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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 16 Author(s): Maroua Nouri, Nathalie Gorretta, Pierre Vaysse, Michel Giraud, Christian Germain, Barna Keresztes, Jean-Michel Roger This dataset presents two series of hyperspectral images of healthy and infected apple tree leaves acquired daily, from two days after inoculation until an advanced stage of infection (11 days after inoculation). The hyperspectral images were calibrated by reflection correction and registered to match the geometry of one reference image. On the last experiment day, scab positions are provided.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 4
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 16 Author(s): Tadayoshi Miyashita, Ryosuke Koizumi, Takao Myoda, Yoshimasa Sagane, Koichi Niwa, Toshihiro Watanabe, Kazuhiro Minami This data article describes the flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) responses, represented by changes in arterial diameter, and blood pressure changes in young adults after a single oral dose of camu camu ( Myrciaria dubia ) pericarp extract or placebo (cross-over design). Ten healthy men and 10 healthy women participated in this study. Ultrasonic diagnostic equipment was used to monitor arterial diameter changes, indicative of FMD, for 110 s after the administration of the camu camu extract or placebo. In addition, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were recorded.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
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  • 5
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 16 Author(s): Takao Someya, Katsura Sano, Kotaro Hara, Yoshimasa Sagane, Toshihiro Watanabe, R.G.S. Wijesekara This data article provides gene expression profiles, determined by using real-time PCR, of fibroblasts and keratinocytes treated with 0.01% and 0.001% extracts of neem plant (Azadirachta indica), local name “Kohomba” in Sri Lanka, harvested in Sri Lanka. For fibroblasts, the dataset includes expression profiles for genes encoding hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1), hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL1), hyaluronidase-2 (HYAL2), versican, aggrecan, CD44, collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1), collagen, type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1), collagen, type VII, alpha 1 (COL7A1), matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1), acid ceramidase, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF7), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and aquaporin 3 (AQP3). For keratinocytes, the expression profiles are for genes encoding HAS1, HAS2, HYAL1, HYAL2, versican, CD44, IL-1α, cox2, TGF-β, AQP3, Laminin5, collagen, type XVII, alpha 1 (COL17A1), integrin alpha-6 (ITGA6), ceramide synthase 3 (CERS3), elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 1 (ELOVL1), elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 4 (ELOVL4), filaggrin (FLG), transglutaminase 1 (TGM1), and keratin 1 (KRT1). The expression profiles are provided as bar graphs.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 16 Author(s): Antonida V. Makhotenko, Ekaterina A. Snigir, Natalia O. Kalinina, Valentin V. Makarov, Michael E. Taliansky Nanoparticles (NPs) have a number of unique properties associated with their ultrasmall size and exhibit many advantages compared with existing plant biotechnology platforms for delivery of proteins, RNA and DNA of various sizes into the plant cells (Arruda et al., 2015; Silva et al., 2010; Martin-Ortigosa et al., 2014; Mitter et al., 2017) [1–4] . The data presented in this article demonstrate a delivery of biomolecules into Nicotiana benthamiana plant leaves using various types of NPs including gold, iron oxide and chitosan NPs and methods of biolistic bombardment and infiltration. The data demonstrate physical characteristics of NPs coated with fluorescently labeled protein and small RNA (size and zeta-potential) and visualization of nanocomplexes delivery into cells of N. benthamiana leaves by fluorescence microscopy.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source: Long Range Planning Author(s): Robert Randolph, Zhonghui “Hugo” Wang, Esra Memili Family involvement in corporate governance through ownership, management, and board membership presents a unique dilemma for understanding the strategic impetus and costs of entrenchment decisions. The presence of shared family ties and the family-centered goals of firm principals call to question the applicability of extant agency arguments regarding the nature and antecedents of managerial entrenchment. Exploring this, we develop and test a model of family firm-specific determinants (i.e., family ownership and family's involvement in management and governance) of entrenchment in publicly traded firms by drawing upon principal-principal agency theory. Findings of the empirical analysis of family owned S&P 500 firms suggest family firms are motivated to entrench managers when doing so supports the pursuit of family-centric goals. However, the extent to which entrenchment supports such goals varies at different levels of family ownership.
    Print ISSN: 0024-6301
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1872
    Topics: Economics
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  • 8
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering Author(s): Jair A. Baldovino, Eclesielter B. Moreira, Wagner Teixeira, Ronaldo L.S. Izzo, Juliana L. Rose The soil of the Guabirotuba geological formation (Paraná Basin, Brazil) has physico-mechanical properties which are not suitable for its utilization in pavement construction, in protection of hillsides and slopes, or as shallow foundation support. Treatment of this soil by lime addition would improve its usability. The present context intends to determine the ratio between the splitting tensile strength ( q t ) and the unconfined compressive strength ( q u ) of clayey soil in the metropolitan region of Curitiba City, which has been treated with different lime contents and curing times. The control parameters evaluated include lime content ( L ), curing time ( t ), moisture content ( w ), and ratio of porosity to volumetric lime content ( η / L v ). It was observed that the q t / q u ratio is between 0.17 and 0.2 in relation to the curing time, and an exponential relation exists between them. Meanwhile, the unconfined compressive strength of lime-treated soil was found to be approximately four times the initial value.
    Print ISSN: 1674-7755
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 9
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering Author(s): Stefano Stacul, Nunziante Squeglia In high seismicity areas, it is important to consider kinematic effects to properly design pile foundations. Kinematic effects are due to the interaction between pile and soil deformations induced by seismic waves. One of the effect is the arise of significant strains in weak soils that induce bending moments on piles. These moments can be significant in presence of a high stiffness contrast in a soil deposit. The single pile kinematic interaction problem is generally solved with beam on dynamic Winkler foundation approaches (BDWF) or using continuous models. In this work, a new boundary element method (BEM) based computer code (KIN SP) is presented where the kinematic analysis is preceded by a free-field response analysis. The analysis results of this method, in terms of bending moments at the pile-head and at the interface of a two-layered soil, are influenced by many factors including the soil-pile interface discretization. A parametric study is presented with the aim to suggest the minimum number of boundary elements to guarantee the accuracy of a BEM solution, for typical pile-soil relative stiffness values as a function of the pile diameter, the location of the interface of a two-layered soil and of the stiffness contrast. KIN SP results have been compared with simplified solutions in literature and with those obtained using a quasi-three-dimensional (3D) finite element code.
    Print ISSN: 1674-7755
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 10
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering Author(s): Luis Fernando Contreras, Edwin T. Brown, Marc Ruest One of the main difficulties in the geotechnical design process lies in dealing with uncertainty. Uncertainty is associated with natural variation of properties, and the imprecision and unpredictability caused by insufficient information on parameters or models. Probabilistic methods are normally used to quantify uncertainty. However, the frequentist approach commonly used for this purpose has some drawbacks. First, it lacks a formal framework for incorporating knowledge not represented by data. Second, it has limitations in providing a proper measure of the confidence of parameters inferred from data. The Bayesian approach offers a better framework for treating uncertainty in geotechnical design. The advantages of the Bayesian approach for uncertainty quantification are highlighted in this paper with the Bayesian regression analysis of laboratory test data to infer the intact rock strength parameters σ ci and m i used in the Hoek-Brown strength criterion. Two case examples are used to illustrate different aspects of the Bayesian methodology and to contrast the approach with a frequentist approach represented by the nonlinear least squares (NLLS) method. The paper discusses the use of a Student’s t -distribution versus a normal distribution to handle outliers, the consideration of absolute versus relative residuals, and the comparison of quality of fitting results based on standard errors and Bayes factors. Uncertainty quantification with confidence and prediction intervals of the frequentist approach is compared with that based on scatter plots and bands of fitted envelopes of the Bayesian approach. Finally, the Bayesian method is extended to consider two improvements of the fitting analysis. The first is the case in which the Hoek-Brown parameter, a , is treated as a variable to improve the fitting in the triaxial region. The second is the incorporation of the uncertainty in the estimation of the direct tensile strength from Brazilian test results within the overall evaluation of the intact rock strength.
