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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 19 Author(s): Praveen Kumar Balne, Rupesh Agrawal, Veonice Bijin AU, Bernett Lee, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Swaminathan Sethu, Mukesh Agrawal, Raja Narayanan, John Connolly In this report the data was obtained from a prospective case-control study with a sample size of sixteen patients with exudative age related macular degeneration (AMD) due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and eighteen patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and fifty controls (cataract patients without any other ocular diseases). Luminex bead based multiplex assay with a panel of 41 analytes was used to study the cytokine levels in plasma and aqueous humor.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 4
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 19 Author(s): Yong-Jin Noh, Ji-Ho Jeong, Seok-In Na In this data article, we present the influences of the solvent, concentration, and spin rates of 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2’,3’-d’]-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b’]dithiophene) (ITIC) material on the performances of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The device parameters such as open-circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current (Jsc), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) were measured with Keithley 2400 source meter unit under 100 mW/cm 2 (AM 1.5 G). The data in this article describe the optimization of ITIC-based PSCs and are directly related to our research article “Non-fullerene-based small molecules as an efficient n-type electron transporting layers in inverted organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells” (Noh et al., Submitted for publication) [1] .
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 5
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 September 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 171 Author(s): Wessam El-Baz, Peter Tzscheutschler, Ulrich Wagner The photovoltaic (PV) generation forecast is a key element to an efficient building energy management system (EMS) operation. The forecast’s uncertainties and generation variabilities expose the loads to misplanning, and hence decrease building autonomy, self-sufficiency, and potential costs savings. In this paper, a novel approach for a day-ahead PV power generation probabilistic forecast is proposed that is especially optimized for building EMS applications. The model consists of several modules to develop the probabilistic forecast. Initially, a clear sky model is tuned to incorporate the system and temperature losses and partial shading. The deviation of the PV power from the clear sky power is used to train a bagging regression tree, which produces a deterministic point forecast. The probabilistic forecast is developed based on the probabilistic analysis of the point forecast and regenerating it based on the given weather conditions. The model is developed based on the available data in buildings such as the historic PV measurements acquired from the inverter and the weather forecasts. The probabilistic forecast was validated over a complete-year data set of a rooftop PV system in Munich, Germany, where the results showed its capability to provide an accurate and reliable forecast for EMS applications.
    Print ISSN: 0038-092X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 6
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-07-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018 Source: Space Policy Author(s): Brent Sherwood, Adrian Ponce, Michael Waltemathe A fundamental requirement for space missions designed to touch “potential habitats” is the single number 10 −4 , the allowable probability of a single Earth organism contaminating the potential habitat. Many aspects of a mission that affect its complexity and cost – hardware design and manufacture, assembly and test, and mission operations – are driven by this value, so it is important, on the threshold of an era of exploring ocean worlds, to have confidence in it. Yet despite its long pedigree and occasional reviews, we find that the current requirement lacks programmatically defensible justification. At issue are three weaknesses: 1) microbial biology, in particular the science of extremophiles, is a rapidly changing field; 2) forward contamination is both a scientific and an ethical issue, yet no ethics-based conversation is apparent within policy-setting circles; 3) because of these two factors, policy-setting cannot be static. We review the history of the requirement; how the evolving understanding of biology could drive it up or down; how the forward-contamination hazard relates to risk-management practice and to the ethics profession; and how a contemporary stakeholder conversation could adapt lessons already learned by other fields.
    Print ISSN: 0265-9646
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-338X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Political Science
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  • 7
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    Elsevier
    In: Omega
    Publication Date: 2018-05-24
    Description: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018 Source: Omega Author(s): Juan R. Trapero, Manuel Cardós, Nikolaos Kourentzes Supply chain risk management has drawn the attention of practitioners and academics alike. One source of risk is demand uncertainty. Demand forecasting and safety stock levels are employed to address this risk. Most previous work has focused on point demand forecasting, given that the forecast errors satisfy the typical normal i.i.d. assumption. However, the real demand for products is difficult to forecast accurately, which means that—at minimum—the i.i.d. assumption should be questioned. This work analyzes the effects of possible deviations from the i.i.d. assumption and proposes empirical methods based on kernel density estimation (non-parametric) and GARCH(1,1) models (parametric), among others, for computing the safety stock levels. The results suggest that for shorter lead times, the normality deviation is more important, and kernel density estimation is most suitable. By contrast, for longer lead times, GARCH models are more appropriate because the autocorrelation of the variance of the forecast errors is the most important deviation. In fact, even when no autocorrelation is present in the original demand, such autocorrelation can be present as a consequence of the overlapping process used to compute the lead time forecasts and the uncertainties arising in the estimation of the parameters of the forecasting model. Improvements are shown in terms of cycle service level, inventory investment and backorder volume. Simulations and real demand data from a manufacturer are used to illustrate our methodology.
    Print ISSN: 0305-0483
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 8
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2018 Source: Developmental Biology Author(s): Satoshi Kadokura, Kaoru Sugimoto, Paul Tarr, Takamasa Suzuki, Sachihiro Matsunaga Somatic embryogenesis is one of the best examples of the remarkable developmental plasticity of plants, in which committed somatic cells can dedifferentiate and acquire the ability to form an embryo and regenerate an entire plant. In Arabidopsis thaliana , the shoot apices of young seedlings have been reported as an alternative tissue source for somatic embryos (SEs) besides the widely studied zygotic embryos taken from siliques. Although SE induction from shoots demonstrates the plasticity of plants more clearly than the embryo-to-embryo induction system, the underlying developmental and molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we characterized SE formation from shoot apex explants by establishing a system for time-lapse observation of explants during SE induction. We also established a method to distinguish SE-forming and non-SE-forming explants prior to anatomical SE formation, enabling us to identify distinct transcriptome profiles of these two explants at SE initiation. We show that embryonic fate commitment takes place at day 3 of SE induction and the SE arises directly, not through callus formation, from the base of leaf primordia just beside the shoot apical meristem (SAM), where auxin accumulates and shoot-root polarity is formed. The expression domain of a couple of key developmental genes for the SAM transiently expands at this stage. Our data demonstrate that SE-forming and non-SE-forming explants share mostly the same transcripts except for a limited number of embryonic genes and root genes that might trigger the SE-initiation program. Thus, SE-forming explants possess a mixed identity (SAM, root and embryo) at the time of SE specification.
    Print ISSN: 0012-1606
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-564X
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 9
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, Volume 17 Author(s): J.J. Gibson, S.J. Birks, Y. Yi, P. Shaw, M.C. Moncur Study region This study was conducted within a 100,000 km 2 area of British Columbia, (B.C.) Canada including Vancouver Island, the Georgia Basin, and the Pacific and Kitimat mountain ranges rising from the Pacific Ocean. Study focus A stable isotope mass balance method is applied to estimate evaporation loss and water yield from a remote network of 560 lakes on Vancouver Island and coastal B.C., based on helicopter sampling surveys conducted between 2008 and 2015. Spatial patterns in derived hydrological parameters are compared to water quality indicators and watershed characteristics to provide insight into water quantity and water quality relationships in the region, to be incorporated within a future critical loads assessment. New hydrological insights for the region Regional trends in lake water balance, underlying physical drivers, and geochemical processes potentially influencing critical loads of acidity are described. Dominant non-anthropogenic regional drivers of geochemistry include sea spray, lithology, weathering and elevation. Significant contrast is noted in alkalinity between the sedimentary and volcanic substrates on Vancouver Island and igneous intrusive substrates of the Pacific and Kitimat ranges. A positive correlation is found between elevation and water yield to lakes, while the opposite is observed for rivers, which is interpreted to reflect disconnection of low elevation lakes from regional drainage networks. This may invalidate use of river gauge data for critical loads assessment in this or similar regions.
    Print ISSN: 2214-5818
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography , Geosciences
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  • 10
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: Publication date: 28 April–4 May 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10131 Author(s): The Lancet
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 11
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: Publication date: 28 April–4 May 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10131 Author(s): Richard Horton
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 12
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: Publication date: 28 April–4 May 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10131 Author(s): Ivan Oransky, Adam Marcus
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 13
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: Publication date: 28 April–4 May 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10131 Author(s): Hana Kahleova, Lee Crosby, Susan Levin, Neal D Barnard
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 14
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: Publication date: 28 April–4 May 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10131 Author(s): Salvatore Carbone, Hayley Billingsley, Antonio Abbate
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 15
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018 Source: The Lancet Author(s): Karl Skorecki, A Mark Clarfield
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 16
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018 Source: Metabolic Engineering Author(s): Sarah Lisa Hoffmann, Lukas Jungmann, Sarah Schiefelbein, Lindsay Peyriga, Edern Cahoreau, Jean-Charles Portais, Judith Becker, Christoph Wittmann The amino acid lysine is among the world’s most important biotechnological products, and enabling its manufacture from the most attractive new materials is an ever-present challenge. In this study, we describe a cell factory of Corynebacterium glutamicum , which produces lysine from mannitol. A preliminary mutant obtained by the deletion of the mannitol repressor MtlR in the glucose-based, lysine-producing C. glutamicum produced only small amounts of lysine. This limitation was due to the significant accumulation of fructose and a limited NADPH supply, which caused a low flux of only 6% into the oxidative pentose phosphate (PP) pathway. Subsequent expression of fructokinase slightly increased production but failed to substantially redirect the flux from the Emden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway to the PP pathway. This suggested the design C. glutamicum SEA-3, which overexpressed the NADPH-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase GapN from Streptococcus mutans and coupled the EMP pathway flux to NADPH formation. When grown on mannitol, the SEA-3 strain had a lysine yield of 0.24 mol mol -1 and a specific productivity of 1.1 mmol g -1 h -1 , approximately 50% and 70% higher, respectively, than those of the basic producer. A computational pathway analysis revealed that this design would potentially enable a lysine yield of 0.9 mol mol -1 , providing room for further development. Our findings open new avenues for lysine production from marine macroalgae, which is farmed globally as an attractive third-generation renewable resource. Mannitol is a major constituent of these algae (up to 30% and higher) and can be easily extracted from their biomass with hot water.
    Print ISSN: 1096-7176
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-7184
    Topics: Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 17
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-01
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Global Environmental Change, Volume 50 Author(s): Ceren Pekdemir The growing demand for organic produce has augmented the international trade for organic products. At the same time, the label ‘organic’ has increasingly become legally protected as standards specify the exact requirements for organic production and labelling. While private labels were the first to proliferate, many countries now have organic standards as well, quite a number of them in the form of public regulation. The plethora of available standards, labels, and certifications has led to a complex and fragmented system of regulations. The duplication and overlaps between the systems has created compliance problems and barriers to trade. The absence of full harmonization of organic standards induced governments, traders, and certification bodies to develop complex pathways to facilitate trade. These include compliance, equivalence, and mutual recognition based mechanisms. Another pathway that has been recognized as overcoming problems of regulatory complexity is regionalization. This article examines the public and public-private regional standards that have thus far been established in the European Union, (East) Africa, Central America, the Pacific, and Asia. Based on interviews and document analysis this article evaluates if the promise of regionalization can make the regulatory field of organic standards more cohesive and whether it is conducive for regional and international trade. The findings indicate that as a system of governance, regionalization contributes to normative coherence while allowing for regional adaptation of organic standards. Ineffective enforcement and inadequate allocation of legal, political, and funding resources seriously imperil the institutional alignment necessary for trade purposes.
