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  • 1
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Organic functional groups in the submicron aerosol at 82.5° N, 62.5° W from 2012 to 2014 W. Richard Leaitch, Lynn M. Russell, Jun Liu, Felicia Kolonjari, Desiree Toom, Lin Huang, Sangeeta Sharma, Alina Chivulescu, Dan Veber, and Wendy Zhang Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3269-3287, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-3269-2018, 2018 Over 2 years of atmospheric aerosol organic functional group and microphysics measurements at the world's northernmost land observatory offer a unique high-latitude dataset. Lower organic mass (OM) concentrations and higher OM fractions accompany smaller particles during summer, with opposite results during winter to spring. Seasonally, the OM oxidation level is highest in winter, associated with primary marine alcohol groups. In summer, secondary processes dominate the marine influence on OM.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
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  • 2
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Different trends in extreme and median surface aerosol extinction coefficients over China inferred from quality-controlled visibility data Jing Li, Chengcai Li, and Chunsheng Zhao Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3289-3298, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-3289-2018, 2018 Our study investigates the long-term trends of extreme aerosol pollution in China over the past ~ 30 years. In the 1980s, an overall positive trend is found throughout China with the extreme trend exceeding the mean trend, except for Northwest China and the North China Plain. In the 1990s, the extreme trends continued to dominate in the south while they yield to the mean trend in the north. After 2000, the extreme trend became weaker than the mean trend overall.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 3
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: The importance of comprehensive parameter sampling and multiple observations for robust constraint of aerosol radiative forcing Jill S. Johnson, Leighton A. Regayre, Masaru Yoshioka, Kirsty J. Pringle, Lindsay A. Lee, David Sexton, John Rostron, Ben B. B. Booth, and Ken S. Carslaw Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-174,2018 Manuscript under review for ACP (discussion: open, 0 comments) We estimate the uncertainty in an aerosol-climate model that has been tuned to match several common types of observations. We used a large set of model simulations and built emulators so that we could generate 4 million variants of our climate model. Even after using nine aerosol and cloud observations to constrain the model, the uncertainty remains large. We conclude that estimates of aerosol forcing from multi-model studies are likely to be more uncertain than currently estimated.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
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  • 4
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Retrieval of Desert Dust and Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions over Africa from POLDER/PARASOL Products Generated by GRASP Algorithm Cheng Chen, Oleg Dubovik, Daven K. Henze, Tatyana Lapyonak, Mian Chin, Fabrice Ducos, Pavel Litvinov, Xin Huang, and Lei Li Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-35,2018 Manuscript under review for ACP (discussion: open, 0 comments) This paper introduces a method to use satellite observed spectral Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Aerosol Absorption Optical Depth (AAOD) to derive three types of aerosol emission sources simultaneously based on inverse modeling. This study is an important contribution to improve the atmospheric aerosol simulation using detailed aerosol optical and microphysical information from space-borne satellite observations.
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  • 5
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: A Preliminary Assessment of the Impacts of Multiple Temporal-scale Variations in Particulate Matter on its Source Apportionment Xing Peng, Jian Gao, Guoliang Shi, Xurong Shi, Yanqi Huangfu, Jiayuan Liu, Yuechong Zhang, Yinchang Feng, Wei Wang, Ruoyu Ma, Cesunica E. Ivey, and Yi Deng Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-997,2018 Manuscript under review for ACP (discussion: open, 0 comments) A finding here is that source emission dominates the level of pollutants and short-term meteorological condition determines the variation of pollutants. Primary source impact levels are mainly influenced by source emissions, and secondary source impact levels are mainly influenced by synoptic scale fluctuations and source emissions. The implications of results are for source apportionment analyses conducted with data from different geographical locations and under various weather conditions.
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  • 6
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: New insights into the vertical structure of the September 2015 dust storm employing eight ceilometers and auxiliary measurements over Israel Leenes Uzan, Smadar Egert, and Pinhas Alpert Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3203-3221, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-3203-2018, 2018 The extraordinarily extreme dust storm of September 2015 is analyzed using an array of eight ceilometers and auxiliary measurements, revealing the dust plume penetration, ground coverage and gradual dispersion in the first kilometer above Israel. This research emphasized the importance of ceilometer networks as an essential tool in the analysis of meteorological phenomena and aerosol transport as being the most valuable in the mesoscale.
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  • 7
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Model simulations of the chemical and aerosol microphysical evolution of the Sarychev Peak 2009 eruption cloud compared to in situ and satellite observations Thibaut Lurton, Fabrice Jégou, Gwenaël Berthet, Jean-Baptiste Renard, Lieven Clarisse, Anja Schmidt, Colette Brogniez, and Tjarda J. Roberts Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3223-3247, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-3223-2018, 2018 We quantify the chemical and microphysical effects of volcanic SO 2 and HCl from the June 2009 Sarychev Peak eruption using a comprehensive aerosol–chemistry model combined with in situ measurements and satellite retrievals. Our results suggest that previous studies underestimated the eruption's atmospheric and climatic impact, mainly because previous model-to-satellite comparisons had to make assumptions about the aerosol size distribution and were based on biased satellite retrievals of AOD.
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  • 8
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Simulating the Influence of Primary Biological Aerosol Particles on Clouds by Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Matthias Hummel, Corinna Hoose, Bernhard Pummer, Caroline E. Schaupp, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, and Ottmar Möhler Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-182,2018 Manuscript under review for ACP (discussion: open, 0 comments) Primary ice formation, which is an important process for mixed-phase clouds with impact on their lifetime, radiative balance and hence the climate, strongly depends on the availability of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Supercooled droplets within these clouds remain liquid until an INP immersed in or colliding with to the droplet gets reaches its activation temperature. Only a few aerosol particles are acting as INPs and the freezing efficiency varies among them. Thus, the fraction of supercooled water in the cloud depends on the specific properties and concentrations of the INPs. Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) have been identified as very efficient INPs at high subzero temperatures, but their very low atmospheric concentrations make it difficult to quantify their impact on clouds. Here we use the regional atmospheric model COSMO-ART to simulate the heterogeneous ice nucleation by PBAPs during a 1-week case study on a domain covering Europe. We focus on three highly ice nucleation active PBAP species, Pseudomonas syringae bacteria cells and spores from the fungi Cladosporium sp. and Mortierella alpina . PBAP emissions are parameterized in order to represent the entirety of bacteria and fungal spores in the atmosphere. Thus, only parts of the simulated PBAP are assumed to act as INP. The ice nucleation parameterizations are specific for the three selected species and are based on a deterministic approach. The PBAP concentrations simulated in this study are within the range of previously reported results from other modelling studies and atmospheric measurements. Two regimes of PBAP INP concentrations are identified: a temperature-limited and a PBAP-limited regime, which occur at temperatures above and below a maximal concentration at around −10 °C, respectively. In an ensemble of control and disturbed simulations, the change in the average ice crystal concentration by biological INPs is not statistically 1significant, suggesting that PBAP have no significant influence on the average state of the cloud ice phase. However, if the cloud top temperature is below −15 °C, PBAP can influence the cloud ice phase and produce ice crystals in the absence of other INPs. Nevertheless, the number of produced ice crystals is very low and it has no influence on the modelled number of cloud droplets and hence the cloud structure.