    Print ISSN: 1674-7755
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 11
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems Author(s): Kesong Yan, Fanping Zeng Entropy of fuzzy dynamical systems has been investigated as an isomorphism invariant in Dumitrescu (1995) [13] . In this paper, we will introduce a new invariant called the conditional fuzzy entropy of fuzzy dynamical systems with respect to a finite fuzzy partition and an invariant sub- σ -algebra, which is an extension of fuzzy entropy on fuzzy dynamical systems. This new invariant possesses some basic properties, such as power rule, fuzzy version of Abramov–Rokhlin entropy additive formula and generating sequence.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 12
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems Author(s): Bo Wen Fang, Bao Qing Hu This paper introduces granular fuzzy rough sets in the view of fuzzy implicators and fuzzy coimplicators, and discusses the constructive and axiomatic approach to fuzzy granules based on fuzzy implicators and coimplicators. Moreover, we study the connection between fuzzy granules and fuzzy relations and discuss the relationship between existing granular fuzzy rough set models and that proposed in this paper. Considering the absolute error limit, we introduce the concept of the granular variable precision fuzzy rough sets based on fuzzy implicators and coimplicators. Then we present four propositions to ensure that the approximation operators can be efficiently calculated.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 13
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Journal of Air Transport Management, Volume 67 Author(s): Ali Dadpay Airlines air traffic delays cause discomfort to passengers and cost airlines dearly, thus there is no wonder that a growing number of authors from different disciplines have studied air traffic delays and their patterns. This paper departs from existing literature by assuming air traffic delay to be a duration variable whose true distribution is unknown. It suggests a general model that includes several other models as subfamilies and utilizes an information contents based approach to find the most appropriate model to study air traffic delays. The results for two different airlines, American Airlines and United Airlines, reveal that airlines of comparable size and market influence air traffic delays could follow different patterns.
    Print ISSN: 0969-6997
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2089
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 14
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: International Journal of Production Economics Author(s): Wei Li, Jing Chen, Gongqian Liang, Bintong Chen We examine customer returns and pricing strategies in a manufacturer's Stackelberg supply chain using game-theoretic models. In the supply chain, the manufacturer sells a high-quality product through an independent retailer, and considers whether or not to open a direct channel to sell a similar but lower-quality product. We discuss how the retailer and the manufacturer with a direct channel should choose their customer returns and pricing strategies. We show that when the retailer implements a personalized pricing strategy (PPS), the addition of the direct channel benefits the manufacturer but always makes the retailer worse off, and this differs from the case when the retailer adopts a uniform pricing strategy. We find that if its net salvage value of the product is positive, the retailer should offer a Money-Back Guarantee (MBG) and implement PPS. In the direct channel, however, the manufacturer may offer an MBG even if the net salvage value is negative, and may implement PPS only if customer satisfaction in the direct channel is low. Under certain conditions, a win-win may result from both the retailer's adoption of MBG and PPS and the manufacturer's adoption of MBG in its direct channel, while the adoption of PPS by the manufacturer in its direct channel may lead to lose-lose for the retailer and the manufacturer. The implications of customer returns and pricing strategies, as well as the impact of these two strategies on prices, demands, and profits, are discussed.
    Print ISSN: 0925-5273
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-7579
    Topics: Technology , Economics
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  • 15
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Amy Freitag, Bruce Vogt, Troy Hartley Given the stories of Oyster Wars, competition for resources, and the large number of people involved in managing the oysters of the Chesapeake Bay, one might expect a fractured social network. Some management mandates require multiple stakeholder groups at the table, but these very rarely also mandate collaboration between the different types of oyster work going on: wild harvest, aquaculture, sanctuaries, and restoration. 140 people were surveyed via snowball sampling to document the social network of the Chesapeake oyster community. The survey questions used to construct the links between people in the network focused on the transfer of valued advice. Results show that the oyster community is well-connected across jurisdictional divides, type of oyster worked with, opinions of management, and across most career sectors. This shows that, despite persistent stereotypes to the contrary, members of the oyster community reach out for advice to a diverse cohort of colleagues.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 16
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Jeremy Phillipson, David Symes Brexit poses a major challenge to the stability of European fisheries management. Until now, neighbouring EU Member States have shared the bounty of the living resources of the seas around Britain. Taking full responsibility for the regulation of fisheries within the UK's Exclusive Economic Zone will cut across longstanding relationships, potentially putting at risk recent recovery and future sustainability of shared fish stocks. The paper considers the meaning of Brexit in relation to fisheries and the issues that will need to be resolved in any rebalancing of fishing opportunities within the UK EEZ. It examines the longer term implications for the governance of fisheries and the likely restructuring of institutional and regulatory arrangements, emphasising the prior need for a shared vision and robust modus operandi for collaboration between the UK and EU to ensure the sustainability of resources, viability of fishing activity and the health of marine ecosystems.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 17
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: April 2018 Source: World Development, Volume 104 Author(s): Suguru Mizunoya, Sophie Mitra, Izumi Yamasaki Out of school children are a critical issue in education and development. Very little is known as to whether a disability is associated with a higher risk of being out of school for children in developing countries. This paper presents and analyzes the gap in enrolment in both primary and secondary education between children with and without disabilities using for the first time an internationally tested and comparable measure of functional difficulties (e.g. seeing, hearing, and walking). Using nationally representative datasets from 15 developing countries, this paper finds a consistent and statistically significant disability gap in both primary and secondary school attendance. The paper econometrically examines potential explanations for this disability gap using several specifications. A household fixed effect model shows that disability reduces the probability of school attendance by a median 30.9 percentage points, and that neither individual characteristics nor their socio-economic and unobserved household characteristics explain the disability gap. While general poverty reduction policies through for instance social transfers to the poor may improve school attendance in general, they seem unlikely to close the disability gap in schooling. The disability gap for primary–age children follows an inverted U-shape relationship with GNI per capita. This suggests that, as GNI per capita rises and more resources become available for improving access to education in middle-income countries, children without disabilities increasingly attend school, whereas the situation of children with disabilities may improve more slowly. Despite the adoption of an inclusive education agenda globally, this paper shows that more research and policy attention is needed to make schooling disability-inclusive in developing countries. More attention is also necessary regarding the functional difficulties experienced by children, as some may be preventable and the schooling inequalities associated with them may thus be avoidable.
    Print ISSN: 0305-750X
    Topics: Geography , Political Science , Sociology
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  • 18
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Annals of Pure and Applied Logic Author(s): Tamar Lando Space, as we typically represent it in mathematics and physics, is composed of dimensionless, indivisible points. On an alternative, region-based approach to space, extended regions together with the relations of ‘parthood’ and ‘contact’ are taken as primitive; points are represented as mathematical abstractions from regions. Region-based theories of space have been traditionally modeled in regular closed (or regular open) algebras, in work that goes back to [5] and [20] . More recently, formal logics for region-based theories of space were developed in, e.g. , [3] and [18] . It was shown that these logics have both a nice topological and relational semantics, and that the minimal logic for contact algebras, L m i n c o n t (defined below), is complete for both. The present paper explores the question of completeness of L m i n c o n t and its extensions for individual topological spaces of interest: the real line, Cantor space, the rationals, and the infinite binary tree. A second aim is to study a different, algebraic model of logics for region-based theories of space, based on the Lebesgue measure algebra (or algebra of Borel subsets of the real line modulo sets of Lebesgue measure zero). As a model for point-free space, the algebra was first discussed in [2] . The main results of the paper are that L m i n c o n t is weakly complete for any zero-dimensional, dense-in-itself metric space (including, e.g. , Cantor space and the rationals); the extension L m i n c o n t + ( C o n ) is weakly complete for the real line and the Lebesgue measure contact algebra. We also prove that the logic L m i n c o n t + ( U n i v ) is weakly complete for the infinite binary tree.
