amphetamine-induced rotational behavior was assessed 10 days post-CCI. Fourteen days post-CCI, animals were anesthetized and underwent FSCV with bilateral striatal carbon fiber microelectrode placement and stimulating electrode placement in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Evoked DA overflow was assessed in the striatum as the MFB was electrically stimulated at 60 Hz for 10 s. In 23% of injured animals, but no naïve animals, rotation was observed with amphetamine administration. Compared with naïves, striatal evoked DA overflow was lower for injured animals in the striatum ipsilateral to injury (p 〈 0.05). Injured animals exhibited a decrease in Vmax (52% of naïve, p 〈 0.05) for DA clearance in the hemisphere ipsilateral to injury compared with naïves. Dopamine transporter (DAT) expression was proportionally decreased in the striatum ipsilateral to injury compared with naïve animals (60% of naïve, p 〈 0.05), despite no injury-related changes in vesicular monoamine transporter or D2 receptor expression (DRD2) in this region. Collectively, these data appear to confirm that the clinical efficacy of dopamine agonists in the treatment of TBI may be related to disruptions in the activity of subcortical dopamine systems.
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  • 26
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Despite advances in our understanding of the basic biology of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the normal physiological function(s) of APP in learning and memory remains unclear. Here we show increased APP degradation in the hippocampus to be associated with the consolidation of a passive avoidance response. Neurone-specific APP695 expression became transiently reduced 2–4 h post-training through association with endosomal adaptin proteins and enhanced internalization. By contrast, internalization of glial-associated APP containing a Kunitz protease inhibitor-like domain (APP-KPI) was dependent on the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). In addition, LRP expression and association with apolipoprotein E increased in the 2–4 h post-training period. The LRP antagonist receptor-associated protein prevented the APP-KPI internalization and LRP–apolipoprotein E association and this resulted in amnesia. Degradation of APP695 and APP-KPI did not appear to be related to α-secretase activity, as no learning-associated increase of secreted APP was observed in the CSF. Moreover, as internalization of APP isoforms was observed only in dentate gyrus, it probably relates to the learning-associated restructuring of the perforant path terminals. Memory-associated APP processing in both neuronal and glial compartments points to a role for glial unsheathing of synaptic connections, an event required for the synaptic restructuring that accompanies memory consolidation. These observations may have a direct relevance to understanding the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease as β/γ-secretase-derived β-amyloid is formed following internalization of cell surface APP into the endosomal compartment.
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  • 27
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The locus coeruleus (LC) is a critical stress-responsive location that mediates many of the responses to stress. We used immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to investigate changes in induction and phosphorylation of several transcription factors and kinases in the LC that may mediate the stress-triggered induction of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) transcription. Rats were exposed to single or repeated immobilization stress (IMO) for brief (5 min), intermediate (30 min) or sustained (2 h) duration. Single IMO elicited rapid induction of c-Fos and phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) without changing the expression of early growth response (Egr)1, Fos-related antigen (Fra)-2 or phosphorylated activating transcription factor-2. Repeated IMO triggered increased phosphorylation and levels of CREB along with transient induction of c-Fos and increased Fra-2 expression. Several mitogen-activated protein kinases were activated by repeated IMO, shown by increased phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2/3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). ERK1 was the major isoform expressed, and ERK2 the predominant isoform phosphorylated. Repeated IMO elicited hyperphosphorylation of ERK1/2 selectively in TH immunoreactive neurons, with substantial nuclear localization. These distinct alterations in transcriptional pathways following repeated compared with single stress may be involved in mediating long-lasting neuronal remodeling and are implicated in the mechanisms by which acute beneficial responses to stress are converted into prolonged adaptive or maladaptive responses.
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  • 28
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The major isoforms of GABAA receptors are thought to be composed of two α, two β and one γ subunit(s). GABAA receptors containing two β1 subunits respond differently to the anticonvulsive compound loreclezole and the general anaesthetic etomidate than receptors containing two β2 subunits. Receptors containing β2 subunits show a much larger allosteric stimulation by these agents than those containing β1 subunits. We were interested to know how receptors containing both β1 and β2 subunits, in different positions respond to loreclezole and etomidate. To answer this question, subunits were fused at the DNA level to form dimeric and trimeric subunits. Concatenated receptors (α1-β1-α1/γ2-β1, α1-β2-α1/γ2-β1, α1-β1-α1/γ2-β2 and α1-β2-α1/γ2-β2) were expressed in Xenopus ooctyes and functionally compared in their response to the agonist GABA and to the positive allosteric modulators, loreclezole and etomidate. We have shown that (I) in the presence of both β1 and β2 subunits in the same pentamer (mixed receptors) direct gating by etomidate is similar to exclusively β1 containing receptors; (II) In mixed receptors, stimulation by etomidate assumed characteristics intermediate to exclusively β1 or β2 containing receptors, but the values for the concentrations 〈 10 µm were always much closer to those observed in α1-β1-α1/γ2-β1 receptors; and (III) mixed receptors show no positional effects.
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  • 29
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To investigate the functional consequences of cross-talk between multiple effectors of serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor, we employed transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Activation of 5-HT1A receptor stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, Akt and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB). Stimulation of cells with 5-HT1A receptor agonist induced a rapid but transient ERK1/2 phosphorylation followed by increased phosphorylation of Akt. Elevated Akt activity in turn suppressed Raf activity and induced a decline in ERK activation. The activation of ERK and Akt downstream of 5-HT1A receptor was sensitive to inhibitors of Ras, Raf and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Stimulation of 5-HT1A receptor also resulted in activation of NF-κB through a decrease in inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor-κB. In support of the importance of 5-HT1A receptor signaling for cell survival, inhibition of NF-κB facilitated caspase 3 activation and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, while treatment of cells with agonist inhibited caspase 3, DNA fragmentation and cell death. Both agonist-dependent NF-κB activation and cell survival were decreased by Akt Inhibitor II or by overexpression of dominant-negative Akt. These findings suggest a role for 5-HT1A receptor signaling in the Ras/Raf-dependent regulation of multiple intracellular signaling pathways that include ERK and PI3K/Akt. Of these, only PI3K/Akt and NF-κB activation were required for 5-HT1A receptor-dependent cell survival, implying that the relative distribution of signals between competing transduction pathways determines the functional outcome of 5-HT1A receptor activation.
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  • 30
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The present study shows that activation of microglial NADPH oxidase and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with thrombin-induced degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Seven days after thrombin injection in the rat substantia nigra (SN), tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry showed a significant loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons. This cell death was accompanied by localization of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated fluorecein UTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) staining within dopaminergic neurons. This neurotoxicity was antagonized by the semisynthetic tetracycline derivative, minocycline, and the observed neuroprotective effects were associated with the ability of minocycline to suppress NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, including interleukin-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase, from activated microglia. These results suggest that microglial NADPH oxidase may be a viable target for neuroprotection against oxidative damage.