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  • 9
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Organic functional groups in the submicron aerosol at 82.5° N, 62.5° W from 2012 to 2014 W. Richard Leaitch, Lynn M. Russell, Jun Liu, Felicia Kolonjari, Desiree Toom, Lin Huang, Sangeeta Sharma, Alina Chivulescu, Dan Veber, and Wendy Zhang Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3269-3287, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-3269-2018, 2018 Over 2 years of atmospheric aerosol organic functional group and microphysics measurements at the world's northernmost land observatory offer a unique high-latitude dataset. Lower organic mass (OM) concentrations and higher OM fractions accompany smaller particles during summer, with opposite results during winter to spring. Seasonally, the OM oxidation level is highest in winter, associated with primary marine alcohol groups. In summer, secondary processes dominate the marine influence on OM.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7367
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
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  • 10
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: The importance of comprehensive parameter sampling and multiple observations for robust constraint of aerosol radiative forcing Jill S. Johnson, Leighton A. Regayre, Masaru Yoshioka, Kirsty J. Pringle, Lindsay A. Lee, David Sexton, John Rostron, Ben B. B. Booth, and Ken S. Carslaw Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-174,2018 Manuscript under review for ACP (discussion: open, 0 comments) We estimate the uncertainty in an aerosol-climate model that has been tuned to match several common types of observations. We used a large set of model simulations and built emulators so that we could generate 4 million variants of our climate model. Even after using nine aerosol and cloud observations to constrain the model, the uncertainty remains large. We conclude that estimates of aerosol forcing from multi-model studies are likely to be more uncertain than currently estimated.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7367
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  • 11
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Importance of seasonally resolved oceanic emissions for bromoform delivery from the tropical Indian Ocean and west Pacific to the stratosphere Alina Fiehn, Birgit Quack, Irene Stemmler, Franziska Ziska, and Kirstin Krüger Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-92,2018 Manuscript under review for ACP (discussion: open, 0 comments) Oceanic very short-lived substances contribute to stratospheric halogen loading and ozone depletion. We created bromoform emission inventories with monthly resolution for the tropical Indian Ocean and west Pacific and modeled the atmospheric transport of bromoform with the particle dispersion model FLEXPART/ERA-Interim. Our results underline that the seasonal and regional stratospheric bromine entrainment critically depends on the seasonality and spatial distribution of the VSLS emissions.
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  • 12
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: New insights into the vertical structure of the September 2015 dust storm employing eight ceilometers and auxiliary measurements over Israel Leenes Uzan, Smadar Egert, and Pinhas Alpert Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3203-3221, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-3203-2018, 2018 The extraordinarily extreme dust storm of September 2015 is analyzed using an array of eight ceilometers and auxiliary measurements, revealing the dust plume penetration, ground coverage and gradual dispersion in the first kilometer above Israel. This research emphasized the importance of ceilometer networks as an essential tool in the analysis of meteorological phenomena and aerosol transport as being the most valuable in the mesoscale.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7367
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  • 13
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Model simulations of the chemical and aerosol microphysical evolution of the Sarychev Peak 2009 eruption cloud compared to in situ and satellite observations Thibaut Lurton, Fabrice Jégou, Gwenaël Berthet, Jean-Baptiste Renard, Lieven Clarisse, Anja Schmidt, Colette Brogniez, and Tjarda J. Roberts Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3223-3247, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-3223-2018, 2018 We quantify the chemical and microphysical effects of volcanic SO 2 and HCl from the June 2009 Sarychev Peak eruption using a comprehensive aerosol–chemistry model combined with in situ measurements and satellite retrievals. Our results suggest that previous studies underestimated the eruption's atmospheric and climatic impact, mainly because previous model-to-satellite comparisons had to make assumptions about the aerosol size distribution and were based on biased satellite retrievals of AOD.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7367
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  • 14
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Differences in ozone retrieval in MIPAS channels A and AB: a spectroscopic issue Norbert Glatthor, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele P. Stiller, Michael Kiefer, Alexandra Laeng, Bianca M. Dinelli, Gerald Wetzel, and Johannes Orphal Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/amt-2018-49,2018 Manuscript under review for AMT (discussion: open, 0 comments) We report on discrepancies in ozone retrievals in channels A and AB of the spaceborne Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), which amount to up to 8 %. Spectroscopic inconsistencies are the most plausible reason for the differences. The bias occurs for different spectroscopic databases (HITRAN, GEISA). We posit that a major part of the differences can be attributed to inconsistent air-broadening coefficients of the ozone lines contained in the databases.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
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  • 15
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Differences in ozone retrieval in MIPAS channels A and AB: a spectroscopic issue Norbert Glatthor, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele P. Stiller, Michael Kiefer, Alexandra Laeng, Bianca M. Dinelli, Gerald Wetzel, and Johannes Orphal Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/amt-2018-49,2018 Manuscript under review for AMT (discussion: open, 0 comments) We report on discrepancies in ozone retrievals in channels A and AB of the spaceborne Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), which amount to up to 8 %. Spectroscopic inconsistencies are the most plausible reason for the differences. The bias occurs for different spectroscopic databases (HITRAN, GEISA). We posit that a major part of the differences can be attributed to inconsistent air-broadening coefficients of the ozone lines contained in the databases.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
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  • 16
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Improved aerosol correction for OMI tropospheric NO 2 retrieval over East Asia: constraint from CALIOP aerosol vertical profile Mengyao Liu, Jintai Lin, K. Folkert Boersma, Gaia Pinardi, Yang Wang, Julien Chimot, Thomas Wagner, Pinhua Xie, Henk Eskes, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Pucai Wang, and Yingying Yan Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/amt-2018-34,2018 Manuscript under review for AMT (discussion: open, 0 comments) China has become the world's largest emitting country of NO x , which mainly come from vehicle exhausts, power plants, etc. However, there is no official ground-based measurements before 2013, so satellite have been widely used to monitor and analyze NO x pollution here. Aerosol is the key factor to influence the accuracy of the satellite NO x product. Our study provide a more accurate way to account aerosol's influence comparing to current wildly used products.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
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  • 17
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A modified pseudo-rigid-body modeling approach for compliant mechanisms with fixed-guided beam flexures Pengbo Liu and Peng Yan Mech. Sci., 8, 359-368, https://doi.org/10.5194/ms-8-359-2017, 2017 In the present paper, we investigate a modified pseudo-rigid-body (MPRB) modeling approach for compliant mechanisms with fixed-guided beam flexures by considering the load-dependent property. The proposed MPRB model provides a more analytical and accurate method to predict the performance characteristics such as deformation capability, stiffness variation, as well as error motions of complaint mechanisms and offers a new look into the design and optimization of beam-based compliant mechanisms.
    Print ISSN: 2191-9151
    Electronic ISSN: 2191-916X
    Topics: Physics
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  • 18
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Design and evaluation of a new exoskeleton for gait rehabilitation Ionut Daniel Geonea and Daniela Tarnita Mech. Sci., 8, 307-321, https://doi.org/10.5194/ms-8-307-2017, 2017 A new exoskeleton for human gait motion assistance and rehabilitation is proposed, to investigate motion capabilities and feasibility. Human gait analysis on healthy and disabled subjects is performed to obtain references motion laws for normal gait. A dynamic simulation model of exoskeleton is achieved in ADAMS computational environment. The exoskeleton prototype motion laws, resulted from motion analysis based on ultra speed video cameras are compared with human subject motion laws.
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  • 19
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Structural integrity investigation for RPV with various cooling water levels under pressurized melting pool Jianfeng Mao, Yunkai Liu, Shiyi Bao, Lijia Luo, Zhiming Lu, and Zengliang Gao Mech. Sci., 9, 147-160, https://doi.org/10.5194/ms-9-147-2018, 2018 The traditional concepts on severe accident mitigation weren't seriously challenged until the occurrence of Fukushima accident on 2011, suggesting the structural behavior had not been appropriately assessed. Therefore, the paper tries to address the structure-related issue on determining whether structural safety can be maintained or not with the effect of various water levels and internal pressures created from core meltdown accident. The creep and plastic damages are interacted with each other
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  • 20
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Tool selection method based on transfer learning for CNC machines Jingtao Zhou, Han Zhao, Mingwei Wang, and Bingbo Shi Mech. Sci., 9, 123-146, https://doi.org/10.5194/ms-9-123-2018, 2018 Due to the time-consuming and inefficient traditional tool selection method based on the human experience, we apply transfer learning to CNC tool selection issue in the field of industrial manufacturing. A unified expression of expert experience and process case is given in a more complex environment and then we improve the algorithm. The results show that the method we proposed can facilitate tool selection.