    Print ISSN: 0168-0072
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2461
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 19
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Jennifer R. Hamilton, Gayathri Vijayakumar, Peter Palese Influenza A virus (IAV) has shown promise as an oncolytic agent. To improve IAV as an oncolytic virus, we sought to design a transgenic virus expressing an immune checkpoint-inhibiting antibody during the viral life cycle. To test whether it was possible to express an antibody during infection, an influenza virus was constructed encoding the heavy chain of an antibody on the PB1 segment and the light chain of an antibody on the PA segment. This antibody-expressing IAV grows to high titers, and the antibodies secreted from infected cells exhibit comparable functionality with hybridoma-produced antibodies. To enhance the anti-cancer activity of IAV, an influenza virus was engineered to express a single-chain antibody antagonizing the immune checkpoint CTLA4 (IAV-CTLA4). In mice implanted with the aggressive B16-F10 melanoma, intratumoral injection with IAV-CTLA4 delayed the growth of treated tumors, mediated an abscopal effect, and increased overall survival. Graphical abstract Teaser Influenza virus has potential as an anti-cancer agent. Hamilton et al. engineer antibody-expressing influenza viruses and demonstrate that encoding a single-chain antibody blocking the immune checkpoint CTLA4 enhances the anti-cancer activity of influenza virus. These data suggest a strategy for improving the oncolytic nature of Orthomyxoviruses.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 20
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): J.J. David Ho, Nathan C. Balukoff, Grissel Cervantes, Petrice D. Malcolm, Jonathan R. Krieger, Stephen Lee The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B (eIF5B) is a homolog of IF2, an ancient translation factor that enables initiator methionine-tRNAi Met (met-tRNAi Met ) loading on prokaryotic ribosomes. While it can be traced back to the last universal common ancestor, eIF5B is curiously dispensable in modern aerobic yeast and mammalian cells. Here, we show that eIF5B is an essential element of the cellular hypoxic cap-dependent protein synthesis machinery. System-wide interrogation of dynamic translation machineries by MATRIX (mass spectrometry analysis of active translation factors using ribosome density fractionation and isotopic labeling experiments) demonstrated augmented eIF5B activity in hypoxic translating ribosomes. Global translatome studies revealed central carbon metabolism, cellular hypoxic adaptation, and ATF4-mediated stress response as major eIF5B-dependent pathways. These primordial processes rely on eIF5B even in the presence of oxygen and active eIF2, the canonical recruiter of met-tRNAi Met in eukaryotes. We suggest that aerobic eukarya retained eIF5B/IF2 to remodel anaerobic pathways during episodes of oxygen deficiency. Graphical abstract Teaser Ho et al. employed MATRIX to demonstrate that eIF5B is an essential hypoxic translation factor that facilitates met-tRNAi Met delivery to ribosomes, serving as the hypoxic surrogate of the textbook eIF2. Aerobic eukarya likely retained eIF5B for the oxygen-dependent regulation of central carbon metabolism and hypoxic survival.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 21
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Nupura Hirve, Vangipurapu Rajanikanth, Patrick G. Hogan, Aparna Gudlur STIM1 and STIM2 are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins that sense decreases in ER-luminal free Ca 2+ and, through a conformational change in the STIM cytoplasmic domain, control gating of the plasma membrane Ca 2+ channel ORAI1. To determine how STIM1 conveys a signal from the ER lumen to the cytoplasm, we studied the Ca 2+ -dependent conformational change of engineered STIM1 proteins in isolated ER membranes and, in parallel, physiological activation of these proteins in cells. We find that conserved “sentinel” features of the CC1 region help to prevent activation while Ca 2+ is bound to STIM ER-luminal domains. Reduced ER-luminal Ca 2+ drives a concerted conformational change, in which STIM luminal domains rearrange and the STIM transmembrane helices and initial parts of the CC1 regions pair in an extended coiled coil. This intradimer rearrangement overcomes the relatively weak CC1-SOAR/CAD interactions that hold STIM in an inactive conformation, releasing the SOAR/CAD domain to activate ORAI channels. Graphical abstract Teaser STIM1 and STIM2 play a central role in cellular Ca 2+ balance and Ca 2+ signaling by monitoring free Ca 2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum and communicating this information to plasma membrane Ca 2+ channels. Hirve et al. dissect the structural change that transmits the signal from the STIM1 ER-luminal domain to the STIM1 cytoplasmic domain.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 22
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Michael G. White, Matthew Panicker, Chaoqi Mu, Ashley M. Carter, Bradley M. Roberts, Poorna A. Dharmasri, Brian N. Mathur Cognitive abilities, such as volitional attention, operate under top-down, executive frontal cortical control of hierarchically lower structures. The circuit mechanisms underlying this process are unresolved. The claustrum possesses interconnectivity with many cortical areas and, thus, is hypothesized to orchestrate the cortical mantle for top-down control. Whether the claustrum receives top-down input and how this input may be processed by the claustrum have yet to be formally tested, however. We reveal that a rich anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) input to the claustrum encodes a preparatory top-down information signal on a five-choice response assay that is necessary for optimal task performance. We further show that ACC input monosynaptically targets claustrum inhibitory interneurons and spiny glutamatergic projection neurons, the latter of which amplify ACC input in a manner that is powerfully constrained by claustrum inhibitory microcircuitry. These results demonstrate ACC input to the claustrum is critical for top-down control guiding action. Graphical abstract Teaser White et al. show that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) input to the claustrum encodes a top-down preparatory signal on a 5-choice response assay that is critical for task performance. Claustrum microcircuitry amplifies top-down ACC input in a frequency-dependent manner for eventual propagation to the cortex for cognitive control of action.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 23
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Fernando García-Moreno, Edward Anderton, Marta Jankowska, Jo Begbie, Juan Manuel Encinas, Manuel Irimia, Zoltán Molnár Several neuronal populations orchestrate neocortical development during mammalian embryogenesis. These include the glutamatergic subplate-, Cajal-Retzius-, and ventral pallium-derived populations, which coordinate cortical wiring, migration, and proliferation, respectively. These transient populations are primarily derived from other non-cortical pallial sources that migrate to the dorsal pallium. Are these migrations to the dorsal pallium conserved in amniotes or are they specific to mammals? Using in ovo electroporation, we traced the entire lineage of defined chick telencephalic progenitors. We found that several pallial sources that produce tangential migratory neurons in mammals only produced radially migrating neurons in the avian brain. Moreover, ectopic expression of VP-specific mammalian Dbx1 in avian brains altered neurogenesis but did not convert the migration into a mammal-like tangential movement. Together, these data indicate that tangential cellular contributions of glutamatergic neurons originate from outside the dorsal pallium and that pallial Dbx1 expression may underlie the generation of the mammalian neocortex during evolution. Graphical abstract Teaser Neocortical formation crucially depends on the early tangential arrival of several transient glutamatergic neuronal populations. García-Moreno et al. find that these neuronal migrations are absent in the developing brain of chicks. The mammalian uniqueness of these developing migrations suggests a crucial role of these cells in the evolutionary origin of the neocortex.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Amandine Virlogeux, Eve Moutaux, Wilhelm Christaller, Aurélie Genoux, Julie Bruyère, Elodie Fino, Benoit Charlot, Maxime Cazorla, Frédéric Saudou Huntington’s disease (HD), a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, strongly affects the corticostriatal network, but the contribution of pre- and postsynaptic neurons in the first phases of disease is unclear due to difficulties performing early subcellular investigations in vivo . Here, we have developed an on-a-chip approach to reconstitute an HD corticostriatal network in vitro , using microfluidic devices compatible with subcellular resolution. We observed major defects in the different compartments of the corticostriatal circuit, from presynaptic dynamics to synaptic structure and transmission and to postsynaptic traffic and signaling, that correlate with altered global synchrony of the network. Importantly, the genetic status of the presynaptic compartment was necessary and sufficient to alter or restore the circuit. This highlights an important weight for the presynaptic compartment in HD that has to be considered for future therapies. This disease-on-a-chip microfluidic platform is thus a physiologically relevant in vitro system for investigating pathogenic mechanisms and for identifying drugs. Graphical abstract Teaser Using microfluidics to reconstruct a Huntington’s disease corticostriatal network, Virlogeux et al. identify recurrent pre- and postsynaptic alterations leading to global circuit dysfunctions and hypersynchrony. They further demonstrate that the genetic status of the presynaptic compartment determines integrity of the network.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Hidenobu Mizuno, Koji Ikezoe, Shingo Nakazawa, Takuya Sato, Kazuo Kitamura, Takuji Iwasato Establishment of precise neuronal connectivity in the neocortex relies on activity-dependent circuit reorganization during postnatal development; however, the nature of cortical activity during this period remains largely unknown. Using two-photon calcium imaging of the barrel cortex in vivo during the first postnatal week, we reveal that layer 4 (L4) neurons within the same barrel fire synchronously in the absence of peripheral stimulation, creating a “patchwork” pattern of spontaneous activity corresponding to the barrel map. By generating transgenic mice expressing GCaMP6s in thalamocortical axons, we show that thalamocortical axons also demonstrate the spontaneous patchwork activity pattern. Patchwork activity is diminished by peripheral anesthesia but is mostly independent of self-generated whisker movements. The patchwork activity pattern largely disappeared during postnatal week 2, as even L4 neurons within the same barrel tended to fire asynchronously. This spontaneous L4 activity pattern has features suitable for thalamocortical (TC) circuit refinement in the neonatal barrel cortex. Graphical abstract Teaser By two-photon calcium imaging of layer 4 neurons and thalamocortical axon terminals in neonatal mouse barrel cortex, Mizuno et al. find a patchwork-like spontaneous activity pattern corresponding to the barrel map, which may be important for thalamocortical circuit maturation.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Yu Ree Choi, Seon-Heui Cha, Seo-Jun Kang, Jae-Bong Kim, Ilo Jou, Sang Myun Park Recent evidence of prion-like propagation of α-synuclein (α-syn) into neighboring neurons set up a paradigm to elucidate the mechanism of progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and to develop therapeutic strategies. Here, we show that FcγRIIB expressed in neurons functions as a receptor for α-syn fibrils and mediates cell-to-cell transmission of α-syn. SHP-1 and 2 are activated downstream by α-syn fibrils through FcγRIIB and play an important role in cell-to-cell transmission of α-syn. Also, taking advantage of a co-culture system, we show that cell-to-cell transmission of α-syn induces intracellular Lewy body-like inclusion body formation and that the FcγRIIB/SHP-1/2 signaling pathway is involved in it. Therefore, the FcγRIIB-SHP-1/-2 signaling pathway may be a therapeutic target for the progression of PD. The in vitro system is an efficient tool for further high-throughput screening that can be used for developing a therapeutic intervention in PD. Graphical abstract Teaser Prion-like propagation of α-synuclein (α-syn) may contribute to the progression of Parkinson’s disease. Choi et al. demonstrate that FcγRIIB functions as a receptor for α-syn fibrils and that the FcγRIIB-SHP-1/2 signaling pathway mediates cell-to-cell transmission of α-syn. Blocking this signaling pathway attenuates transmission, suppressing Lewy body-like inclusion body formation.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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  • 27
