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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-03
    Description: Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source: Topology and its Applications, Volume 241 Author(s): Ziemowit Kostana Let ( X , + ) denote ( R , + ) or ( 2 ω , + 2 ) . We prove that for any meagre set F ⊆ X there exists a subgroup G ≤ X without the Baire property, disjoint with some translation of F . We point out several consequences of this fact and indicate why analogous result for the measure cannot be established in ZFC. We extend proof techniques from [1] .
    Print ISSN: 0166-8641
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-3207
    Topics: Mathematics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 4
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018 Source: Geodesy and Geodynamics Author(s): C. Braitenberg, G. Rossi, J. Bogusz, L. Crescentini, D. Crossley, R.S. Gross, K. Heki, J. Hinderer, T. Jahr, B. Meurers, H. Schuh
    Print ISSN: 1674-9847
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 5
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018 Source: Geoscience Frontiers Author(s): Du YongSheng, Fan QiShun, Gao DongLin, Wei HaiCheng, Shan FaShou, Li BinKai, Zhang XiangRu, Yuan Qin, Qin ZhanJie, Ren QianHui, Teng XueMing In this study, nineteen brine samples from the Qarhan Salt Lake (QSL) in western China were collected and analyzed for boron (B) and chlorine (Cl) concentrations, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH values and stable B isotopic compositions. The B concentrations and δ 11 B values of brines in the QSL range from 51.6 to 138.4 mg/L, and from +9.32 to +13.08‰, respectively. By comparison of B concentrations and TDS of brines in QSL with evaporation paths of brackish water, we found that B enrichment of brines primarily results from strong evaporation and concentration of Qarhan lake water. Combining with comparisons of B concentrations, TDS, pH values and δ 11 B values of brines, previously elemental ratios (K/Cl, Mg/Cl, Ca/Cl, B/Cl) and δ 11 B values of halite from a sediment core (ISL1A), we observe good correlations between B concentrations and TDS, TDS and pH values, pH and δ 11 B values of brines, which demonstrate that higher B concentrations and more positive δ 11 B values of halite indicate higher salinity of the Qarhan paleolake water as well as drier paleoclimatic conditions. Based on this interpretation of the δ 11 B values of halite in core ISL1A, higher salinity of the Qarhan paleolake occurred during two intervals, around 46-34 ka and 26-9 ka, which are almost coincident with the upper and lower halite-dominated salt layers in core ISL1A, drier climate phases documented from the δ 18 O record of carbonate in core ISL1A and the paleomoisture record in monsoonal central Asia, and a higher solar insolation at 30°N. These results demonstrate that the δ 11 B values of halite in the arid Qaidam Basin could be regarded as a new proxy for reconstructing the salinity record of paleolake water as well as paleoclimate conditions. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 1674-9871
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018 Source: Geoscience Frontiers Author(s): Beyene G. Haile, Urszula Czarniecka, Ke-Lai Xi, Aleksandra Smyrak-Sikora, Jens Jahren, Alvar Braathen, Helge Hellevang Sedimentary basins containing igneous intrusions within sedimentary reservoir units represent an important risk in petroleum exploration. The Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic sediments at Wilhelmøya (Svalbard) contains reservoir heterogeneity as a result of sill emplacement and represent a unique case study to better understand the effect of magmatic intrusions on the general burial diagenesis of siliciclastic sediments. Sills develop contact metamorphic aureoles by conduction as presented in many earlier studies. However, there is significant impact of localized hydrothermal circulation systems affecting reservoir sediments at considerable distance from the sill intrusions. Dolerite sill intrusions in the studied area are of limited vertical extent (∼12 m thick), but created localized hydrothermal convection cells affecting sediments at considerable distance (more than five times the thickness of the sill) from the intrusions. We present evidence that the sedimentary sequence can be divided into two units: (1) the bulk poorly lithified sediment with a maximum burial temperature much lower than 60–70°C, and (2) thinner intervals outside the contact zone that have experienced hydrothermal temperatures (around 140°C). The main diagenetic alteration associated with normal burial diagenesis is minor mechanical plastic deformation of ductile grains such as mica. Mineral grain contacts show no evidence of pressure dissolution and the vitrinite reflectance suggests a maximum temperature of ∼40 ºC. Contrary to this, part of the sediment, preferentially along calcite cemented flow baffles, show evidence of hydrothermal alteration. These hydrothermally altered sediment sections are characterized by recrystallized carbonate cemented intervals. Further, the hydrothermal solutions have resulted in localized sericitization (illitization) of feldspars, albitization of both K-feldspar and plagioclase and the formation of fibrous illite nucleated on kaolinite. These observations suggest hydrothermal alteration at T > 120–140 °C at distances considerably further away than expected from sill heat dissipation by conduction only, which commonly affect sediments about twice the thickness of the sill intrusion. We propose that carbonate-cemented sections acted as flow baffles already during the hydrothermal fluid mobility and controlled the migration pathways of the buoyant hot fluids. Significant hydrothermally induced diagenetic alterations affecting the porosity and hence reservoir quality was not noted in the noncarbonate-cemented reservoir intervals. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 1674-9871
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018 Source: Mechanisms of Development Author(s): Steven J. Deimling, Kimberly Lau, Chi-chung Hui, Sevan Hopyan Anteroposterior polarity of the early limb bud is essential for proper skeletal pattern formation. In order to establish anterior identity, hedgehog signalling needs to be repressed by GLI3 repressor activity, although the mechanism of repression is not well defined. Here we describe genetic interaction between Gli3 and Enhancer of Zeste 2 ( Ezh2 ) that encodes the histone methyltransferase subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. Loss of anterior limb identity was evident in both Gli3 and conditional Ezh2 single mutant embryos. This phenotype was enhanced in Ezh2 ; Gli3 double mutant embryos, but more closely resembled that of Ezh2 single mutants. Absent anterior skeletal elements in the Ezh2 mutant background were not rescued by either reduction of Gli activator or forced expression of Gli repressor. The data imply that Ezh2 is epistatic to Gli3 and suggest the possibility that hedghehog activation is repressed by the recruitment of polycomb repressive complex 2.
    Print ISSN: 0925-4773
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6356
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 8
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018 Source: Metabolic Engineering Author(s): Svenja Heitmüller, Petra Neumann-Staubitz, Cornelia Herrfurth, Ivo Feussner, Heinz Neumann Metabolic activity and epigenetic regulation of gene expression are intimately coupled. The mechanisms linking the two are incompletely understood. Sirtuins catalyse the removal of acetyl groups from lysine side chains of proteins using NAD + as a stoichiometric cofactor, thereby connecting the acetylation state of histones to energy supply of the cell. Here, we investigate the impact of lysine acetylation turnover by sirtuins on cell physiology by engineering Sirtase, an enzyme that self-acetylates and deacetylates in futile cycles. Expression of Sirtase in E. coli leads to the consumption of the majority of the cellular NAD + supply, indicating that there is little negative feedback from reaction products, O-acetyl-ADP-ribose and nicotinamde, on sirtuin activity. Targeting Sirtase to a partially defective E silencer of the budding yeast mating type locus restores silencing, indicating that lysine acetylation turnover stabilizes heterochromatin in yeast. We speculate that this could be the consequence of local acetyl-CoA depletion because the effect is equally pronounced if the sirtuin moiety of Sirtase is exchanged with Hos3, a NAD + -independent deacetylase. Our findings support the concept that metabolism and epigenetic regulation are linked via modulation of heterochromatin stability by lysine acetylation turnover.
    Print ISSN: 1096-7176
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-7184
    Topics: Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 9
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers in Industry, Volume 99 Author(s): Muwei Jian, Yilong Yin, Junyu Dong, Wenyin Zhang Three-dimensional (3D) surface textures can display texture information of an object better than their 2D counterparts, as 3D appearances can be varied with the scene reflected illuminations and view angles. Photometric Stereo, as one of the most effective technologies for capturing 3D surface information, has attracted wide attention. Uniform illumination is an essential condition for reconstructing surface heightmaps. In practical applications, non-uniform illumination usually leads to distorted heightmaps when reconstructing surfaces in outdoor environments. To tackle this problem, this paper presents three useful approaches including an improved self-adaptive method, a FSAM (fast self-adaptive method) and a manual correction method, to correct non-uniform illumination and eliminate the distortions for the reconstruction of 3D surface heightmaps. Experimental results show that these three methods are promising and effective in real-world outdoor environments.
    Print ISSN: 0166-3615
    Topics: Computer Science , Technology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 10
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers in Industry, Volume 99 Author(s): Xiaoming Zhang, Zhishen Zhang, Huiyong Wang, Mingming Meng, Dongyu Pan In recent years, with the rapid development of ontology technology, many relatively perfect domain ontologies have emerged gradually and achieved favorable applications. However, for the existing metallic materials ontologies, such as the metallic materials ontology created by Ashino , MatonTO and ONTORULE, the knowledge of their instances is comparatively insufficient. Additionally, for the users, they hope that not only a large number of the materials instances are included in the ontology, but also the properties of the instances are desired. Linked Open Data (LOD) provides huge open knowledge bases which contain ample materials knowledge. Thus, we expect the knowledge of LOD can be inserted into a specific ontology. Obviously, it is not an easy work, since the LOD is very large, and its structure is inconsistent with ontology’s. Therefore, a method is proposed to populate a specific metallic materials ontology with the metallic materials information in the LOD. Firstly, in the LOD, we determine the information that can be filled into the existing metallic materials ontology. Then, we convert the LOD to Chain Triples (CHTs) according to the filling information. We use conditional random field (CRF) to achieve CHTs' filling positions in the specified metallic materials ontology. Finally, we insert the information into the ontology. The approach is evaluated in light of F-measure, and the experiment results demonstrate that the proposed approach can be effective to populate a specific ontology with the metallic materials data in LOD. This approach not only enriches the existing metallic materials ontology, but also greatly saves the manual efforts on the process of ontology population.
    Print ISSN: 0166-3615
    Topics: Computer Science , Technology
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  • 11
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers in Industry, Volume 99 Author(s): Philippe Thomas, Hind Bril El Haouzi, Marie-Christine Suhner, André Thomas, Emmanuel Zimmermann, Mélanie Noyel In recent times, the manufacturing processes are faced with many external or internal (the increase of customized product re-scheduling, process reliability…) changes. Therefore, monitoring and quality management activities for these manufacturing processes are difficult. Thus, the managers need more proactive approaches to deal with this variability. In this study, a proactive quality monitoring and control approach based on classifiers to predict defect occurrences and provide optimal values for factors critical to the quality processes is proposed. In a previous work (Noyel et al., 2013), the classification approach had been used in order to improve the quality of a lacquering process at a company plant; the results obtained are promising, but the accuracy of the classification model used needs to be improved. One way to achieve this is to construct a committee of classifiers (referred to as an ensemble) to obtain a better predictive model than its constituent models. However, the selection of the best classification methods and the construction of the final ensemble still poses a challenging issue. In this study, we focus and analyze the impact of the choice of classifier types on the accuracy of the classifier ensemble; in addition, we explore the effects of the selection criterion and fusion process on the ensemble accuracy as well. Several fusion scenarios were tested and compared based on a real-world case. Our results show that using an ensemble classification leads to an increase in the accuracy of the classifier models. Consequently, the monitoring and control of the considered real-world case can be improved.