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  • 21
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip Jie Liu, Shanqing Xu, Guilin Wen, and Yi Min Xie Mech. Sci., 9, 91-102, https://doi.org/10.5194/ms-9-91-2018, 2018 The mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip under opposite-sense bending was investigated,revealing that a simple crease could significantly alter the overall mechanical behaviour of a thin strip. The influence of the geometrical parameters on the mechanical behaviour of the creased strip was studied. The deformation patterns of the thin strips from the finite element simulations were verified by physical models made from thin metal strips.
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  • 22
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Module-based structure design of wheeled mobile robot Zirong Luo, Jianzhong Shang, Guowu Wei, and Lei Ren Mech. Sci., 9, 103-121, https://doi.org/10.5194/ms-9-103-2018, 2018 A systematic method was proposed for the synthesis and creative design of novel structures that can be used to build wheeled mobile robot. The proposed method has led to 236 new design schemes. Mathematical models and a software platform were developed to provide appropriate and intuitive tools for simulating and evaluating performance of the wheeled robots. Physical prototypes of sample wheeled robots were developed and tested, proving and validating the principle and methodology presented.
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  • 23
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Modelling, simulation and experiment of the spherical flexible joint stiffness Songyu Li, Liquan Wang, Shaoming Yao, Peng Jia, Feihong Yun, Wenxue Jin, and Dong Lv Mech. Sci., 9, 81-89, https://doi.org/10.5194/ms-9-81-2018, 2018 The spherical flexible joint is used to connect the Tension Leg Platform to the seabed. It can provide low shear stiffness while bearing high compression force. So the research on the stiffness of flexible joint is necessary. The linear rotational stiffness of the flexible joint is formulated and FEM is used to verify the analytical solution. The increase of Poisson's ratio of the rubber layers will enhance the vertical compression stiffness but barely have effect on the rotational stiffness.
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  • 24
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Determining the range of allowable axial force for the third-order Beam Constraint Model Fulei Ma, Guimin Chen, and Guangbo Hao Mech. Sci., 9, 71-79, https://doi.org/10.5194/ms-9-71-2018, 2018 The Beam Constraint Model (BCM) may yield large predicting errors (〉 5 %) when the applied axial force goes beyond a certain boundary. We mathematically determine the nondimensional boundary of the axial force by the conditions of the positive definite quadratic form of the strain energy expression and the buckling load expressions. If the axial force is beyond the boundary, the Chained Beam Constraint Model (CBCM) can be used instead.
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  • 25
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Brief communication: A nonlinear self-similar solution to barotropic flow over varying topography Ruy Ibanez, Joseph Kuehl, Kalyan Shrestha, and William Anderson Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 201-205, https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-25-201-2018, 2018 We present a nonlinear analytic solution for barotropic flow relevant to the oceanographic slope region. A similarity approach is adopted and the solution takes the form of a Lambert W-function. A more general class of linear solutions is also discussed which take the form of error functions. The equations solved are similar to the heat equation and thus the results may be of interest beyond the geophysical community.
    Print ISSN: 1023-5809
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7946
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  • 26
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Brief communication: Electron pair donors and Earth's energy generation Frederick Mayer Nonlin. Processes Geophys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/npg-2018-13,2018 Manuscript under review for NPG (discussion: open, 0 comments) This paper presents a comparison of two processes that start the generation of energy from the Earth. It does this by using a sequence of equations to provide the level of either process by using previously determined from geophysical measurements far from active volcanic sites and a few hundred years after the activity. This work is necessary in order for us and other geophysicists to examine the various nuclei present in this energy generating process after the reactions are completed.
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  • 27
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A general theory on frequency and time–frequency analysis of irregularly sampled time series based on projection methods – Part 1: Frequency analysis Guillaume Lenoir and Michel Crucifix Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 145-173, https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-25-145-2018, 2018 We develop a general framework for the frequency analysis of irregularly sampled time series. We also design a test of significance against a general background noise which encompasses the Gaussian white or red noise. Our results generalize and unify methods developed in the fields of geosciences, engineering, astronomy and astrophysics. All the analysis tools presented in this paper are available to the reader in the Python package WAVEPAL.
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  • 28
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Accelerating assimilation development for new observing systems using EFSO Guo-Yuan Lien, Daisuke Hotta, Eugenia Kalnay, Takemasa Miyoshi, and Tse-Chun Chen Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 129-143, https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-25-129-2018, 2018 The ensemble forecast sensitivity to observation (EFSO) method can efficiently clarify under what conditions observations are beneficial or detrimental for assimilation. Based on EFSO, an offline assimilation method is proposed to accelerate the development of data selection strategies for new observing systems. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated with the assimilation of global satellite precipitation data.
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  • 29
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Stratified Kelvin-Helmholtz turbulence of compressible shear flows Romit Maulik and Omer San Nonlin. Processes Geophys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/npg-2017-67,2018 Manuscript under review for NPG (discussion: open, 7 comments) We study the scaling laws and structure functions of stratified shear flows by performing high-resolution numerical simulations of inviscid compressible turbulence induced by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.
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  • 30
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Ensemble Kalman filter for the reconstruction of the Earth's mantle circulation Marie Bocher, Alexandre Fournier, and Nicolas Coltice Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 99-123, https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-25-99-2018, 2018 We propose a new method to reconstruct the circulation in the Earth's mantle for the last 300 Myr. This method is based on the sequential assimilation of plate layouts obtained from plate tectonic reconstructions into mantle convection models. This method allows us to take into account uncertainties in plate tectonic reconstructions, and provides an estimation of the uncertainties in the final result. We test and validate this method in a controlled environment by using synthetic experiments.
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  • 31
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Exceedance frequency of appearance of extreme internal waves in the World Ocean Tatyana Talipova, Efim Pelinovsky, Oxana Kurkina, Ayrat Giniyatullin, and Andrey Kurkin Nonlin. Processes Geophys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/npg-2018-12,2018 Manuscript under review for NPG (discussion: open, 2 comments) Strong internal waves have a significant influence on underwater marine environment and off-shore engineering facilities. They induce noticeable currents and take part in the processes of mixing of water layers, suspending and transport of sediment particles and formation of sea bottom relief. We consider probability of emergence of large-amplitude internal waves on a base of instrumental measurements of internal wave field in five different regions of the world ocean.
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  • 32
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Preface: Current perspectives in modelling, monitoring, and predicting geophysical fluid dynamics Ana M. Mancho, Emilio Hernández-García, Cristóbal López, Antonio Turiel, Stephen Wiggins, and Vicente Pérez-Muñuzuri Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 125-127, https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-25-125-2018, 2018 The third edition of the international workshop Nonlinear Processes in Oceanic and Atmospheric Flows was held at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences (ICMAT) in Madrid from 6 to 8 July 2016. The event gathered oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, physicists, and applied mathematicians sharing a common interest in the nonlinear dynamics of geophysical fluid flows. The philosophy of this meeting was to bring together researchers from a variety of backgrounds into an environment that favoured a vigorous discussion of concepts across different disciplines. The present Special Issue on Current perspectives in modelling, monitoring, and predicting geophysical fluid dynamics contains selected contributions, mainly from attendants of the workshop, providing an updated perspective on modelling aspects of geophysical flows as well as issues on prediction and assimilation of observational data and novel tools for describing transport and mixing processes in these contexts. More details on these aspects are discussed in this preface.
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  • 33
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Chaotic dynamics and the role of covariance inflation for reduced rank Kalman filters with model error Colin Grudzien, Alberto Carrassi, and Marc Bocquet Nonlin. Processes Geophys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/npg-2018-4,2018 Manuscript under review for NPG (discussion: open, 1 comment) While the butterfly effect renders the forecasting problem in chaotic physical applications inherently volatile, chaotic dynamics also put strong constraints on the evolution of prediction errors. Using the framework of chaotic dynamical systems, we analyze the asymptotic properties of ensemble based Kalman filters, and how these are influenced by the dynamical constraints in the model, especially in the context of random model errors and small ensemble sizes.