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Felix Weber, Bernd Bohrmann, Jens Niewoehner, Jens A.A. Fischer, Petra Rueger, Georg Tiefenthaler, Joerg Moelleken, Alexander Bujotzek, Kevin Brady, Thomas Singer, Martin Ebeling, Antonio Iglesias, Per-Ola Freskård Receptors show promise for the transport of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) across the blood-brain barrier. However, safety liabilities associated with peripheral receptor binding and Fc effector function have been reported. We present the Brain Shuttle-mAb (BS-mAb) technology, and we investigate the role of Fc effector function in vitro and in an Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-humanized mouse model. Strong first infusion reactions (FIRs) were observed for a conventional mAb against transferrin receptor (TfR) with a wild-type immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) Fc. Fc effector-dead constructs completely eliminated all FIRs. Remarkably, no FIR was observed for the BS-mAb construct with a native IgG1 Fc function. Using various BS-mAb constructs, we show that TfR binding through the C-terminal BS module attenuates Fc-FcγR interactions, primarily because of steric hindrance. Nevertheless, BS-mAbs maintain effector function activity when binding their brain target. Thus, mAbs with full effector function can be transported in a stealth mode in the periphery while fully active when engaged with their brain target. Graphical abstract Teaser Weber et al. show that a Brain Shuttle antibody against amyloid-β prevents plaque formation mediated by the effector function. Their study reveals that the effector function is hidden in the periphery, due to the unique binding mode of the Brain Shuttle, but becomes fully active in the brain.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Christina Christoffersen, Christine K. Federspiel, Anna Borup, Pernille M. Christensen, Andreas N. Madsen, Markus Heine, Carsten H. Nielsen, Andreas Kjaer, Birgitte Holst, Joerg Heeren, Lars B. Nielsen Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is the carrier of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in plasma high-density lipoproteins. S1P is a bioactive lipid interacting with five receptors (S1P 1–5 ). We show that lack of apoM in mice increases the amount of brown adipose tissue (BAT), accelerates the clearance of postprandial triglycerides, and protects against diet-induced obesity (i.e., a phenotype similar to that induced by cold exposure or β 3 -adrenergic stimulation). Moreover, the data suggest that the phenotype of apoM-deficient mice is S1P dependent and reflects diminished S1P 1 stimulation. The results reveal a link between the apoM/S1P axis and energy metabolism. Graphical abstract Teaser Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is the carrier of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in lipoproteins. Christoffersen et al. show that lack of apoM in mice increases the amount of brown adipose tissue, accelerates the turnover of fat, and protects against obesity. The results reveal a link between the apoM/S1P axis and energy metabolism.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Paul V. Sabatini, Thilo Speckmann, Cuilan Nian, Maria M. Glavas, Chi Kin Wong, Ji Soo Yoon, Tatsuya Kin, A.M. James Shapiro, William T. Gibson, C. Bruce Verchere, Francis C. Lynn Depolarization of neuroendocrine cells results in calcium influx, which induces vesicle exocytosis and alters gene expression. These processes, along with the restoration of resting membrane potential, are energy intensive. We hypothesized that cellular mechanisms exist to maximize energy production during excitation. Here, we demonstrate that NPAS4, an immediate early basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS transcription factor, acts to maximize energy production by suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). As such, knockout of Npas4 from insulin-producing β cells results in reduced OXPHOS, loss of insulin secretion, β cell dedifferentiation, and type 2 diabetes. NPAS4 plays a similar role in the nutrient-sensing cells of the hypothalamus. Its knockout here results in increased food intake, reduced locomotor activity, and elevated peripheral glucose production. In conclusion, NPAS4 is critical for the coordination of metabolism during the stimulation of electrically excitable cells; its loss leads to the defects in cellular metabolism that underlie the cellular dysfunction that occurs in metabolic disease. Graphical abstract Teaser Sabatini et al. show that NPAS4 is critical for coordination of cellular and organismal metabolism. Its loss contributes to the defects that underlie both islet and hypothalamic dysfunction, which result in the development of type 2 diabetes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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  • 30
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Helen Louise May-Simera, Qin Wan, Balendu Shekhar Jha, Juliet Hartford, Vladimir Khristov, Roba Dejene, Justin Chang, Sarita Patnaik, Quanlong Lu, Poulomi Banerjee, Jason Silver, Christine Insinna-Kettenhofen, Dishita Patel, Mostafa Lotfi, May Malicdan, Nathan Hotaling, Arvydas Maminishkis, Rupa Sridharan, Brian Brooks, Kiyoharu Miyagishima, Meral Gunay-Aygun, Rajarshi Pal, Christopher Westlake, Sheldon Miller, Ruchi Sharma, Kapil Bharti Primary cilia are sensory organelles that protrude from the cell membrane. Defects in the primary cilium cause ciliopathy disorders, with retinal degeneration as a prominent phenotype. Here, we demonstrate that the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), essential for photoreceptor development and function, requires a functional primary cilium for complete maturation and that RPE maturation defects in ciliopathies precede photoreceptor degeneration. Pharmacologically enhanced ciliogenesis in wild-type induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-RPE leads to fully mature and functional cells. In contrast, ciliopathy patient-derived iPSC-RPE and iPSC-RPE with a knockdown of ciliary-trafficking protein remain immature, with defective apical processes, reduced functionality, and reduced adult-specific gene expression. Proteins of the primary cilium regulate RPE maturation by simultaneously suppressing canonical WNT and activating PKCδ pathways. A similar cilium-dependent maturation pathway exists in lung epithelium. Our results provide insights into ciliopathy-induced retinal degeneration, demonstrate a developmental role for primary cilia in epithelial maturation, and provide a method to mature iPSC epithelial cells for clinical applications. Graphical abstract Teaser May-Simera et al. show that primary cilia regulate the maturation and polarization of human iPSC-RPE, mouse RPE, and human iPSC-lung epithelium through canonical WNT suppression and PKCδ activation. RPE cells derived from ciliopathy patients exhibit defective structure and function. These results provide insights into ciliopathy-induced retinal degeneration.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Keita Masuko, Naoyuki Fuse, Kanae Komaba, Tomonori Katsuyama, Rumi Nakajima, Hirofumi Furuhashi, Shoichiro Kurata Drosophila imaginal disc cells exhibit a remarkable ability to convert cell fates in response to various perturbations, a phenomenon called transdetermination (TD). We previously identified winged eye ( wge ) as a factor that induces eye-to-wing TD upon overexpression in eye imaginal discs, but the molecular mechanisms underlying TD have remained largely unclear. Here, we found that wge induces various histone modifications and enhances the methylation of Lys9 on histone H3 (H3K9), a feature of heterochromatin. A histone methyltransferase, Su(var)3-9, is required for wge -mediated H3K9 methylation and eye-to-wing TD. Su(var)3-9 is also required for classical wound-induced TD but not for normal development, suggesting its involvement in several types of imaginal disc TDs. Transcriptome analysis revealed that wge represses eye identity genes independently of Su(var)3-9 and activates TD-related genes by acting together with Su(var)3-9. These findings provide new insights into diverse types of chromatin regulation at progressive steps of cell-fate conversions. Graphical abstract Teaser Drosophila imaginal discs switch disc identity by a process known as transdetermination. Masuko et al. demonstrate that expression of the winged eye gene induces transdetermination through histone modifications such as H3K9-methylation. winged eye regulates expression of transdetermination-related genes via a histone methyltransferase, Su(var)3-9.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Yue Han, Shoko Ishibashi, Javier Iglesias-Gonzalez, Yaoyao Chen, Nick R. Love, Enrique Amaya While it is appreciated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as second messengers in both homeostastic and stress response signaling pathways, potential roles for ROS during early vertebrate development have remained largely unexplored. Here, we show that fertilization in Xenopus embryos triggers a rapid increase in ROS levels, which oscillate with each cell division. Furthermore, we show that the fertilization-induced Ca 2+ wave is necessary and sufficient to induce ROS production in activated or fertilized eggs. Using chemical inhibitors, we identified mitochondria as the major source of fertilization-induced ROS production. Inhibition of mitochondrial ROS production in early embryos results in cell-cycle arrest, in part, via ROS-dependent regulation of Cdc25C activity. This study reveals a role for oscillating ROS levels in early cell cycle regulation in Xenopus embryos. Graphical abstract Teaser Han et al. show that the fertilization-triggered calcium wave induces reactive oxygen species production from mitochondria, which oscillate with each cell division in Xenopus embryos. Moreover, they demonstrate that inhibition of mitochondrial ROS production disrupts cell cycle progression.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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  • 33