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  • 31
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor α-1 (GFRα-1) is a receptor component of GDNF that associates with and activates the tyrosine kinase receptor Ret. To further understand GDNF and its receptor system in the PNS, we first characterized the expression of GFRα-1 in bovine peripheral nerve in vivo. GFRα-1 immunoreactivity was localized adjacent to the outermost layer of myelin sheath, as well as in the endoneurium and axoplasm. In a fractionation study, GFRα-1 was recovered mostly in the soluble fraction, although a small amount was recovered in the membrane fraction. A substantial amount of GFRα-1 in the membrane fraction was extractable by detergent and alkaline conditions. To further clarify the expression of GFRα-1 in Schwann cells, we examined cultured rat Schwann cells and the Schwannoma cell line RT4. Schwann cells expressed GFRα-1 in both the soluble/cytosolic and membrane fractions, and the membrane form of GFRα-1 was expressed at the outer surface of the Schwann cell plasma membrane. We also confirmed the secretion of the soluble form of GFRα-1 from Schwannoma cells in a metabolic labeling experiment. These data contribute to our knowledge of the production, expression and functions of GFRα-1 in the PNS.
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  • 32
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors play key roles in excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in the CNS. Although a variety of proteins has been characterized to interact with AMPA receptors and regulate their function, little is known about the regulation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4. To understand the molecular mechanisms of GluR4 functional regulation, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify GluR4-interacting molecules. α-Actinin-1 and IQGAP1 were identified to be GluR4-specific binding partners. Both proteins interact specifically with GluR4 and co-cluster with GluR4 individually in neurons. Mapping experiments revealed that α-Actinin-1 and IQGAP1 bind to the same region within the C-terminus of GluR4 that contains a previously identified PKA phosphorylation site, Ser842, phosphorylation of which is regulated by synaptic activity. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of Ser842 differentially regulates interactions of GluR4 with α-Actinin-1 and IQGAP1; phosphorylation strongly inhibits interaction of GluR4 with α-Actinin-1 but has little effect on its interaction with IQGAP1. These results suggest that α-Actinin-1 and IQGAP1 regulate GluR4 functions via their specific associations with GluR4. In addition, our data indicate that activity-dependent phosphorylation of GluR4 may regulate its synaptic targeting through phosphorylation-dependent interactions with α-Actinin-1 and IQGAP1.
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  • 33
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We investigated the effects of neuromelanin (NM) isolated from the human substantia nigra and synthetic dopamine melanin (DAM) on neuronal and glial cell lines and on primary rat mesencephalic cultures. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and lipid peroxidation were significantly increased in SK-N-SH cells by DAM but not by NM. In contrast, iron-saturated NM significantly increased LDH activity in SK-N-SH cells, compared with 100 mg/mL ETDA-treated NM containing a low concentration of bound iron. DAM, but not NM, stimulated hydroxyl radical production and increased SK-N-SH cell death via apoptotic-like mechanisms. Neither DAM nor NM induced any changes in the glial cell line U373. 3H-Dopamine uptake in primary rat mesencephalic cultures was significantly reduced in DAM- compared with NM-treated cultures, accompanied by increased cell death via an apoptosis-like mechanism. Interestingly, Fenton-induced cell death was significantly decreased in cultures treated with both Fenton reagent and NM, an effect not seen in cultures treated with Fenton reagent plus DAM. These data are suggestive of a protective role for neuromelanin under conditions of high oxidative load. Our findings provide new evidence for a physiological role for neuromelanin in vivo and highlights the caution with which data based upon model systems should be interpreted.
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  • 34
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative illness caused by expansion of CAG repeats at the N-terminal end of the protein huntingtin. We examined longitudinal changes in brain metabolite levels using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy in five different mouse models. There was a large (〉50%) exponential decrease in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) with time in both striatum and cortex in mice with 150 CAG repeats (R6/2 strain). There was a linear decrease restricted to striatum in N171-82Q mice with 82 CAG repeats. Both the exponential and linear decreases of NAA were paralleled in time by decreases in neuronal area measured histologically. Yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mice with 72 CAG repeats, but low expression levels, had less striatal NAA loss than the N171–82Q mice (15% vs. 43%). We evaluated the effect of gene context in mice with an approximate 146 CAG repeat on the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (HPRT). HPRT mice developed an obese phenotype in contrast to weight loss in the R6/2 and N171–82Q mice. These mice showed a small striatal NAA loss (21%), and a possible increase in brain lipids detectable by magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and decreased brain water T1. Our results indicate profound metabolic defects that are strongly affected by CAG repeat length, as well as gene expression levels and protein context.
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  • 35
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Neurotrophins are essential for the development and survival of the catecholaminergic neurons. GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5,6,7,8-tertahydrobiopterin (BH4), the required cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase. Previously, we reported that TH requires the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) pathway for its induction by nerve growth factor (NGF). Here, we examined intracellular signals required for NGF-induced expression of the GCH gene in PC12D cells. The activity of GCH was increased up to 5-fold after the NGF treatment, and the increase was repressed by pretreatment with U0126, an MEK1/2 inhibitor, but not with protein kinase A (PKA), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors. Induction of GCH mRNA by NGF was also abolished by pretreatment with U0126. The human GCH promoter activity was significantly enhanced by NGF treatment. Deletion analysis showed that the 465-bp 5′-flanking region is responsible for NGF-enhanced promoter activity. These data suggest that the Ras–MEK pathway is required for coordinate expression of the GCH and TH genes induced by neurotrophins.
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  • 36
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We investigated the expression, activation and distribution of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPKs) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), using western blotting and immunohistochemistry, in the brains of hamsters infected with 263K scrapie agent, to clarify the role of these kinases in the pathogenesis of prion disease. The immunoblot analysis demonstrated that activation of JNK, p38 MAPK and ERK in whole brain homogenates was increased in infected animals. Phosphorylation of cAMP/calcium responsive element binding protein (CREB), a downstream transcription factor of active ERK, was significantly increased in scrapie-infected hamsters. The immunohistochemical study showed that active ERK was enhanced in infected hamsters compared with controls. Active ERK immunoreactivity was observed within neurons in the dentate gyrus and in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive reactive astrocytes of infected animals. The expression level of c-Jun mRNA as well as protein, a substrate of active JNK, was increased in infected animals. A significant increase in JNK activity upon glutathione S-transferase (GST)-c-Jun was observed in infected compared with control animals. Phospho-c-Jun immunoreactivity was observed only in neurons of the thalamus in infected groups. These findings indicated that the JNK pathway was activated in the scrapie-infected group. The chronological activation of MAPKs using immunoblot analysis indicates that the kinases are sequentially activated during the pathophysiology of prion disease. Taken together, these results lend credence to the notion that MAPK pathways are dysregulated in prion disease, and also indicate an active role for this pathway in disease pathogenesis.