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  • 34
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Derivation of the entropic formula for the statistical mechanics of space plasmas George Livadiotis Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 77-88, https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-25-77-2018, 2018 Kappa distributions are frequently used for modeling space plasmas, but their physical origin remains unknown. Recently we realized that the statistical origin of these distributions is not the classical Boltzmann entropy, but the Tsallis q entropy. Thereafter, the question was about the physical origin of this entropic formula. Here we show that the q entropy can be derived under first principles, i.e., by considering that the energy and entropy are additive quantities under certain conditions.
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  • 35
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The use of genetic programming to develop a predictor of swash excursion on sandy beaches Marinella Passarella, Evan B. Goldstein, Sandro De Muro, and Giovanni Coco Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 599-611, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-18-599-2018, 2018 We use genetic programming (GP), a type of machine learning (ML) approach, to predict the total and infragravity swash excursion using previously published data sets that have been used extensively in swash prediction studies. Three previously published works with a range of new conditions are added to this data set to extend the range of measured swash conditions. Using this newly compiled data set we demonstrate that a ML approach can reduce the prediction errors compared to well-established parameterizations and therefore it may improve coastal hazards assessment (e.g. coastal inundation). Predictors obtained using GP can also be physically sound and replicate the functionality and dependencies of previous published formulas. Overall, we show that ML techniques are capable of both improving predictability (compared to classical regression approaches) and providing physical insight into coastal processes.
    Print ISSN: 1561-8633
    Electronic ISSN: 1684-9981
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Electromagnetic characteristics of ENSO Johannes Petereit, Jan Saynisch, Christopher Irrgang, Tobias Weber, and Maik Thomas Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-4,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments) The study finds that changes of seawater temperature due to El Nino and La Nina, anomalous warm and cold events, are in principle detectable by means of the oceanic tidal induced magnetic field. Furthermore, subsurface processes in the onset of those anomalous events lead the surface processes by several month. These effect cause a lead in the oceanic tidal induced magnetic field signals over seasurface temperature signals.
    Print ISSN: 1812-0784
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Numerical modeling of surface wave development under the action of wind Dmitry Chalikov Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-11,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments) Waves obtain the energy from wind; they grow, increase their size and the speed of propagation. The structure of wave field becomes complicated due to appearance of the new wave components. Finally, the sea surface looks as a poorly organized motion consisting of quickly running large hills and hollows covered with smaller waves. This process can be successfully simulated at computers. Such investigations allow us to understand the physics of sea waves, which is important for practice.
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  • 38
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Mixed layer depth variability in the Red Sea Cheriyeri P. Abdulla, Mohammed A. Alsaafani, Turki M. Alraddadi, and Alaa M. Albarakati Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-6,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments) For the first time in the Red Sea, a monthly climatology of mixed layer depth (MLD) has been derived based on in-situ temperature profiles. The Red Sea MLD pattern displays significant spatial and temporal variability with exceptional features. The MLD variability is dominantly driven by the wind stress in the southern part while heat exchange plays a major role in the remaining parts. The eddies and the Tokar gap summer jet winds are significantly changing the MLD of the localized regions.
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  • 39
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: An analytical study of M 2 tidal waves in the Taiwan Strait using an extended Taylor method Di Wu, Guohong Fang, Xinmei Cui, and Fei Teng Ocean Sci., 14, 117-126, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-117-2018, 2018 Taylor's problem is a classical tidal dynamic problem and in its previous applications all of the studied basins had a closed end. In this study, the Taylor's method is extended so that it can also provide an analytical model for the M 2 tide in the Taiwan Strait (TS), which shows that the reflection of the southward wave at the abruptly deepened topography south of the TS is a major contribution to the formation of the northward propagating wave in the strait.
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  • 40
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Assimilating High-resolution Sea Surface Temperature Data Improves the Ocean Forecast in the Baltic Sea Ye Liu and Weiwei Fu Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-8,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments) We assess the impact of assimilating the SST data on the Baltic forecast by comparing with both independent and dependent observations. we find that the quality of SST forecast is considerably enhanced by data assimilation. To the Baltic forecast, the temperature in the water above 100 m and salinity in the deep layers have been largely and slightly improved by the SST assimilation, respectively. Besides, the forecasts of both SLA and sea ice are improved in the Baltic Sea by assimilating SST.
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  • 41
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Dynamics of North Balearic Front during an autumn Tramontane and Mistral storm: air–sea coupling processes and stratification budget diagnostic Léo Seyfried, Claude Estournel, Patrick Marsaleix, and Evelyne Richard Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-14,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments) The north Balearic front forms the southern branch of the cyclonic gyre in the North Western Mediterranean Sea. Its dynamics exhibits significant seasonal variability. During autumn, the front spreads northward during the calm wind periods and rapidly moves back southward when it is exposed to strong northerly wind events such as the Tramontane and Mistral. These strong winds considerably enhance the air–sea exchanges. To investigate the role of air–sea exchanges on the dynamics of the North Balearic front, we used observations and a high-resolution air–sea coupled modelling system, and focused on a strong wind event observed in late October 2012, which was well-documented during the Hydrological Cycle Mediterranean Experiment. The coupled model was able to correctly reproduce the 4 °C sea surface temperature drop recorded in the frontal zone together with the observed southwestward displacement of the front. The comparison between the weak wind period preceding the event and the strong wind event itself highlighted the impact of the wind regime on the air–sea coupling, with both thermal and dynamical couplings during the low wind period and mainly thermal coupling during the strong wind period. The effect of air–sea exchanges on the stratification variations in the frontal zone was investigated with a stratification budget diagnosis. The stratification variations are controlled by diabatic air–sea buoyancy flux, adiabatic Ekman buoyancy flux, and advective processes. During the strong wind period, the Ekman buoyancy flux was found to be three times greater than the air–sea buoyancy flux and thus played a major role in the destratification of the frontal zone. The role of Ekman pumping and inertial wave on the advective processes is also discussed.
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  • 42
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: ADCP observations of migration patterns of zooplankton in the Cretan Sea Emmanuel Potiris, Constantin Frangoulis, Alkiviadis Kalampokis, Manolis Ntoumas, Manos Pettas, George Petihakis, and Vassilis Zervakis Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-10,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments) Zooplankton and fishes living deeper than 200 m, may perform a vertical migration to the surface waters. The migration patterns, from 400 m depth to the surface, of four groups of organisms were studied in the deep (1500 m) Eastern Mediterranean (Cretan Sea) for 2.5 years. The lunar cycle, daylight duration, cloudiness, the presence of prey and predators explains their migration variability. This phenomenon is important as it constitutes an active transport of organic matter over large distances.
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  • 43
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Some aspects of the deep abyssal overflow between the middle and southern basins of the Caspian Sea Javad Babagoli Matikolaei, Abbasali Aliakbari Bidokhti, and Maryam Shiea Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-13,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments) This study investigates the deep gravity current between the middle and southern Caspian Sea basins, caused by density difference of deep waters. Oceanographic data, numerical model and dynamic models are used to consider the structure of this Caspian Sea abyssal overflow. The CTD data are obtained from UNESCO, and the three-dimensional ocean model COHERENS results are used to study the abyssal currents in the southern basin of the Caspian Sea. The deep overflow is driven by the density difference mainly due to the temperature difference between the middle and southern basins especially in winter. For this reason, water sinks in high latitudes and after filling the middle basin it overflows into the southern basin. As the current passes through the Absheron Strait (or sill), we use an analytic model for the overflow gravity current with inertial effects, bottom friction and entrainment, to consider its structure. The dynamical characteristics of this deep baroclinic flow are investigated with different initial and boundary conditions. The results show that after time passes, the flow adjusts itself, moving as a deepening gravity driven topographically trapped current. This flow is considered for different seasons and its velocity and width are obtained. Because of the topography of the Southern Caspian basin, the flow is trapped after the sill; thus, another simple dynamical model of the overflow, based on potential vorticity similar to that of Bidokhti and Ezam (2009) but with the bottom friction and entrainment included, is used to find the horizontal extent of the outflow from the western coast. To estimate the changes of vorticity and potential vorticity of the flow over the Absheron sill, we use the method of Falcini and Salusti (2015), in this work, the effects of entrainment and friction are considered. Because of the importance of the overflow in deep water ventilation, a simple dynamical model of the boundary currents based on the shape of strait is used to estimate typical mass transport and flushing time which is found to be about 15 to 20 years for the southern basin of the Caspian Sea. This time scale is important for the possible effects on the ecosystem here of pollution due to oil exploration.