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Katsufumi Dejima, Sayaka Hori, Satoru Iwata, Yuji Suehiro, Sawako Yoshina, Tomoko Motohashi, Shohei Mitani Balancer chromosomes are critical tools for genetic research. In C. elegans , reciprocal translocations that lead to aneuploidy have been widely used to maintain lethal and sterile mutations in stable stocks. Here, we generated a set of aneuploidy-free and structurally defined crossover suppressors that contain two overlapping inversions using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The toolkit includes 13 crossover suppressors and covers approximately 63% of all C. elegans coding genes. Together with the classical intrachromosomal crossover suppressors, the system now covers 89% of the coding genes. We also labeled the created balancers with fluorescent and phenotypic markers. We show that the crossover suppressors are better for embryonic analysis compared with translocational balancers. Additionally, we demonstrate an efficient method to generate lethal alleles by targeting essential genes on a chromosome balanced with a crossover suppressor. The toolkit will allow more efficient experiments in which lethal and sterile mutants can be analyzed. Graphical abstract Teaser Balancer chromosomes are critical tools for genetic research. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, Dejima et al. established a collection of balancer chromosomes in C. elegans . The toolkit will be useful not only for maintenance of lethal/sterile mutants but also for several other applications through customization to suit a particular use.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems Author(s): Radko Mesiar, Anna Kolesárová Inspired by the idea of k -maxitive measures, we introduce and study k -maxitive aggregation functions. In particular, 1-maxitive aggregation functions are shown to be just maxitive aggregation functions, i.e., maxima of distorted inputs. We introduce, among others, a representation of symmetric k -maxitive aggregation functions. Moreover, we show that for any k -maxitive capacity and the smallest universal integral based on an arbitrary fixed semicopula, including the Sugeno and Shilkret integrals, the resulting aggregation function is k -maxitive.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 16 Author(s): Logan Cochrane, Yeshtila W. Bekele This article presents average agricultural yield data per hectare for key cereal, legume and root crops from 2001 until 2017. Data was obtained from the annual Agricultural Sample Surveys of the Central Statistics Agency (CSA) of Ethiopia. We present data at national, regional (SNNPRS) and zonal (Wolaita) levels. The data shows that average yields for all crops, at all levels, show increasing trends during the time period. Data for the main cereal crops is consistent and aligns with literature relatively well, however we raise questions about the root crop data in an effort to encourage greater critical reflection of components of data from the CSA.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
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  • 36
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Developmental Biology Author(s): Luca Massimino, Lisbeth Flores-Garcia, Bruno Di Stefano, Gaia Colasante, Cecilia Icoresi-Mazzeo, Mattia Zaghi, Bruce A. Hamilton, Alessandro Sessa During cerebral cortex development, neural progenitors are required to elaborate a variety of cell differentiation signals to which they are continuously exposed. RA acid is a potent inducer of neuronal differentiation as it was found to influence cortical development. We report herein that TBR2, a transcription factor specific to Intermediate (Basal) Neural Progenitors (INPs), represses activation of the RA responsive element and expression of RA target genes in cell lines. This repressive action on RA signaling was functionally confirmed by the decrease of RA-mediated neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells stably overexpressing TBR2. In vivo mapping of RA activity in the developing cortex indicated that RA activity is detected in radial glial cells and subsequently downregulated in INPs, revealing a fine cell-type specific regulation of its signaling. Thus, TBR2 might be a molecular player in opposing RA signaling in INPs. Interestingly, this negative regulation is achieved at least in part by directly repressing the critical nuclear RA co-factor ZFP423. Indeed, we found ZFP423 to be expressed in the developing cortex and promote RA-dependent neuronal differentiation. These data indicate that TBR2 contributes to suppressing RA signaling in INPs, thereby enabling them to re-enter cell cycle and delay neuronal differentiation.
    Print ISSN: 0012-1606
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-564X
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Energy Economics Author(s): Alex Coram, Donald W. Katzner This paper builds a dynamic model that describes the optimal trajectory for zeroemissions alternative energy-producing technologies produced and installed as replacements for energy-producing technologies whose byproduct is fossil-fuel emissions. In the model, society or its policy makers choose an emission reduction goal, the time when that goal is to be achieved, and the pattern of alternative energy-producing technologies to be employed to reach the goal. The feasibility of these choices and the impact of them on the optimal trajectory are explored both in general and in a special case.
    Print ISSN: 0140-9883
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6181
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Volume 334 Author(s): Hang Zhan, Ya-Ming Wang, Hua-Wen Liu The aim of this paper is mainly to solve the functional equations given by the modularity condition. Several years ago, the modularity equations for t-norms, t-conorms, uninorms and t-operators, which are commutative and associative, have been studied. Our investigations are motivated by modularity condition for generalizations of these operators by removing associativity or commutativity. In this work, the following main conclusions are proved: (1) a continuous t-norm with respect to a continuous semicopula is modular if and only if they are equal. The case for a semicopula with respect to a strict t-norm is also the same. A semicopula with respect to a co-semicopula is modular if and only if the semicopula is min and the co-semicopula is max. The modularity condition does not hold for a co-semicopula with respect to a semicopula. (2) Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a semi-t-operator with respect to a semi-uninorm, a pseudo-uninorm with respect to a semi-t-operator to satisfy the modularity condition equation. New solutions to the modularity condition equations of the Case (1) are characterized.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
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  • 39
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Volume 334 Author(s): Andrea Mesiarová-Zemánková The uninorms with continuous underlying functions were characterized by their set of discontinuity points in the previous work of the author, using the characterizing set-valued function. In this paper properties of this characterizing set-valued function are studied. It is shown that the type of the monotonicity of such a set-valued function is always changed in idempotent points of the corresponding uninorm. Several additional properties of the characterizing set-valued function of a uninorm with continuous underlying functions are shown and an example is included. Results shown in this paper are used for a complete characterization of uninorms with continuous underlying functions via the ordinal sum construction, which is shown in the consecutive paper.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 40
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Volume 334 Author(s): Ümit Ertuğrul In this study, we present two methods for the construction of nullnorms on bounded lattices based on the existence of t-norms as well as t-conorms on an arbitrary bounded lattice L . We demonstrate that these methods differ from the existing approaches mainly because of their more generalized structures. An equivalence relation is also defined based on a class of nullnorms and some properties of this relation are examined.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Protein Expression and Purification Author(s): Meng-I. Lin, Takashi Nagata, Masato Katahira Oxidative enzymes of white-rot fungi play a key role in lignin biodegradation. Among those fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora degrades lignin before cellulose in wood; C. subvermispora is the only fungus that secretes all known types of manganese peroxidases ( Cs MnPs). Utilization of lignin-degrading peroxidases has been limited so far due to the lack of efficient preparation methods and intensive characterization. In this study, we developed a highly efficient method to prepare active Cs MnPs through soluble expression by E. coli , which had long been impossible. The genes of MnPs selected from each subfamily were codon-optimized and expressed under the control of a cold shock promoter. A proper level of heme incorporation was achieved by continuous addition of hemin during cultivation. As much as 3 mg of purified MnPs was obtained from 100 mL culture, which is an about 20-fold higher yield than that from inclusion bodies through refolding. Further improvement of the solubility on the expression was achieved by combinatorial coexpression of chaperones. All obtained MnPs had heme-to-protein ratios as high as those of native MnPs. They were all active below pH 5. Our method is applicable to other fungal-secreted enzymes should help the progress of their basic characterization and application for better utilization of woody biomass. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 1046-5928
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-0279
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 42
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Journal of Environmental Economics and Management Author(s): Linda Fernandez, Bowman Cutter, Ritu Sharma, Tom Scott We offer an improvement on the traditional hedonic property value estimation by using a repeat sales matching estimator applied to a policy context where the distance to nearest permanently protected preserves changes over time. We use several strategies to control for unobserved heterogeneity with data from multiple transactions on the same residential parcels from Western Riverside County in Southern California. We have developed data on the conversion to permanent preserves over a 16-year period. We present an empirical strategy to differentiate geographically broad treatment effects from neighborhood unobservables using Coarsened Exact Matching.
    Print ISSN: 0095-0696
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-0449
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra Author(s): Carlos A. Gomes, Luis Enrique Ramirez We prove a conjecture for the irreducibility of singular Gelfand-Tsetlin modules announced in [4] . Furthermore, by using the description of the irreducible subquotients for generic Gelfand-Tsetlin modules, we construct the irreducible subquotients of some classes of singular Gelfand-Tsetlin modules.