    Print ISSN: 0166-3615
    Topics: Computer Science , Technology
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  • 12
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers in Industry, Volume 99 Author(s): Klaus H. Strobl, Elmar Mair, Tim Bodenmüller, Simon Kielhöfer, Tilo Wüsthoff, Michael Suppa This work deals with the passive tracking of the pose of a close-range 3-D modeling device using its own high-rate images in realtime, concurrently with customary 3-D modeling of the scene. This novel development makes it possible to abandon using inconvenient, expensive external trackers, achieving a portable and inexpensive solution. The approach comprises efficient tracking of natural features following the Active Matching paradigm, a frugal use of interleaved feature-based stereo triangulation, visual odometry using the robustified V-GPS algorithm, graph optimization by local bundle adjustment, appearance-based relocalization using a bank of parallel three-point-perspective pose solvers on SURF features, and online reconstruction of the scene in the form of textured triangle meshes to provide visual feedback to the user. Ideally, objects are completely digitized by browsing around the scene; in the event of closing the motion loop, a hybrid graph optimization takes place, which delivers highly accurate motion history to refine the whole 3-D model within a second. The method has been implemented on the DLR 3D-Modeler; demonstrations and abundant video material validate the approach. These types of low-cost systems have the potential to enhance traditional 3-D modeling and conquer new markets owing to their mobility, passivity, and accuracy.
    Print ISSN: 0166-3615
    Topics: Computer Science , Technology
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  • 13
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers in Industry, Volume 99 Author(s): Lufeng Luo, Yunchao Tang, Qinghua Lu, Xiong Chen, Po Zhang, Xiangjun Zou Reliable and robust vision algorithms to detect the cutting points on peduncles of overlapping grape clusters in the unstructured vineyard are essential for efficient use of a harvesting robot. In this study, we designed an approach to detect these cutting points in three main steps. First, the areas of pixels representing grape clusters in vineyard images were obtained using a segmentation algorithm based on k -means clustering and an effective color component. Next, the edge images of grape clusters were extracted, and then a geometric model was used to obtain the contour intersection points of double overlapping grape clusters. Profile analysis was used to separate the regional pixels of double grape clusters by a line connecting double intersection points. Finally, the region of interest of the peduncle for each grape clusters was determined based on the geometric information of each pixel region, and a computational method was used to determine the appropriate cutting point on the peduncle of each grape cluster by use of a geometric constraint method. Thirty vineyard images that were captured from different perspectives were tested to validate the performance of the presented approach in a complex environment. The average recognition accuracy was 88.33%, and the success rate of visual detection of the cutting point on the peduncle of double overlapping grape clusters was 81.66%. The demonstrated performance of this developed method indicated that it could be used by harvesting robots.
    Print ISSN: 0166-3615
    Topics: Computer Science , Technology
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  • 14
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018 Source: Metabolic Engineering Author(s): Mei Zhao, Dixuan Huang, Xiaojuan Zhang, Mattheos A.G. Koffas, Jingwen Zhou, Yu Deng Adipic acid is an important dicarboxylic acid mainly used for the production of nylon 6-6 fibers and resins. Previous studies focused on the biological production of adipic acid directly from different substrates, resulting in low yields and titers. In this study, a five-step reverse adipate-degradation pathway (RADP) identified in Thermobifida fusca has been reconstructed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The resulting strain (Mad136) produced 0.3 g L −1 adipic acid with a 11.1% theoretical yield in shaken flasks, and we confirmed that the step catalyzed by 5-carboxy-2-pentenoyl-CoA reductase ( Tfu_1647 ) as the rate-limiting step of the RADP. Overexpression of Tfu_1647 by pTrc99A carried by strain Mad146 produced with a 49.5% theoretical yield in shaken flasks. We further eliminated pathways for major metabolites competing for carbon flux by CRISPR/Cas9 and deleted the succinate-CoA ligase gene to promote accumulation of succinyl-CoA, which is the precursor for adipic acid synthesis. The final engineered strain Mad123146, which could achieve 93.1% of the theoretical yield in the shaken flask, was able to produce 68.0 g L −1 adipic acid by fed-batch fermentation. To the best of our knowledge, these results constitute the highest adipic acid titer reported in E. coli .
    Print ISSN: 1096-7176
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-7184
    Topics: Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 15
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018 Source: Molecular Immunology Author(s): Valerio D’Alicandro, Paolo Romania, Ombretta Melaiu, Doriana Fruci Cytotoxic T lymphocytes constantly monitor peptide-MHC class I complexes on the cell surface to eliminate transformed and virally infected cells expressing peptides derived from abnormal proteins. The generation of antigenic peptides and their loading on MHC class I molecules is a multistep process involving different molecules that constitute the so-called antigen processing and presentation machinery (APM). To avoid immune-mediated elimination, human tumors and pathogens have adopted different strategies including loss of MHC class I expression and dysregulation of APM genes and proteins. Here, we summarize recent knowledge on genetic variations in APM genes and their association with cancer development and viral-mediated diseases.
    Print ISSN: 0161-5890
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9142
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 16
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 97 Author(s): Diana P. Castiblanco, Darrell D. Norton, Robert W. Maul, Patricia J. Gearhart Activation-induced deaminase (AID) introduces nucleotide substitutions within the variable region of immunoglobulin genes to promote antibody diversity. This activity, which is limited to 1.5 kb downstream of the variable gene promoter, mutates both the coding exon and downstream intronic sequences. We recently reported that RNA polymerase II accumulates in these regions during transcription in mice. This build-up directly correlates with the area that is accessible to AID, and manipulation of RNA polymerase II levels alters the mutation frequency. To address whether the intronic DNA sequence by itself can regulate RNA polymerase II accumulation and promote mutagenesis, we deleted 613 bp of DNA downstream of the J H 6 intron in the human Ramos B cell line. The loss of this sequence did not alter polymerase abundance or mutagenesis in the variable gene, suggesting that most of the intronic sequence is dispensable for somatic hypermutation.
    Print ISSN: 0161-5890
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9142
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 17
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    Elsevier
    In: Omega
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018 Source: Omega Author(s): Jingchen Liu, Xin Zhai, Lihua Chen Many innovating firms use trade-in programs to encourage consumers’ repeat purchasing. They can choose between dynamic pricing and preannounced pricing strategies to mitigate the impacts of consumers’ strategic behavior. This paper develops a dynamic game framework to explore the optimal pricing strategy when the firm sequentially introduces new generations of products to a market populated by strategic consumers with trade-in option offered. Results show that under either pricing strategy, the firm has an incentive to sell the old generation products to new consumers in the second period if the salvage value of the old generation product is high enough. When consumers are sufficiently strategic, if both the innovation incremental value of the new generation product and the salvage value of the old generation product are low enough, the firm is better off following the preannounced pricing strategy. Besides, as the firm becomes more farsighted, the comparatively dominant position of preannounced pricing over dynamic pricing disappears gradually.
    Print ISSN: 0305-0483
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 18
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018 Source: Molecular Immunology Author(s): Anna Pomés, Janet M. Davies, Gabriele Gadermaier, Christiane Hilger, Thomas Holzhauser, Jonas Lidholm, Andreas L. Lopata, Geoffrey A. Mueller, Andreas Nandy, Christian Radauer, Sanny K. Chan, Uta Jappe, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Wayne R. Thomas, Martin D. Chapman, Marianne van Hage, Ronald van Ree, Stefan Vieths, Monika Raulf, Richard E. Goodman A systematic nomenclature for allergens originated in the early 1980s, when few protein allergens had been described. A group of scientists led by Dr. David G. Marsh developed a nomenclature based on the Linnaean taxonomy, and further established the World Health Organization/International Union of Immunological Societies (WHO/IUIS) Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee in 1986. Its stated aim was to standardize the names given to the antigens (allergens) that caused IgE-mediated allergies in humans. The Sub-Committee first published a revised list of allergen names in 1986, which continued to grow with rare publications until 1994. Between 1994 and 2007 the database was a text table online, then converted to a more readily updated website. The allergen list became the Allergen Nomenclature database ( www.allergen.org ), which currently includes approximately 880 proteins from a wide variety of sources. The Sub-Committee includes experts on clinical and molecular allergology. They review submissions of allergen candidates, using evidence-based criteria developed by the Sub-Committee. The review process assesses the biochemical analysis and the proof of allergenicity submitted, and aims to assign allergen names prior to publication. The Sub-Committee maintains and revises the database, and addresses continuous challenges as new “omics” technologies provide increasing data about potential new allergens. Most journals publishing information on new allergens require an official allergen name, which involves submission of confidential data to the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee, sufficient to demonstrate binding of IgE from allergic subjects to the purified protein.
    Print ISSN: 0161-5890
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9142
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 19
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 56 Author(s): James E.W. Roseborough, David L. Wiesenthal Perceived justice occurs when good behaviour leads to a positive outcome, and when bad behaviour leads to a negative outcome. Punishment for offending motorists is a negative outcome resulting from a collision or police enforcement. Punishment of traffic law/norm violators may reduce recidivism and drivers who observe the punishment may be less likely to perform similar infractions. Punishment may also influence the emotions of witnesses and victimised drivers. This study examined the effect of various punishments on witnesses’ feelings of anger and happiness on roadways. 142 individuals were randomly assigned to one of five punishment conditions (i.e., police enforcement; collision with roadside object; collision with other vehicle; collision with roadside object and police enforcement; collision with other vehicle and police enforcement). Participants viewed four animated videos depicting unjust driving behaviours and were told that the violator in each scenario experienced one of the five forms of punishment. Participants indicated how angry and happy the each scenario made them, before and after learning of the punishment. Analyses indicated that perceived punishment by police reduced feelings of anger and increased feelings of happiness compared to the other four forms of punishment. In addition to increasing roadway safety, the current study demonstrated the importance of enforcement’s positive impact on the emotional states of witnesses of unjust driving behaviour.
    Print ISSN: 1369-8478
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5517
    Topics: Psychology
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  • 20
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 97 Author(s): Yongliang Lu, Una Benlic, Qinghua Wu The pickup and delivery traveling salesman problem with FIFO loading (TSPPDF) is a variant of the classic traveling salesman problem with pickup and delivery arising from several practical applications where services have to be carried out in the first-in-first-out fashion. In this paper, we present a multi-restart iterative search approach (MIS) for TSPPDF based on a combined use of 6 move operators. The basic idea behind MIS is to alternate between a threshold-based exploration phase, during which degrading solutions are considered as long as they satisfy a quality threshold, and a descent-based improvement phase that only accepts solutions that improve on the quality of the current solution. A dedicated restart strategy is applied to generate a new starting point for the next round of the iterative search as soon as the search is deemed trapped into a deep local optimum. Extensive experiments on a set of 42 benchmark instances from the literature show that the proposed approach competes very favorably with the existing methods from the literature. In particular, it reports new upper bounds (improved best-known solutions) for 20 instances, while matching the best-known result for the remaining instances. The key components of MIS are analyzed to shed light on their impact to the overall algorithmic performance.