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  • 44
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Convection-permitting regional climate simulations for representing floods in small and medium sized catchments in the Eastern Alps Christian Reszler, Matthew Blasie Switanek, and Heimo Truhetz Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2018-17,2018 Manuscript under review for NHESS (discussion: open, 0 comments) Small scale floods are a consequence of high rainfall rates in small areas that can occur along frontal activity and convective storms. This situation is expected to become more severe due to a warming climate. This study shows the benefit of fine-gridded (~ 3 km spacing) climate models combined with appropriate error correction techniques for flood modelling in small and medium sized catchments. Requirements are presented to further bridge the scale gap between climatology and hydrology.
    Electronic ISSN: 2195-9269
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  • 45
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Risk Zoning of Typhoon Disasters in Zhejiang Province, China Yi Lu, Fumin Ren, and Weijun Zhu Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2018-14,2018 Manuscript under review for NHESS (discussion: open, 2 comments) We analyze the characteristics of typhoon disasters at the county level in Zhejiang Province from 2004 to 2012. We established a comprehensive risk index and developed risk zoning for typhoon disasters in this region, which may give some reference for future disaster prevention. Some interesting results have been obtained. The risk of typhoon disasters decreases from coastal areas to inland regions. The index is a good reflection of the risk of typhoon disasters in each county.
    Electronic ISSN: 2195-9269
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  • 46
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Implications from palaeoseismological investigations at the Markgrafneusiedl Fault (Vienna Basin, Austria) for seismic hazard assessment Esther Hintersberger, Kurt Decker, Johanna Lomax, and Christopher Lüthgens Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 531-553, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-18-531-2018, 2018 The Vienna Basin is a low seismicity area, where historical data do not identify all potential earthquake sources. Despite observed Quaternary offset, there are no earthquakes along the Markgrafneusiedl Fault (MF). Results from 3 palaeoseismic trenches show evidence for 5–6 earthquakes with magnitudes up to M  = 6.8 during the last 120 kyr. Therefore the MF should be considered as a seismic source, together with similar faults in the Vienna Basin, increasing the seismic potential close to Vienna.
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  • 47
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Intermittent turbulence in the heliosheath and the magnetosheath plasmas based on Voyager and THEMIS data Wiesław M. Macek, Anna Wawrzaszek, and Beata Kucharuk Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 39-54, https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-25-39-2018, 2018 The aim of this review is a comparison of intermittency in the heliosphere and the magnetosphere. We show that turbulence in the heliosheath and even at the heliospheric boundaries is intermittent. Moreover, analysis of turbulence in the magnetosheath shows that for very high Alfvénic Mach numbers and high plasma beta we have non-Gaussian statistics in the transverse directions. However, for directions parallel to the magnetic fields, the plasma is close to equilibrium.
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  • 48
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: On the intrinsic timescales of temporal variability in measurements of the surface solar radiation Marc Bengulescu, Philippe Blanc, and Lucien Wald Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 19-37, https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-25-19-2018, 2018 We employ the Hilbert–Huang transform to study the temporal variability in time series of daily means of the surface solar irradiance (SSI) at different locations around the world. The data have a significant spectral peak corresponding to the yearly variability cycle and feature quasi-stochastic high-frequency "weather noise", irrespective of the geographical location or of the local climate. Our findings can improve models for estimating SSI from satellite images or forecasts of the SSI.
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  • 49
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Brief communication: Electron pair donors and Earth's energy generation Frederick Mayer Nonlin. Processes Geophys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/npg-2018-13,2018 Manuscript under review for NPG (discussion: open, 0 comments) This paper presents a comparison of two processes that start the generation of energy from the Earth. It does this by using a sequence of equations to provide the level of either process by using previously determined from geophysical measurements far from active volcanic sites and a few hundred years after the activity. This work is necessary in order for us and other geophysicists to examine the various nuclei present in this energy generating process after the reactions are completed.
    Electronic ISSN: 2198-5634
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Brief communication: A nonlinear self-similar solution to barotropic flow over varying topography Ruy Ibanez, Joseph Kuehl, Kalyan Shrestha, and William Anderson Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 201-205, https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-25-201-2018, 2018 We present a nonlinear analytic solution for barotropic flow relevant to the oceanographic slope region. A similarity approach is adopted and the solution takes the form of a Lambert W-function. A more general class of linear solutions is also discussed which take the form of error functions. The equations solved are similar to the heat equation and thus the results may be of interest beyond the geophysical community.
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  • 51
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A general theory on frequency and time–frequency analysis of irregularly sampled time series based on projection methods – Part 1: Frequency analysis Guillaume Lenoir and Michel Crucifix Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 145-173, https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-25-145-2018, 2018 We develop a general framework for the frequency analysis of irregularly sampled time series. We also design a test of significance against a general background noise which encompasses the Gaussian white or red noise. Our results generalize and unify methods developed in the fields of geosciences, engineering, astronomy and astrophysics. All the analysis tools presented in this paper are available to the reader in the Python package WAVEPAL.
    Electronic ISSN: 2198-5634
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  • 52
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A general theory on frequency and time–frequency analysis of irregularly sampled time series based on projection methods – Part 2: Extension to time–frequency analysis Guillaume Lenoir and Michel Crucifix Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 175-200, https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-25-175-2018, 2018 There is so far no general framework for handling the continuous wavelet transform when the time sampling is irregular. Here we provide such a framework with the Morlet wavelet, based on the results of part I of this study. We also design a test of significance against a general background noise which encompasses the Gaussian white or red noise. All the analysis tools presented in this article are available to the reader in the Python package WAVEPAL.
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  • 53
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Phase-dependent dynamics of breather collisions in the compact Zakharov equation for envelope Dmitry Kachulin and Andrey Gelash Nonlin. Processes Geophys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/npg-2018-14,2018 Manuscript under review for NPG (discussion: open, 1 comment) We consider the well known in geophysics nonlinear model for deep water surface gravity waves – the envelope Zakharov equation. This model predicts that waves can propagate as a stable localized groups – breathers. We study numerically in details the breather collision process and found several fundamentally different effects when compared to the previously known results. In particular we show the formation of extreme amplitude waves, that may cause serious damage when appear in seas and oceans.
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Review article: Comparison of local particle filters and new implementations Alban Farchi and Marc Bocquet Nonlin. Processes Geophys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/npg-2018-15,2018 Manuscript under review for NPG (discussion: open, 0 comments) Data assimilation looks for an optimal way to learn from observations of a dynamical system to improve the quality of its predictions. The goal is to filter out the noise (both observation and model noise) to retrieve the true signal. Among all possible methods, particle filters are promising: the method is fast, elegant and it allows for a Bayesian analysis. In this review paper, we discuss implementation techniques for (local) particle filters in high dimensional systems.
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  • 55
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Accelerating assimilation development for new observing systems using EFSO Guo-Yuan Lien, Daisuke Hotta, Eugenia Kalnay, Takemasa Miyoshi, and Tse-Chun Chen Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 129-143, https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-25-129-2018, 2018 The ensemble forecast sensitivity to observation (EFSO) method can efficiently clarify under what conditions observations are beneficial or detrimental for assimilation. Based on EFSO, an offline assimilation method is proposed to accelerate the development of data selection strategies for new observing systems. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated with the assimilation of global satellite precipitation data.