    Print ISSN: 0022-4049
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1376
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 44
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra Author(s): W.K. Nicholson
    Print ISSN: 0022-4049
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1376
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, Volume 15 Author(s): Thanh Duc Dang, Thomas A. Cochrane, Mauricio E. Arias, Van Pham Dang Tri Study region The Mekong floodplains and delta are among the most agriculturally productive and biologically diverse waterscapes of the world, but sea level rise, land subsidence, and the proposed upstream development of over 126 hydropower dams and extensive delta-based water infrastructure have raised concern due to potential impacts on the hydrology of the region. Study focus This study aims to quantify the effects of water infrastructure development, land subsidence and sea level rise on hydrological regimes of the Mekong floodplains and delta through the development and application of a hydrodynamic model. New hydrological insights for the region Depending on hydrological characteristics of each region (river-dominated, transitional or tidal), the influence of each potential driver may vary. The operation of proposed hydropower dams would change river-dominated upper floodplain’s water levels by 26 to 70% and −0.8 to −5.9% in the dry and wet season respectively, but the impact diminishes throughout the floodplains. In the wet season, the upper Vietnamese Delta changes from a transitional stage to a river-dominated stage, and localized water infrastructure development in the upper delta has the greatest effect on water levels in the region. Land subsidence combined with sea level rise could have the greatest future influence on flooding in the delta if current rates are extrapolated. Sustainable water management strategies are thus necessary to mitigate changes in the floodplains and delta and increase resilience to sea level rise and land subsidence. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 2214-5818
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography , Geosciences
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra Author(s): Alicja Jaworska-Pastuszak, Andrzej Skowroński We describe the structure of finite dimensional selfinjective algebras over an arbitrary field without short cycles of indecomposable modules.
    Print ISSN: 0022-4049
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1376
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Journal of Transport Geography Author(s): César Ducruet, Sylvain Cuyala, Ali El Hosni
    Print ISSN: 0966-6923
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1236
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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  • 48
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 66 Author(s): Alexandre Borges Santos, Renato Luiz Sproesser, Mário Otávio Batalha Firms in the transportation industry are continuously evolving in order to build competitive advantages. Understanding who the competitors are and how they behave is a basic prerequisite for firms to adopt the right strategic positioning. Strategy and performance, therefore, are considered to be inseparable. In this manuscript, we exploit these two central areas in the field of business management from the perspective of grain terminal operators. A framework of analysis based on robust operations and strategic management literature is built to identify the strategic pattern of 24 intermodal grain terminals spread throughout the five Brazilian regions. The operational efficiency of the terminals is assessed through Data Envelopment Analysis. Subsequently, strategic groups are identified with the support of Cluster Analysis. Results suggest the existence of two major strategic groups: diversified small-scale terminals and focused large-scale terminals. The study is concluded by arguing that diversified small-scale terminals tend to offer a wider range of secondary services as an alternative to counterbalance their small transshipment scale, therefore, are likely to adopt a differentiation strategy; large-scale terminals, on the other hand, tend to focus mainly on the transshipment process, thus, are likely to adopt a cost leadership strategy. Theoretical and managerial implications resultant from the findings are presented and discussed.
    Print ISSN: 0966-6923
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 66 Author(s): Nishant Singh, Vinod Vasudevan School trips have distinct characteristics compared with trips for other purposes (e.g., work and recreation). School trips have been extensively studied in North American and western European countries. However, these have not been studied in developing countries, except for a few studies in China and Iran. Therefore, the basic understanding of the school travel in South Asian cities remains unclear. Thus, this study explored the travel decisions of schoolchildren in the Indian context by using primary data collected from Kanpur, a city in India. A multinomial logit framework was used to model the choice decisions of making trips to schools. The results indicated that the absence of a public transit system and the lack of good-quality school bus services resulted in the dependence of schoolchildren on other motorized modes, such as family vehicles and paratransit. Furthermore, lack of infrastructure support negatively influenced the use of active modes of transport.
    Print ISSN: 0966-6923
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Computational Statistics & Data Analysis Author(s): Clara Grazian, Christian P. Robert While Jeffreys priors usually are well-defined for the parameters of mixtures of distributions, they are not available in closed form. Furthermore, they often are improper priors. Hence, they have never been used to draw inference on the mixture parameters. The implementation and the properties of Jeffreys priors in several mixture settings are studied. It is shown that the associated posterior distributions most often are improper. Nevertheless, the Jeffreys prior for the mixture weights conditionally on the parameters of the mixture components will be shown to have the property of conservativeness with respect to the number of components, in case of overfitted mixture and it can be therefore used as a default priors in this context.
    Print ISSN: 0167-9473
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-7352
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Journal of Air Transport Management, Volume 67 Author(s): Muhammad Shoaib Farooq, Maimoona Salam, Alain Fayolle, Norizan Jaafar, Kartinah Ayupp This study is aimed to assess the quality of service provided by Malaysia Airlines and its impact on overall customer satisfaction. This study employed a convenience sampling method for collecting data from 460 respondents using a self-administered questionnaire, designed on five dimensions of AIRQUAL scale. Moreover, variance based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used for testing the proposed structural model. Findings of this study revealed that all five dimensions of AIRQUAL scale i.e. airline tangibles; terminal tangibles; personnel services; empathy and image have a positive, direct and significant impact on customer satisfaction of Malaysia Airlines. This study investigated the impact of service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction in Malaysia Airlines. Due to limited resources and time constraints this study involves respondents from Malaysia Airlines only; for that reason a comparative analysis of findings with other airlines was not possible; therefore it is considered a limitation of this study. Moreover, importance-performance map analysis (IPMA) was also performed for exploring the importance of various dimensions of service quality. Findings indicate that airlines should focus on all dimensions of service quality, with special focus on personnel services and image for enhancing their customer satisfaction. It is expected that findings of this study will help airlines to understand the role of various dimensions of service quality for enhancing their customer satisfaction.
    Print ISSN: 0969-6997
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2089
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2017 Source: Journal of Air Transport Management Author(s): Seyed Reza Madani, Ali Shahandeh Nookabadi, Seyed Reza Hejazi In the last few years, the p -hub maximal covering problem (pHMCP) has been applied in a variety of applications, including the design of air transportation networks, distribution systems for perishable products, postal delivery networks, and tourism routing. In hub-based systems, disruptions at hubs or unavailability of routes significantly affect service level and result in excessive costs. To tackle these problems, selecting backup hubs for unavailable hubs and rerouting the related flows are often proposed. This paper develops a bi-objective reliable single allocation p -hub maximal covering problem (BRSApHMCP) considering two objectives: maximizing expected covered flows and minimizing congestion. After formulating an initial non-linear model, a linear model is presented; the NP-Completeness of the developed model is proved and a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is proposed to solve it. In order to show the superior performance of the proposed NSGA-II, a well-known evolutionary algorithm, the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO), and the epsilon constraint methods are utilized and the results are analyzed and compared. The parameters of the proposed algorithms are calibrated using the Taguchi approach. Also, a case study and some parametric analyses are done. The results show that NSGA-II is able to find the better solutions in comparison with MOPSO and by opting this proactive strategy in the investigated case study, NSGA-II could recover up to 73% of lost flow in a well-balanced system.
    Print ISSN: 0969-6997
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra Author(s): Anuj Jakhar, Sudesh K. Khanduja, Neeraj Sangwan It is well known that if K 1 , K 2 are algebraic number fields with coprime discriminants, then the composite ring A K 1 A K 2 is integrally closed and K 1 , K 2 are linearly disjoint over the field of rationals, A K i being the ring of algebraic integers of K i . In an attempt to prove the converse of the above result, in this paper we prove that if K 1 , K 2 are finite separable extensions of a valued field ( K , v ) of arbitrary rank which are linearly disjoint over K = K 1 ∩ K 2 and if the integral closure S i of the valuation ring R v of v in K i is a free R v -module for i = 1 , 2 with S 1 S 2 integrally closed, then the discriminant of either S 1 / R v or of S 2 / R v is the unit ideal. We quickly deduce from this result that for algebraic number fields K 1 , K 2 linearly disjoint over K = K 1 ∩ K 2 for which A K 1 A K 2 is integrally closed, the relative discriminants of K 1 / K and K 2 / K must be coprime.
    Print ISSN: 0022-4049
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1376
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering Author(s): Ahmet Özbek, Murat Gül, Ergun Karacan, Övünç Alca This paper aims to study the effect of anisotropy on strengths of several metamorphic rocks of southern (Çine) submassif of Menderes metamorphic massif in southwest Turkey. Four different metamorphic rocks including foliated phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist) were selected and examined. Discontinuity surveys were made along lines for each rock and evaluated with DIPS program. L-type Schmidt hammer was applied in the directions parallel and perpendicular to foliation during the field study. Several hand samples and rock blocks were collected during the field study for measurements of dry and saturated densities, dry and saturated unit weights and porosity, and for petrographic analysis and strength determination in laboratory. L- and N-type Schmidt hammers were applied in the directions perpendicular (anisotropy angle of 0°) and parallel (anisotropy angle of 90°) to the foliation on selected blocks of phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist). The phyllite and schist have higher porosity and lower density values than the other rocks. However, coarse crystalline gneiss and marble (calcschist) have higher rebound values and strengths, and they are classified as strong–very strong rocks. Generally, the rebound values in the direction perpendicular to the foliation are slightly higher than that in the direction parallel to foliation. Rebound values of N-type Schmidt hammer are higher than the L-type values except for phyllite. Sometimes, the rebound values of laboratory and field applications gave different results. This may result from variable local conditions such as minerals differentiation, discontinuities, water content, weathering degree and thickness of foliated structure.