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  • 37
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) contributes to axon growth and guidance during development and learning and memory in adulthood. Although the Ig domains mediate homophilic binding, outgrowth activity localizes to two membrane proximal fibronectin-like domains. The first of these contains a site identified as a potential FGF receptor (FGFR) activation motif (FRM) important for NCAM stimulation of neurite outgrowth, but its activity has hitherto remained hypothetical. Here, we have tested the effects of a domain-specific antibody and peptides corresponding to the FRM in cellular assays in vitro. The first fibronectin domain antibody inhibited NCAM-stimulated outgrowth, indicating the importance of the domain for NCAM function. Monomeric FRM peptide behaved as an inverse agonist; low concentrations specifically inhibited neurite outgrowth stimulated by NCAM and cellular responses to FGF2, while saturating concentrations stimulated FGFR-dependent neurite outgrowth equivalent to NCAM itself. Dendrimeric FRM peptide was 125-fold more active and stimulated FGFR activation, FGFR-dependent and FGF-mimetic neurite outgrowth and cell survival (but not proliferation). We conclude that the FRM peptide contains NCAM-mimetic bioactivity accounted for by stimulation of FGF signalling pathways at the level of or upstream from FGF receptors, and discuss the possibility that FRM comprises part of an FGFR activation site on NCAM.
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  • 38
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Myelomeningocele (MMC), the most severe form of spina bifida (SB), causes neurological deficit. Injury to the spinal cord is thought to begin in utero. We investigated whether brain-specific proteins (BSPs) would enable us to monitor the development of MMC-related tissue damage during pregnancy in an animal model with naturally occurring SB (curly tail/loop tail mouse; n = 256). Amniotic fluid levels of neurofilament heavy chain (NfH), glial acidic fibrillary protein (GFAP) and S100B were measured by standard ELISA techniques. The amniotic fluid levels of all BSPs were similar in SB and control mice on embryonic day (E) 12.5 and 14.5, whereas a significant increase was observed for GFAP in SB mice on E16.5. Levels of all BSPs were significantly increased in SB mice on E18.5. The rapid increase in GFAP, paralleled by a moderate increase in NfH and S100B, suggests that spinal cord damage starts to accelerate around E16.5. The macroscopic size of the MMC was related to NfH level on E16.5 and E18.5, suggesting that axonal degeneration is most severe in large MMC. Amniotic fluid BSP measurements may provide important information for balancing the risks and benefits to mother and child of in utero surgery for MMC.
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  • 39
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The proper regulation of temporal and spatial expression of the axon guidance cues and their receptors is critical for the normal wiring of nervous system during development. Netrins, a family of secreted guidance cues, are involved in the midline crossing of spinal commissural axons and in the guidance of cortical efferents. Axons normally lose the responsiveness to their attractants when they arrive at their targets, where the attractant is produced. However the molecular mechanism is still unknown. We investigated the molecular mechanism of down-regulation of netrin-1 signaling in the embryonic cortical neurons. Netrin-1 induced the ubiquitination and proteolytic cleavage of Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC), a transmembrane receptor for netrin, in dissociated cortical neurons. A dramatic decrease of DCC level particularly on the cell surface was also observed after netrin-1 stimulation. Specific ubiquitin–proteasome inhibitors prevented the netrin-induced DCC cleavage and decrease of cell surface DCC. We suggest that the ligand-mediated down-regulation of DCC might participate in the loss of netrin-responsiveness in the developing nervous system.
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  • 40
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Stem cell factor (SCF) is a highly expressed cytokine in the central nervous system. In the present study, we demonstrate a neuroprotective role for SCF and its tyrosine kinase receptor, c-kit, against camptothecin-induced apoptosis and glutamate excitotoxicity in rat cortical neurons. This protection was blocked by pharmacological or molecular inhibition of either the MEK/ERK or PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. The importance of these pathways was further confirmed by the activation of both ERK, in a MEK-dependent manner, and Akt, via PI3K. Activation of Akt increased the binding of the p50 and p65 subunits of NFκB, which was also important for neuroprotection. Akt inhibition prevented NFκB binding, suggesting a role for Akt in SCF-induced NFκB. Pharmacological inhibition of NFκB or dominant negative IκB also prevented neuroprotection by SCF. SCF up-regulated the anti-apoptotic genes, bcl-2 and bcl-xL in an NFκB-dependent manner. Together, these findings demonstrate a neuroprotective role for SCF in cortical neurons, an effect that was mediated by Akt and ERK, as well as NFκB-mediated gene transcription. SCF represents a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.
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  • 41
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The effects and signaling mechanisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on translation elongation were investigated in cortical neurons. BDNF increased the elongation rate approximately twofold, as determined by measuring the ribosomal transit time. BDNF-accelerated elongation was inhibited by rapamycin, implicating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). To explore the mechanisms underlying these effects, we examined the protein phosphorylation cascades that lead to the activation of translation elongation in neurons. BDNF increased eukaryote elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) phosphorylation and decreased eEF2 phosphorylation. Whereas eEF2 phosphorylation levels altered by BDNF were inhibited by rapamycin, eEF1A phosphorylation was not affected by rapamycin or PD98059, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor. BDNF induced phosphorylation of eEF2 kinase (Ser366), as well as decreased its kinase activity. All these events were inhibited by rapamycin. Furthermore, mTOR siRNA, which reduced mTOR levels up to 50%, inhibited the BDNF-induced enhancement in elongation rate and decrease in eEF2 phosphorylation. These results strongly suggest that BDNF enhances translation elongation through the activation of the mTOR–eEF2 pathway.
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  • 42
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Neuronally enriched primary cerebrocortical cultures were exposed to glucose-free medium saturated with argon (in vitro ischemia) instead of oxygen (normoxia). Ischemia did not alter P2X7 receptor mRNA, although serum deprivation clearly increased it. Accordingly, P2X7 receptor immunoreactivity (IR) of microtubuline-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-IR neurons or of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-IR astrocytes was not affected; serum deprivation augmented the P2X7 receptor IR only in the astrocytic, but not the neuronal cell population. However, ischemia markedly increased the ATP- and 2′-3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-adenosine 5′-triphosphate (BzATP)-induced release of previously incorporated [3H]GABA. Both Brilliant Blue G and oxidized ATP inhibited the release of [3H]GABA caused by ATP application; the Brilliant Blue G-sensitive, P2X7 receptor-mediated fraction, was much larger after ischemia than after normoxia. Whereas ischemic stimulation failed to alter the amplitude of ATP- and BzATP-induced small inward currents recorded from a subset of non-pyramidal neurons, BzATP caused a more pronounced increase in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) after ischemia than after normoxia. Brilliant Blue G almost abolished the effect of BzATP in normoxic neurons. Since neither the amplitude of mIPSCs nor that of the muscimol-induced inward currents was affected by BzATP, it is assumed that BzATP acts at presynaptic P2X7 receptors. Finally, P2X7 receptors did not enhance the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration either in proximal dendrites or in astrocytes, irrespective of the normoxic or ischemic pre-incubation conditions. Hence, facilitatory P2X7 receptors may be situated at the axon terminals of GABAergic non-pyramidal neurons. When compared with normoxia, ischemia appears to markedly increase P2X7 receptor-mediated GABA release, which may limit the severity of the ischemic damage. At the same time we did not find an accompanying enhancement of P2X7 mRNA or protein expression, suggesting that receptors may become hypersensitive because of an increased efficiency of their transduction pathways.