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Stratified Kelvin-Helmholtz turbulence of compressible shear flows Romit Maulik and Omer San Nonlin. Processes Geophys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/npg-2017-67,2018 Manuscript under review for NPG (discussion: open, 7 comments) We study the scaling laws and structure functions of stratified shear flows by performing high-resolution numerical simulations of inviscid compressible turbulence induced by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.
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  • 57
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Ensemble Kalman filter for the reconstruction of the Earth's mantle circulation Marie Bocher, Alexandre Fournier, and Nicolas Coltice Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 99-123, https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-25-99-2018, 2018 We propose a new method to reconstruct the circulation in the Earth's mantle for the last 300 Myr. This method is based on the sequential assimilation of plate layouts obtained from plate tectonic reconstructions into mantle convection models. This method allows us to take into account uncertainties in plate tectonic reconstructions, and provides an estimation of the uncertainties in the final result. We test and validate this method in a controlled environment by using synthetic experiments.
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Preface: Current perspectives in modelling, monitoring, and predicting geophysical fluid dynamics Ana M. Mancho, Emilio Hernández-García, Cristóbal López, Antonio Turiel, Stephen Wiggins, and Vicente Pérez-Muñuzuri Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 125-127, https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-25-125-2018, 2018 The third edition of the international workshop Nonlinear Processes in Oceanic and Atmospheric Flows was held at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences (ICMAT) in Madrid from 6 to 8 July 2016. The event gathered oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, physicists, and applied mathematicians sharing a common interest in the nonlinear dynamics of geophysical fluid flows. The philosophy of this meeting was to bring together researchers from a variety of backgrounds into an environment that favoured a vigorous discussion of concepts across different disciplines. The present Special Issue on Current perspectives in modelling, monitoring, and predicting geophysical fluid dynamics contains selected contributions, mainly from attendants of the workshop, providing an updated perspective on modelling aspects of geophysical flows as well as issues on prediction and assimilation of observational data and novel tools for describing transport and mixing processes in these contexts. More details on these aspects are discussed in this preface.
    Electronic ISSN: 2198-5634
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 59
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Exceedance frequency of appearance of extreme internal waves in the World Ocean Tatyana Talipova, Efim Pelinovsky, Oxana Kurkina, Ayrat Giniyatullin, and Andrey Kurkin Nonlin. Processes Geophys. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/npg-2018-12,2018 Manuscript under review for NPG (discussion: open, 2 comments) Strong internal waves have a significant influence on underwater marine environment and off-shore engineering facilities. They induce noticeable currents and take part in the processes of mixing of water layers, suspending and transport of sediment particles and formation of sea bottom relief. We consider probability of emergence of large-amplitude internal waves on a base of instrumental measurements of internal wave field in five different regions of the world ocean.
    Electronic ISSN: 2198-5634
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  • 60
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Numerical study of hydrodynamic and salinity transport process in Pink Beach wetlands of Liao River Estuary, China Huiting Qiao, Mingliang Zhang, Hengzhi Jiang, Tianping Xu, and Hongxing Zhang Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2017-102,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 1 comment) Suaeda heteroptera is a dominant species in the wetland of Liao River estuary and a typical saline-alkaline indicator plant, which is distributed in coastal tidal flat, forming a rare natural landscape pink beach . The MIKE 21 model is used to simulate the hydrodynamic characteristics and salinity transport process in Pink Beach wetlands of Liao River estuary. The results are important to understand the suitable circumstances for the vegetation growth in Pink Beach.
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  • 61
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Dissolved organic matter and its optical characteristics in the Laptev and East Siberian seas: spatial distribution and interannual variability (2003–2011) Svetlana P. Pugach, Irina I. Pipko, Natalia E. Shakhova, Evgeny A. Shirshin, Irina V. Perminova, Örjan Gustafsson, Valery G. Bondur, Alexey S. Ruban, and Igor P. Semiletov Ocean Sci., 14, 87-103, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-87-2018, 2018 This paper explores the possibility of using CDOM and its spectral parameters to identify the different biogeochemical regimes on the ESAS. The strong correlation between DOC and CDOM values in the surface shelf waters influenced by terrigenous discharge indicates that it is feasible to estimate DOC content from CDOM fluorescence assessed in situ. The direct estimation of DOM optical parameters in the surface ESAS waters provided by this study will be useful for validating remote sensing data.
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  • 62
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: South Atlantic meridional transports from NEMO-based simulations and reanalyses Davi Mignac, David Ferreira, and Keith Haines Ocean Sci., 14, 53-68, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-53-2018, 2018 Four ocean reanalyses and two free-running models are compared to study the meridional transports in the South Atlantic. We analyse the underlying causes of the product differences in an attempt to understand the potential impact (and limitations) of the data assimilation (DA) in improving the simulated ocean states. The DA schemes can consistently constrain the basin interior transports, but not the overturning circulation dominated by the narrow South Atlantic western boundary currents.
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  • 63
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: An integrated open-coastal biogeochemistry, ecosystem and biodiversity observatory of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Cretan Sea component of POSEIDON system George Petihakis, Leonidas Perivoliotis, Gerasimos Korres, Dionysis Ballas, Constantin Frangoulis, Paris Pagonis, Manolis Ntoumas, Manos Pettas, Antonis Chalkiopoulos, Maria Sotiropoulou, Margarita Bekiari, Alkiviadis Kalampokis, Michalis Ravdas, Evi Bourma, Sylvia Christodoulaki, Anna Zacharioudaki, Dimitris Kassis, Emmanuel Potiris, George Triantafyllou, Kostas Tsiaras, Evangelia Krasakopoulou, Spyros Velanas, and Nikos Zisis Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-3,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 2 comments) Oceanic observations that examine several processes including biogeochemical ones are scarce. In the Eastern Mediterranean (Cretan Sea) the spatiotemporal coverage of such observations has increased with the expansion of the POSEIDON observatory. The observatory addresses scientific questions, provides services to policy-makers and society and serves as a technological test bed. It plays a key role in European and international observing programs, in harmonization procedures and data handling.
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  • 64
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Response of O 2 and pH to ENSO in the California Current System in a high-resolution global climate model Giuliana Turi, Michael Alexander, Nicole S. Lovenduski, Antonietta Capotondi, James Scott, Charles Stock, John Dunne, Jasmin John, and Michael Jacox Ocean Sci., 14, 69-86, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-69-2018, 2018 A high-resolution global model was used to study the influence of El Niño/La Niña events on the California Current System (CalCS). The mean surface oxygen (O 2 ) response extends well offshore, where the pH response occurs within ~ 100 km of the coast. The surface O 2 (pH) is primarily driven by temperature (upwelling) changes. Below 100 m, anomalously low O 2 and low pH occurred during La Niña events near the coast, potentially stressing the ecosystem, but there are large variations between events.
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  • 65
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Impact of mesoscale eddies on water mass and oxygen distribution in the eastern tropical South Pacific Rena Czeschel, Florian Schütte, Robert A. Weller, and Lothar Stramma Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-5,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 1 comment) The mean circulation on the poleward side of the Oxygen Minimum Zone is overlain by eddy activity playing an important role in the distribution of water masses and oxygen within the OMZ. The activity of different types of eddies was investigated during their westward propagation from the formation area off Peru/Chile into the open ocean. The focus was on the development of eddies, seasonal conditions during their formation and the change of water mass properties transported within the eddies.
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  • 66
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Decorrelation scales for Arctic Ocean hydrography – Part I: Amerasian Basin Hiroshi Sumata, Frank Kauker, Michael Karcher, Benjamin Rabe, Mary-Louise Timmermans, Axel Behrendt, Rüdiger Gerdes, Ursula Schauer, Koji Shimada, Kyoung-Ho Cho, and Takashi Kikuchi Ocean Sci., 14, 161-185, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-161-2018, 2018 We estimated spatial and temporal decorrelation scales of temperature and salinity in the Amerasian Basin in the Arctic Ocean. The estimated scales can be applied to representation error assessment in the ocean data assimilation system for the Arctic Ocean.