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 94 Author(s): Bei Zheng, Haina Zhang, Lei Wang, Yanfei Guo, Peng Chen Tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum , TB) is an important functional food containing proteins with balanced amino acid composition and more flavonoids than common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum, CB). Buckwheat contains highly potent allergens that trigger an allergic reaction via an IgE mediated response. In this work, the full-length cDNA encoding Fag t 2 from tartary buckwheat seeds was cloned by screening the cDNA library of seed-filling period. The recombinant Fag t 2 (rFag t 2) expressed in Pichia pastoris SMD1168H was purified by purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. It demonstrated that Fag t 2 was a major allergen in tartary buckwheat with the activity of IgE binding and pepsin resistance, along with the thermal stability. The identification of natural Fag t 2 (n Fag t 2) confirmed that the Fag t 2 protein belongs to the 2S albumin family, only existing in embryo. Most interesting, we discovered that Fag t 2 had a α-amylase inhibitor domain near the end of C-terminal. The possible activity of α-amylase inhibitor of Fag t 2 will be detected in subsequent studies.
    Print ISSN: 0161-5890
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9142
    Topics: Medicine
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 94 Author(s): Qing Li, Min Zheng, Yueheng Liu, Wei Sun, Jun Shi, Jie Ni, Qiong Wang Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) is a frequent complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) accompanied by the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Recently, the function of macrophages in an inflammatory microenvironment during PD remains unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the role of distinct macrophage phenotypes in the progression of PF through macrophage depletion in a peritoneal dialysis-induced mouse model. After injection of 200 μl liposomal clodronate (LC) at the start of instillation PD fluids (PDFs), mice were injected with 100 μL LC every 4 days after the first time injection for longer macrophage depletion, while control mice were co-treated with PBS liposomes. For macrophages transfusion,primary macrophages (M0) were stimulated into M1 and M2 macrophages and transfused into the mice the next day after each LC injection. Mice were sacrificed after 6 weeks of PDFs treatment for the assessment of histological changes, ECM deposition and peritoneal ultrafiltration function. Systemic monocyte/macrophage depletion resulted in less severe structural alterations, including thickening and cubic transformation of mesothelial cells, fibrin deposition, fibrous capsule formation, and interstitial fibrosis. A strong reduction of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin expression, as well as an increased E-cadherin expression was also observed, indicating an overall inhibition of peritoneal fibrosis in macrophages depletion mice.M1 macrophage reperfusion showed a significant increase in histological damages, ECM deposition and peritoneal ultrafiltration functional decline compared with those of the M2 and control groups. TLR4 expression was enhanced in M1 macrophage-treated group. These results suggest that M1 macrophages are an important mediator of peritoneal fibrosis. Graphical abstract
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    Topics: Medicine
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Technological Forecasting and Social Change Author(s): Abdul-Nasser El-Kassar, Sanjay Kumar Singh Faced with internal and external pressure to adapt and implement environmental friendly business activities, it is becoming crucial for firms to identify practices that enhance their competitive advantage, economic, and environmental performance. Green innovation, green technologies, and the implementation of green supply chain management are examples of such practices. Green innovation and the adoption of the combination of green product innovation and green process innovation involve reduction in consumption of energy and pollution emission, recycling of wastes, sustainable utilization of resources, and green product designs. Although the extent research in this area is substantial, research on the importance of considering corporate environmental ethics, stakeholders view of green product, and demand for green products as drivers of green innovation must be conducted. Moreover, the role of large scale data, management commitment, and human resource practices play to overcome the technological challenges, achieve competitive advantage, and enhance the economic and environmental performance have yet to be addressed. This paper develops and tests a holistic model that depicts and examines the relationships among green innovation, its drivers, as well as factors that help overcome the technological challenges and influence the performance and competitive advantage of the firm. This paper is among the first works to deal with such a complex framework which considers the interrelationships among numerous constructs and their effects on competitive advantage as well as overall organizational performance. A questionnaire was designed to measure the influence of green innovation adoption/implementation and its drivers on performance and competitive advantage while taking into consideration the impact of management commitment and HR practices, as well as the use of large data on these relationships. Data collected from a sample of 215 respondents working in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and Golf-Cooperation Countries (GCC) were used to test the proposed relationships. The proposed model proved to be fit. The hypotheses were supported, and implications were discussed.
    Print ISSN: 0040-1625
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5509
    Topics: Sociology , Technology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 108 Author(s): Chuan-Yao Li, Hai-Jun Huang The flow congestion model provides a realistic form of depicting congestion by considering the spatial dynamic characteristics of traffic flow. For reducing the complication of analysis, previous studies adopted the α − β − γ preference of travel time, arrival early and late penalties. This handling method destroys the continuity of user equilibrium (UE) inflow rate as pointed out by Li and Huang (2017). In this paper, we investigate the single-entry traffic corridor with continuous scheduling preference (CSP) and develop a customized method to find the computational solution of UE flow pattern. Analytical and numerical results show that the introduction of CSP lets inflow rate of early arrivals first increase then decrease. This extends the knowledge given by classical bottleneck model and flow congestion model with α − β − γ preference. Another finding is that, even though the introduction of CSP can smooth inflow rate at departure time of the punctual commuter and make the UE flow pattern more stable, a series of shock waves still exist.
    Print ISSN: 0191-2615
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2367
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 108 Author(s): Daniel Hörcher, Daniel J. Graham This paper investigates multi-period public transport supply, i.e. networks in which capacity cannot be differentiated between links and time periods facing independent but nonidentical demand conditions. This setting is particularly relevant in public transport, as earlier findings on multi-period road supply cannot be applied when the user cost function, defined as the sum of waiting time and crowding costs, is nonhomogeneous. The presence of temporal, spatial and directional demand imbalances is unavoidable in a public transport network. It is not obvious, however, how the magnitude of demand imbalances may affect its economic and financial performance. We show in a simple back-haul setting with elastic demand, controlling for total willingness to pay in the network, that asymmetries in market size reduce the attainable social surplus of a service, while variety in maximum willingness to pay leads to higher aggregate social surplus and lower subsidy under efficient pricing. The analysis of multi-period supply sheds light on the relationship between urban structure, daily activity patterns, and public transport performance.
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 108 Author(s): Qinglong Yan, Zhe Sun, Qijian Gan, Wen-Long Jin The existence of stationary states during peak periods has been an underlying assumption of many studies on analysis, operations, control, and management of transportation networks. In Cassidy (1998), a method was proposed to manually identify near-stationary states by visually inspecting transformed curves of cumulative total vehicle counts and occupancies. Such near-stationary states are important for calibrating fundamental diagrams, identifying active bottlenecks and incidents, and quantifying capacity drop magnitudes. To the best of our knowledge, however, there lacks an automatic method that can be applied to efficiently identify near-stationary states from a large amount of data. In this study, we attempt to fill this gap. We start with definitions of steady, stationary, and equilibrium states and discuss their relations. Then we present a novel four-step method for automatically identifying near-stationary states from raw loop-detector data: first, the raw data are pre-processed to obtain healthy datasets, fill in missing values, and normalize averaged vehicle counts and occupancies to the same scale; second, daily time series are partitioned into multiple candidate intervals based on the pruned exact linear time (PELT) changepoint detection method; third, the characteristics of the candidate intervals are calculated; and finally, near-stationary states are selected based on modified Cassidy’s gap and duration criteria. We further close the loop by presenting an algorithm to automatically determine the penalty threshold in the second step and the gap threshold in fourth step to ensure the quantity as well as the quality of identified near-stationary states. In a case study, we apply the proposed method to identify near-stationary states from a large set of 30-s raw loop-detector data at a freeway mainline station. We verify the validity of identified near-stationary states both directly and indirectly. The results show that the identified near-stationary states are valid with high quality and the calibrated triangular fundamental diagram is well-fitted and physically meaningful. We finally conclude by discussing some future improvements and potential applications.