    Print ISSN: 0959-3780
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9495
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 18
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-01
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Marine Policy, Volume 94 Author(s): Glen Smith Marine spatial planning (MSP) is designed partly to implement the ecosystem-based approach to the management of marine resources worldwide. This article focuses on the principles of good governance to which MSP is tied: principles of transparency and participation. With increasing efforts to analyse the impact of MSP, it is timely to explore its commitment to these principles of good governance. Guided by governance theory this paper explores the opportunities that exist in Scotland's MSP system for communities to voice their opinions in decision-making processes. Whilst authorities in Scotland are doing a good job of transferring the National Marine Plan to local planning regions, there are some issues relating to planning partnerships in these regions and the activities of the Crown Estate. Further analysis is offered by considering terrestrial planning in Scotland, where communities often feel excluded and are challenging the status quo in planning processes through alternative, informal governance arrangements. The roles and rights of communities have taken centre stage in land reform debates, which has not been the case in MSP. By looking outward (and inland) it might be possible to design a more adaptable and inclusive MSP system.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 19
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-01
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Marine Policy, Volume 93 Author(s): Moritz Eichert, Aida Campos, Paulo Fonseca, Pedro Lopes, Lino Marques, Margarida Castro The consequences of reallocating fishing effort from trawling to creels in an area off the West coast of Portugal for the operation of the trawl fleet, as well as on the population dynamics and the global catch value for a high-valued species, the Norway lobster ( Nephrops norvegicus ) are evaluated. The results suggest that only small portions of the area of interest are used by the trawl fleet, opening the possibility for a trawl ban without major disruption of the trawling activity. Economic benefits are expected, since predictions two scenarios tested, heavy and moderate exploitation, indicate no loss of catch value with much lower operational costs. Social benefits to local communities can also be expected since a much lower investment is needed for creel fishing, making this fishery attractive to small local companies already operating in the region. The proposed ban is consistent with the ecosystem approach to fisheries management and the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) where the transition towards more responsible fishing practices is encouraged. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 20
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-01
    Description: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018 Source: Mechanisms of Development Author(s): Alisson M. Gontijo, Andres Garelli Many insects, like cockroaches, moths, and flies, can regenerate tissues by extending the growth-competent phases of their life cycle. The molecular and cellular players mediating this coordination between tissue growth and developmental timing have been recently discovered in Drosophila . The insulin/relaxin-like peptide, Dilp8, was identified as a factor communicating abnormal growth status of Drosophila larval imaginal discs to the neuroendocrine centers that control the timing of the onset of metamorphosis. Dilp8 requires a neuronal relaxin receptor for this function, the Leucine rich repeat containing G protein coupled receptor, Lgr3. A review of current data supports a model where imaginal disc-derived Dilp8 acts on four central nervous system Lgr3-positive neurons to activate cyclic-AMP signaling in an Lgr3-dependent manner. This causes a reduction in ecdysone hormone production by the larval endocrine prothoracic gland, which leads to a delay in the onset of metamorphosis and a simultaneous slowing down in the growth rates of healthy imaginal tissues, promoting the generation of proportionate individuals. We discuss reports indicating that the Dilp8-Lgr3 pathway might have other functions at different life history stages, which remain to be elucidated, and review molecular evolution data on invertebrate genes related to the relaxin-pathway. The strong conservation of the relaxin pathway throughout animal evolution contrasts with instances of its complete loss in some clades, such as lepidopterans, which must coordinate growth and developmental timing using another mechanism. Research into these areas should generate exciting new insights into the biology of growth coordination, the evolution of the relaxin signaling pathway, and likely reveal unforeseen functions in other developmental stages.
    Print ISSN: 0925-4773
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6356
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 21
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-01
    Description: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018 Source: Oceanologia Author(s): Genrik S. Karabashev, Marina A. Evdoshenko We examine the narrowband shortwave minima (NSM) of multispectral reflectance as indication of mesoscale algal blooms. They are frequent in the Brazil-Malvinas confluence zone (BMCZ) where our testing site (TS) belongs. Its MODIS A images of December 2008 and 2014 were the source of initial data. Classification of reflectance spectra in these images revealed that the TS look from space was determined by the most populated cluster of pixels having the only NSM at 443 nm. We divided this cluster into sub-clusters by maximum wavelengths λ max from 412 to 555 nm and retrieved the estimates of λ max (proxy for abundance of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM)), chl_a (MODIS chlorophyll), R rs (555) (turbidity proxy), and C ALH (NSM-based chlorophyll) on a pixel-by-pixel basis. This allowed us to demonstrate: (1) the NSM magnitude at 443 nm peaked in mesoscale structures, (2) C ALH was consistent with chlorophyll in the BMCZ waters samples, (3) positive linear correlation of R rs (555) and C ALH was characteristic of the TS waters at any λ max , (4) the MODIS chl_a was overestimated when λ max > 488 nm, (5) localization and outlines of mesoscale structures agreed well in the fields of pairs R rs (555) – C ALH and λ max – chl_a , but not in the C ALH – chl_a pair. The NSM-based chlorophyll C ALH outperformed the standard chl_a determinations in exactness because the C ALH is insensitive to CDOM. This is advantageous when studying the Case 1 waters of intensive mesoscale variability where chlorophyll co-exists with the CDOM from eddy-induced blooms.
    Print ISSN: 0078-3234
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 22
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-24
    Description: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018 Source: Sustainable Environment Research Author(s): Jules Chuang, Hsing-Lung Lien, Walter Den, Luvian Iskandar, Pei-Hsuan Liao Energy generation contributes nearly 40% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and half of energy generated is purchased and used by industrial or commercial entities (Scope 2 category emission). Other than conserving energy and upgrading energy efficiency to reduce GHG emissions, these Scope 2 entities can switch to low-carbon electricity generated by renewable sources, whether through on-site installations or through energy products purchased. An electricity tracking and certification framework, such as the renewable energy certificate (REC), can be a powerful policy instrument to promote the acquisition of low-carbon electricity by the Scope 2 users. Designing, implementing, and regulating a REC framework must be meticulous in the determination of the electricity emission factor (in CO 2 equivalent per unit power generated). This article uses several simplified scenarios to illustrate the advantage of implementing a trackable REC system to avoid the “free-rider effect” in the electricity market, and the proper accounting mechanism for the inclusion of onsite installations of renewable energy to eliminate the “outsider effect”. Still in its early phase of implementing a REC instrument to reach the GHG emission reduction goal, Taiwan has a chance for successful transition from the existing fossil fuel-rich energy portfolio to a low-carbon one, through reforming its energy infrastructure and introducing incentive-driven policies. Therefore, this paper also provides constructive recommendations to the policy-makers on the deployment of the REC system.
    Print ISSN: 1022-7636
    Electronic ISSN: 2468-2039
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 23
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-24
    Description: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018 Source: Topology and its Applications Author(s): Hailan Liang, Shu-Qi Huang In this paper, we introduce the operator topology for the set of all continuous homomorphisms between two topological modules, and discuss the duality of topological modules over an admissible normed ring R (see Definition 2.1 ). We show that the dual functor B ( − , R ) defined on the category of locally bounded R -modules is topologically left exact. Moreover, if R is complete, and the modules are extendible, the dual functor is topologically exact.
    Print ISSN: 0166-8641
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-3207
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 24
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-24
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Volume 115 Author(s): I. Dafnomilis, M.B. Duinkerken, M. Junginger, G. Lodewijks, D.L. Schott This paper investigates the optimization of biomass terminal equipment deployment. A mixed integer linear programming model is developed and applied to minimize the terminal’s investment and operational costs related to dedicated and partially used or shared equipment between a terminal’s operational steps. The results minimize annual terminal costs through equipment and infrastructure selection and utilization. Tipping points where the technology and equipment type or size change in relation to the increasing throughput are highlighted. Analytical results emphasize the importance of storage costs in all biomass terminals, as well as the critical influence of operational costs in larger facilities.
    Print ISSN: 1366-5545
    Electronic ISSN: 1878-5794
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 25
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-24
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Volume 115 Author(s): George Alexandridis, Manolis G. Kavussanos, Chi Y. Kim, Dimitris A. Tsouknidis, Ilias D. Visvikis Financing shipping related investment projects has always been a focal area of debate and research within the international maritime industry since access to funding can determine the competitiveness of a capital-intensive business as well as its success or failure under adverse market conditions. This paper provides, for the first time, a comprehensive and structured survey of all published research in the area of shipping finance and investment. The review spans approximately four decades (1979–2018) of empirical evidence, including 162 studies published in 48 scholarly journals, complemented with select books and book chapters. The study provides a bibliometric analysis and comprehensive synthesis of existing research offering an invaluable source of information for both the academic community and business practice, shaping the future research agenda in shipping finance and investment.
    Print ISSN: 1366-5545
    Electronic ISSN: 1878-5794
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 26
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 151 Author(s): Ingrid Moons, Camilla Barbarossa, Patrick De Pelsmacker Microalgae-based food is a source of proteins that, in comparison to meat, offers significant environmental and health-related benefits. A successful market introduction largely depends on consumer acceptance of this food. The current study investigates the motivational drivers and barriers of the adoption of Spirulina (a specific type of micro-alga)-enhanced food. By means of two qualitative studies and a quantitative survey with 1325 Belgian participants, early adopter consumer segments of Spirulina-enhanced food are identified (sporting individuals, vegetarians and foodies), and compared with a contrast group (life enjoyers). The motivational drivers and barriers to the adoption of eco-friendly Spirulina-enhanced food across the identified consumer segments is assessed. The results show that health consciousness and the willingness to compromise on taste are major motivational drivers of the adoption intention for sporting individuals, vegetarians and foodies. Neophobia only has a negative effect on this adoption intention for the foodies, while it does not play a role for sporting individuals and vegetarians. Neither food involvement nor environmental concern is a significant driver of Spirulina-enhanced food adoption intention. Implications for marketers and for policy makers are proposed.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6106
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 27
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 119 Author(s): Veronica Galassi, Reinhard Madlener In Germany, policy-makers are not achieving the results expected from the implementation of energy-saving policies in buildings. In fact, energy retrofit of residential dwellings, ceteris paribus , results in a new socio-technical system characterized by higher room temperatures. In the new environment, individuals might change their type of interaction with the building and exert a certain level of effort to adapt to the new comfort situation depending on their previous practices. Some of the new practices, such as opening the window when it is too warm, might explain why energy-saving policies in buildings are not leading to the desired results. In this paper, by means of a Discrete Choice Experiment conducted among 3161 tenants and owner-occupiers in Germany, we investigate preferences for practices implemented to adjust thermal comfort in retrofitted buildings. Our results reveal a mix of behaviors in response to energy retrofits, some of which may offset energy savings (e.g. tilting the window) while others have more benign effects (e.g. wearing lighter clothes).