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  • 67
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Electromagnetic characteristics of ENSO Johannes Petereit, Jan Saynisch, Christopher Irrgang, Tobias Weber, and Maik Thomas Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-4,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments) The study finds that changes of seawater temperature due to El Nino and La Nina, anomalous warm and cold events, are in principle detectable by means of the oceanic tidal induced magnetic field. Furthermore, subsurface processes in the onset of those anomalous events lead the surface processes by several month. These effect cause a lead in the oceanic tidal induced magnetic field signals over seasurface temperature signals.
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  • 68
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Effect of winds and waves on salt intrusion in the Pearl River estuary Wenping Gong, Zhongyuan Lin, Yunzhen Chen, Zhaoyun Chen, and Heng Zhang Ocean Sci., 14, 139-159, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-139-2018, 2018 Salt intrusion in the Pearl River Estuary is a dynamic process that is influenced by a range of factors, and few studies have examined the effects of winds and waves. Therefore, we investigate these effects using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport modeling system in this region. It was found that enhancement of the salt intrusion is comparable between the remote and local winds. Waves decrease the salt intrusion by increasing the water mixing.
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  • 69
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Wind induced variability in the Northern Current (North-Western Mediterranean Sea) as depicted by a multi-platform observing system Maristella Berta, Lucio Bellomo, Annalisa Griffa, Marcello Magaldi, Anne Molcard, Carlo Mantovani, Gian Pietro Gasparini, Julien Marmain, Anna Vetrano, Laurent Béguery, Mireno Borghini, Yves Barbin, Joel Gaggelli, and Céline Quentin Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-20,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments) The variability of the Northern Current (NC) in the NW Med Sea is studied using data from observations and models. The NC variability is dominated by a synoptic response to wind events, even though a seasonal trend is also observed. The combination of autonomous observing platforms with classical marine surveys provides high resolution datasets useful for specific scientific purposes but also for practical applications such as the management of marine shared resources in the Mediterranean Sea.
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  • 70
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Observations of brine plumes below melting Arctic sea ice Algot K. Peterson Ocean Sci., 14, 127-138, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-127-2018, 2018 This study presents observations of brine descending from melting Arctic sea ice. The brine passed an under-ice turbulence instrument in plumes and was associated with very high heat fluxes. The salt flux indicates that the melting sea ice lost most of its salt content during the observations. The observations provide evidence of a desalination process not previously reported from drifting Arctic sea ice and is an important contribution to understanding ice–ocean interaction during melt.
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  • 71
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Numerical modeling of surface wave development under the action of wind Dmitry Chalikov Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-11,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments) Waves obtain the energy from wind; they grow, increase their size and the speed of propagation. The structure of wave field becomes complicated due to appearance of the new wave components. Finally, the sea surface looks as a poorly organized motion consisting of quickly running large hills and hollows covered with smaller waves. This process can be successfully simulated at computers. Such investigations allow us to understand the physics of sea waves, which is important for practice.
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  • 72
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Mixed layer depth variability in the Red Sea Cheriyeri P. Abdulla, Mohammed A. Alsaafani, Turki M. Alraddadi, and Alaa M. Albarakati Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-6,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments) For the first time in the Red Sea, a monthly climatology of mixed layer depth (MLD) has been derived based on in-situ temperature profiles. The Red Sea MLD pattern displays significant spatial and temporal variability with exceptional features. The MLD variability is dominantly driven by the wind stress in the southern part while heat exchange plays a major role in the remaining parts. The eddies and the Tokar gap summer jet winds are significantly changing the MLD of the localized regions.
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  • 73
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: An analytical study of M 2 tidal waves in the Taiwan Strait using an extended Taylor method Di Wu, Guohong Fang, Xinmei Cui, and Fei Teng Ocean Sci., 14, 117-126, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-117-2018, 2018 Taylor's problem is a classical tidal dynamic problem and in its previous applications all of the studied basins had a closed end. In this study, the Taylor's method is extended so that it can also provide an analytical model for the M 2 tide in the Taiwan Strait (TS), which shows that the reflection of the southward wave at the abruptly deepened topography south of the TS is a major contribution to the formation of the northward propagating wave in the strait.
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  • 74
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Assimilating High-resolution Sea Surface Temperature Data Improves the Ocean Forecast in the Baltic Sea Ye Liu and Weiwei Fu Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-8,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments) We assess the impact of assimilating the SST data on the Baltic forecast by comparing with both independent and dependent observations. we find that the quality of SST forecast is considerably enhanced by data assimilation. To the Baltic forecast, the temperature in the water above 100 m and salinity in the deep layers have been largely and slightly improved by the SST assimilation, respectively. Besides, the forecasts of both SLA and sea ice are improved in the Baltic Sea by assimilating SST.
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  • 75
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Dynamics of North Balearic Front during an autumn Tramontane and Mistral storm: air–sea coupling processes and stratification budget diagnostic Léo Seyfried, Claude Estournel, Patrick Marsaleix, and Evelyne Richard Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-14,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments) The north Balearic front forms the southern branch of the cyclonic gyre in the North Western Mediterranean Sea. Its dynamics exhibits significant seasonal variability. During autumn, the front spreads northward during the calm wind periods and rapidly moves back southward when it is exposed to strong northerly wind events such as the Tramontane and Mistral. These strong winds considerably enhance the air–sea exchanges. To investigate the role of air–sea exchanges on the dynamics of the North Balearic front, we used observations and a high-resolution air–sea coupled modelling system, and focused on a strong wind event observed in late October 2012, which was well-documented during the Hydrological Cycle Mediterranean Experiment. The coupled model was able to correctly reproduce the 4 °C sea surface temperature drop recorded in the frontal zone together with the observed southwestward displacement of the front. The comparison between the weak wind period preceding the event and the strong wind event itself highlighted the impact of the wind regime on the air–sea coupling, with both thermal and dynamical couplings during the low wind period and mainly thermal coupling during the strong wind period. The effect of air–sea exchanges on the stratification variations in the frontal zone was investigated with a stratification budget diagnosis. The stratification variations are controlled by diabatic air–sea buoyancy flux, adiabatic Ekman buoyancy flux, and advective processes. During the strong wind period, the Ekman buoyancy flux was found to be three times greater than the air–sea buoyancy flux and thus played a major role in the destratification of the frontal zone. The role of Ekman pumping and inertial wave on the advective processes is also discussed.
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Some aspects of the deep abyssal overflow between the middle and southern basins of the Caspian Sea Javad Babagoli Matikolaei, Abbasali Aliakbari Bidokhti, and Maryam Shiea Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-13,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments) This study investigates the deep gravity current between the middle and southern Caspian Sea basins, caused by density difference of deep waters. Oceanographic data, numerical model and dynamic models are used to consider the structure of this Caspian Sea abyssal overflow. The CTD data are obtained from UNESCO, and the three-dimensional ocean model COHERENS results are used to study the abyssal currents in the southern basin of the Caspian Sea. The deep overflow is driven by the density difference mainly due to the temperature difference between the middle and southern basins especially in winter. For this reason, water sinks in high latitudes and after filling the middle basin it overflows into the southern basin. As the current passes through the Absheron Strait (or sill), we use an analytic model for the overflow gravity current with inertial effects, bottom friction and entrainment, to consider its structure. The dynamical characteristics of this deep baroclinic flow are investigated with different initial and boundary conditions. The results show that after time passes, the flow adjusts itself, moving as a deepening gravity driven topographically trapped current. This flow is considered for different seasons and its velocity and width are obtained. Because of the topography of the Southern Caspian basin, the flow is trapped after the sill; thus, another simple dynamical model of the overflow, based on potential vorticity similar to that of Bidokhti and Ezam (2009) but with the bottom friction and entrainment included, is used to find the horizontal extent of the outflow from the western coast. To estimate the changes of vorticity and potential vorticity of the flow over the Absheron sill, we use the method of Falcini and Salusti (2015), in this work, the effects of entrainment and friction are considered. Because of the importance of the overflow in deep water ventilation, a simple dynamical model of the boundary currents based on the shape of strait is used to estimate typical mass transport and flushing time which is found to be about 15 to 20 years for the southern basin of the Caspian Sea. This time scale is important for the possible effects on the ecosystem here of pollution due to oil exploration.