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are neurodegenerative diseases caused by mutations in more than 20 genes, which lead to progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs. The most frequently mutated gene causing autosomal dominant HSP is SPG4, which encodes spastin, a protein that belongs to the family of ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAAs). A number of studies have suggested that spastin regulates microtubule dynamics. We have studied the ATPase activity of recombinant human spastin and examined the effect of taxol-stabilized microtubules on this activity. We used spastin translated from the second ATG and provide evidence that this is the physiologically relevant form. We showed that microtubules enhance the ATPase activity of the protein, a property also described for katanin, an AAA of the same spastin subgroup. Furthermore, we demonstrated that human spastin has a microtubule-destabilizing activity and can bundle microtubules in vitro, providing new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of HSP.
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  • 44
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (Gsk3β) has been shown to be a key component in signaling pathways that underlie neurodegeneration and neurodegenerative disease. Conversely, inactivation of Gsk3β by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt is an important neuroprotective mechanism. Previous studies have shown that agonist activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) can increase neuronal survival and prevent apoptosis. However, little is known about the signaling pathways that couple mGluR5 to neuroprotection. In this report, we investigated whether activation of the PI3K/Akt/Gsk3β pathway, which has been shown to have an important neuroprotective mechanism, is required for mGluR5 activation mediated neuroprotection against β-amyloid. We found that brief incubations of mouse hippocampal slices with (R,S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) resulted in increased phosphorylation of Akt and Gsk3β. The PI3K inhibitors, LY294002 and wortmannin, blocked the DHPG-induced increased phosphorylation of Akt and Gsk3β. Similar results were observed in rat primary hippocampal cultures. Finally, we found that the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 can block (R,S)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG) mediated neuroprotection against β-amyloid. Thus, these findings suggest that mGluR5 can modulate the PI3K/Akt/Gsk3β pathway in the hippocampus, and that modulation of this signaling pathway can reverse β-amyloid-induced neuronal toxicity.
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  • 45
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by degeneration of motor neurons. We tested the hypothesis that proteomic analysis will identify protein biomarkers that provide insight into disease pathogenesis and are diagnostically useful. To identify ALS specific biomarkers, we compared the proteomic profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from ALS and control subjects using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). We identified 30 mass ion peaks with statistically significant (p 〈 0.01) differences between control and ALS subjects. Initial analysis with a rule-learning algorithm yielded biomarker panels with diagnostic predictive value as subsequently assessed using an independent set of coded test subjects. Three biomarkers were identified that are either decreased (transthyretin, cystatin C) or increased (carboxy-terminal fragment of neuroendocrine protein 7B2) in ALS CSF. We validated the SELDI-TOF-MS results for transthyretin and cystatin C by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry using commercially available antibodies. These findings identify a panel of CSF protein biomarkers for ALS.
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  • 46
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A direct correlation between disease progression and reduced expression of TrkA receptor in cholinergic neurons has been documented in neurocognitive pathologies including Alzheimer's disease. We investigated whether reduced expression of TrkA protein might also correlate with the level of cognitive impairment in age-associated cognitive impairment. Quantitative and qualitative measurements of TrkA protein levels in the cortex and nucleus basalis of aged rats that had been well-characterized behaviorally as ‘unimpaired’, ‘mildly impaired’ or ‘fully impaired’ demonstrated significant changes in TrkA expression. In the mildly impaired cognitive state phenotypic silencing of TrkA was detected in neurons expressing TrkA at high density but before cholinergic atrophy or loss of TrkA+ neurons was detected. In the fully impaired cognitive state a significant loss in TrkA+ cholinergic neurons together with a more significant phenotypic silencing of TrkA expression then took place. These data suggest that TrkA+ cholinergic cells are associated with cognition, TrkA could be a biomarker of the cognitive state and phenotypic loss of TrkA precedes neuronal loss and probably sensitizes cells to death. We speculate that neurotrophic deficits may be a shared mechanism for cognitive decline in aging and Alzheimer's disease.
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  • 47
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Synthesis and subsequent sequestration into vesicles are essential steps that precede neurotransmitter exocytosis, but neither the total neurotransmitter content nor the fraction sequestered into vesicles have been measured in individual live neurons. We use multiphoton microscopy to directly observe intracellular and intravesicular serotonin in the serotonergic neuronal cell line RN46A. We focus on how the relationship between synthesis and sequestration changes as synthesis is up-regulated by differentiation or down-regulated by chemical inhibition. Temperature-induced differentiation causes an increase of about 60% in the total serotonin content of individual cells, which goes up to about 10 fmol. However, the number of vesicles per cell increases by a factor of four and the proportion of serotonin sequestered inside the vesicles increases by a factor of five. When serotonin synthesis is inhibited in differentiated cells and the serotonin content goes down to the level present in undifferentiated cells, the sequestered proportion still remains at this high level. The total neurotransmitter content of a cell is, thus, an unreliable indicator of the sequestered amount.
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  • 48
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Muscarinic receptors are the predominant cholinergic receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Recently, activation of muscarinic receptors was found to elicit pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill fish. Pigment granule movement in retinal pigment epithelium is a light-adaptive mechanism in fish. In the present study, we used pharmacological and molecular approaches to identify the muscarinic receptor subtype and the intracellular signaling pathway involved in the pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium. Of the muscarinic receptor subtype-specific antagonists used, only antagonists specific for M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors were found to block carbamyl choline (carbachol)-induced pigment granule dispersion. A phospholipase C inhibitor also blocked carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion, and a similar result was obtained when retinal pigment epithelium was incubated with an inositol trisphosphate receptor inhibitor. We isolated M2 and M5 receptor genes from bluegill and studied their expression. Only M5 was found to be expressed in retinal pigment epithelium. Taken together, pharmacological and molecular evidence suggest that activation of an odd subtype of muscarinic receptor, possibly M5, on fish retinal pigment epithelium induces pigment granule dispersion.
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  • 49
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The absence of adenosine A2A receptors, or its pharmacological inhibition, has neuroprotective effects. Experimental data suggest that glial A2A receptors participate in neurodegeneration induced by A2A receptor stimulation. In this study we have investigated the effects of A2A receptor stimulation on control and activated glial cells. Mouse cortical mixed glial cultures (75% astrocytes, 25% microglia) were treated with the A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). CGS21680 potentiated lipopolysaccharide-induced NO release and NO synthase-II expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. CGS21680 potentiation of lipopolysaccharide-induced NO release was suppressed by the A2A receptor antagonist ZM-241385 and did not occur on mixed glial cultures from A2A receptor-deficient mice. In mixed glial cultures treated with LPS + CGS21680, the NO synthase-II inhibitor 1400W abolished NO production, and NO synthase-II immunoreactivity was observed only in microglia. Binding experiments demonstrated the presence of A2A receptors on microglial but not on astroglial cultures. However, the presence of astrocytes was necessary for CGS21680 potentiating effect. In light of the reported neurotoxicity of microglial NO synthase-II and the neuroprotection of A2A receptor inhibition, these data suggest that attenuation of microglial NO production could contribute to the neuroprotection afforded by A2A receptor antagonists.