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 119 Author(s): Bianca Cavicchi This paper analyses the case of bioenergy development in Norway – drawing on Hedmark county located on the borders with Sweden – from a social, economic and environmental perspective (triple bottom line). Since 2008, the number of forest-based bioenergy plants increased rapidly, following the introduction of the wood-chips scheme and the high local expectations of its benefits for rural development. Obstacles to its continuous sustainable development have subsequently been increasing. Therefore, the goal of the study is to investigate the causal processes of bioenergy development to understand what threatens its triple bottom line sustainability. The study does so by employing qualitative system dynamics (i.e. causal loop diagram) and using interviews with local actors to elaborate on studies that look at the influence of power, institutions and expectations on the transition processes. Results show that the local actors’ positive perceptions of the benefits of bioenergy mainly drove its initial development, but that conflicting local interests, power relations, and market dynamics now threaten these initially positive perceptions.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 29
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 119 Author(s): Apple Lok Shun Chan For promoting energy-efficient building design, various green building certification schemes such as BREEAM, LEED, DGNB, Green Mark, BEAM Plus, ASHRAE Standard 90.1, Code of Practice for OTTV, etc. have been developed around the world. In recent years, photovoltaic system is widely adopted in building application. This system can offer double benefits: (i) generating electricity by absorbing and transforming solar energy; (ii) reducing heat gain transmitted into a building through building envelope. Since the current building certification schemes were originally developed for buildings constructed with conventional building materials, the reduction in heat gain resulted from the application of photovoltaic systems cannot be properly reflected in these building certification schemes. This study investigates the effect of photovoltaic systems on the thermal performance of buildings. Three existing buildings located in subtropical Hong Kong were used as case study. It was found that the effect of photovoltaic glazing system on the reduction in heat gain was significant (ranging from −13.59% to −38.78%). Based on the findings from this study, it is recommended to incorporate the effect of photovoltaic glazing system into the OTTV regulation in Hong Kong. The methodology developed in this study can be applied to other building certification schemes and energy codes.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 119 Author(s): Muhammad Arsalan Aqeeq, Syed Irfan Hyder, Farrukh Shehzad, Muhammad Arsalan Tahir Pakistan is experiencing a slow uptake of grid-tied residential PV generation Systems (GTRPVGS); despite of steep fall in PV module price, higher solar irradiation and enactment of Net-metering by the Government. This slow uptake is attributed to the lack of awareness of four major stakeholders, namely the house hold, utility, financier and the policy-maker. This paper presents a coherent framework that addresses the concerns of the stakeholders using four country-specific parameters i.e. the local solar irradiation, PV system costs, borrowing and discount rates, and electricity tariffs; to compute NPV, IRR, payback period and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Assuming net-metering, we model the economic payoffs on self-consumption and sale of PV electricity at varying net-metering rates, system sizes, load-to-generation profiles, borrowing and discount rates. Findings suggest economic competitiveness of PV electricity, with an IRR and payback averaging around 28% and 5 years respectively. Moreover, the LCOE is also found to be significantly lower than the retail rates. The findings inform the household and financier on the economic yield; utility on efficient tariff setting; and government on sustainable policy design. Finally, we argue that GTRPVGS bears huge potential for Pakistan, suffering from energy deficit, unsustainable cost, transmission losses and environmental hazards.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 119 Author(s): Robert J. Budnitz, H-Holger Rogner, Adnan Shihab-Eldin This article reviews the status and prospects of nuclear power around the world and provides a perspective on the need to strengthen national and international safety regimes and bolster nuclear safety culture globally – one prerequisite for a sustained role of the technology in the future. It discusses the prospects in countries that have never deployed nuclear power before but have expressed an interest in adding it to their future national energy mixes. Many of these “newcomer” countries are considering small modular reactor (SMR) designs which hold promise for fitting better into their local electricity systems. Thus, the article considers the technical attributes of these designs and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of SMRs with an emphasis on economics, grid compatibility and most importantly, safety. Attributes of a safety culture are discussed from social and cultural aspects, including topics of good governance and the presence of an independent national regulatory authority. Beyond the need for strong national safety regulations, the article also highlights the need to strengthen the international regulatory regime, if nuclear power is to succeed in achieving the highest levels of safety globally. Finally, the qualities of such a regime are discussed.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018 Source: Geoscience Frontiers Author(s): Danqing Dai, Xuewei Liu, Zaiming Zhang The second gas hydrate expedition drilled 13 sites in northern South China Sea and recovered a large amount of gas hydrate. The logging data and core analysis indicate that the gas hydrate occurs as solid nodules, disseminated within pore spaces of sediments and fracture fillings in veins. In this study, we examine two sites (sites 08 and 16), where gas hydrates occur both near the BSR and near the surface. We use the mesoscopic-loss mechanism to study the reflection coefficient versus frequency at BSR in seismic frequency band. When the seismic wave passes through the pore-filling gas hydrate sediments, the high frequency energy is much reduced and the low frequency energy of reflected waves at BSR is strong. When the seismic wave passes through the fracture-filling gas hydrate sediments, the high frequency wave is easily propagated and its reflected energy at BSR is strong. This difference of these at BSR between two types of gas hydrate contained sediments can be utilized to distinguish the gas hydrate morphology. The seismic data in northern South China Sea is analyzed and the results correspond well with the forward modeling approach. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 1674-9871
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 33
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 119 Author(s): Roberta Selvaggi, Gioacchino Pappalardo, Gaetano Chinnici, Claudio I. Fabbri Recent estimates show that the potential for biomethane production in Italy for 2030 is about 8 Bn Nm 3 /year, initially by upgrading the biogas produced by anaerobic digestion. We derive the ‘Land Efficiency’ of Biomethane in accordance with the Biogasdoneright ® principles in Sicily (Italy), from the standard formula to determine the ‘First Crop Land Requirement’. The results were achieved using large proportions of ‘integration biomasses’. The concept of Land Efficiency is verified because the first constituent of the formula (land efficiency) is much higher than the second one (biomethane yield of monocrops). The outcome of this study indicates clearly that ‘integration biomasses’ in the Sicilian context are among those which produce advanced biofuels. All by-products and wastes from the agrifood sector are necessary to produce about 562 million Nm 3 /year of biomethane in Sicily for 2030 (about 8% of the Italian one), allocating only 28,000 ha for the monocrops for the anaerobic digesters.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 34
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Global Environmental Change, Volume 51 Author(s): Daniel Lincke, Jochen Hinkel While sea-level rise could flood and displace hundreds of millions of people, a range of studies have shown that adaptation in the form of coastal protection can be very effective and cost-efficient in reducing coastal impacts. All of these studies have, however, investigated adaptation decisions within one given sea-level rise and one given socio-economic scenario, which is at odds with the actual decision problem coastal planers are facing in that they need to decide across scenarios. This study takes first steps at filling this gap by assessing for which parts of the global coastline coastal protection is economically robust across 21st century global mean sea-level rise from 0.3 m to 2.0 m, the five Shared Socio-economic Pathways and discount rates from 0 to 6%. We find that for 92,500 km of the global coastline it is economically robust to invest in protection (i.e. protection is cheaper than not protecting under every scenario considered). While these 92,500 km cover only 13% of the global coastline, they account for 90% of global coastal floodplain population and for 96% of assets in the global coastal floodplain. For 451,000 km of the global coastline (65%) covering 0.2% of coastal floodplain population and 0.2% of coastal floodplain assets globally, it is economically robust not to invest in protection. Our results suggest bifurcating coastal futures. On the one hand, richer, densely populated and urban areas are likely to be protected through higher and higher dikes. On the other hand, poorer rural areas will struggle to maintain safe human settlements and are likely to eventual retreat from the coast, raising difficult policy questions concerning transfer payments, compensation and liability for loss and damage.
    Print ISSN: 0959-3780
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9495
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 35
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    In: Heliyon
    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Heliyon, Volume 4, Issue 5 Author(s): Arpita Mehrotra, Allison Kennedy Fisher, Jennifer Mullen, Leslie Rodriguez, Angela J. Jiles, Alison P. Albert, Laura A. Randall, Paula M. Frew Background Pertussis, or “whooping cough,” is an acute, contagious pulmonary disease that, despite being vaccine-preventable, has become an increasingly widespread problem in the United States. As a result, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists updated recommendations stating clinicians should give a Tdap dose during every pregnancy, preferably at 27–36 weeks. Despite this recommendation, reported Tdap vaccine receipt rates during pregnancy vary from 16–61%, and previous studies have shown that clinician recommendation and vaccine administration are strongly associated with vaccine uptake among pregnant women. Methods Our aim was to inform new strategies to increase uptake of the Tdap vaccine among pregnant women and, ultimately, reduce pertussis-related morbidity and mortality in infants. We conducted interviews with a sample of 24 ob-gyns. We subsequently performed grounded theory analyses of transcripts using deductive and inductive coding strategies followed by intercoder reliability assessment. Results All physicians interviewed were familiar with the most recent recommendation of giving the Tdap vaccine during the third trimester of every pregnancy, and the majority of physicians stated that they felt that the vaccine was important and effective due to the transfer of pertussis antibodies from the mother to the fetus. Most physicians indicated that they recommended the vaccine to patients during pregnancy, but not all reported administering it on site because it was not stocked at their practice. Implementation challenges for physicians included insurance reimbursement and other challenges (i.e., patient refusal). Tdap vaccination during pregnancy was a lower clinical priority for some physicians. Physicians recognized the benefits associated with Tdap vaccination during pregnancy. Conclusions Findings indicate while most ob-gyns recognize the benefits of Tdap and recommend vaccination during pregnancy, barriers such as insurance reimbursement and financial concerns for the practice can outweigh the perceived benefits. This resulted in some ob-gyns reporting choosing not to stock and administer the vaccine in their practice. Recommendations to address these concerns include 1) structural support for Tdap vaccine administration in ob-gyns practices; 2) Continuing medical education-equivalent educational interventions that address management techniques, vaccine coding, and other relevant information; and 3) interventions to assist physicians in communicating the importance of Tdap vaccination during pregnancy.