    Print ISSN: 0305-0548
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-765X
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
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  • 21
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018 Source: Energy Economics Author(s): Bradley T. Ewing, Wensheng Kang, Ronald A. Ratti A time-varying parameter VAR model is used to examine the impact of structural oil supply shocks on the US real stock market return of oil and gas exploration and production companies. The result shows that the impact response of the real return of the upstream stocks to a negative world non-US oil supply shock increases substantially over recent years, from an average value of 0.70 percent in 2006 to 6.16 percent during 2008-2010, with a spike of 6.81 percent in 2014Q3. The endogenous effects of US oil supply shocks on the return play an important role, in that the responses of the stock returns to a negative US oil supply shock are positive and persistent with an average value of 3.60 percent over time. The time-varying effects of oil supply shocks are heterogeneous. The magnitudes of return responses are different among independents, large proved-reserve independents and integrated companies over time.
    Print ISSN: 0140-9883
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6181
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 22
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018 Source: Climate Services Author(s): Kristin Gilroy, Ad Jeuken More frequent and intense hydrologic events under climate change are expected to enhance challenges for water security and flood risk management worldwide. Traditional planning approaches must be adapted to address climate change and develop solutions with an appropriate level of robustness and flexibility. The Collaborative Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA) method is a novel planning approach embodying a suite of complementary methods, including decision scaling and adaptation pathways, in a stakeholder driven process which guides decision makers through the planning and decision process, taking into account how the confidence in the available science, the consequences in the system, and the capacity of institutions should influence strategy selection. The purpose of this study is to apply the CRIDA approach to a water supply case study in Central Cebu, the Philippines in order to evaluate the added benefits of the method for planning and design under climate change uncertainty. This work will equip practitioners and decision makers with an example of a structured process for decision making under climate uncertainty that can be scaled as needed to the problem at hand. Graphical abstract
    Electronic ISSN: 2405-8807
    Topics: Geography
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  • 23
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 81 Author(s): Mingxuan Zhu In this paper, we study the global regularity for the tropical climate model with fractional diffusion on barotropic mode with α ≥ 5 2 .
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 24
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 81 Author(s): Andrei D. Polyanin, Inna K. Shingareva Some hypersingular nonlinear boundary-value problems with a small parameter  ε at the highest derivative are described. These problems essentially (qualitatively and quantitatively) differ from the usual linear and quasilinear singularly perturbed boundary-value problems and have the following unusual properties: (i) in hypersingular boundary-value problems, super thin boundary layers arise, and the derivative at the boundary layer can have very large values of the order of e 1 ∕ ε and more (in standard problems with boundary layers, the derivative at the boundary has the order of ε − 1 or less); (ii) in hypersingular boundary-value problems, the position of the boundary layer is determined by the values of the unknown function at the boundaries (in standard problems with boundary layers, the position of the boundary layer is determined by coefficients of the given equation, and the values of the unknown function at the boundaries do not play a role here); (iii) hypersingular boundary-value problems do not admit a direct application of the method of matched asymptotic expansions (without a preliminary nonlinear point transformation of the equation under consideration). Examples of hypersingular nonlinear boundary-value problems with ODEs and PDEs are given and their exact solutions are obtained.
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 80
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 26
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 80 Author(s): Junxiong Jia, Bangyu Wu This paper is concerned with Carleman estimates for some anisotropic space-fractional diffusion equations, which are important tools for investigating the corresponding control and inverse problems. By employing a special weight function and the nonlocal vector calculus, we prove a Carleman estimate and apply it to build a stability result for a backward diffusion problem.
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 27
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 112 Author(s): Xuan Di, Rui Ma, Henry X. Liu, Xuegang (Jeff) Ban Though the conventional network design is extensively studied, the network design problem for ridesharing, in particular, the deployment of high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes, remains understudied. This paper focuses on one type of network design problem as to whether existing roads should be retrofit into HOT lanes. It is a continuous bi-level mathematical program with equilibrium constraints. The lower level problem is ridesharing user equilibrium (RUE). To reduce the problem size and facilitate computation, we reformulate RUE in the link-node representation. Then we extend the RUE framework to accommodate the presence of HOT lanes and tolls. Algorithms are briefly discussed and numerical examples are illustrated on the Braess network and the Sioux Falls network, respectively. Results show that carefully selecting the deployment of HOT lanes can improve the overall system travel time.
    Print ISSN: 0191-2615
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2367
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 28
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 56 Author(s): Simona A. Popuşoi, Grigore M. Havârneanu, Corneliu E. Havârneanu Previous studies suggest that swearing is a prevalent expression of verbal aggression among drivers, but the role of swearing as a coping mechanism with anger remains unknown. The current article explored the cathartic role of swearing in situations when drivers experienced strong negative emotions. First we conducted a structured interview (N = 35) to identify the primary traffic situations when drivers regularly swear. In the second pre-study (N = 28) we examined the levels of negative and positive affect generated by these situations in order to identify the scenarios most likely to generate anger. The main study (N = 250) tested the cathartic role of swearing in these scenarios, by measuring its influence on the self-reported negative affective valence and level of physical activation. Results indicated three frequently swearing situations which are characterized by negative affect and high physical activation for the driver: (1) being forced to slow down by pedestrians who cross the road in illegal places; (2) being refused the legitimate right of way by another driver; and (3) traffic jams caused by cars which are stopped or parked illegally on the roadway. However, results showed that swearing had a cathartic role only in the first of these three situations. These findings suggested that swearing is not only an expression of verbal aggression towards another road user, but occasionally a way to cope with anger, which leads to better outcomes for the driver such as more positive affect and lower physical activation.
    Print ISSN: 1369-8478
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5517
    Topics: Psychology
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  • 29
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018 Source: Molecular Immunology Author(s): Steffie de Gier, Kitty Verhoeckx Insects represent an alternative for meat and fish in satisfying the increasing demand for sustainable sources of nutrition. Approximately two billion people globally consume insects. They are particularly popular in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Most research on insect allergy has focussed on occupational or inhalation allergy. Research on insect food safety, including allergenicity, is therefore of great importance. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of cases reporting allergy following insect ingestion, studies on food allergy to insects, proteins involved in insect allergy including cross-reactive proteins, and the possibility to alter the allergenic potential of insects by food processing and digestion. Food allergy to insects has been described for silkworm, mealworm, caterpillars, Bruchus lentis , sago worm, locust, grasshopper, cicada, bee, Clanis bilineata , and the food additive carmine, which is derived from female Dactylopius coccus insects. For cockroaches, which are also edible insects, only studies on inhalation allergy have been described. Various insect allergens have been identified including tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are both pan-allergens known for their cross-reactivity with homologous proteins in crustaceans and house dust mite. Cross-reactivity and/or co-sensitization of insect tropomyosin and arginine kinase has been demonstrated in house dust mite and seafood (e.g. prawn, shrimp) allergic patients. In addition, many other (allergenic) species (various non-edible insects, arachnids, mites, seafoods, mammals, nematoda, trematoda, plants, and fungi) have been identified with sequence alignment analysis to show potential cross-reactivity with allergens of edible insects. It was also shown that thermal processing and digestion did not eliminate insect protein allergenicity. Although purified natural allergens are scarce and yields are low, recombinant allergens from cockroach, silkworm, and Indian mealmoth are readily available, giving opportunities for future research on diagnostic allergy tests and vaccine candidates.
    Print ISSN: 0161-5890
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9142
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 30
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 150 Author(s): Anderson G. Froehlich, Andrea S.S.A. Melo, Breno Sampaio Several studies have compared the profitability of organic and conventional producers, but present very conflicting results. Although in the majority of these papers selection bias due to observables is accounted for, the possibility of selection based on unobservables has been largely overlooked. In this paper, we compare these two types of producers using a large and unique data of about 4.2 million family farmers in Brazil. Standard propensity score matching techniques are used together with the procedure recently developed by Oster (forthcoming) to address concerns about omitted variables. Our results confirm the working hypothesis that organic producer's profits are lower than conventional ones.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6106
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 31
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018 Source: Developmental Biology Author(s): Alissa R. Armstrong, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa Tissue-specific stem cells are tied to the nutritional and physiological environment of adult organisms. Adipocytes have key endocrine and nutrient-sensing roles and have emerged as major players in relaying dietary information to regulate other organs. For example, previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster revealed that amino acid sensing as well as diet-dependent metabolic pathways function in adipocytes to influence the maintenance of female germline stem cells (GSCs). How nutrient-sensing pathways acting within adipocytes influence adult stem cell lineages, however, is just beginning to be elucidated. Here, we report that insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling in adipocytes promotes GSC maintenance, early germline cyst survival, and vitellogenesis. Further, adipocytes use distinct mechanisms downstream of insulin receptor activation to control these aspects of oogenesis, all of which are independent of FOXO. We find that GSC maintenance is modulated by Akt1 through GSK-3β, early germline cyst survival is downstream of adipocyte Akt1 but independent of GSK-3β, and vitellogenesis is regulated through an Akt1-independent pathway in adipocytes. These results indicate that, in addition to employing different types of nutrient sensing, adipocytes can use distinct axes of a single nutrient-sensing pathway to regulate multiple stages of the GSC lineage in the ovary.
    Print ISSN: 0012-1606
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-564X
    Topics: Biology
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  • 32
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, Volume 17 Author(s): J. Stryker, B. Wemple, A. Bomblies Study region We investigate the impacts of local temperature and precipitation trends on discharge and sediment loading by applying the model to a watershed in the northeastern US, where trends in increasing precipitation exceed those of other regions in North America. Study focus In this study we simulate the response of watershed sediment loading to changing frequencies and magnitudes of extreme precipitation events using a coupled model that explicitly simulates streambank erosion and failure within a distributed watershed model. To drive the model, we use meteorological inputs from general circulation models (GCMs) as well as from a statistical weather generator (WG). New hydrological insights for the region Changes in the timing and magnitude of snow melt and spring flows, as well as associated sediment mobilization, resulted from increases in temperature. Increases in discharge and sediment load resulted from increases in precipitation events exceeding the 95th percentile. In runs driven by WG weather data, positive trends were evident in peak (as well as annual) discharge and suspended sediment yields over the years modeled. No clear trends were seen in GCM-driven runs, which do not capture historically-observed trends in extreme precipitation. This work is consistent with other studies in that it shows important changes in discharge and sediment yields from a watershed resulting from ongoing changes in climate.