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  • 50
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We looked at the possible interactions between astrocytes and neurones during reperfusion using an in vitro model of ischaemia–reperfusion injury, as a controlled environment that lends itself easily to manipulation of the numerous variables involved in such an insult. We constructed a chamber in which O2 can be lowered to a concentration of 1 µm and developed a primary cortical neuronal culture that is 99% pure and can survive to at least 10 days in vitro. We also established a novel system for the co-culture of astrocytes and neurones in order to study the communication between these cells in a manner that allows the complete separation of one cell type from another. Neurone cultures showed profound cell death following an ischaemic period of only 15 min. We co-cultured neurones that had been subjected to a 15-min ischaemic insult with either non-insulted astrocytes or astrocyte-conditioned medium during the reperfusion stage. Both astrocytes and astrocyte-conditioned medium enhanced neuronal survival. Our data also suggest that astrocyte-sourced neuronal glutathione synthesis may play a role in preventing neuronal death.
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  • 51
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: There is evidence that an inflammatory microglial reaction participates in the pathophysiology of dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease and in animal models of the disease. However, this phenomenon remains incompletely characterized. Using an in vitro model of neuronal/glial mesencephalic cultures, we show that the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) stimulates the proliferation of microglial cells at concentrations that selectively reduce the survival of DA neurones. The mitogenic action of MPP+ was not the mere consequence of neuronal cell demise as the toxin produced the same effect in a model system of neuronal/glial cortical cultures, where target DA neurones are absent. Consistent with this observation, the proliferative effect of MPP+ was also detectable in neurone-free microglial/astroglial cultures. It disappeared, however, when MPP+ was added to pure microglial cell cultures suggesting that astrocytes played a key role in the mitogenic mechanism. Accordingly, the proliferation of microglial cells in response to MPP+ treatment was mimicked by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a proinflammatory cytokine produced by astrocytes and was blocked by a neutralizing antibody to GM-CSF. Thus, we conclude that the microglial reaction observed following MPP+ exposure depends on astrocytic factors, e.g. GM-CSF, a finding that may have therapeutic implications.
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  • 52
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 53
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In this study we investigated the mechanisms of neuronal cell death induced by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and muramyl dipeptide (MDP) from Gram-positive bacterial cell walls using primary cultures of rat cerebellum granule cells (CGCs) and rat cortical glial cells (astrocytes and microglia). LTA (± MDP) from Staphylococcus aureus induced a strong inflammatory response of both types of glial cells (release of interleukin-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide). The death of CGCs was caused by activated glia because in the absence of glia (treatment with 7.5 µm cytosine-d-arabinoside to inhibit non-neuronal cell proliferation) LTA + MDP did not cause significant cell death (less than 20%). In addition, staining with rhodamine-labelled LTA confirmed that LTA was bound only to microglia and astrocytes (not neurones). Neuronal cell death induced by LTA (± MDP)-activated glia was partially blocked by an inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (1400 W; 100 µm), and completely blocked by a superoxide dismutase mimetic [manganese (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride; 50 µm] and a peroxynitrite scavenger [5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrinato iron (III); 100 µm] suggesting that nitric oxide and peroxynitrite contributed to LTA-induced cell death. Moreover, neuronal cell death was inhibited by selective inhibitors of caspase-3 (z-DEVD-fmk; 50 µm) and caspase-8 (z-Ile-Glu(O-Me)-Thr-Asp(O-Me) fluoromethyl ketone; 50 µm) indicating that they were involved in LTA-induced neuronal cell death.
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  • 54
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: There is increasing evidence that neuron death in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, is due to the activation of programmed cell death. However, the upstream mediators of cell death remain largely unknown. One approach to the identification of upstream mediators is to perform gene expression analysis in disease models. Such analyses, performed in tissue culture models induced by neurotoxins, have identified up-regulation of CHOP/GADD153, a transcription factor implicated in apoptosis due to endoplasmic reticulum stress or oxidative injury. To evaluate the disease-related significance of these findings, we have examined the expression of CHOP/GADD153 in neurotoxin models of parkinsonism in living animals. Nuclear expression of CHOP protein is observed in developmental and adult models of dopamine neuron death induced by intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) and in models induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). CHOP is a mediator of neuron death in the adult 60HDA model because a null mutation results in a reduction in apoptosis. In the chronic MPTP model, however, while CHOP is robustly expressed, the null mutation does not protect from the loss of neurons. We conclude that the role of CHOP depends on the nature of the toxic stimulus. For 6OHDA, an oxidative metabolite of dopamine, it is a mediator of apoptotic death.
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  • 55
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In the CNS, immune-like competent cells (microglia and astrocytes) were first described as potential sites of chemokine synthesis, but more recent evidence has indicated that neurones might also express chemokines and their receptors. The aim of the present work was to investigate further, both in vivo and in vitro, CC Chemokine Family Receptor 2 (CCR2) expression and functionality in rat spinal cord neurones. First, we demonstrated by RT–PCR and western blot analysis that CCR2 mRNA and protein were present in spinal extracts. Furthermore, we showed by immunolabelling that CCR2 was exclusively expressed by neurones in spinal sections of healthy rat. Finally, to test the functionality of CCR2, we used primary cultures of rat spinal neurones. In this model, similar to what was observed in vivo, CCR2 mRNA and protein were expressed by neurones. Cultured neurones stimulated with Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2, the best characterized CCR2 agonist, showed activation of the Akt pathway. Finally, patch-clamp recording of cultured spinal neurones was used to investigate whether MCP-1/CCL2 could modulate their electrophysiological properties. MCP-1 alone did not affect the electrical properties of spinal neurones, but potently and efficiently inhibited GABAA-mediated GABAergic responses in these neurones. These data constitute the first demonstration of a modulatory role of MCP-1 on GABAergic neurotransmission and contribute to our understanding of the roles of CCR2 and MCP-1/CCL2 in spinal cord physiology, in particular with respect to nociceptive transmission, as well as the implication of this chemokine in neuronal adaptation or dysfunction during neuropathy.