    Electronic ISSN: 2405-8440
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 36
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018 Source: International Journal of Production Economics Author(s): Rachel Barbosa Santos, Ualison Rébula de Oliveira, Henrique Martins Rocha In the film and television industry, a wide range of risks in processes of launching new products (series, soap operas or films) can cause accidents and affect the health and safety of crews. Besides potential personal injuries, as a business, the whole production process in under risk, since if a key player (e.g.: the main actor/actress) gets severely injured or dies, he/she cannot be replaced and the project can be paralyzed, causing difficulties to the company. This article purposes to identify the most critical process in relation to the occurrence of accidents, evaluating the failures of the activities of this critical process, and understanding their causes, to enable formulating treatment plans. We performed a case study of a large film and television producer in Brazil: A committee of experts identified filming as the most critical process. We mapped the activities of this process, the potential failures and their causes through a FMEA, identifying 15 modes of failure in the process and 32 potential elements that cause these failures. Combining and ranking those elements, 12 causes were considered critical and FTA was applied to identify their root causes. The result was a procedure to analyze process failures tailored to the film and television industry, as well as complete and objective visualization of the possible faults in this process, enabling the company to correct them and providing elements for other researchers to investigate this rich but as yet little explored theme.
    Print ISSN: 0925-5273
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-7579
    Topics: Technology , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018 Source: International Journal of Production Economics Author(s): Talat S. Genc, Pietro De Giovanni This paper studies the impact of some innovation-led lean programs in a Closed-loop Supply Chain (CLSC) setting. We use a game-theoretic approach to model a CLSC composed of one supplier and one manufacturer. The supplier sets the wholesale price of an intermediate product while the manufacturer sets the selling price of a final product. Further, the manufacturer invests in innovation-led lean practices to entail both a strategic effect and a process innovation effect. The strategic effect consists of responsiveness involving the CLSC's capacity to properly respond to consumers' needs and leading to increase in sales. Further, the strategic effect enhances sustainability as consumers align their behavior to the CLSC's attitude of reducing the waste through lean, thus using their products for longer time period and entirely exhausting their residual value. Innovation-led lean practices also generate a process innovation effect, which consists of the marginal production cost abatement. Our findings indicate that lean practices leading to both strategic and process innovation are profitable for the manufacturer and sponsor sustainability. When only one of those can be presented, CLSCs should prefer the adoption of a strategic lean program. From its side, the supplier is much less sensitive to environmental benefits, thus it focuses on sales and operational matters. Furthermore, in a centralized CLSC, the preferences for strategic vs. process innovation lean follow the same path of the decentralized CLSC. Nevertheless, we pinpoint that the manufacturer in the decentralized CLSC has a larger incentive to adopt a strategic lean program than in the centralized CLSC. Also, the supplier always obtains larger economic benefits in the decentralized CLSC under any type of innovation-led lean program.
    Print ISSN: 0925-5273
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-7579
    Topics: Technology , Economics
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  • 38
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Volume 90 Author(s): Min Wang, Jinhua Zhao This paper studies the impacts of renewable energy support policies on energy prices, fossil fuel supply and thus carbon emissions from fossil fuels. Such supports are climate friendly if the renewables are already competitive against fossil fuels. But if the renewables are not yet competitive, the climate change impacts are often ambiguous and are sensitive to capacity constraints of renewables production and to the fossil fuel market structure. If the renewables do not have capacity constraints, then the subsidies are subject to the Green Paradox under perfect competition, but might be climate friendly under monopoly. Supports for capacity constrained renewables under perfect competition lead to more current fossil fuel supply but delay fossil fuel exhaustion time, and these effects are reversed under monopoly. Our results highlight the importance of considering the long-term effects on fossil fuel supply as well as capacity constraints and market power in designing renewable energy policies and evaluating their carbon footprints.
    Print ISSN: 0095-0696
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-0449
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 39
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018 Source: Journal of the Franklin Institute Author(s): Ahmadreza Argha, Li Li, Steven W. Su, Hung Nguyen This paper proposes a framework for the design of sparsely distributed output feedback discrete-time sliding mode control (ODSMC) for interconnected systems. The major target here is to develop an observer based discrete-time sliding mode controller employing a sparsely distributed control network structure in which local controllers exploit some other sub-systems’ information as well as its own local information. As the local controllers/observers have access to some other sub-systems’ states, the control performance will be improved and the applicability region will be widened compared to the decentralised structure. As the first step, a stability condition is derived for the overall closed-loop system obtained from applying ODSMC to the underlying interconnected system, by assuming a priori known structure for the control/observer network. The developed LMI based controller design scheme provides the possibility to employ different information patterns such as fully distributed, sparsely distributed and decentralised patterns. In the second step, we propose a methodology to identify a sparse control/observer network structure with the least possible number of communication links that satisfies the stability condition given in the first step. The boundedness of the obtained overall closed-loop system is analysed and a bound is derived for the augmented system state which includes the closed-loop system state and the switching function.
    Print ISSN: 0016-0032
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2693
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 40
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 70 Author(s): Kristian Bothe, Høgni Kalsø Hansen, Lars Winther This paper addresses the wider benefits of major investments in urban transport and discusses the relevance of giving attention to time and geographical scale in the analysis of employment growth before, under and after the introduction of new urban transport infrastructure. Using descriptive statistics in combination with OLS modelling, the paper analyses the intra-urban employment growth by workplace in regard to the opening of the Copenhagen Metro in 2002. The study identifies strong employment growth in the case of Copenhagen and higher employment growth in metro-served areas compared to non-metro-served areas in the first ten years after the opening of the Metro. The study also finds that when zooming in on the local scale, employment growth has been unevenly distributed along the metro corridor leading to a spatial restructuring of intra-urban employment patterns. This highlights that geographical scale and time is of critical importance when addressing the development of employment in areas that have witnessed investment in infrastructure. Moreover, the paper shows that especially the existing urban structures of the built environment, supporting planning policies, the local economic context and the preconditions for the development seems to be of great importance when assessing intra-urban restructuring of employment.
    Print ISSN: 0966-6923
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1236
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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  • 41
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: 26 May–1 June 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10135 Author(s): Kristine Macartney, Anne A Gershon
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 42
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: 26 May–1 June 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10135 Author(s): Paul Webster
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 43
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: 26 May–1 June 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10135 Author(s): Roger Kneebone
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 44
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: 26 May–1 June 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10135 Author(s): Drew J Winston, Kathleen M Mullane, Oliver A Cornely, Michael J Boeckh, Janice Wes Brown, Steven A Pergam, Igoris Trociukas, Pavel Žák, Michael D Craig, Genovefa A Papanicolaou, Juan D Velez, Jens Panse, Kimberly Hurtado, Doreen A Fernsler, Jon E Stek, Lei Pang, Shu-Chih Su, Yanli Zhao, Ivan S F Chan, Susan S Kaplan, Janie Parrino, Ingi Lee, Zoran Popmihajlov, Paula W Annunziato, Ann Arvin Background Recipients of autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplants (auto-HSCT) have an increased risk of herpes zoster and herpes zoster-related complications. The aim of this study was to establish the efficacy and safety of an inactivated varicella zoster vaccine for the prevention of herpes zoster after auto-HSCT. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial, participants were recruited from 135 medical centres (ie, stem-cell transplant centres and hospitals) in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. Patients were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older, scheduled to receive an auto-HSCT within 60 days of enrolment, and had a history of varicella infection or were seropositive for antibodies to varicella zoster virus, or both. Exclusion criteria included a history of herpes zoster within the previous year of enrolment, and intended antiviral prophylaxis for longer than 6 months after transplantation. Participants were randomly assigned according to a central randomisation schedule generated by the trial statistician, to receive either the inactivated-virus vaccine from one of three consistency lots, a high-antigen lot, or placebo, stratified by age (〈50 vs ≥50 years) and intended duration of antiviral prophylaxis after transplantation (≤3 months vs >3 to ≤6 months). Participants, investigators, trial staff, and the funder's clinical and laboratory personnel were masked to group assignment. Participants were given four doses of inactivated vaccine or placebo, with the first dose 5–60 days before auto-HSCT, and the second, third, and fourth doses at about 30, 60, and 90 days after transplantation. The primary efficacy endpoint was the incidence of herpes zoster, confirmed by PCR or adjudication by a masked clinical committee, or both, assessed in all participants randomly assigned to the vaccine consistency lot group or placebo group who received at least one dose of vaccine and had auto-HSCT. Safety was assessed in all randomised participants who received at least one dose of vaccine and had follow-up data. A prespecified vaccine efficacy success criterion required the lower bound of the 95% CI be higher than 25% for the relative reduction of the hazard ratio of herpes zoster infection in participants given the vaccine from one of the consistency lots compared with those given placebo. This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01229267 ) and EudraCT (2010–020150–34). Findings Between Dec 7, 2010, and April 25, 2013, 560 participants were randomly assigned to the vaccine consistency lot group, 106 to the high-antigen lot group, and 564 to the placebo group. 249 (44%) of patients in the vaccine consistency lot group, 35 (33%) in the high-antigen lot group, and 220 (39%) in the placebo group discontinued before study end, mostly because of death or withdrawal. 51 participants were excluded from the primary efficacy endpoint analyses because they did not undergo auto-HSCT or were not vaccinated, or both (22 [4%] in the vaccine consistency lot group, and 29 [5%] in the placebo group). Mean follow-up for efficacy was 2·4 years (SD 1·3) in the vaccine consistency lot group and 2·3 years (SD 1·3) in the placebo group. 42 (8%) of 538 participants in the vaccine consistency lot group (32·9 per 1000 person-years) and 113 (21%) of 535 in the placebo group (91·9 per 1000 person-years) had a confirmed case of herpes zoster. The estimated vaccine efficacy was 63·8% (95% CI 48·4–74·6), meeting the pre-specified success criterion. For the combined vaccine groups versus the placebo group, the proportion of patients with serious adverse events (216 [33%] of 657 vs 181 [33%] of 554; risk difference 0·2%, 95% CI −5·1 to 5·5) and serious vaccine-related adverse events (five [1%] vs five [1%]; risk difference 0·1%, −1·4 to 1·1) were similar. Vaccine-related injection-site adverse events occurred more frequently in participants given vaccine than those given placebo (191 [29%] vs 36 [7%]; risk difference 22·6%, 95% CI 18·5–26·6; p〈0·0001). Interpretation This study shows for the first time in a large phase 3 trial that early vaccination of auto-HSCT recipients during the peri-transplant period can be effective for the prevention of an opportunistic infection like herpes zoster and that the vaccine is well tolerated. Funding Merck & Co., Inc.