    Print ISSN: 2214-5818
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography , Geosciences
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018 Source: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies Author(s): Francesco Sindico, Ricardo Hirata, Alberto Manganelli Study region Latin America. Parana Basin. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay. Study focus This article traces the trajectory of transboundary cooperation over the past fifteen years for the Guarani Aquifer System. A new insight for the region The Guarani Aquifer System is a transboundary aquifer shared by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It stands as one of the largest reservoirs of freshwater worldwide and is one of the few transboundary aquifers whose management is regulated by an international treaty, the Guarani Aquifer Agreement (GAA). The latter is also the first to refer in its preamble to the UN International Law Commission Draft Articles on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers. A first period (2002–2010) of positive collaboration in which the four countries actively moved forward towards a better understanding of the aquifer, culminated with the adoption of the GAA in August 2010. A second period (2010–2017) has been marked by a slowdown in transboundary cooperation, limited in this period to sporadic cross-border projects and initiatives linked to past and existing international projects. In this period, Argentina and Uruguay, and more recently Brazil have ratified the GAA. A third phase seems to be emerging in 2017 due to the possibility that finally Paraguay ratifies the GAA allowing it to enter into force. This article argues that in the future implementation of the agreement countries should build on the good practices, both substantive and institutional, stemming from the first period of transboundary cooperation.
    Print ISSN: 2214-5818
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography , Geosciences
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  • 34
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018 Source: Journal of Ocean Engineering and Science Author(s): Yi Zhu, Jaiyi He, Huiyu Wu, Wei Li, Francis Noblesse Basic models of the farfield waves created by a monohull ship or a catamaran that travels at a constant speed in calm water of uniform finite depth are considered. A classical basic model is the 1-point ship model introduced by Kelvin in 1887 for deep water and extended to uniform finite water depth by Havelock in 1908. Another basic model is the 2-point ship model, which considers the two dominant waves created by the bow and the stern of a monohull ship or by the twin bows of a catamaran, and therefore accounts for main wave interference effects. These 2-point ship models contain information that cannot be found in the classical patterns for the 1-point ship model commonly used since Kelvin. In particular, whereas Havelock’s classical wave patterns for the 1-point model only depend on the Froude number based on the water depth, the farfield waves for the 2-point models of a monohull ship or a catamaran also depend on the Froude number associated with the length of the monohull ship or the spacing between the twin hulls of the catamaran. Moreover, the ‘apparent wake angles’ associated with the highest waves that result from constructive wave interferences can greatly differ from the cusp or asymptote angles of Havelock’s wave patterns.
    Electronic ISSN: 2468-0133
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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  • 35
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018 Source: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies Author(s): Rosario Sanchez, Laura Rodriguez, Cecilia Tortajada Study region Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico; Texas, USA. Study focus The objective of this study is to identify and classify the transboundary hydrogeological units shared between Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico, and Texas, and assess their potential transboundary linkages. New hydrological insights The transboundary groundwater resources between Mexico and United States are largely uncharacterized due to lack of data, differences in aquifer boundary delimitations and methodologies, and limited cooperation and coordination among federal and local agencies within and between countries to address groundwater challenges from a binational perspective. Our results indicate that the transboundary hydrogeological units identified cover around 180,000 km 2 (110,000 km2 in Texas and 72,000 km2 in Mexico). Between 50% and 60% of this sharable area reports good aquifer potential and good water quality conditions. Some 20–25% is considered to have poor aquifer potential and water quality. The areas of the bolsons southeast of the Hueco-Tularosa Bolson Aquifer in northern Chihuahua and southwestern Texas, and between the Serrania del Burro and Allende-Piedras Negras Aquifers in southern Texas and northern Coahuila, appear to be the most important for transboundary aquifer potential. This study, the first assessment of its kind in this region, will support the development of transboundary management regimes aimed at preventing the degradation of future water supplies in the borderland between Mexico and United States.
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018 Source: Energy Economics Author(s): Kyle A. Hoy, Douglas H. Wrenn Natural gas production from unconventional sources has increased over the past decade. A significant portion of this increase has come from output in the Marcellus region of Pennsylvania. This output has altered gas markets and repositioned Pennsylvania as a major gas exporter. It has also put Pennsylvania at odds with other states as it is one of a few without a formal severance tax on extractive resources. In this paper, we combine results from a structural demand model with a two-sector trade model to analyze the interstate welfare impacts of Pennsylvania’s current severance tax proposal. Our results demonstrate that most of the welfare losses from this proposed policy are likely to be shifted to residents in other states. We also demonstrate how fluctuations in gas prices can substantially reduce tax revenue. These findings have important implications for both Pennsylvania and U.S. energy policy given the significant rise in energy production from new sources throughout the U.S.
    Print ISSN: 0140-9883
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6181
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 119 Author(s): Umberto Monarca, Ernesto Cassetta, Cesare Pozzi, Ivano Dileo The solar irradiation is one the most critical parameter to ensure the overall profitability of photovoltaic (PV) projects. During the period of the European solar boom, the PVGIS-3 radiation data have been largely used by policy makers in setting remuneration levels, as well as by project developers, banks and asset managers for professional assessment of the underlying financial return of the investment. High quality and more accurate data included in the updated PVGIS-CMSAF show that solar resources in Europe have been greatly underestimated by PVGIS-3. The present paper evaluates how reported changes in solar irradiation have affected both PV projects profitability and overall costs of subsidy for final consumers. By focusing on a large sample of Italian PV plants, our findings highlight that solar irradiation levels higher than those initially assumed have caused excessive rents and windfall profits for PV project developers thus potentially harming electricity users which are indirectly bearing the burden of the renewable energy sources (RES) incentives. In regulatory contexts suffering from information asymmetries between RES producers and regulatory agencies, support tariff set by public authorities should be periodically revised according to transparent procedures, whenever significant changes in long-term solar irradiation data occur.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 38
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 119 Author(s): Benjamin M. Kefford, Benjamin Ballinger, Diego R. Schmeda-Lopez, Chris Greig, Simon Smart Rapid decarbonisation of the global energy sector will likely have a multitude of economic consequences, including the premature decommissioning of most fossil fuel power plants. In this analysis, we examine the impact of early retirements for oil, coal, and natural gas-fired generators required to follow a given 2 °C emissions trajectory (the IEA 2DS) and explore the policy implications surrounding this challenge. Modelling the period up to 2060, the drop in retirement age required to meet this scenario potentially creates $541 billion worth of stranded power plant assets across the US, EU, China, and India alone. In some cases, coal plants built within the past 5 years will need to be retired after only half the nominal operating lifetime. Regional analysis exposed disproportionate impacts in China and India, shouldering the vast majority of the costs and amplifying concerns over energy access and affordability. Policies such as burden-sharing for equitable mitigation, investment into CCS technology, and international financial compensation are discussed as potential avenues for mitigating this impact. However, limitations in all avenues highlight the need for further consideration of the inferred requirement to force early retirements, in order to avoid exacerbating regional imbalances and improve the feasibility of imposed targets.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 39
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 119 Author(s): Nuno Bento, Charlie Wilson, Laura Diaz Anadon Implementing the Paris agreement to prevent dangerous climate change requires energy system transformation and rapid diffusion of low-carbon innovations. In this paper we investigate both the temporal and spatial dynamics of formative phases by which energy technologies prepare for growth. Drawing on a review of diverse literatures, we offer a definition of the formative phase which clarifies its scope and duration, and identifies its main technological and economic determinants. We use parametric hazard models to assess the relative strengths of these determinants on formative phase durations for a sample of 15 energy technologies diffusing over time in their respective initial markets. We find that substitutability has stronger effects in accelerating the end of formative phases than installed capacity and prices. We extend our analysis using nonparametric models to analyze the spatial diffusion of formative phase durations from initial to follower markets. We find that formative phase durations are long outside initial markets as well, showing only signs of acceleration in latecomer regions. Our results imply risks for policies trying to accelerate the diffusion of large innovations without ready markets in both initial and follower markets.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Publication date: 5–11 May 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10132 Author(s): The Lancet
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers in Industry, Volume 99 Author(s): Sajad Sabzi, Juan Ignacio Arribas Fruit may be classified for the purposes of usage, packaging and marketing based on the pH (potential of hydrogen) value – a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution measured in units of moles per liter of hydrogen ions. In this study, a new approach for the automated and non-intrusive estimation of the pH value of the Thomson navel orange (CRC 969, Citrus sinensis ) fruit is presented based on visible-range image processing, image feature extraction and with the use of hybrid imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA)-artificial neural network (ANN) regression. Image features studied include length, width, area, eccentricity, perimeter, blue-value, green-value, red-value, width, contrast, texture, roughness and several ratios thereof. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce the number of dimensions without loss of important information and a cubic polynomial function of the mean square error (MSE) versus several factors is computed using the response surface methodology (RSM) approach. Results for pH prediction are given and compared with true measured pH values over the entire 100 Thomson orange dataset, including estimated pH scatter regression plots and estimated pH boxplots. Cross validation is performed over 1000 repeated random trial experiments with uniform random train- and test-sample sets (80% training and 20% disjoint test samples). In addition, we provide numerical results based on the levels achieved by response surface methodology (RSM) evaluated over various error coefficients: the sum square error (SSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), the coefficient of determination (R 2 ), the root mean square error (RMSE), and MSE, resulting in R 2  = 0.843 ± 0.043, MSE = 0.046 ± 0.022, MAE = 0.166 ± 0.039, SSE = 0.915 ± 0.425, and RMSE = 0.214 ± 0.146, over the test set. The results demonstrate that such an automated pH-based sorting system with machine vision using the hybrid ICA-ANN algorithm can accurately compute the pH value of Thomson oranges without any contact with the fruit, and which has clear potential applications in the food industry. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 0166-3615
    Topics: Computer Science , Technology
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  • 42
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 18 Author(s): Chinyerem Adeniji, Olufemi Adeyeye, Oluwole Iyiola, Maxwell Olokundun, Deborah Motilewa, Stephen Ibidunni, Mosunmola Akinbode In today’s business environment, organizations must continually and constantly reinvent themselves to stay relevant because they conduct operations in workplaces that are characterized by steady competition and erratic change. Most studies show that organizational improvement cannot occur without strategic changes directed to yield a difference in performance. Thus, improving performance requires the consideration of change-related policies and individuals’ dispositions relevant to change. Strategic change as perceived by many authors requires qualitative changes and not simple continuous and usual changes. Strategic change must be aligned to the mission, and purpose of an organization. Employees’ attitudes towards change strongly relates to their attitudes about their employer and changes at their organization because organizations continually commence new programs of organizational change, these ongoing and seemingly endless efforts put a lot of burden not only on organizations but also on individuals. Researchers highlight the challenges to strategic change as; poor organizational management and culture, increased technology installation, organizational structure, strong competition and employee issues. Attitudes toward strategic change are the feelings employees have toward different internal policies of the organization. Many investigations suggest that it is reasonable to expect employees to react to strategic change efforts since the process of change involves going from the known to the unknown. Consequently, it can be a very unpleasant experience for employees thus this article presents data in this regard.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: 16 September 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 269, Issue 3 Author(s): Juan Pablo Contreras, Paul Bosch, Mauricio Herrera A paper by Ponomareva, Roman, and Date proposed a new algorithm to generate scenarios and their probability weights matching exactly the given mean, the covariance matrix, the average of the marginal skewness, and the average of the marginal kurtosis of each individual component of a random vector. In this short communication, this algorithm is questioned by demonstrating that it could lead to spurious scenarios with negative probabilities. A necessary and sufficient condition for the appropriate choice of algorithm parameters is derived to correct this issue.