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  • 56
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The K+/Cl– co-transporter KCC2 maintains the low intracellular chloride concentration required for fast synaptic inhibition and is exclusively expressed in neurones of the CNS. Here, we show that the KCC2 gene (alias SLC12a5) has multiple transcription start sites and characterize the activity of 6.8 kb of mouse KCC2 gene regulatory sequence (spanning 1.4 kb upstream from exon 1 to exon 2) using luciferase reporters. Overexpression of neurone-restrictive silencer factor repressed the reporter activity in vitro, apparently via a neurone restrictive silencer element (NRSEKCC2) within intron 1 of the mouse KCC2 gene. In transgenic mice, however, KCC2 reporters with or without deletion of the NRSEKCC2 were expressed exclusively in neurones and predominantly in the CNS with a similar pattern and developmental up-regulation as endogenous KCC2. Moreover, a third transgene with just a 1.4-kb KCC2 promoter region lacking the NRSEKCC2-bearing intron 1 was still expressed predominantly in neural tissues. Thus, developmental up-regulation of the KCC2 gene does not require NRSEKCC2 and the 1.4-kb KCC2 promoter is largely sufficient for neurone-specific expression of KCC2.
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  • 57
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Half of congenital muscular dystrophy cases arise from laminin α2 (merosin) deficiency, and merosin-deficient mice (Lama2dy) exhibit a dystrophic phenotype. The abnormal development of thymus in Lama2dy mice, the occurrence of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the gland and the impaired distribution of AChE molecules in skeletal muscle of the mouse mutant prompted us to compare the levels of AChE mRNAs and enzyme species in thymus of control and Lama2dy mice. AChE activity in normal thymus (mean ± SD 1.42 ± 0.28 µmol acetylthiocholine/h/mg protein, U/mg) was decreased by ∼50% in dystrophic thymus (0.77 ± 0.23 U/mg) (p = 0.007), whereas butyrylcholinesterase activity was little affected. RT–PCR assays revealed variable levels of R, H and T AChE mRNAs in thymus, bone marrow and spinal cord. Control thymus contained amphiphilic AChE dimers (〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:00223042:JNC3433:JNC_3433_mu1" location="equation/JNC_3433_mu1.gif"/〉, 64%) and monomers (〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:00223042:JNC3433:JNC_3433_mu2" location="equation/JNC_3433_mu2.gif"/〉, 19%), as well as hydrophilic tetramers (〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:00223042:JNC3433:JNC_3433_mu3" location="equation/JNC_3433_mu3.gif"/〉, 9%) and monomers (〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:00223042:JNC3433:JNC_3433_mu4" location="equation/JNC_3433_mu4.gif"/〉, 8%). The dimers consisted of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored H subunits. Western blot assays with anti-AChE antibodies suggested the occurrence of inactive AChE in mouse thymus. Despite the decrease in AChE activity in Lama2dy thymus, no differences between thymuses from control and dystrophic mice were observed in the distribution of AChE forms, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C sensitivity, binding to lectins and size of AChE subunits.
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  • 58
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Alterations of the expression of some peptidases in the pituitary gland of a fatigued rat model were identified. Rats were kept in a cage filled with water to a height of 1.5 cm to disturb deep sleep. After 24-h sleep disturbance, expression of neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (neprilysin) mRNA was increased in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland, whereas the mRNA expression of another family member, damage-induced neuronal endopeptidase, which is normally expressed in a subgroup of anterior pituitary cells, was significantly suppressed. These alterations were demonstrated by RT-PCR, northern blotting and in situ hybridization. Other family members, such as neprilysin 2 and endothelin converting enzyme-1, did not show any change in mRNA expression. An increase of neprilysin mRNA expression was not seen in any other tissues of the sleep-disturbed rats. The enzymatic activity of neprilysin was also increased in the pituitary. The augmentation of neprilysin expression and activity was prolonged as long as the sleep disturbance continued (up to 5 days), and returned to the basal level when rats were allowed to sleep freely. These results suggest that peptide processing and degradation in the pituitary may be an influential factor in fatigued states such as sleep disturbance.
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  • 59
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    Journal of neurochemistry 95 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Recent evidence indicates that the glycine transporter-1 (GLYT1) plays a role in regulation of NMDA receptor function through tight control of glycine concentration in its surrounding medium. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that, as well as being found in glial cells, GLYT1 is also associated with the pre- and postsynaptic aspects of glutamatergic synapses. In this article, we describe the interaction between GLYT1 and PSD-95 in the rat brain, PSD-95 being a scaffolding protein that participates in the organization of glutamatergic synapses. Mutational analysis reveals that the C-terminal sequence of GLYT1 (–SRI) is necessary for the transporter to interact with the PDZ domains I and II of PSD-95. This C-terminal tripeptide motif also seems to be involved in the trafficking of GLYT1 to the membrane, although this process does not involve PDZ proteins. GLYT1 is able to recruit PSD-95 to the plasma membrane, but it does not affect its clustering. However, the interaction stabilizes this transporter at the plasma membrane, blocking its internalization and producing a significant increase in the Vmax of glycine uptake. We hypothesize that PSD-95 might act as a scaffold for GLYT1 and NMDA receptors, allowing GLYT1 to regulate the concentrations of glycine in the micro-environment of NMDA receptors.
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  • 60
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    Journal of neurochemistry 94 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a known survival factor for neurons, has recently been shown to stimulate the migration of Schwann cells (SCs) and to enhance myelination. GDNF exerts its biological effects by activating the Ret tyrosine kinase in the presence of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked receptor, GDNF family receptor (GFR) α1. In Ret-negative cells, the alternative transmembrane coreceptor is the 140-kDa isoform of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) associated with a non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fyn. We confirmed that GDNF, GFRα1 and NCAM are expressed in neonatal rat SCs. We found that GDNF induces an increase in the partitioning of NCAM and heparan sulfate proteoglycan agrin into lipid rafts and that heparinase inhibits GDNF-signaling in SCs. In addition to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases, and phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein, we found that cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and protein kinase C are involved in GDNF-mediated signaling in SCs. Although GDNF did not promote the differentiation of purified SCs into the myelinating phenotype, it enhanced myelination in neuron–SC cocultures. We conclude that GDNF utilizes NCAM signaling pathways to regulate SC function prior to myelination and at early stages of myelin formation.
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  • 61
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    Journal of neurochemistry 94 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Ethanol consumption during development affects the maturation of hippocampal circuits by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Ethanol acts as a depressant in the mature CNS and it has been assumed that this also applies to immature neurons. We investigated whether ethanol targets the neuronal network activity that is involved in the refinement of developing hippocampal synapses. This activity appears during the growth spurt period in the form of giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs). GDPs are generated by the excitatory actions of GABA and glutamate via a positive feedback circuit involving pyramidal neurons and interneurons. We found that ethanol potently increases GDP frequency in the CA3 hippocampal region of slices from neonatal rats. It also increased the frequency of GDP-driven Ca2+ transients in pyramidal neurons and increased the frequency of GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous postsynaptic currents in CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons. The ethanol-induced potentiation of GABAergic activity is probably the result of increased quantal GABA release at interneuronal synapses but not enhanced neuronal excitability. These findings demonstrate that ethanol is a potent stimulant of developing neuronal circuits, which might contribute to the abnormal hippocampal development associated with fetal alcohol syndrome and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders.