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 45
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Publication date: October 2018 Source: Protein Expression and Purification, Volume 150 Author(s): Duangtip Sudhan, Thamrongjet Puttamuk, Supachai Vuttipongchaikij, Pitak Chuawong Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening is one of the most destructive diseases affecting citrus industry worldwide. The causal agent in Asia is a phloem-limited, Gram-negative bacterium, ' Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas). Within the genome of CLas lies prophage regions, classified as Type-A, B, C, and D. In particular, Type-D has been indicated to correlate with the blotchy-mottle symptoms of citrus trees. Here we reported the cloning, overexpression, and purification of the ORF1, an open reading frame from the partial Type-D region of CLas obtained from an infected lime tree ( Citrus aurantifolia Swingle). Overexpression of the ORF1 was toxic to the E. coli BL21(DE3), and the transient expression of ORF1 in Arabidopsis seedlings by Agrobacterium -mediated transformation exhibited rapid and total chlorosis of the seedlings within two days post-transformation. The native-PAGE of the purified protein showed multiple bands, indicative of various conformations in solution. The ESI-TOF mass spectrum confirmed the molecular weight of the purified ORF1 to be 15,364.3150 Da, corresponding to the [M+1] + of the ORF1 without an N-terminal methionine. The protein predominantly consisted of α-helix as evidenced by circular dichroism (CD), and the transition toward random coil structure upon heating was reversible. The template-based modeling (I-TASSER) of the ORF1 indicated eight α-helices connected through variable loops. The simulated CD spectrum, generated from the atomic coordinates of the I-TASSER model, was notably similar to the experimental spectrum. Our report offers the basis for understanding the contributions of genes within Type-D prophage region toward the disease pathogenicity of citrus HLB. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 1046-5928
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-0279
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 46
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    In: Heliyon
    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Heliyon, Volume 4, Issue 5 Author(s): Mitsugi Shimoda, Tsunehiko Maruyama, Kiyotaka Nishida, Kazuomi Suzuki, Tomoya Tago, Jiro Shimazaki, Shuji Suzuki Introduction Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) is now a treatment of choice in patients with appendicitis. This study compares the treatment outcomes of LA and open appendectomies (OA) in our department. Patients and Methods From January 2006 to April 2016 a total of 185 patients underwent appendectomy at our institution. We divided the patients into two groups; LA group (LAG) and OA group (OAG). Following parameters were analyzed: age, gender, preoperative clinicolaboratory characteristics, operative factors, interval appendectomy, length of hospital stay (LHS), and surgical site infections (SSI). Results There were 93 patients in LA G and 92 in OAG. According to the Univariate analysis, there were statistically significant differences among age (p = 0.037), LHS (p = 0.0001), duration till resuming oral intake (p = 0.016), blood loss (p = 0.038), SSI ratio (p = 0.044) and CRP level (p = 0.038) between the LAG and the OAG. According to the Multivariate analysis, blood loss (p = 0.038) and LHS (p = 0.023) were significantly different between both groups. Conclusion LA was decreasing blood loss and LHS.
    Electronic ISSN: 2405-8440
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 47
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018 Source: International Journal of Production Economics Author(s): Nadya Regina Galo, Lucas Daniel Del Rosso Calache, Luiz Cesar Ribeiro Carpinetti Supplier evaluation and categorization is an important decision process in supplier management. It relies on judgements by multiple decision makers about the performance of a supplier on a set of criteria. Uncertainty of judgements, non-compensation between criteria and group decision are the main requirements of the decision process that have to be considered. However, none of the studies found in the literature presents a solution that contemplates all this requirements at the same time. Therefore, aiming to bridge this gap, this paper proposes an approach to supplier categorization based on the use of ELECTRE TRI combined with hesitant fuzzy. ELECTRE TRI is a non-compensatory multicriteria decision making method specific for categorization. Hesitant fuzzy is used prior to it to aggregate linguistic judgements of multiple decision makers. The decision process model is detailed and implemented in Matlab © . Analyses of the results of an illustrative case of application in the automotive industry show consistent categorization results, particularly using the pessimistic ELECTRE TRI categorization procedure. But, when there is too much discordance, negotiation techniques may be a better option. Also, test with different criteria weights showed no change in the categorization results, confirming the non-compensatory effect of the technique. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 0925-5273
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-7579
    Topics: Technology , Economics
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  • 48
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018 Source: Journal of the Franklin Institute Author(s): Shi-Ming Chen, Jun-Jie Guan, Yan-Li Gao, Huai-Cheng Yan In this paper, the leader-following consensus problem of general linear multi-agent systems without direct access to real-time state is investigated. A novel observer-based event-triggered tracking consensus control scheme is proposed. In the control scheme, a distributed observer is designed to estimate the relative full states, which are used in tracking consensus protocol to achieve overall consensus. And an event-triggered mechanism with estimated state-dependent event condition is adopted to update the control signals so as to reduce unnecessary data communication. Based on the Lyapunov theorem and graph theory, the proposed event-triggered control scheme is proved to implement the tracking consensus when real-time state cannot direct obtain. Moreover, such scheme can exclude Zeno-behavior. Finally, numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
    Print ISSN: 0016-0032
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2693
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 49
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018 Source: Journal of the Franklin Institute Author(s): Dawei Zhang, Zhiyong Zhou, Xinchun Jia For a continuous-time linear system with constant reference input, the network-based proportional-integral (PI) control is developed to solve the output tracking control problem by taking time-varying sampling and network-induced delays into account. A traditional PI control system is introduced to obtain the equilibriums of state and control input. Using the equilibriums, a discrete-time PI tracking controller in a network environment is constructed. The resulting network-based PI control system is described by an augmented system with two input delays and the output tracking objective is transformed into ensuring asymptotic stability of the augmented system. A delay-dependent stability condition is established by a discontinuous augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach. The PI controller design result of in-wheel motor as a case study is provided in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Matlab simulation and experimental results resorting to a test-bed for ZigBee-based control of in-wheel motor are given to validate the proposed method.
    Print ISSN: 0016-0032
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2693
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 50
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018 Source: Journal of the Franklin Institute Author(s): Branislav Rehák, Volodymyr Lynnyk This paper deals with a control of coupled nonlinear identical systems that admit full exact feedback input-output linearization. The subsystems are linearized using this nonlinear transformation. In the next step, an auxiliary low-dimensional system is derived whose stability implies stability of the original large-scale system. The control law is designed so that the control loops are only local, no information exchange between subsystems is required. Unknown time delay in the feedback are allowed. Two cases are studied: equal time delay for all subsystems or different delay in all subsystems. Results are illustrated by two examples.
    Print ISSN: 0016-0032
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    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 51
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018 Source: The Lancet Author(s): Peter J Blankestijn, Michiel L Bots
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 52
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018 Source: The Lancet Author(s): Sverre E Kjeldsen, Murray D Esler
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
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    Topics: Medicine
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  • 53
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018 Source: The Lancet Author(s): David E Kandzari, Michael Böhm, Felix Mahfoud, Raymond R Townsend, Michael A Weber, Stuart Pocock, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Dimitrios Tousoulis, James W Choi, Cara East, Sandeep Brar, Sidney A Cohen, Martin Fahy, Garrett Pilcher, Kazuomi Kario Background Previous catheter-based renal denervation studies have reported variable efficacy results. We aimed to evaluate safety and blood pressure response after renal denervation or sham control in patients with uncontrolled hypertension on antihypertensive medications with drug adherence testing. Methods In this international, randomised, single-blind, sham-control, proof-of-concept trial, patients with uncontrolled hypertension (aged 20–80 years) were enrolled at 25 centres in the USA, Germany, Japan, UK, Australia, Austria, and Greece. Eligible patients had an office systolic blood pressure of between 150 mm Hg and 180 mm Hg and a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher; a 24 h ambulatory systolic blood pressure of between 140 mm Hg and 170 mm Hg at second screening; and were on one to three antihypertensive drugs with stable doses for at least 6 weeks. Patients underwent renal angiography and were randomly assigned to undergo renal denervation or sham control. Patients, caregivers, and those assessing blood pressure were masked to randomisation assignments. The primary efficacy endpoint was blood pressure change from baseline (measured at screening visit two), based on ambulatory blood pressure measurements assessed at 6 months, as compared between treatment groups. Drug surveillance was used to assess medication adherence. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. Safety events were assessed through 6 months as per major adverse events. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov , number NCT02439775 , and follow-up is ongoing. Findings Between July 22, 2015, and June 14, 2017, 467 patients were screened and enrolled. This analysis presents results for the first 80 patients randomly assigned to renal denervation (n=38) and sham control (n=42). Office and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure decreased significantly from baseline to 6 months in the renal denervation group (mean baseline-adjusted treatment differences in 24 h systolic blood pressure −7·0 mm Hg, 95% CI −12·0 to −2·1; p=0·0059, 24 h diastolic blood pressure −4·3 mm Hg, −7·8 to −0·8; p=0.0174, office systolic blood pressure −6·6 mm Hg, −12·4 to −0·9; p=0·0250, and office diastolic blood pressure −4·2 mm Hg, −7·7 to −0·7; p=0·0190). The change in blood pressure was significantly greater at 6 months in the renal denervation group than the sham-control group for office systolic blood pressure (difference −6·8 mm Hg, 95% CI −12·5 to −1·1; p=0·0205), 24 h systolic blood pressure (difference −7·4 mm Hg, −12·5 to −2·3; p=0·0051), office diastolic blood pressure (difference −3·5 mm Hg, −7·0 to −0·0; p=0·0478), and 24 h diastolic blood pressure (difference −4·1 mm Hg, −7·8 to −0·4; p=0·0292). Evaluation of hourly changes in 24 h systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure showed blood pressure reduction throughout 24 h for the renal denervation group. 3 month blood pressure reductions were not significantly different between groups. Medication adherence was about 60% and varied for individual patients throughout the study. No major adverse events were recorded in either group. Interpretation Renal denervation in the main renal arteries and branches significantly reduced blood pressure compared with sham control with no major safety events. Incomplete medication adherence was common. Funding Medtronic.