    Print ISSN: 0377-2217
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6860
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
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  • 44
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: 16 September 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 269, Issue 3 Author(s): Christian Schlereth, Bernd Skiera, Fabian Schulz Time-variant pricing plans in electricity markets aim to mitigate mismatches between demand and supply by incentivizing consumers to shift their demand from costly peak to cheaper off-peak times. Their implementation can be manifold; they could depend statically on the time of the day (i.e., time-of-use pricing) or adjust prices dynamically in nearly real time (real-time pricing). If consumers reduced demand in peak times, then they would realize lower prices and providers would operate at lower costs. Still, consumers frequently refuse time-variant pricing plans. The authors develop a new conceptual framework to study and explain this behavior. It supports the optimal choice of time-variant pricing plans by jointly considering price fairness and economic antecedents. In a discrete choice experiment, the authors use a hierarchical Bayes covariate extended logit estimation to measure respondents’ probability of switching from a time-invariant pricing plan to a time-variant pricing plan. The results show that economic antecedents, such as price consciousness and flexibility, have a stronger effect on the choice of a time-variant pricing plan than price fairness considerations; cost insurance is a promising instrument for increasing acceptance of dynamic pricing plans. The results also suggest new ways to target prospective customers.
    Print ISSN: 0377-2217
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6860
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
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  • 45
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018 Source: Energy Economics Author(s): Joakim Westerlund, Susan Sunila Sharma Most studies on the ability of oil returns to predict stock returns use time series data for multiple countries. The data therefore have a panel structure. Yet, oddly enough, this structure is never really exploited in the estimation, but researchers tend to instead rely on country-by-country application of existing time series methods. This practice is wasteful, because it does not explore all available information. The present paper can be seen as a reaction to this. The purpose is to reevaluate the existing empirical evidence for the G7 countries using state-of-the-art panel data techniques. The results show that for the panel as a whole lagged oil price returns has a significantly negative effect on current stock returns. The evidence at the individual country level is less strong and varies depending on the extent to which the countries rely on oil import.
    Print ISSN: 0140-9883
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6181
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 46
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018 Source: Energy Economics Author(s): R. Werner Kristjanpoller, C. Alejandro Sierra, Javier Scavia In this study, a wavelet analysis with panel data is performed to conclude about the causality relationship between the GDP and energy consumption of 74 countries of the world, for the years 1972 to 2014. We add a frequency-domain perspective to conclude about the effects at different time periods, while the panel data analysis allows us to study different heterogeneities that may occur due to geography, GDP per capita, and human development classification. For all of the sample, there is bi-causality between electrical energy consumption and GDP in the long run, while for the short and medium run, causality is verified from GDP to electricity consumption. When segmented by continents, the results are mixed; however, when the division is done by HDI, there is bi-causality between electricity consumption and GDP for high HDI countries. In contrast, for countries with a low HDI, there is causality from electricity consumption to GDP. This poses a set of particularly important policy implications for countries with low human development.
    Print ISSN: 0140-9883
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6181
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 47
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018 Source: Energy Economics Author(s): Fabian Ocker, Karl-Martin Ehrhart, Matej Belica The shift towards renewable energies is accompanied by great volatility on the supply side, demanding European-wide instead of national balancing services. For the integrated European procurement of balancing reserves, the European Commission proposes a multi-attributive auction mechanism which is very similar to the current German auction. The key difference, however, is a switch from pay-as-bid to uniform pricing. We develop a game-theoretical model of the current German and the future European balancing market design. Both market designs have desirable economic properties in their one-shot version, i.e., an efficient auction outcome and competitive prices. We show that a switch to uniform pricing does not induce bidders to report their true costs in their bids, but leads to underbidding. We contrast the equilibrium outcomes with German market data and find a substantial discrepancy, i.e., non-competitive prices. We provide a game-theoretical grounded explanation that is based on the regular repetition of the auction combined with the invariant supplier side.
    Print ISSN: 0140-9883
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6181
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: Publication date: 15 July 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 169 Author(s): Matteo Bonomo, Aldo Di Carlo, Roberto Centore, Danilo Dini, Antonio Carella The application of four pyran based dyes as sensitizers for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells ( p -DSCs) is here proposed. The dyes differ for the nature of the electron acceptor group which functionalizes the pyran core. Such a structural variation significantly influences the optical properties of the dyes so that the new pyrans overall cover most of the visible spectrum. In some cases, the p -DSCs employing these pyran-based dyes display power conversion efficiency significantly higher than the device sensitized with sensitizer benchmark P1 . The relevant photo-electrochemical activity of one of the reported dyes combined with its ability to absorb the visible radiation in the lower energy portion (λ > 500 nm) makes it a promising candidate to be used in a tandem DSC ( t -DSC) with the photoanode sensitized by a dye typically absorbing the higher energy zone of the visible spectrum (λ 〈 500 nm). Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 0038-092X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 49
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: 16 September 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 269, Issue 3 Author(s): Joost T. de Kruijff, Cor A.J. Hurkens, Ton G. de Kok This paper studies the mid-term production planning of high-tech low-volume industries. Mid-term production planning (6 to 24 months) allocates the capacity of production resources to different products over time and coordinates the associated inventories and material inputs so that known or predicted demand is met in the best possible manner. High-tech low-volume industries can be characterized by the limited production quantities and the complexity of the supply chain. To model this, we introduce a mixed integer linear programming model that can handle general supply chains and production processes that require multiple resources. Furthermore, it supports semi-flexible capacity constraints and multiple production modes. Because of the integer production variables, size of realistic instances and complexity of the model, this model is not easily solved by a commercial solver. Applying Benders’ decomposition results in alternative capacity constraints and a second formulation of the problem. Where the first formulation assigns resources explicitly to release orders, the second formulation assures that the available capacity in any subset of the planning horizon is sufficient. Since the number of alternative capacity constraints is exponential, we first solve the second formulation without capacity constraints. Each time an incumbent is found during the branch and bound process a maximum flow problem is used to find missing constraints. If a missing constraint is found it is added and the branch and bound process is restarted. Results from a realistic test case show that utilizing this algorithm to solve the second formulation is significantly faster than solving the first formulation.
    Print ISSN: 0377-2217
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    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
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  • 50
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: 16 September 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 269, Issue 3 Author(s): James R. Cruise, Lisa Flatley, Stan Zachary We study how storage, operating as a price maker within a market environment, may be optimally operated over an extended period of time. The optimality criterion may be the maximisation of the profit of the storage itself, where this profit results from the exploitation of the differences in market clearing prices at different times. Alternatively it may be the minimisation of the cost of generation, or the maximisation of consumer surplus or social welfare. In all cases there is calculated for each successive time-step the cost function measuring the total impact of whatever action is taken by the storage. The succession of such cost functions provides the information for the storage to determine how to behave over time, forming the basis of the appropriate optimisation problem. We study particularly competition between multiple stores, where the objective of each store is to maximise its own income given the activities of the remainder. We show that, at the Cournot Nash equilibrium, multiple stores which between them have market impact collectively erode their own abilities to make profits: essentially each store attempts to increase its own profit over time by overcompeting at the expense of the remainder. We quantify this for linear price functions. We give examples throughout based on electricity storage and Great Britain electricity spot-price market data.
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: 16 September 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 269, Issue 3 Author(s): Rainer Kleber, Marc Reimann, Gilvan C. Souza, Weihua Zhang The strategic closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) literature makes the assumption that a consumer’s willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a remanufactured product is a fraction of his/her WTP for the corresponding new product, and this fraction, called discount factor, is assumed to be constant among consumers. Recent empirical research challenges this assumption, by showing that there is considerable variability in discount factors among consumers. This paper considers a complex model in the CLSC literature: strategic remanufacturing under quality choice, and compares its solution under constant discount factors with the solution that assumes a probability distribution for the discount factors (which is analytically intractable and must be obtained numerically). We consider quality choice and remanufacturing for both monopoly and competitive cases. Overall, we find remarkable consistency between the results of the constant and variable discount factor models. Thus, we make a convincing argument that the constant discount factor assumption is robust and can be used due to its tractability.
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: 16 September 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 269, Issue 3 Author(s): Bonifacio Llamazares The TODIM (an acronym in Portuguese for Interactive and Multicriteria Decision Making) method is a multicriteria procedure that is receiving increasing attention from the scientific community over the last few years. In this paper, we introduce a simplified version of this procedure, which allows us to easily show that this method is vulnerable to two paradoxes affecting the weights of the model. In order to overcome these inconsistencies, we propose a generalization of the TODIM method and establish conditions under which the previous paradoxes can be avoided. Moreover, we also show that the simple additive weighting (SAW) method and, under certain hypotheses, the PROMETHEE II method can be obtained as specific cases of the generalized TODIM method.
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  • 53
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: 16 September 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 269, Issue 3 Author(s): Vincent Angilella, Matthieu Chardy, Walid Ben-Ameur This work focuses on a fiber cable network design problem in the context of Fiber To The Home (FTTH) where separation techniques such as splicing and tapping are considered. Assuming the civil engineering structure is a tree, the problem is proven to be NP-hard and even hard to approximate. Two exact integer programming models taking into account some operator’s engineering rules are introduced. Enhancements are provided for both models leading to significant computing time reduction. Computational experiments are performed on real-life instances with real costs including both manpower and material costs incurred by the network operator.
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  • 54
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: 16 September 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 269, Issue 3 Author(s): Federico Bassetti, Maria Elena De Giuli, Enrica Nicolino, Claudia Tarantola We propose a novel multivariate approach for dependence analysis in the energy market. The methodology is based on tree copulas and GARCH type processes. We use it to study the dependence structure among the main factors affecting energy price, and to perform portfolio risk evaluation. The temporal dynamic of the examined variables is described via a set of GARCH type models where the joint distribution of the standardised residuals is represented via suitable tree copula structures. Working in a Bayesian framework, we perform both qualitative and quantitative learning. Posterior summaries of the quantities of interest are obtained via MCMC methods.
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  • 55
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: 16 September 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 269, Issue 3 Author(s): Chiara Masci, Geraint Johnes, Tommaso Agasisti In this paper, we develop and apply novel machine learning and statistical methods to analyse the determinants of students’ PISA 2015 test scores in nine countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, UK and USA. The aim is to find out which student characteristics are associated with test scores and which school characteristics are associated to school value-added (measured at school level). A specific aim of our approach is to explore non-linearities in the associations between covariates and test scores, as well as to model interactions between school-level factors in affecting results. In order to address these issues, we apply a two-stage methodology using flexible tree-based methods. We first run multilevel regression trees in the first stage, to estimate school value-added. In the second stage, we relate the estimated school value-added to school level variables by means of regression trees and boosting. Results show that while several student and school level characteristics are significantly associated to students’ achievements, there are marked differences across countries. The proposed approach allows an improved description of the structurally different educational production functions across countries.