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  • 62
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    Journal of neurochemistry 94 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Phosphorylation of voltage-gated K+ channels (Kv) is involved in regulation of neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival. Among Kv channels expressed in the CNS, Kv1.4 is located in the soma, dendrite and axon terminus of neurones in most regions of the brain. Here, we show that Ser229 found within the highly conserved T1 domain of Kv1.4 in cultured rat cortical neurones is phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA), as demonstrated by in vitro protein kinase assay and Western blotting with a polyclonal antibody specific against phosphorylated Ser229. Glutamate, high concentrations of K+ or K+ channel blockers known to increase neurotransmission all stimulated the phosphorylation of Kv1.4 at Ser229 via N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), but not α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid (AMPA) receptor, whereas tetradotoxin (TTX), known to block neuronal transmission, and depletion of extracellular Ca2+ inhibited phosphorylation induced by tetraethylammonium (TEA), a non-selective K+ channel blocker. Mutation of Ser229 to Ala229 enhanced the current density. Taken together, elevation of the neuronal transmission stimulates the phosphorylation of Kv1.4 at Ser229 via the Ca2+ influx through NMDA receptor. Thus, it is possible that neuronal transmission regulates neuronal excitability partially through the phosphorylation of Kv1.4S229.
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  • 63
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    Journal of neurochemistry 94 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Corticotropin-releasing factor is a neuropeptide associated with the integration of physiological and behavioural responses to stress and also in the modulation of affective state and drug reward. The selective, centrally acting corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor antagonist, antalarmin, is a potent anxiolytic and reduces volitional ethanol consumption in Fawn-Hooded rats. The efficacy of antalarmin to reduce ethanol consumption increased with time, suggestive of adaptation to reinforcement processes and goal-directed behaviour. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic antalarmin treatment on reward-related regions of Fawn-Hooded rat brain. Bi-daily antalarmin treatment (20 mg/kg, i.p.) for 10 days increased tyrosine hydroxylase messenger RNA expression throughout the ventral mesencephalon. Following chronic antalarmin the density of dopaminergic terminals within the basal ganglia and amygdaloid complex were reduced, as was dopamine transporter binding within the striatum. Receptor autoradiography indicated an up-regulation of dopamine D2, but no change in D1, binding in striatum, and Golgi-Cox analysis of striatal medium spiny neurones indicated that chronic antalarmin treatment increased spine density. Thus, chronic antalarmin treatment modulates dopaminergic pathways and implies that chronic treatment with drugs of this class may ultimately alter postsynaptic signaling mechanisms within the basal ganglia.
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  • 64
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    Journal of neurochemistry 94 (2005), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a Ser/Thr kinase of increasingly recognized importance in a large number of fields, ranging from neuronal migration to synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration. However, little is known about its mechanism of activation beyond its requirement for binding to p35 or p39. We have examined membrane interactions as one method of regulating the Cdk5–p35 complex. The kinase activity of Cdk5–p35 is low when it is bound to membranes. The Cdk5–p35 found in rat brain extract associates with membranes in two ways. Approximately 75% of complexes associate with membranes via ionic interactions only, and the remaining 25% associate with membranes via ionic interactions together with lipidic interactions. Solubilization with detergent or high-salt solution activates Cdk5–p35 several fold, and this activation is reversible. Therefore, membrane interactions represent a novel mechanism for the regulation of Cdk5–p35 kinase activity.
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  • 65
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    Journal of neurochemistry 94 (2005), S. 0 
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    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 is an inducible protein recently shown to be an important enzyme in inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in some peripheral inflammatory lesions. However, in inflammatory sites in the brain, the induction of mPGES-1 is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of mPGES-1 in the brain parenchyma in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model. A local injection of LPS into the rat substantia nigra led to the induction of mPGES-1 in activated microglia. In neuron-glial mixed cultures, mPGES-1 was co-induced with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) specifically in microglia, but not in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes or neurons. In microglia-enriched cultures, the induction of mPGES-1, the activity of PGES and the production of PGE2 were preceded by the induction of mPGES-1 mRNA and almost completely inhibited by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. The induction of mPGES-1 and production of PGE2 were also either attenuated or absent in microglia treated with mPGES-1 antisense oligonucleotide or microglia from mPGES-1 knockout (KO) mice, respectively, suggesting the necessity of mPGES-1 for microglial PGE2 production. These results suggest that the activation of microglia contributes to PGE2 production through the concerted de novo synthesis of mPGES-1 and COX-2 at sites of inflammation of the brain parenchyma.
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  • 66
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 94 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The α2-adrenoceptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate many of the physiological effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine. Mammals have three subtypes of α2-adrenoceptors, α2A, α2B and α2C. Zebrafish, a teleost fish used widely as a model organism, has five distinct α2-adrenoceptor genes. The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful tool to study development and genetics, with many mutations causing diseases reminiscent of human diseases. Three of the zebrafish adra2 genes code for orthologues of the mammalian α2-adrenoceptors, while two genes code for α2Da- and α2Db- adrenoceptors, representing a duplicated, fourth α2-adrenoceptor subtype. The three different mammalian α2-adrenoceptor subtypes have distinct expression patterns in different organs and tissues, and mediate different physiological functions. The zebrafish α2-adrenergic system, with five different α2-adrenoceptors, appears more complicated. In order to deduce the physiological functions of the zebrafish α2-adrenoceptors, we localized the expression of the five different α2-adrenoceptor subtypes using RT–PCR, mRNA in situ hybridization, and receptor autoradiography using the radiolabelled α2-adrenoceptor antagonist [ethyl-3H]RS-79948–197. Localization of the α2A-, α2B- and α2C-adrenoceptors in zebrafish shows marked conservation when compared with mammals. The zebrafish α2A, α2Da, and α2Db each partially follow the distribution pattern of the mammalian α2A: a possible indication of subfunction partitioning between these subtypes. The α2-adrenergic system is functional in zebrafish also in vivo, as demonstrated by marked locomotor inhibition, similarly to mammals, and lightening of skin colour induced by the specific α2-adrenoceptor agonist, dexmedetomidine. Both effects were antagonized by the specific α2-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole.
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  • 67
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 94 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The choroid plexus epithelium forms the interface between the blood and the CSF. In conjunction with the tight junctions restricting the paracellular pathway, polarized specific transport systems in the choroidal epithelium allow a fine regulation of CSF-borne biologically active mediators. The highly vascularized stroma delimited by the choroidal epithelium can be a reservoir for retrovirus-infected or activated immune cells. In this work, new insight in the implication of the blood–CSF barrier in neuroinfectious and inflammatory diseases is provided by using a differentiated cellular model of the choroidal epithelium, exposed to infected T lymphocytes. We demonstrate that T cells activated by a retroviral infection, but not non-infected cells, reduce the transporter-mediated CSF-to-blood efflux of organic anions, in particular that of the potent pro-inflammatory prostaglandin PGE2, via the release of soluble factors. A moderate alteration of the paracellular permeability also occurs. We identified the viral protein Tax, oxygenated free radicals, matrix-metalloproteinases and pro-inflammatory cytokines as active molecules released during the exposure of the epithelium to infected T cells. Among them, tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 1 are directly involved in the mechanism underlying the decrease in some choroidal organic anion efflux. Given the strong involvement of CSF-borne PGE2 in sickness behaviour syndrome, these data suggest that the blood–CSF barrier plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neuroinflammation and neuroinfection, via changes in the transport processes controlling the CSF biodisposition of PGE2.