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
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  • 54
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018 Source: The Lancet Author(s): Michel Azizi, Roland E Schmieder, Felix Mahfoud, Michael A Weber, Joost Daemen, Justin Davies, Jan Basile, Ajay J Kirtane, Yale Wang, Melvin D Lobo, Manish Saxena, Lida Feyz, Florian Rader, Philipp Lurz, Jeremy Sayer, Marc Sapoval, Terry Levy, Kintur Sanghvi, Josephine Abraham, Andrew S P Sharp, Naomi D L Fisher, Michael J Bloch, Helen Reeve-Stoffer, Leslie Coleman, Christopher Mullin, Laura Mauri Background Early studies suggest that radiofrequency-based renal denervation reduces blood pressure in patients with moderate hypertension. We investigated whether an alternative technology using endovascular ultrasound renal denervation reduces ambulatory blood pressure in patients with hypertension in the absence of antihypertensive medications. Methods RADIANCE-HTN SOLO was a multicentre, international, single-blind, randomised, sham-controlled trial done at 21 centres in the USA and 18 in Europe. Patients with combined systolic–diastolic hypertension aged 18–75 years were eligible if they had ambulatory blood pressure greater than or equal to 135/85 mm Hg and less than 170/105 mm Hg after a 4-week discontinuation of up to two antihypertensive medications and had suitable renal artery anatomy. Patients were randomised (1:1) to undergo renal denervation with the Paradise system (ReCor Medical, Palo Alto, CA, USA) or a sham procedure consisting of renal angiography only. The randomisation sequence was computer generated and stratified by centres with randomised blocks of four or six and permutation of treatments within each block. Patients and outcome assessors were blinded to randomisation. The primary effectiveness endpoint was the change in daytime ambulatory systolic blood pressure at 2 months in the intention-to-treat population. Patients were to remain off antihypertensive medications throughout the 2 months of follow-up unless specified blood pressure criteria were exceeded. Major adverse events included all-cause mortality, renal failure, an embolic event with end-organ damage, renal artery or other major vascular complications requiring intervention, or admission to hospital for hypertensive crisis within 30 days and new renal artery stenosis within 6 months. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov , number NCT02649426 . Findings Between March 28, 2016, and Dec 28, 2017, 803 patients were screened for eligibility and 146 were randomised to undergo renal denervation (n=74) or a sham procedure (n=72). The reduction in daytime ambulatory systolic blood pressure was greater with renal denervation (−8·5 mm Hg, SD 9·3) than with the sham procedure (−2·2 mm Hg, SD 10·0; baseline-adjusted difference between groups: −6·3 mm Hg, 95% CI −9·4 to −3·1, p=0·0001). No major adverse events were reported in either group. Interpretation Compared with a sham procedure, endovascular ultrasound renal denervation reduced ambulatory blood pressure at 2 months in patients with combined systolic–diastolic hypertension in the absence of medications. Funding ReCor Medical.
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  • 55
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018 Source: Long Range Planning Author(s): Charlotta Sirén, Pankaj C. Patel, Daniel Örtqvist, Joakim Wincent Despite the possibility of burnout resulting from dynamics in firms' upper echelons, little if any work has focused on chief executive officer's (CEO's) burnout and firm performance. Drawing on managerial discretion theory, this article analyzes the influence of CEO burnout on firm performance and the moderating roles of the individual (CEO locus of control), structural power (CEO duality and CEO tenure), and organizational characteristics (size, age, and resource availability) related to managerial discretion. Using a sample of 156 CEOs in Swedish firms, we find a negative association between CEOs who report higher burnout and firm performance. Our results confirm that CEO duality and resource availability ameliorate and firm size exacerbates the negative association between CEO burnout and firm performance. Contrary to our expectations, CEO locus of control, CEO tenure, and firm age do not influence this relationship. We discuss the implications of our research for upper echelons theory and strategic leadership theory.
    Print ISSN: 0024-6301
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1872
    Topics: Economics
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  • 56
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018 Source: Mechanisms of Development Author(s): María Clara Ingaramo, Juan A. Sánchez, Andrés Dekanty Tp53 is a central regulator of cellular responses to stress and one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancers. P53 is activated by a myriad of stress signals and drives specific cellular responses depending on stress nature, cell type and cellular context. Additionally to its classical functions in regulating cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and senescence, newly described non-canonical functions of p53 are increasingly coming under the spotlight as important functions not only for its role as a tumour suppressor but also for its non-cancer associated activities. Drosophila melanogaster is a valuable model to study multiple aspects of normal animal physiology, stress response and disease. In this review, we discuss the contribution of Drosophila studies to the current knowledge on p53 and highlight recent evidences pointing to p53 novel roles in promoting tissue homeostasis and metabolic adaptation.
    Print ISSN: 0925-4773
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6356
    Topics: Biology
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  • 57
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 64, Issue 2
    Print ISSN: 0960-8974
    Electronic ISSN: 1878-4208
    Topics: Geosciences , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 64, Issue 2 Author(s): Francesca Deganello, Avesh Kumar Tyagi Solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is a worldwide used methodology for the preparation of inorganic ceramic and composite materials with controlled properties for a wide number of applications, from catalysis to photocatalysis and electrocatalysis, from heavy metal removal to sensoristics and electronics. The high versatility and efficiency of this technique have led to the introduction of many variants, which allowed important optimization to the prepared materials. Moreover, its ecofriendly nature encouraged further studies about the use of sustainable precursors for the preparation of nanomaterials for energy and environment, according to the concept of circular economy . On the other hand, the large variety of expressions to define SCS and the often-contradictory definitions of the SCS parameters witnessed a scarce consciousness of the potentiality of this methodology. In this review article, the most important findings about SCS and the selection criteria for its main parameters are critically reviewed, in order to give useful guidelines to those scientists who want to use this methodology for preparing materials with improved or new functional properties. This review aims as well (i) to bring more clarity in the SCS terminology (ii) to increase the awareness of the SCS as a convenient tool for the synthesis of materials and (iii) to propose a new perspective in the SCS, with special attention to the use of ecofriendly procedures. Part of the review is also dedicated to precautions and limitations of this powerful methodology.
    Print ISSN: 0960-8974
    Electronic ISSN: 1878-4208
    Topics: Geosciences , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 59
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Publication date: October 2018 Source: Protein Expression and Purification, Volume 150 Author(s): Tatsuya Kato, Moeko Hasegawa, Takeshi Yamamoto, Takatsugu Miyazaki, Ryosuke Suzuki, Takaji Wakita, Tetsuro Suzuki, Enoch Y. Park It has been shown that the single-domain intrabody 2H9-L against the hepatitis C virus (HCV) capsid (core) protein inhibits the viral propagation and NF-κB promoter activity induced by the HCV core. In this study, 2H9-L fused with the FLAG tag sequence was expressed in both Escherichia coli and silkworm pupae and then purified. In addition, the full-length and its C terminal deletions of the HCV core protein, i.e., 1–123 amino acid residues (C123), 1–152 amino acid residues (C152), 1–177 amino acid residues (C177) and 1–191 amino acid residues (C191), were expressed as fusion proteins with a 6 × His tag at their N-terminus in E. coli and then purified. Approximately 175 and 132 μg of the intrabody were purified from 100 ml of E. coli culture and 10 silkworm pupae, respectively, by affinity chromatography. The C123, C152, C177 and C191 HCV core protein variants were purified to approximately 152, 127, 103 and 155 μg, respectively, from 100 ml of E. coli culture. An ELISA in which the intrabodies were immobilized revealed that the intrabodies purified from both hosts were bound to all HCV core protein variants. However, their binding to the C191 appeared to be weak compared to their bindings to the other HCV core protein variants. When C152 was immobilized in the ELISA, the binding of each intrabody to the core protein was also observed. These purified intrabodies can be used in biochemical analyses of the inhibitory mechanism of HCV propagation and as protein interference reagents, thus providing a potential pathway to developing a new type of antiviral drug.
    Print ISSN: 1046-5928
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-0279
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 60
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Publication date: October 2018 Source: Protein Expression and Purification, Volume 150 Author(s): Shengjun Wang, Yaoguang Wang, Peng George Wang, Min Chen, Yun Kong The Ala-Pro-rich Antigen (Apa) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a mannosylated protein with immunogenic and antigenic properties. The O -mannosylation is essential for its biological function in the process of colonization and invasion of host cells by M. tuberculosis . In this work, the gene encoding Apa was cloned from M. tuberculosis and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. In shake-flasks, the recombinant Apa was secreted into the culture media and purified with a yield of 0.6 g/L. Both N - and O -glycans were found in recombinant Apa. In P. pastoris the known M. tuberculosis -derived O -glycosites of Apa were modified with short chains of mannose units, and a few additional glycosylation sites were also observed. Therefore, the recombinant Apa expressed in P. pastoris has similar but not identical O -mannose patterns to the native protein from M. tuberculosis . P. pastoris and mycobacteria share similarities in the protein O -glycosylation pathway. Thus P. pastoris could be a potential powerful expression system to produce mycobacteria-derived glycoproteins.
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  • 61
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018 Source: Developmental Biology Author(s): Dorit Hockman, Igor Adameyko, Marketa Kaucka, Perrine Barraud, Tomoki Otani, Adam Hunt, Anna C. Hartwig, Elisabeth Sock, Dominic Waithe, Marina C.M. Franck, Patrik Ernfors, Sean Ehinger, Marthe J. Howard, Naoko Brown, Jeffrey Reese, Clare V.H. Baker Carotid body glomus cells mediate essential reflex responses to arterial blood hypoxia. They are dopaminergic and secrete growth factors that support dopaminergic neurons, making the carotid body a potential source of patient-specific cells for Parkinson's disease therapy. Like adrenal chromaffin cells, which are also hypoxia-sensitive, glomus cells are neural crest-derived and require the transcription factors Ascl1 and Phox2b; otherwise, their development is little understood at the molecular level. Here, analysis in chicken and mouse reveals further striking molecular parallels, though also some differences, between glomus and adrenal chromaffin cell development. Moreover, histology has long suggested that glomus cell precursors are ‘émigrés’ from neighbouring ganglia/nerves, while multipotent nerve-associated glial cells are now known to make a significant contribution to the adrenal chromaffin cell population in the mouse. We present conditional genetic lineage-tracing data from mice supporting the hypothesis that progenitors expressing the glial marker proteolipid protein 1 , presumably located in adjacent ganglia/nerves, also contribute to glomus cells. Finally, we resolve a paradox for the ‘émigré’ hypothesis in the chicken - where the nearest ganglion to the carotid body is the nodose, in which the satellite glia are neural crest-derived, but the neurons are almost entirely placode-derived - by fate-mapping putative nodose neuronal 'émigrés' to the neural crest.
    Print ISSN: 0012-1606
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-564X
    Topics: Biology
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  • 62
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: 1 October 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 270, Issue 1 Author(s): Gabriele Torri, Rosella Giacometti, Sandra Paterlini Network analysis is becoming a fundamental tool in the study of systemic risk and financial contagion in the banking sector. Still, the network structure must typically be estimated from noisy and aggregated data, as micro data on the status quo banking network structure are often unavailable, or the true network is unobservable. Graphical models can help researchers to infer network structures, but they are often criticized for relying too heavily on unrealistic assumptions. They also tend to yield dense structures that are difficult to interpret. Here, we propose the tlasso model for estimating sparse banking networks. The tlasso captures the conditional dependence structure between banks through partial correlations, and estimates sparse networks in which only the relevant links are identified. The model also accounts for the non-Gaussianity of financial data and it is robust to outliers and model misspecification. Our empirical analysis focuses on estimating the dependence structure of a sample of European banks from credit default swap data. We observe that the presence of communities in the banking network plays an important role in terms of systemic risk and contagion dynamics. We also introduce a decomposition of strength centrality that allows us to better characterize the role of each bank in the network and to identify the most relevant channels for the transmission of financial distress.