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: 16 September 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 269, Issue 3 Author(s): Alfredo Moreno, Douglas Alem, Deisemara Ferreira, Alistair Clark The distribution of emergency aid from warehouses to relief centers to satisfy the needs of the victims in the aftermath of a disaster is a complex problem because it requires a rapid response to human suffering when resources are scarce amidst great uncertainty. In order to provide an effective response and use resources efficiently, this paper presents a novel model to optimize location, transportation, and fleet sizing decisions. In contrast with existing models, vehicles can be reused for multiple trips within micro-periods (blocks of hours) and/or over periods (days). Uncertainty regarding demand, incoming supply, and availability of routes is modeled via a finite set of scenarios, using two-stage stochastic programs. ‘Deprivation costs’ are used to represent social concerns and minimized via two objective functions. Mathematical programming based heuristics are devised to enable good-quality solutions within reasonable computing time. Experimental results based on data from the disastrous 2011 floods and landslides in the Serrana Region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, show that the model’s novel characteristics help get aid faster to victims and naturally enforce fairness in its distribution to disaster areas in a humanitarian spirit.
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: 16 September 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 269, Issue 3 Author(s): Felix Irresberger, Gregor N.F. Weiß, Janet Gabrysch, Sandra Gabrysch We show that liquidity tail risk in credit default swap (CDS) spreads is time-varying and explains variation in CDS spreads. We capture the liquidity tail risk of a CDS contract written on a firm by estimating the tail dependence, i.e., the asymptotic probability of a joint surge in the bid-ask spread of the firm’s CDS and the illiquidity of a CDS market index. Our results show that protection sellers earn a statistically and economically significant premium for bearing the risk of joint extreme downwards movements in the liquidity of individual CDS contracts and the CDS market. This effect holds in various robustness checks such as instrumental variable regressions and alternative liquidity measures and is particularly pronounced during the financial crisis.
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: 16 September 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 269, Issue 3 Author(s): A. Kimms, M. Maiwald We consider an urban evacuation scenario with the objective to minimize the overall hazard under various restrictions, e.g. rescuing all evacuees. The relevant parameters are generally assumed as deterministic, although such a situation is characterized by uniqueness and is subject to many uncertainties. We thus take uncertainties with respect to street capacities into account and introduce the aspect of resilience in the context of evacuation planning. This resilience aspect is implemented by utilizing the available street capacities in a more balanced way. For balancing the utilization of the street capacities, we accept a predetermined increase in the minimum hazard level. We present a new bi-objective path-based evacuation model based on the assumptions of the Cell-Transmission Model (CTM). We deal with the two conflicting objective functions by applying the ϵ-Constraint Method. Furthermore, we present a special path algorithm that generates the evacuation path in line with our special requirements. We verify the meaningfulness of our proposed idea of resilient evacuation planning in a computational study. Additionally, the study shows some interesting revelations e.g., the more street capacities are blocked, the greater the benefit of the new approach.
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: 16 September 2018 Source: European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 269, Issue 3 Author(s): Damiano BRIGO, Frédéric VRINS In many financial contracts (and in particular when trading OTC derivatives), participants are exposed to counterparty risk. The latter is typically rewarded by adjusting the “risk-free price” of derivatives; an adjustment known as credit value adjustment (CVA). A key driver of CVA is the dependency between exposure and counterparty risk, known as wrong-way risk (WWR). In practice however, correctly addressing WWR is very challenging and calls for heavy numerical techniques. This might explain why WWR is not explicitly handled in the Basel III regulatory framework in spite of its acknowledged importance. In this paper we propose a sound and tractable method to deal efficiently with WWR. Our approach consists in embedding the WWR effect in the drift of the exposure dynamics. Even though this calls for infinite changes of measures, we end up with an appealing compromise between tractability and mathematical rigor, preserving the level of accuracy typically required for CVA figures. The good performances of the method are discussed in a stochastic-intensity default setup based on extensive comparisons of expected positive exposure (EPE) profiles and CVA figures produced (i) by a full bivariate Monte Carlo implementation of the initial model with (ii) our drift-adjustment technique.
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  • 60
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: World Development, Volume 109 Author(s): Nilufar Matin, John Forrester, Jonathan Ensor Resilience has attracted criticism for its failure to address social vulnerability and to engage with issues of equity and power. Here, we ask: what is equitable resilience? Our focus is on what resilience does on the ground in relation to development, adaptation and disaster management, and on identifying critical issues for engaging with equity in resilience practice. Using techniques from systematic reviews, with variants of equitable resilience as our key search terms, we carried out an analytical literature review which reveals four interconnected themes: subjectivities, inclusion, cross-scale interactions, and transformation. Drawing on this analysis, we find that ‘equitable resilience’ is increasingly likely when resilience practice takes into account issues of social vulnerability and differential access to power, knowledge, and resources; it requires starting from people’s own perception of their position within their human-environmental system, and it accounts for their realities and for their need for a change of circumstance to avoid imbalances of power into the future. Our approach moves beyond debates that focus on the ontological disconnect between resilience and social theory, to provide a definition that can be used in practice alongside resilience indicators to drive ground level interventions towards equitable outcomes . Defined in this way, equitable resilience is able to support the development of social-ecological systems that are contextually rooted, responsive to change and socially just, and thus relevant to global sustainability challenges.
    Print ISSN: 0305-750X
    Topics: Geography , Political Science , Sociology
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  • 61
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research Author(s): Mauricio J.O. Zambon, Pedro J. de Rezende, Cid C. de Souza In the Geometric Firefighter Problem ( gfp ), one aims to maximize the total area shielded from a fire that radiates from a point inside a polygonal region, by constructing a subset of a given set of barriers. To decide which barriers to construct, a solution must take into account the speed of the circularly spreading fire and the barriers construction speed. A barrier is considered successfully constructed if the fire does not burn any still unconstructed point of the barrier. In this work, we consider the case where the initial set of barriers is comprised of rectilinear chords of the polygon. We present an Integer Programming ( ip ) model employed to solve the gfp to optimality along with procedures for preprocessing the instances, including primal algorithms and methods to reduce the problem size, as these constitute an essential step for solving harder instances. Moreover, we report on extensive experimental results that show that our ip model is an order of magnitude faster than the previous state-of-the art algorithm for the gfp . To further strain our algorithms, we introduce a new set of instances based on US national forests, which proved to be noticeably harder to solve than the previously available benchmark. An extended report on our experimental findings is presented along with a discussion that includes a restricted case where the constructed barriers must have pairwise disjoint interiors.
    Print ISSN: 0305-0548
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-765X
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research Author(s): Iman Roozbeh, Melih Ozlen, John W. Hearne The Asset Protection problem is encountered where an uncontrollable fire is sweeping across a landscape comprising important infrastructure assets. Protective activities by teams of firefighters can reduce the risk of losing a particular asset. These activities must be performed during a time-window for each asset determined by the progression of the fire. The nature of some assets is such that they require the simultaneous presence of more than one fire vehicle and its capabilities must meet the requirements of each asset visited. The objective is then to maximise the value of the assets protected subject to constraints on the number and type of fire trucks available. The solution times to this problem using commercial solvers preclude their use for operational purposes. In this work we develop an adaptive large neighbourhood search algorithm (ALNS) based on problem-specific attributes. Several removal and insertion heuristics, including some new algorithms, are applied. A new benchmark set is generated by considering the problem attributes. In tests with small instances the ALNS is shown to achieve optimal, or near optimal, results in a fraction of the time required by CPLEX. In a second set of experiments comprising larger instances the ALNS was able to produce solutions in times suitable for operational purposes. These solutions mean that significantly more assets can be protected than would be the case otherwise.
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research Author(s): Antonio Candelieri, Ilaria Giordani, Francesco Archetti, Konstantin Barkalov, Iosif Meyerov, Alexey Polovinkin, Alexander Sysoyev, Nikolai Zolotykh Recently, the number of machine learning based water demand forecasting solutions has been significantly increasing. Different case studies have already reported practical results proving that accurate forecasts may support optimization of operations in Water Distribution Networks (WDN). However, tuning the hyper-parameters of machine leaning algorithms is still an open problem. This paper proposes a parallel global optimization model to optimize the hyperparameters of Support Vector Machine (SVM) regression trained to provide accurate water demand forecasts in the short-time horizon (i.e. 24 h). Every SVM has the first 6 hourly water consumptions as input features and a specific hourly water demand as target to be predicted, among the remaining 18. The Mean Average Percentage Error (MAPE), computed on leave-one-out validation, is the black-box objective function optimized. Moreover, a preliminary time-series clustering has been applied in order to evaluate if this can improve the accuracy of the forecasting mechanism. Time-series clustering implies that the overall number of SVMs, whose hyperparameters are optimized through parallel global optimization, increases, with a SVM trained for each cluster identified and for each hourly water demand to be predicted, making even more critical a quick tuning of the hyperparameters. Results on the urban water demand data in Milan prove that forecasting error is significantly low and that preliminary clustering allows for further reducing error while also improving computational performances.
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 151 Author(s): Yuliana Griewald In Soviet Russia, an agricultural directive could pass 30 management levels on its way from the central government to the farm. Central planning impeded the adaptation of agricultural practices to the local social-ecological contexts and virtually eliminated self-accountability in agriculture. Focusing on contemporary Russia, the paper examines how the state currently influences farmers' land management and how this subtle mode of intervention aligns with the local context. Qualitative research in the Western Siberian Grain Belt reveals that the state-designed institutions guide land management in a politically desirable direction. They aim for virtually unlimited agricultural growth and largely misalign with the social-ecological conditions of grain farms.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6106
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 151 Author(s): Chi Nguyen Thi Quynh, Steven Schilizzi, Atakelty Hailu, Sayed Iftekhar Sustainable fisheries management largely depends on how effectively fishing regulations are enforced, which often relies on active monitoring by fishers. If fishers perceive that monitoring schemes do not fulfill their needs, they will resist participating in monitoring. However, fisheries managers worldwide have been making blanket assumptions about the way fishers respond to a monitoring scheme. Although this has been proven to be a common mistake, the literature has remained almost silent about heterogeneity of fisher preferences for monitoring scheme, and how it affects their participation. This study contributes to this knowledge gap by carrying out a choice experiment with artisanal fishers in Vietnam to elicit preferences and value key design elements of monitoring schemes. This is the first study to investigate fishers' preference heterogeneity using an advanced technique - the Scale-adjusted Latent Class model - that accounts for variance in both preferences and scale. We identified five distinct preference classes. Remarkably for a poor community, monetary compensation was found not to be the prime driver of fishers' choices. A one-size-fits-all monitoring scheme is ill-suited to all fishers. The design of flexible schemes can be an effective way to enhance the likelihood of fisher participation and the effectiveness of regulation enforcement.
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 151 Author(s): Martin R. Sers, Peter A. Victor The requirement to reduce emissions to avoid potentially dangerous climate change implies a dilemma for societies heavily dependent on fossil fuels. Reducing emissions will necessitate the transition from relatively high EROI dispatchable fossil fuels to a combination of relatively low EROI intermittent renewables and geographically limited non-intermittent renewables. As renewable capacity requires energy to construct there is an initial fossil fuel cost to creating new renewable capacity. An insufficiently rapid transition to renewables will imply a scenario in which it is impossible to avoid either transgressing emissions ceilings or facing energy shortages; we term this the energy-emissions trap. In this paper, we construct a mathematical model, termed EETRAP, that builds the EROI metric and the energy characteristics of renewable generation into a macroeconomic framework. EETRAP is used for simulation analysis to test how differing assumptions about the EROI of intermittent renewables will affect the time-path of renewable investment necessary to escape the energy-emissions trap. For all runs of the model, the renewable investment rate by 2050 is significantly larger than the current energy investment rate. For declining intermittent renewable EROI, the renewable investment rate crowds out other forms of investment leading to a declining economic growth rate.