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  • 77
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Impact of mesoscale eddies on water mass and oxygen distribution in the eastern tropical South Pacific Rena Czeschel, Florian Schütte, Robert A. Weller, and Lothar Stramma Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-5,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 1 comment) The mean circulation on the poleward side of the Oxygen Minimum Zone is overlain by eddy activity playing an important role in the distribution of water masses and oxygen within the OMZ. The activity of different types of eddies was investigated during their westward propagation from the formation area off Peru/Chile into the open ocean. The focus was on the development of eddies, seasonal conditions during their formation and the change of water mass properties transported within the eddies.
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  • 78
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Response of O 2 and pH to ENSO in the California Current System in a high-resolution global climate model Giuliana Turi, Michael Alexander, Nicole S. Lovenduski, Antonietta Capotondi, James Scott, Charles Stock, John Dunne, Jasmin John, and Michael Jacox Ocean Sci., 14, 69-86, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-69-2018, 2018 A high-resolution global model was used to study the influence of El Niño/La Niña events on the California Current System (CalCS). The mean surface oxygen (O 2 ) response extends well offshore, where the pH response occurs within ~ 100 km of the coast. The surface O 2 (pH) is primarily driven by temperature (upwelling) changes. Below 100 m, anomalously low O 2 and low pH occurred during La Niña events near the coast, potentially stressing the ecosystem, but there are large variations between events.
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  • 79
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: An integrated open-coastal biogeochemistry, ecosystem and biodiversity observatory of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Cretan Sea component of POSEIDON system George Petihakis, Leonidas Perivoliotis, Gerasimos Korres, Dionysis Ballas, Constantin Frangoulis, Paris Pagonis, Manolis Ntoumas, Manos Pettas, Antonis Chalkiopoulos, Maria Sotiropoulou, Margarita Bekiari, Alkiviadis Kalampokis, Michalis Ravdas, Evi Bourma, Sylvia Christodoulaki, Anna Zacharioudaki, Dimitris Kassis, Emmanuel Potiris, George Triantafyllou, Kostas Tsiaras, Evangelia Krasakopoulou, Spyros Velanas, and Nikos Zisis Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-3,2018 Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 2 comments) Oceanic observations that examine several processes including biogeochemical ones are scarce. In the Eastern Mediterranean (Cretan Sea) the spatiotemporal coverage of such observations has increased with the expansion of the POSEIDON observatory. The observatory addresses scientific questions, provides services to policy-makers and society and serves as a technological test bed. It plays a key role in European and international observing programs, in harmonization procedures and data handling.
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  • 80
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Editorial: Special Issue on Water security and the food-water-energy nexus: drivers, responses and feedbacks at local to global scales Barry Croke and Graham Jewitt Proc. IAHS, 376, 1-1, https://doi.org/10.5194/piahs-376-1-2018, 2018
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    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Modelling the impact of mulching the soil with plant remains on water regime formation, crop yield and energy costs in agricultural ecosystems Yeugeniy M. Gusev, Larisa Y. Dzhogan, and Olga N. Nasonova Proc. IAHS, 376, 77-82, https://doi.org/10.5194/piahs-376-77-2018, 2018 It is shown that in agriculture technologies soil mulching with plant remains leads to increase in the ratio of actual transpiration to potential one and to increase in the yield of crops. Soil mulching with plant remains in combination with subsurface cultivation is the most efficient agricultural mode for the regions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the East-European (Russian) plain. This technology is most promising for development of agriculture in these regions.
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  • 82
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Socio-Hydrological Approach to the Evaluation of Global Fertilizer Substitution by Sustainable Struvite Precipitants from Wastewater Dirk-Jan Daniel Kok, Saket Pande, Angela Renata Cordeiro Ortigara, Hubert Savenije, and Stefan Uhlenbrook Proc. IAHS, 376, 83-86, https://doi.org/10.5194/piahs-376-83-2018, 2018 Phosphorus is necessary for the development of crops and is therefore essential in safeguarding our food security. Several studies predict that our rock phosphate reserves, used to create synthetic, phosphatic fertilizers, may become depleted within this century. This study roughly approximates for which areas in Africa we can instead recover phosphorus from wastewater in order to reduce our dependancy on unsustainable rock phosphate.
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  • 83
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Land susceptibility to soil erosion in Orashi Catchment, Nnewi South, Anambra State, Nigeria Shakirudeen Odunuga, Abiodun Ajijola, Nkechi Igwetu, and Olubunmi Adegun Proc. IAHS, 376, 87-95, https://doi.org/10.5194/piahs-376-87-2018, 2018 Soil erosion susceptibility analysis was based on rainfall, Land use, slope and soil erodibility factor. GIS was used to produce the basin susceptibility to soil erosion using weight index of each factors. The results revealed that 106.66 km 2 (25.70 %) and 164.80 km 2 (39.7 %) of the basin have high and very high susceptibility to soil erosion. The over 50 % high susceptibility of catchment area has negative implications on ecosystem services of the s stream.
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Performance assessment of the Gash Delta Spate Irrigation System, Sudan Araya Z. Ghebreamlak, Haruya Tanakamaru, Akio Tada, Bashir M. Ahmed Adam, and Khalid A. E. Elamin Proc. IAHS, 376, 69-75, https://doi.org/10.5194/piahs-376-69-2018, 2018 The Gash Delta Spate Irrigation System (GDSIS), located in eastern Sudan with a net command area of 100 000 ha (an area currently equipped with irrigation structures), was established in 1924. The land is irrigated every 3 years (3-year rotation) or every 2 years (2-year rotation) so that about 33 000 or 50 000 ha respectively can be cultivated annually. This study deals with assessing the performance of the 3- and 2-year rotation systems using the Monte Carlo simulation. Reliability, which is a measure of how frequently the irrigation water supply satisfies the demand, and vulnerability, which is a measure of the magnitude of failure, were selected as the performance criteria. Combinations of five levels of intake ratio and five levels of irrigation efficiency for the irrigation water supply of each rotation system were analysed. Historical annual flow data of the Gash River for 107 years were fit to several frequency distributions. The Weibull distribution was the best on the basis of the Akaike information criteria and was used for simulating the ensembles of annual river flow. The reliabilities and vulnerabilities of both rotation systems were evaluated at typical values of intake ratio and irrigation efficiency. The results show that (i) the 3-year rotation is more reliable in water supply than the 2-year rotation, (ii) the vulnerability of the 3-year rotation is lower than that of the 2-year rotation and (iii) therefore the 3-year rotation is preferable in the GDSIS. The sensitivities of reliability and vulnerability to changes in intake ratio and irrigation efficiency were also examined.
    Print ISSN: 2199-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 2199-899X
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Copernicus
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    Copernicus
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The Iceland Deep Drilling Project 4.5 km deep well, IDDP-2, in the seawater-recharged Reykjanes geothermal field in SW Iceland has successfully reached its supercritical target Guðmundur Ó. Friðleifsson, Wilfred A. Elders, Robert A. Zierenberg, Ari Stefánsson, Andrew P. G. Fowler, Tobias B. Weisenberger, Björn S. Harðarson, and Kiflom G. Mesfin Sci. Dril., 23, 1-12, https://doi.org/10.5194/sd-23-1-2017, 2017 The Iceland Deep Drilling Project research well IDDP-2 at Reykjanes, Iceland, reached supercritical conditions at 4.5 km in January 2017. The bottom hole temperature was 426 °C and the fluid pressure was 34 MPa. Reykjanes is the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in Iceland, and unique among Icelandic geothermal systems in being recharged by seawater. The setting and fluid characteristics at Reykjanes provide a geochemical analog of a mid-ocean ridge submarine black smoker system.
    Print ISSN: 1816-8957
    Electronic ISSN: 1816-3459
    Topics: Geosciences
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