    Print ISSN: 0377-2217
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6860
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: 1 October 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 270, Issue 1 Author(s): Chu-Min Li, Yanli Liu, Hua Jiang, Felip Manyà, Yu Li The maximum weight clique problem (MWCP) for a vertex-weighted graph is to find a complete subgraph in which the sum of vertex weights is maximum. The main goal of this paper is to develop an efficient branch-and-bound algorithm to solve the MWCP. As a crucial aspect of branch-and-bound MWCP algorithms is the incorporation of a tight upper bound, we first define a new upper bound for the MWCP, called UB WC , that is based on a novel notion called weight cover. The idea of a weight cover is to compute a set of independent sets of the graph and define a weight function for each independent set so that the weight of each vertex of the graph is covered by such weight functions. We then propose a new branch-and-bound MWCP algorithm called WC-MWC that uses UB WC to reduce the number of branches of the search space that must be traversed by incrementally constructing a weight cover for the graph. Finally, we present experimental results that show that UB WC reduces the search space much more than previous upper bounds, and the new algorithm WC-MWC outperforms some of the best performing exact and heuristic MWCP algorithms on both small/medium graphs and real-world massive graphs.
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    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: 1 October 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 270, Issue 1 Author(s): Timo Hintsch, Stefan Irnich The clustered vehicle-routing problem is a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle-routing problem in which customers are partitioned into clusters, and it is assumed that each cluster must have been served completely before the next cluster is served. This decomposes the problem into three subproblems, i.e., the assignment of clusters to routes, the routing inside each cluster, and the sequencing of the clusters in the routes. The second task requires the solution of several Hamiltonian path problems, one for each possibility to route through the cluster. We pre-compute the Hamiltonian paths for every pair of customers of each cluster. We present a large multiple neighborhood search which makes use of multiple cluster destroy and repair operators and a variable-neighborhood descent (VND) for post-optimization. The VND is based on classical neighborhoods such as relocate, 2-opt, and swap all working on the cluster level and a generalization of the Balas–Simonetti neighborhood modifying simultaneously the intra-cluster routings and the sequence of clusters in a route. Computational results with our new approach compare favorably to existing approaches from the literature.
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    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
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  • 65
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: 1 October 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 270, Issue 1 Author(s): Zulqarnain Haider, Alexander Nikolaev, Jee Eun Kang, Changhyun Kwon This paper presents a new conceptual approach to improve the operational performance of public bike sharing systems using pricing schemes. Its methodological developments are accompanied by experimental analyses with bike demand data from Capital Bikeshare program of Washington, DC (USA). An optimized price vector determines the incentive levels that can persuade system customers to take bikes from, or park them at, neighboring stations so as to strategically minimize the number of imbalanced stations. This strategy intentionally makes some imbalanced stations even more imbalanced, creating hub stations. This reduces the need for trucks and dedicated staff to carry out inventory repositioning. For smaller networks, a bi-level optimization model with a single level reformulation is introduced to minimize the number of imbalanced stations optimally. The results are compared with a heuristic approach that adjusts route prices by segregating the stations into different categories based on their current inventory profile, projected future demand, and maximum and minimum inventory values calculated to fulfill certain desired service level requirements. We use a routing model for repositioning trucks to show that the proposed optimization model and the latter heuristic approach, called the iterative price adjustment scheme (IPAS), reduce the overall operating cost while partially or fully obviating the need for a manual repositioning operation.
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: 1 October 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 270, Issue 1 Author(s): Walter J. Gutjahr, Sophie Fischer Recently, essential progress in quantitative modelling of humanitarian operations has been made through the introduction of the deprivation cost concept by Holguín-Veras et al. The incorporation of this concept within the overall objective of minimizing the so-called “social costs” (logistics costs plus deprivation costs) promises to unify the objective functions of optimization models for humanitarian logistics applications. Although the deprivation cost concept is able to cover the majority of all those optimization criteria previously used in the literature in this field that are not yet covered by logistics costs, the question whether it also addresses the criterion of equity (fairness) remains open. In the first part of our work, we show by analytical results that minimization of total deprivation cost under a fixed given budget can lead to arbitrarily unfair solutions. For this reason, we propose to extend the deprivation cost objective by a term proportional to the well-known Gini inequity index. A computational solution procedure for a corresponding logistics model is presented, and its merits compared to the utilitarian version are demonstrated at an illustration case with data from the Nepal earthquake 2015. In particular, it is shown that practically irrelevant final reductions of average deprivation costs result in substantial increases of inequity, or vice versa, at a low “price of fairness”, dramatic reductions of the Gini inequity index can be achieved.
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: 1 October 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 270, Issue 1 Author(s): Hung Xuan Do, Daniel Rösch, Harald Scheule This paper develops a novel framework to model the loss given default (LGD) of residential mortgage loans which is the dominant consumer loan category for many commercial banks. LGDs in mortgage lending are subject to two selection processes: default and cure, where the collateral value exceeds the outstanding loan amount. We propose a three-step selection approach with a joint probability framework for default, cure (i.e., zero-LGD) and non-zero loss severity information. The proposed methodology demonstrates improved performance in out-of-time predictions compared to widely used OLS regressions.
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  • 68
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: 1 October 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 270, Issue 1 Author(s): Prasanna Ramamoorthy, Sachin Jayaswal, Ankur Sinha, Navneet Vidyarthi In this paper, we present computationally efficient formulations for the multiple allocation hub interdiction and hub protection problems, which are bilevel and trilevel mixed integer linear programs, respectively. In the hub interdiction problem, the aim is to identify a subset of r critical hubs from an existing set of p hubs that when interdicted results in the maximum post-interdiction cost of routing flows. We present two alternate ways of reducing the bilevel hub interdiction model to a single level optimization problem. The first approach uses the dual formulation of the lower level problem. The second approach exploits the structure of the lower level problem to replace it by a set of closest assignment constraints (CACs). We present alternate sets of CACs, study their dominance relationships, and report their computational performances. Further, we propose refinements to CACs that offer computational advantages of an order-of-magnitude compared to the one existing in the literature. Further, our proposed modifications offer structural advantages for Benders decomposition, which lead to substantial computational savings, particularly for large problem instances. Finally, we study and solve large scale instances of the trilevel hub protection problem exactly by utilizing the ideas developed for the hub interdiction problem.
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  • 69
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 96 Author(s): Raffaele Carli, Mariagrazia Dotoli, Roberta Pellegrino This paper develops a multi-criteria decision making tool to support the public decision maker in optimizing energy retrofit interventions on existing public street lighting systems. The related literature analysis clearly highlights that, to date, only a few number of studies deal with the definition of optimal decision strategies complying with multiple and conflicting objectives in the planning of street lighting refurbishment. To fill this gap, we propose a decision making tool that allows deciding, in an integrated way, the optimal energy retrofit plan in order to simultaneously reduce energy consumption, maintain comfort, protect the environment, and optimize the distribution of actions in subsystems, while ensuring an efficient use of public funds. The presented tool is applied to a real street lighting system of a wide urban area in Bari, Italy. The obtained results highlight that the approach effectively supports the city energy manager in the refurbishment of the street lighting systems.
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  • 70
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 96 Author(s): P. Beraldi, A. Violi, G. Carrozzino, M.E. Bruni The paper focuses on the optimal management of distributed energy resources aggregated within a coalition. The problem is analyzed from the viewpoint of an aggregator, seen as an entity called to optimize the available resources so to satisfy the aggregated demand by eventually trading in the Day-Ahead Electricity Market. Both a full and a residual perspective in the management of the integrated resources is investigated and compared. The inherent uncertainty affecting the optimal decision problem, mainly related to the demand profile, electricity prices and production from renewable sources, is dealt by adopting the two-stage stochastic programming paradigm. The proposed models (different for the full and residual case) present a bi-objective function, integrating the expected profit and a risk measure, the Conditional Value at Risk, to control undesirable effects caused by the random variations of the uncertain parameters. A broad numerical study has been carried out on real case study. The analysis of the results clearly shows the benefits deriving from the stochastic optimization approach and the effect of considering different levels of risk aversion.
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  • 71
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 96 Author(s): M. Fattahi Bandpey, K. Gorgani Firouzjah This paper proposes a two-stage charging strategy for solving charging control issues of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV). At the first stage, the optimal charging of each PEV is calculated with Bee Algorithm (BA) as an aggregator optimizer. At the second stage, this aggregated power is then distributed among electrical vehicles (EVs) using fuzzy logic controller (FLC). This framework has considered non-linear dynamic feature of PEV batteries in various practical scenarios. Main advantageous of this method are reducing load peak, smoothing transformers load profile, consideration of non-linear dynamic behavior of PEV batteries and proper energy management of batteries in case of unscheduled unplugging of PEVs from charging stations. Finally, simulation results are presented to verify the analysis of the proposed charging control strategy.
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  • 72
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 96 Author(s): Chih-Hao Yang A stable electricity supply is indispensable for both economic development and residential life. Social economic growth has caused a significant deficiency of conventional energy; hence, reducing the use of energy and developing new electricity sources are topics that have attracted wide attention from both academia and industries. In a green electric power system, reasonable costs and benefit controls, as well as carbon footprint computations, are considered to be the key barriers encountered. This study focuses on the total cost, feed-in tariff price, and carbon footprint of a power system, and proposes a 0–1 mixed integer linear programming (MILP) decision model for achieving an optimization portfolio of green electric power systems, using activity-based cost (ABC) and lifecycle assessment (LCA) approaches. The major contributions of this study are, as follows: (1) the integrated model can help green power suppliers to more accurately understand how to allocate resources and funding for energy-saving activities to each green electric power system through appropriate cost drivers; (2) the proposed model provides cost and benefit analysis information, which will assist management in planning clean energy production systems; and (3) the obtained portfolio shows that the maximum profits for green power planning contribute to the development of a national energy policy in Taiwan.