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  • 68
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 94 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Ionizing radiation induced acute cell death in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone (SGZ) and the subventricular zone (SVZ). Hypomyelination was also observed. The effects of mild hypothermia and hyperthermia for 4 h after irradiation (IR) were studied in postnatal day 9 rats. One hemisphere was irradiated with a single dose of 8 Gy and animals were randomized to normothermia (rectal temperature 36°C for 4 h), hypothermia (32°C for 4 h) or hyperthermia (39°C for 4 h). Cellular injury, e.g. chromatin condensation and nitrotyrosine formation, appeared to proceed faster when the body temperature was higher. Caspase-3 activation was more pronounced in the hyperthermia group and nuclear translocation of p53 was less pronounced in the hypothermia group 6 h after IR. In the SVZ the loss of nestin-positive progenitors was more pronounced (48%) and the size was smaller (45%) in the hyperthermia group 7 days post-IR. Myelination was not different after hypo- or hyperthermia. This is the first report to demonstrate that hypothermia may be beneficial and that hyperthermia may aggravate the adverse side-effects after radiation therapy to the developing brain.
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  • 69
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 94 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Ten years after the isoforms of mammalian phospholipase D (PLD), PLD1 and 2, were cloned, their roles in the brain remain speculative but several lines of evidence now implicate these enzymes in basic cell functions such as vesicular trafficking as well as in brain development. Many mitogenic factors, including neurotransmitters and growth factors, activate PLD in neurons and astrocytes. Activation of PLD downstream of protein kinase C seems to be a required step for astroglial proliferation. The characteristic disruption of the PLD signaling pathway by ethanol probably contributes to the delay of brain growth in fetal alcohol syndrome. The post-natal increase of PLD activities concurs with synapto- and myelinogenesis in the brain and PLD is apparently involved in neurite formation. In the adult and aging brain, PLD activity has antiapoptotic properties suppressing ceramide formation. Increased PLD activities in acute and chronic neurodegeneration as well as in inflammatory processes are evidently due to astrogliosis and may be associated with protective responses of tissue repair and remodeling. ARF-regulated PLD participates in receptor endocytosis as well as in exocytosis of neurotransmitters where PLD seems to favor vesicle fusion by modifications of the shape and charge of lipid membranes. Finally, PLD activities contribute free choline for the synthesis of acetylcholine in the brain. Novel tools such as RNA interference should help to further elucidate the roles of PLD isoforms in brain physiology and pathology.
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  • 70
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 94 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Sandhoff disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a defect of the β-subunit gene (HEXB) associated with simultaneous deficiencies of β-hexosaminidase A (HexA; αβ) and B (HexB; ββ), and excessive accumulation of GM2 ganglioside (GM2) and oligosaccharides with N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues at their non-reducing termini. Recent studies have shown the involvement of microglial activation in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration of this disease. We isolated primary microglial cells from the neonatal brains of Sandhoff disease model mice (SD mice) produced by disruption of the murine Hex β-subunit gene allele (Hexb–/–). The cells expressed microglial cell-specific ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)-immunoreactivity (IR) and antigen recognized by Ricinus communis agglutinin lectin-120 (RCA120), but not glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-IR specific for astrocytes. They also demonstrated significant intracellular accumulation of GM2 and GlcNAc-oligosaccharides. We produced a lentiviral vector encoding for the murine Hex β-subunit and transduced it into the microglia from SD mice with the recombinant lentivirus, causing elimination of the intracellularly accumulated GM2 and GlcNAc-oligosaccharides and secretion of Hex isozyme activities from the transduced SD microglial cells. Recomibinant HexA isozyme isolated from the conditioned medium of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line simultaneously expressing the human HEXA (α-subunit) and HEXB genes was also found to be incorporated into the SD microglia via cell surface cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and mannose receptor to degrade the intracellularly accumulated GM2 and GlcNAc-oligosaccharides. These results suggest the therapeutic potential of recombinant lentivirus encoding the murine Hex β-subunit and the human HexA isozyme (αβ heterodimer) for metabolic cross-correction in microglial cells involved in progressive neurodegeneration in SD mice.
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  • 71
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    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 94 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The homeodomain protein Arix/Phox2a plays a role in the development and maintenance of the noradrenergic cell type by regulating the transcription of genes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of noradrenaline. Previous work has shown that Arix/Phox2a is a phosphoprotein, and the phosphorylated form of Arix/Phox2a exhibits poorer DNA-binding activity than does the dephosphorylated form. Here, we demonstrate that Arix/Phox2a is phosphorylated by extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2 at two sites within the N-terminal transactivation domain. The phosphorylation level of Arix in cultured SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells is reduced when cells are treated with the mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) inhibitor UO126. Treatment of sympathetic neurons with the MEK1 inhibitor, PD98059, results in an elevation of mRNAs encoding noradrenergic proteins, dopamine ß-hydroxylase (DBH) and norepinephrine transporter (NET), but not tyrosine hydroyxlase (TH). Treatment of neuroblastoma cultures with PD98059 increases the interaction of Arix with DBH and NET genes, but not the TH gene. Together, these results suggest that phosphorylation of Arix by ERK1/2 inhibits its ability to interact with target genes, and that both specificity of expression and modulation by external stimuli are monitored through the same transcription factor.
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  • 72
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    Journal of neurochemistry 94 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: AML1/Runx1 (Runx1) is a mammalian transcription factor that plays critical roles in regulating the differentiation of a number of different cell types. In the present study, we have utilized mice expressing β-galactosidase (β-gal) under the control of the Runx1 promoter to characterize the spatiotemporal expression pattern of Runx1 during retinogenesis. Expression of β-gal was first detected at embryonic day 13.5 in post-mitotic cells located in the inner retina and overlapped with expression of the early amacrine and ganglion cell marker protein Islet1. During subsequent developmental stages, the number of β-gal-positive cells increased in a central-to-peripheral gradient until late embryogenesis but then decreased in the early post-natal retina. β-gal-positive cells were located primarily in the ganglion cell layer by late embryonic/early post-natal stages and were identified as a subpopulation of displaced amacrine cells by the continued expression of Islet1, as well as Pax6, and the coexpression of the amacrine cell subtype-specific markers choline acetyltransferase, calretinin and the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase. These findings identify Runx1 as a novel marker for a restricted amacrine cell subtype and suggest a role for this gene in regulating the post-mitotic development of these cells.
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  • 73
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    Journal of neurochemistry 94 (2005), S. 0