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 151 Author(s): Alexander Bisaro, Matteo Roggero, Sergio Villamayor-Tomas Appropriate institutions are essential for climate change adaptation. Yet diverse approaches to institutional analysis are available, encompassing different ontological and epistemological assumptions, and thus yielding insights on very different aspects of institutions in adaptation. Therefore, efforts to expand knowledge in this domain can be usefully informed by an assessment of approaches to institutional analysis in the adaptation literature, which is to date lacking. We address this gap by conducting a systematic review of the adaptation literature addressing institutions. Our review characterises approaches to institutional analysis by identifying methodological choices and the philosophy of science underpinning them. We then analyze the distribution of approaches to institutional analysis across different adaptation situations, contextualizing our results within methodological debates in adaptation research regarding the appropriateness of positivist, interpretative, or post-normal approaches. We find that institutional analysis of adaptation is now engaging with ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions, beyond descriptive questions that characterise the adaptation ‘barriers’ literature, that diverse philosophies of science drive methodological choice, and that post-normal approaches, e.g. co-design approaches, hardly address institutions. We conclude that support for interpretative approaches, and for institutional analysis in post-normal approaches is needed. The latter is important for adaptation planning processes in developing countries under the UNFCCC.
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 99 Author(s): Leguo Zhang, Ruixue Xia, Jianpu Jia, Lixuan Wang, Kuo Li, Yanhua Li, Junling Zhang Neuroinflammation causes neurotoxic injury and underlies the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Astrocytes are the predominant immunoregulatory cells in AD. Oleanolic acid (OA) is a promising anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent that can ameliorate cerebral damage in ischemic environments, but its role in AD remains poorly elucidated. Here, preconditioning with OA inhibited the transcription and secretion of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ)-activated astrocytes. Moreover, OA ameliorated primary neuron death triggered by incubation in conditioned medium from Aβ-treated astrocytes. Furthermore, OA also suppressed Aβ-induced expression and production of group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) in astrocytes. Supernatants supplemented with exogenous sPLA2-IIA reversed the protective role of OA against astrocyte activation-mediated neurotoxicity by suppressing cell viability and increasing LDH release, apoptosis, the contents of neurotoxic mediator arachidonic acid, and prostaglandin D2. Simultaneously, treatment with sPLA2 inhibitor aristolochic acid also counteracted neurotoxicity induced by Aβ-activated astrocytes through increasing cell viability, inhibiting cell apoptosis, and reducing the releases of arachidonic acid and prostaglandin D2. Additionally, OA restrained Ca 2+ influx in neurons after incubation with supernatants from Aβ-activated astrocytes, which was abrogated by adding sPLA2-IIA. Activating Ca 2+ signaling with BayK, an L-type Ca2 + channel agonist, reversed the beneficial role of OA against neurotoxicity induced by astrocyte activation-mediated inflammatory response. OA also ameliorated cognitive deficits in an adolescent rat model of Aβ-evoked AD. These findings confirm that OA abrogates neuroinflammation and subsequent neurotoxicity induced by conditioned media from Aβ-activated astrocytes in sPLA2-IIA mediated-calcium signals. Therefore, OA may protect neurons from injury caused by neighboring astrocyte activation in AD, indicating a promising therapeutic strategy against AD.
    Print ISSN: 0161-5890
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9142
    Topics: Medicine
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 99 Author(s): Jun Wang, Min Liu, Yang Wu, Sohye Yoon, Abdo Alnabulsi, Fuguo Liu, Clara Fernández-Álvarez, Tiehui Wang, Jason W. Holland, Chris J. Secombes, Jun Zou Basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like (BATF) -3 is a member of the activator protein 1 (AP‑1) family of transcription factors and is known to play a vital role in regulating differentiation of antigen-presenting cells in mammals. In this study, two BATF3 homologues (termed BATF3a and BATF3b) have been identified in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ). Both genes were constitutively expressed in tissues, with particularly high levels of BATF3a in spleen, liver, pyloric caecae and head kidney. BATF3a was also more highly induced by PAMPs and cytokines in cultured cells, with type II IFN a particularly potent inducer. In rIL-4/13 pre-stimulated cells, the viral PAMPS polyI:C and R848 had the most pronounced effect on BATF3 expression. BATF3 expression could also be modulated in vivo, following infection with Yersinia ruckeri , a bacterial pathogen causing redmouth disease in salmonids, or with the rhabdovirus IHNV. The results suggest that BATF3 may be functionally conserved in regulating the differentiation and activation of immune cells in lower vertebrates and could be explored as a potential marker for comparative investigation of leucocyte lineage commitment across the vertebrate phyla.
    Print ISSN: 0161-5890
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9142
    Topics: Medicine
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: November 2018 Source: Energy Reports, Volume 4 Author(s): Walid Matar, Amro M. Elshurafa The purpose of this study is to assess the policy-relevant effects of incorporating a more proper representation of electricity transmission in multi-sector national policy models. This goal is achieved by employing the KAPSARC Energy Model (KEM), which is the first publicly available large-scale energy policy model for Saudi Arabia. Past studies using KEM have examined industrial pricing policy, residential energy efficiency, the prospects of power generation technologies, and residential electricity pricing. These studies have shown that under certain fuel pricing scenarios, significant renewable energy capacity is deployed. With large-scale renewable technologies introduced in the power system, representing transmission more appropriately becomes important. By incorporating a direct current optimal flow model, our results show • the optimal investment in utility-scale photovoltaics are 30 percent lower, and the weighted average marginal costs of delivering electricity are 100 percent higher, compared to a model that has a transshipment formulation, • a version of KEM with a single node in each region for transmission and without transmission losses provides valuable insight while keeping the model size tractable, • the market-clearing price of natural gas in a deregulated environment modifies slightly, demonstrating that a transmission component predominantly affects the operations of the power system. Although the scarcity of natural gas increases slightly due to lower PV deployment, its greater use by power generators is minor.
    Print ISSN: 2352-4847
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 71
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018 Source: Geoscience Frontiers Author(s): Richard M. Palin, Brendan Dyck Cooling of the Earth’s mantle since the Meso-Archean is predicted by thermal and petrological models to have induced a secular change in the composition of primary mantle-derived magmas – and thus bulk oceanic crust; in particular, suggesting a decrease in maficity over time. This hypothesis underpins several recent studies that have addressed key geological questions concerning evolving plate tectonic styles, the rates and timing of continental crust formation, comparative planetology, and the emergence of complex life on Earth. Major, minor, and trace element geochemical analyses of (meta)mafic rocks preserved in the geological record allows exploration of this theory, although no consensus currently exists about the magnitude of this change and what compositions – if anything – constitute representative examples of Paleo-, Meso-, or Neo-Archean primitive oceanic crust. In this work, we review the current state of understanding of this issue, and use phase equilibria to examine the different mineral assemblages and rock types that would form during metamorphism of basalt of varying maficity in subduction zone environments. The presence (or absence) of such metamorphic products in the geological record is often used as evidence for (or against) the operation of modern-day subduction-driven plate tectonics on Earth at particular time periods; however, the control that secular changes in composition have on the stability of mineral assemblages diagnostic of subduction-zone metamorphism weakens such uniformitarianistic approaches. Geodynamic interpretations of the Archean metamorphic rock record must therefore employ a different set of petrological criteria for determining tectonothermal histories than those applied to Proterozoic or Phanerozoic equivalents. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 1674-9871
    Topics: Geosciences
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    Elsevier
    In: Heliyon
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Heliyon, Volume 4, Issue 5 Author(s): Madhu Sudhana Saddala, Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi Vivapain-3(VP-3) protein is a family of cysteine rich proteases of malaria parasite is extensively reported to participate in a range of wide cellular processes including survival. VP-3 of plasmodium recognized as an attractive drug target in vector-borne diseases like malaria. In the present study we robust a homology model of VP-3 protein and generated the pharmacophore based models adapted to screen the best drug like compounds from PubChem database. Our results finds the fourteen best lead molecules were mapped with core pharmacophore features of VP-3 and top hits were further evaluated by molecular dynamics simulation and docking studies. Based on the molecular dynamics simulation and docking results and binding vicinity of ligand molecules, top five i.e., CID 74427945, CID 74427946, CID 360883, CID193721 and CID 51416859 showed the best docking scores with good molecular interactions against VP-3. Furthermore in silico ADMET and in vitro assays clearly exhibited that out of five three CID74427946, CID74427945 and CID360883 ligand molecules showed the best promising inhibition against VP-3. The present study believed to provide significant information of potential ligand inhibitors against VP-3 to design and develop the next generation malaria therapeutics through computational approach.
    Electronic ISSN: 2405-8440
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 73
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Marine Policy, Volume 94 Author(s): Aleksandar-Saša Milaković, Bjørn Gunnarsson, Sergey Balmasov, Sungwon Hong, Kitae Kim, Peter Schütz, Sören Ehlers The Northern Sea Route (NSR) has received increased international attention during the recent years as an alternative transit corridor for shipping between Europe and East Asia. In 2015, the project “Feasibility and Reliability of Shipping on the Northern Sea Route and Modeling of an Arctic Marine Transportation & Logistics System” was established to perform a comprehensive analysis of the current status and future prospects of NSR transit shipping. The project brought together several partners and numerous participants representing industry, governmental bodies, and research groups from Europe, Asia, and Russia, thus providing a unique and comprehensive overview of the subject. This paper is based on the insights gathered during the project. Firstly, it provides a comprehensive overview of the NSR's current regulations and support services. Secondly, it combines the information on the current status of the route with feedback received from the stakeholders during project discussions for the purpose of establishing several possible future operational models for transit shipping along the NSR. It is concluded that the most probable of the analyzed operational models is a combination of ice-strengthened vessels and independent ice-going cargo vessels. This model requires a decrease in severity of ice conditions to allow for year-round commercial navigation, an increase in bunker prices, further development of maritime infrastructure and icebreaking support, and the development of new maritime insurance models. Additionally, establishing transshipment hubs at each end of the NSR with ice-going cargo vessels sailing between them is also considered to be a viable future option.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 74
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-10
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Computers in Industry, Volume 100 Author(s): Fabian Gampfer, Andreas Jürgens, Markus Müller, Rüdiger Buchkremer Since its introduction in the late nineteen eighties, the discipline of Enterprise Architecture (EA) has evolved into a well-known practice of managing information systems in alignment with business interests. The evolution of the discipline is reflected in the many available scientific publications. Within a timeframe of three decades, we identify approximately 4000 journal articles and conference papers of which enterprise architecture is a major topic. We conduct a holistic, systematic literature review using artificial intelligence technologies such as information retrieval, text mining and supervised learning, side-by-side with manually reading of many relevant articles. For the first time, we present a holistic historical overview of the scientific development of the discipline. We describe the current focus of enterprise architecture and make suggestions for future publications and conferences using predictive analytics. As a major result of our analysis, we find that the focus of EA research has shifted from understanding EA in the early years to managing EA today. Furthermore, we identify and investigate several current EA trend topics: We find Cloud Computing to be the trend with the strongest impact on EA and predict that this will be the case until 2020. According to our forecast, the Internet of Things will be the trend with the strongest growth in its impact on EA. Moreover, based on a comparison with the Gartner Hype Cycle, we observe a discrepancy between EA trends in academic work versus practical experiences, which presents a starting point for future research.