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  • 73
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 96 Author(s): Viktor Slednev, Valentin Bertsch, Manuel Ruppert, Wolf Fichtner The system integration of an increasing amount of electricity generation from decentralised renewable energy sources (RES-E) is a major challenge for the transition of the European power system. The feed-in profiles and the potential of RES-E vary along the geographical and temporal dimension and are also subject to technological choices and changes. To support power system planning in the context of RES-E expansion and allocation planning required for meeting RES-E targets, analyses are needed assessing where and which RES-E capacities are likely to be expanded. This requires models that are able to consider the power grid capacity and topology including their changes over time. We therefore developed a model that meets these requirements and considers the assignment of RES-E potentials to grid nodes as variable. This is a major advancement in comparison to existing approaches based on a fixed and pre-defined assignment of RES-E potentials to a node. While our model is generic and includes data for all of Europe, we demonstrate the model in the context of a case study in the Republic of Ireland. We find wind onshore to be the dominating RES-E technology from a cost-efficient perspective. Since spatial wind onshore potentials are highest in the West and North of the country, this leads to a high capacity concentration in these areas. Should policy makers wish to diversify the RES-E portfolio, we find that a diversification mainly based on bioenergy and wind offshore is achievable at a moderate cost increase. Including solar photovoltaics into the portfolio, particularly rooftop installations, however, leads to a significant cost increase but also to a more scattered capacity installation over the country.
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  • 74
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 96 Author(s): Daiki Min, Jong-hyun Ryu, Dong Gu Choi The recent interest in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the recent technical evolution of energy networks to smart grids have facilitated the integration of renewable energy technologies (RETs) into the electricity sector around the world. Although renewable energy provides substantial benefits for the climate and the economy, the large-size deployment of RETs could possibly hurt the level of power system reliability because of the RETs’ technical limitations, intermittency, and non-dispatchability. Many power system planners and operators consider this a critical problem. This paper proposes a possible solution to this problem by designing a new stochastic optimization model for the long-term capacity expansion planning of a power system explicitly incorporating the uncertainty associated with RETs, and develops its solution by using the sample average approximation method. A numerical analysis then shows the effects of the large-scale integration of RETs on not only the power system’s reliability level but also, and consequentially, its long-term capacity expansion planning. From the results of the numerical analysis, we show that our proposed model can develop a long-term capacity expansion plan that is more robust with respect to uncertain RETs and quantify the capacity the system requires to be reliable.
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  • 75
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 96 Author(s): Ellen M.B. Cavalheiro, André H.B. Vergílio, Christiano Lyra An attractive way to reduce losses in electric power distribution networks is addressing the network reconfiguration problem, which should give a topology for the primary distribution network that minimizes the total losses due to the electrical resistances in the lines and complementary equipment’s ( technical losses ). Distributed energy resources and additional innovations associated to smart grids allow enhancing the benefits of finding better network topologies. On the other hand, the integration of renewable energy sources with variable random outputs requires expanding the perspective in modeling the network reconfiguration problem and in the shaping of appropriate solution techniques. These issues are the object of this paper. The main new features of the problem are explored with a maquette designed to highlight the consequences of random generation sources in the networks. Following, the paper proposes a formulation for the problem that explicitly considers random energy sources. A state of the art genetic algorithm build under the biased random-key evolution framework (BRKGA) is developed to address this hard combinatorial optimization problem. Case studies with benchmark networks put into perspective the proposed methodology. Results show that random energy values should be explicitly modeled in contemporary approaches to the network reconfiguration problem. The paper provides the grounds for addressing this new problem and points to additional research paths in the area.
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  • 76
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 96 Author(s): João Silva, Jean Sumaili, Ricardo J. Bessa, Luís Seca, Manuel Matos, Vladimiro Miranda The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources characterized by a high degree of variability and uncertainty is a complex challenge for network operators that are obligated to ensure their connection while keeping the quality and security of supply. In order to deal with this variable behavior and forecast uncertainty, the distribution networks are equipped with flexible distributed energy resources capable of adjusting their operating point to avoid technical issues (voltage problems, congestion, etc.). Within this paradigm, the flexibility that, in fact, can be provided by such resources, needs to be estimated/forecasted up to the transmission network node (primary substation) and requires new tools for TSO/DSO coordination. This paper addresses this topic by developing a methodology capable of finding the flexibility area while taking into account the technical grid constraints. The proposed approach is based on the formulation of a single optimization problem which is run several times, according with the expected precision for the flexibility area estimation. To each optimization problem run, a different objective function belonging to a family of straight lines is assigned. This allows exploring the active and reactive power flow limits at the TSO/DSO boundary nodes – which define the flexibility area. The effectiveness of the proposed model has been evaluated on two test networks and the results suggest a step forward in the TSO/DSO coordination field. Nevertheless, further investigations to study the effect of assets with discrete control nature (e.g., on load tap changers – OLTC, capacitor banks) on the occurrence of disjoint flexibility areas should be carried.
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  • 77
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 96 Author(s): Mehdi Tavakoli, Edris Pouresmaeil, Jafar Adabi, Radu Godina, João P.S. Catalão This paper addresses the wind farm contribution in frequency control during the integration in the power grid. In the proposed model, the wind farm utilizes inertia control and droop control techniques with the purpose of improving the frequency regulation. In order to achieve optimal results, all the parameters of the controllers for the different units in the power grid are obtained by using a particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) and by introducing a modified objective function instead of a conventional objective function e.g., Integral Time-weighted Absolute Error (ITAE). Also, different constraints such as reheat turbine, time delay, governor dead band and generation rate constraint (GRC) are considered for thermal and hydro units with the aim of studying a more realistic power system, which is the main contribution of this paper when compared to the oth0er works in this field. It is shown that, in case of a perturbation in power demand, the system frequency will recover quickly and effectively in comparison with the traditional approaches. In addition, a sensitivity test is carried out in a single power grid area in order to examine the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Then, the system is extended to a multi-area power system using a multi-terminal HVDC for further investigation of the suggested strategy. Simulation results are presented in order to assess the performance of the proposed approach in the power system.
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  • 78
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 96 Author(s): Margarida Carvalho, Xenia Klimentova, Ana Viana Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) are measuring devices that, when placed in electrical networks, observe their state by providing information on the currents in their branches (transmission lines) and voltages in their buses. Compared to other devices, PMUs have the capability of observing other nodes besides the ones they are placed on. Due to a set of observability rules, depending on the placement decisions, the same number of PMUs can monitor a higher or smaller percentage of a network. This leads to the optimization problem hereby addressed, the PMU Placement Problem (PPP) which aims at determining the minimum number and location of PMUs that guarantee full observability of a network at minimum cost. In this paper we propose two general mathematical programming models for the PPP: a single-level and a bilevel integer programming model. To strengthen both formulations, we derive new valid inequalities and promote variable fixing. Furthermore, to tackle the bilevel model, we devise a cutting plane algorithm amended with particular features that improve its efficiency. The efficiency of the algorithm is validated through computational experiments. Results show that this new approach is more efficient than state-of-the-art proposals.
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  • 79
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 96 Author(s): F. -Javier Heredia, Marlyn D. Cuadrado, Cristina Corchero The recent cost reduction and technological advances in medium- to large-scale battery energy storage systems (BESS) makes these devices a true alternative for wind producers operating in electricity markets. Associating a wind power farm with a BESS (the so-called virtual power plant (VPP)) provides utilities with a tool that converts uncertain wind power production into a dispatchable technology that can operate not only in spot and adjustment markets (day-ahead and intraday markets) but also in ancillary services markets that, up to now, were forbidden to non-dispatchable technologies. What is more, recent studies have shown capital cost investment in BESS can be recovered only by means of such a VPP participating in the ancillary services markets. We present in this study a multi-stage stochastic programming model to find the optimal operation of a VPP in the day-ahead, intraday and secondary reserve markets while taking into account uncertainty in wind power generation and clearing prices (day-ahead, secondary reserve, intraday markets and system imbalances). A case study with real data from the Iberian electricity market is presented.
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  • 80
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 96 Author(s): Ricardo M. Lima, Antonio J. Conejo, Sabique Langodan, Ibrahim Hoteit, Omar M. Knio In this paper, we address the optimal operation of a virtual power plant using stochastic programming. We consider one risk-neutral and two risk-averse formulations that rely on the conditional value at risk. To handle large-scale problems, we implement two decomposition methods with variants using single- and multiple-cuts. We propose the utilization of wind ensembles obtained from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to quantify the uncertainty of the wind forecast. We present detailed results relative to the computational performance of the risk-averse formulations, the decomposition methods, and risk management and sensitivities analysis as a function of the number of scenarios and risk parameters. The implementation of the two decomposition methods relies on the parallel solution of subproblems, which turns out to be paramount for computational efficiency. The results show that one of the two decomposition methods is the most efficient.
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  • 81
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 96 Author(s): Carlo Lucheroni, Carlo Mari In this paper we review and extend the stochastic LCOE portfolio theory, a mean-risk analysis of electricity generation investment portfolios, focusing on the distinction between risk and deviation risk measures in terms of risk distribution shaping. Using standard and more advanced stochastic optimization risk measures, we derive optimal portfolios in the case of fossil fuels only, and in the case which includes the nuclear asset, interpreted as a risk free asset useful to hedge and reduce LCOE dispersion around its mean, in a US market case study. Four CO 2 price volatility scenarios are used to illustrate how the theory handles the impact of indirect correlation among different fuel technologies induced by CO 2 costs on the determination of optimal portfolios.
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  • 82
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Computers in Industry, Volume 100 Author(s): Katrin Kristjansdottir, Sara Shafiee, Lars Hvam, Martin Bonev, Anna Myrodia Product configuration systems (PCS) are increasingly being used in industrial companies to enable the efficient design of customized products. The literature describes substantial benefits that companies have achieved from the use of PCS, such as reduced resource consumption, reduced lead-time, improved quality, and increased sales, which should lead to a significant return on investment (ROI). However, there is little detailed quantification of the benefits, costs, and ROI from using PCS in the literature. Thus, the true value of PCS remains unknown. Hence, this study quantifies (1) the benefits in terms of reduced man-hours, improved quality of specifications, reduced lead-time, and increased sales and (2) the costs of development, implementation, and maintenance of PCS. Based on this, the ROI is calculated. The analyses presented in this study are based on a world-leading company in pump manufacturing. This study verifies the benefits of PCS that are described in the literature. Further, it contributes to the field by introducing a method to quantify the related benefits, costs, and ROI. Finally, the article illustrates how PCS can be used in companies having product portfolios consisting of a standard to engineered products.
    Print ISSN: 0166-3615
    Topics: Computer Science , Technology
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  • 83
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-27
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Computers in Industry, Volume 100 Author(s): Titas Savickas, Olegas Vasilecas Business processes are a main part of any organization therefore it is essential to improve their execution. Analysis of real process data can provide useful insights. Process mining techniques can be applied to event logs containing data related to business process execution to discover business processes and their behaviour therefore improving decision support. This paper presents an approach to discover probabilistic belief network from event logs, which focuses on domain-specific data contained in the logs for the analysis of business process behaviour. For evaluation purposes, the approach is applied to predict the business process execution. Experiments presented in the paper showcase practical application of the approach for synthetic and real-life logs. Obtained results prove that the approach is suitable for follow-up activity prediction and the nature of the approach allows for it to be extended for other use cases, such as anomaly detection or business process simulation.
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