    Print ISSN: 0166-3615
    Topics: Computer Science , Technology
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological Author(s): Siyuan Liu, Qiang Qu In this corrigendum, we compared our method in “Dynamic Collective Routing using Crowdsourcing Data (TRB paper) (Liu and Qu, 2016)” to the previous work “Non-Myopic Adaptive Route Planning in Uncertain Congestion Environments (TKDE paper) (Liu et al., 2015)”. We also apologize the self-plagiarism of parts of our previous work.
    Print ISSN: 0191-2615
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2367
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 76
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 113 Author(s): Peter E.D. Love, Dominic D. Ahiaga-Dagbui The methodology, analysis, and the unfounded conclusions presented in the paper “Underestimating costs in public works projects: error or lie?” by Flyvbjerg, Holm, and Buhl (2002), published in the Journal of the American Planning Association are critically questioned. Flyvbjerg, Holm, and Buhl attribute the cause of cost underestimation in transport infrastructure projects to delusion (optimism bias) and deception (strategic misrepresentation). The bifurcation of the cost underestimation problem into error or lie presents a false dichotomy – an either/or choice that is invalid when juxtaposed with the real-world nature of procuring large infrastructure assets. Put simply, the conclusions presented by Flyvbjerg, Holm, and Buhl are akin to being fake news. Unfortunately, the persistent reverberation of these convenient narratives and factoids in both academia and media has led to these explanations becoming an accepted norm. In this paper, the claims made by Flyvbjerg, Holm, and Buhl are debunked. A call is made for policy-makers to embrace and utilize evidence-based research so that informed decisions about capital cost estimates and potential risks can be better ascertained at the front-end of major transport infrastructure projects.
    Print ISSN: 0965-8564
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2375
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018 Source: Trends in Biotechnology Author(s): Syed Shan-e-Ali Zaidi, M. Shahid Mukhtar, Shahid Mansoor Plant pathogens pose a major threat to crop productivity. Typically, phytopathogens exploit plants’ susceptibility (S) genes to facilitate their proliferation. Disrupting these S genes may interfere with the compatibility between the host and the pathogens and consequently provide broad-spectrum and durable disease resistance. In the past, genetic manipulation of such S genes has been shown to confer disease resistance in various economically important crops. Recent studies have accomplished this task in a transgene-free system using new genome editing tools, including clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR). In this Opinion article, we focus on the use of genome editing to target S genes for the development of transgene-free and durable disease-resistant crop varieties.
    Print ISSN: 0167-7799
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-3096
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour Author(s): R.T. Reinhard, M. Kleer, K. Dreßler Individual reactions to driving simulators are subject to considerable interindividual differences. This includes the expression of motion sickness-like symptoms, simulator sickness (SS), and the subjective feeling of being in the virtual environment, spatial presence (SP). These differences can decrease the statistical power of simulator studies, i.e., lower the probability of finding actual existing effects. The study at hand explored the impact of SS and SP on usability and mean speed in driving simulations using different navigation systems. SS and SP were further measured using both post-exposure questionnaires and repeated online measurements. A mixed models analysis of data from 57 drivers could establish an effect of differing navigation systems on usability and mean speed. The further inclusion of SS and SP in the analysis of these effects was beneficial. SP also mediated an indirect effect of navigation systems on usability. Repeated online measurements did not offer an advantage compared to questionnaires for the prediction of usability. However, for mean speed, they improved predictions compared to questionnaires for both SP and SS. The study highlights the benefits of assessing individual reactions to simulators and illustrates that repeated online measures are more suitable than post-exposure questionnaires for the study of continuous responses.
    Print ISSN: 1369-8478
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5517
    Topics: Psychology
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  • 79
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018 Source: Trends in Biotechnology Author(s): Brendan F. Gilmore, Padrig B. Flynn, Séamus O’Brien, Noreen Hickok, Theresa Freeman, Paula Bourke Bacterial biofilm infections account for a major proportion of chronic and medical device associated infections in humans, yet our ability to control them is compromised by their inherent tolerance to antimicrobial agents. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) represents a promising therapeutic option. CAP treatment of microbial biofilms represents the convergence of two complex phenomena: the production of a chemically diverse mixture of reactive species and intermediates, and their interaction with a heterogeneous 3D interface created by the biofilm extracellular polymeric matrix. Therefore, understanding these interactions and physiological responses to CAP exposure are central to effective management of infectious biofilms. We review the unique opportunities and challenges for translating CAP to the management of biofilms.
    Print ISSN: 0167-7799
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-3096
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 80
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-10
    Description: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018 Source: Journal of the Franklin Institute Author(s): Zhengquan Yang, Qing Zhang, Zengqiang Chen This paper studies adaptive optimization problem of continuous-time multi-agent systems. Multi-agents with second-order dynamics are considered. Each agent is equipped with a time-varying cost function which is known only to an individual agent. The objective is to make multi-agents velocities minimize the sum of local functions by local interaction. First, a distributed adaptive algorithm is presented, in which each agent depends only on its own velocity and neighbor’s velocities. It is indicated that all agents can track the optimal velocity. Then we apply the distributed adaptive algorithm to flocking of multi-agents. It is proved that all agents can track the optimal trajectory. The agents will maintain connectivity and avoid the inter-agent collision. Finally, two simulations are included to illustrate the results.
    Print ISSN: 0016-0032
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2693
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 81
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-10
    Description: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018 Source: Journal of the Franklin Institute Author(s): Xiaoyan Chu, Xiaohong Nian, Miaoping Sun, Haibo Wang, Hongyun Xiong This paper develops a novel observer design method for multi-motor web-winding system. Firstly, the multi-motor web-winding system is regarded as a synthetic system with several subsystems, where the dynamic model for each subsystem is given. Then, the nonlinear diffeomorphism transformation is introduced to obtain a transformed system with block triangular structure and the interconnections among the subsystems are allowed. Next, a decentralized high-gain observer with sliding mode is designed for the transformed system, based on which the estimation error dynamics can be got. Sufficient condition of asymptotic stability for estimation error dynamics is derived by the Lyapunov stability theory and the observer gain is obtained. After that, the observer for original multi-motor web-winding system is achieved via inverse transformation. Finally, the simulation and analysis are performed in the three-motor web-winding system to verify the effectiveness of the proposed observer.
    Print ISSN: 0016-0032
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2693
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2018 Source: Solid Earth Sciences Author(s): Ruifang Huang, Xing Ding, Chiou-Ting Lin, Wenhuan Zhan, Mingxing Ling The incorporation of chlorine in serpentine minerals is crucial for the recycling of chlorine in subduction zones. Fluid inclusions of natural serpentinites have up to 50 wt% Cl, but effect of fluid salinity on chlorine distribution in serpentine minerals is poorly constrained. In this study, natural serpentinites (Lichi Melange, Taiwan) with starting grain sizes of 100–177 μm were equilibrated in saline solutions (2.93 wt%, 8.78 wt%, and 19.30 wt% NaCl) at ambient temperature and pressure for experimental duration from 18 to 43 days. The concentrations of chlorine in serpentine minerals were analyzed using electron microprobe with a detection limit of 33 ppm. Serpentine before experiments has very low chlorine, 0.017 ± 0.009 wt%. In contrast, serpentine equilibrated in saline solutions contains chlorine around three times higher, e.g., serpentine equilibrated in 2.93 wt% NaCl has 0.077 ± 0.033 wt% Cl after 18 days. The serpentine was re-equilibrated in pure water for around 24 h in order to testify chlorine is hosted in a weak-bound or structurally-bound position. For serpentine minerals equilibrated in low-salinity solutions (2.93 wt% and 8.78 wt% NaCl), they lost ∼40% of Cl after re-equilibrated in pure water. Despite such release, chlorine in serpentine minerals is still higher than that of serpentine before experiment, which indicates that saline solutions increase structurally-bound chlorine of serpentine minerals. This is more efficient for high-salinity solution (19.30 wt% NaCl), and chlorine in serpentine re-equilibrated in pure water is essentially the same as that of serpentine equilibrated in the saline solution. Our experimental results suggest that chlorine in serpentine can be greatly modified by saline fluids. The structurally-bound chlorine may not necessarily reflect the T-P information of natural serpentinites.
    Electronic ISSN: 2451-912X
    Topics: Geosciences
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Description: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018 Source: Solid Earth Sciences Author(s): Raghupratim Rakshit, Devojit Bezbaruah, Bubul Bharali The Indo-Burmese Ranges (IBR) marks as the boundary between the rigid Burmese Plate and the north-easterly moving, obliquely converging Indian plate. This results in upliftment of Mizoram fold belt alongside of IBR, in the eastern most part of the Indian subcontinent. NS trending fault generated fold belt appears around the region due to the NE stress component from Indian plate movement. There are many linear tectonic features formed due to this process. On the eastern margin of the fold belt in the greater elevated part of IBR, E–W and NW–SE lineament patterns intersect the NS lineaments, and deformed the ridges obliquely to create complex geotectonic settings. In this study, a pristine attempt has been made to understand the geodynamic evolutionary mechanisms for the area to reveal the cause for such surficial convolutions. The arcuate subduction zone along the IBR causes the slab to flex and bend at depth. This relates to differential dipping of the slab and the greater dip surface occurred beneath the study area. The easterly dipping slab can accommodate great amount of sediments and therefore the region having maximum dip upholds the highest Tertiary sediment thickness, above the basement. Champhai district of Mizoram, India had been considered for this study as it has in the zone of convergence with highest slab dip underneath. The surface exposures have sufficient neotectonic evidences which inferred the signs from Early Pleistocene neotectonic to present active tectonic deformational history. Sequential offset of the antecedent rivers carries the signatures of the varying stress component within them. The geodynamic processes produce some tectonic features through the mode of earthquake generation. Epicentral plots and focal mechanism solutions for the area indicate seismic activity associated with the thrust and oblique strike-slip movement along with their correlation for the lineament distribution. The evolutionary model indicates syn-tectonic upliftment of the study area along with evolving IBR during Late Oligocene thrusting events. A Paleo-lake adjacent to the Champhai town is believed to be the source of some northerly flowing rivers that was located on the ridge. Late Pleistocene seismic events produce some contractional strike-slip faults that later transformed to oblique slip component that shaped the area. This study is also important for understanding the earthquake events and related deformation pattern in IBR. This also might be used to locate potential geohazard sites for safer construction as well as to understand the petroleum migration pathways.
    Electronic ISSN: 2451-912X
    Topics: Geosciences
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