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 108 Author(s): Ghasak I.M.A. Mothafer, Toshiyuki Yamamoto, Venkataraman N. Shankar A multivariate count model is developed by introducing a simple and practical formula. The formulation begins with a modification of the standard ordered response model to adopt the count outcomes nature. This modification is accomplished by introducing a non-linear asymmetric interdependence structure among the error terms using the copula-based model. To avoid simulation maximum-likelihood for evaluating the multi-outcome density, we utilize the composite marginal likelihood (CML) approach. The proposed copula-based model with the CML approach allows for asymmetric (tail) dependency without a need for a simulation mechanism. Non-parametric graphical techniques with the empirical copula as well as conventional goodness-of-fit statistics are utilized to guide copula selection. In addition, unobserved heterogeneity across observations is also addressed through a heterogeneous dispersion parameter in the proposed model. The heterogeneous dispersion parameter model is a suitable alternative to random parameter count models in that captures heterogeneity in variance, while allowing for closed form while the latter needs numerical integration or simulation. We apply these techniques to study the interdependence structure among four types of traffic crashes using three years (2005–2007) of cross-sectional crash data record for 274 multilane freeway segments in the State of Washington, USA. These four categories of crash types are the rear end; sideswipe; fixed objects and other crash types. The empirical results show a significant presence of unobserved heterogeneous dependency across these types of crashes. The results indicate the important role of unobserved heterogeneity in variance and covariance structure estimation. An important outcome of this result is that it can affect inference on the relative impact of roadway geometrics on crash occurrence. For example, we find that horizontal curve related parameters on freeway segments substantially increase the joint likelihood of rear-end, sideswipe, fixed objects and other crash types, when compared to the characteristics of vertical curves.
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 108 Author(s): A. Arun Prakash This study addresses the problem of determining the path with the least expected travel time on stochastic and time-dependent networks. The Bellman’s optimality principle is not applicable to this problem —because of its non-linear objective function— making it difficult to solve. In this light, we propose a pruning-based algorithm that progressively determines subpaths from the source and eliminates those that are non-optimal. The algorithm uses a novel bi-level, bounds-based pruning criterion to determine whether subpath can belong to the optimal path. We show that the pruning criterion is valid and that the algorithm terminates with an exact solution. Computational experiments demonstrate that the algorithm can successfully solve the problem even on large real-world networks and that its practical computational complexity is polynomial. Finally, we show that the pruning algorithm outperforms the existing non-dominance based procedure by a factor proportional to the network size on medium-sized networks and more so on large-sized networks. This work has the potential to aid in a wider application of stochastic time-dependent networks for modeling and analysis.
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 108 Author(s): Jie Xiao, Joern Pachl, Boliang Lin, Jiaxi Wang After the railroad blocking plan is generated, the block-to-train assignment problem determines which train services to be offered, how many trains of each service to be dispatched (service frequency) and which blocks to be carried by which train services. An integer programming optimization model is defined to solve the block-to-train assignment problem. The model aims to maximize the total cost savings of the whole railroad network compared to the single-block train service plan, where each block is allocated to a direct train service. The objective function includes the service design cost savings, the train operation cost savings, the car-hour consumption savings in the accumulation process, the car-hour consumption savings in the attachment and detachment operations and the waiting car-hour consumption savings. Furthermore, the model is improved to a path-based formulation, which has far fewer decision variables and is easier to solve for real-world problems. A heuristic approach based on the genetic algorithm and tabu search is developed to solve the path-based formulation. The model and approach are tested first in a small network to compare with the optimal solution obtained through the enumeration method and the solution obtained from commercial optimization software. Then the model and approach are applied to a real larger railroad sub-network in China.
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 108 Author(s): James C. Chu This study solves the simultaneous planning problem of network design and timetabling for urban bus systems. An innovative mixed-integer programming (MIP) model is formulated and a parallel branch-and-price-and-cut (BPC) algorithm is proposed to solve the problem. The key idea of the model formulation and the solution algorithm is to represent a bus timetable with a route and a dispatch pattern. An aggregation and greedy algorithm is developed to efficiently solve the pricing subproblem. The cuts of disaggregate coupling inequalities are dynamically added to strengthen the lower bound. A computational study is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methodology. The comparison with alternative solution approaches indicates that the parallel BPC algorithm is superior to solving the MIP formulations with the off-the-shelf MIP solver. Different values of model parameters are also tested, and various statistics of operators and passengers are reported for the cases.
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    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Volume 59 Author(s): Yingying Cha, Ulf Olofsson, Mats Gustafsson, Christer Johansson Increasing attention is being paid to airborne particles in railway environments because of their potential to adversely affect health. In this study, we investigate the contribution of moving trains to both the concentration and size distribution of particles in tunnel environments. Real-time measurements were taken with high time-resolution instruments at a railway station platform in a tunnel in Stockholm in January 2013. The results show that individual trains stopping and starting at the platform substantially elevate the particulate concentrations with a mobility diameter greater than 100 nm. Two size modes of the particulate number concentrations were obtained. A mode of around 170 nm occurs when a train moves, while the other mode peaks at about 30 nm when there is no train in the station. By using principal component analysis (PCA), three contributing sources were identified on the basis of the classification of the sizes of the particles, namely railway-related mechanical wear, suspension due to the movement of trains and sparking of electric-powered components. It is concluded that the particulate matter released by individual moving trains is a key contributor to fine particles (100–500 nm) on the railway platform in a tunnel.
    Print ISSN: 1361-9209
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2340
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 108 Author(s): Mahdieh Allahviranloo, Kay Axhausen The choice of ‘dining out with friends’ or ‘wrapping up unfinished tasks at work’ depends on the utility/satisfaction gained from performing each activity while being constrained by time and physical resources. In fact, such parameters as ‘type’, ‘time of day’, ‘duration’, ‘location’, ‘companionship’, and etc. are defining factors in quantifying the utility of activities - a challenging problem which has been the focus of research for many years. This paper proposes a methodology to estimate the parameters of utility distributions for joint and solo activities, along with the penalty values associated with the deviation of activity start time and duration from their modal values. The study utilizes travel survey data collected in Frauenfeld, Switzerland, over the period of six weeks in 2003. The proposed model is a bi-level optimization model, where the upper level maximizes the accuracy of the activity scheduling on the aggregate level and is measured using the outputs of lower level optimization models. Each lower level model is a variation of pickup and delivery problem and schedules activities for each individual in the population using the parameters of utility distribution and penalty values generated by the Genetic Algorithm. The results indicate that travelers are trying to be more consistent with their arrival time to work, school and pickup/drop off activities: the associated penalty values for deviation from the modal value for arrival time to work and school activities are high. Additionally, significant differences in the parameters of the estimated utility distribution for joint and solo activities are observed, reflecting the fact that utility gained from joint and solo activities are different and needs more in-depth investigation. The proposed methodology has the potential to be applied to any multiday travel survey data, which due to advances made in handheld smart devices and mobile applications are becoming more convenient to collect.
    Print ISSN: 0191-2615
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2367
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 79 Author(s): Jitsuro Sugie, Kazuki Ishibashi The purpose of this paper is to provide an oscillation theorem that can be applied to half-linear differential equations with time-varying coefficients. A parametric curve by the coefficients is focused in order to obtain our theorem. This parametric curve is a generalization of the curve given by the characteristic equation of the second-order linear differential equation with constant coefficients. The obtained theorem is proved by transforming the half-linear differential equation to a standard polar coordinates system and using phase plane analysis carefully.
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 68
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 79 Author(s): Duanmei Zhou, Guoliang Chen, Gaohang Yu, Jian Zhong We study the commuting solutions of the Yang–Baxter matrix equation A X A = X A X when A is an arbitrary square matrix. By characterizing its commuting solutions based on projection matrices, we show that projections can be determined by using the generalized eigenspaces corresponding to the eigenvalues of A . Therefore, commuting solutions can be constructed explicitly. Our results are more general than those obtained recently by Dong (2017), Ding and Zhang (2014), and Ding and Rhee (2013).
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 69
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 79 Author(s): Jian-Guo Liu, Yu Tian, Jian-Guo Hu The ( G ′ ∕ G ) -expansion approach is an efficient and well-developed approach to solve nonlinear partial differential equations. In this paper, the (3+1)-dimensional Boiti–Leon–Manna–Pempinelli equation is investigated by using this approach, which describes the (2+1)-dimensional interaction of the Riemann wave propagated along the y -axis with a long wave propagated along the x -axis and can be considered as a model for the incompressible fluid. With the aid of symbolic computation, a family of exact solutions are obtained in forms of the hyperbolic functions and the trigonometric functions. When the parameters are selected special values, non-traveling wave solutions are also presented, and these gained solutions have abundant structures. The figures corresponding to these solutions are illustrated to show the particular localized excitations and the interactions between two solitary waves.
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 70
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    In: SoftwareX
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: SoftwareX Author(s): Paul Bauer, Alexandre Barrozo, Miha Purg, Beat Anton Amrein, Mauricio Esguerra, Philippe Barrie Wilson, Dan Thomas Major, Johan Åqvist, Shina Caroline Lynn Kamerlin Atomistic simulations have become one of the main approaches to study the chemistry and dynamics of biomolecular systems in solution. Chemical modelling is a powerful way to understand biochemistry, with a number of different programs available to perform specialized calculations. We present here Q6, a new version of the Q software package, which is a generalized package for empirical valence bond, linear interaction energy, and other free energy calculations. In addition to general technical improvements, Q6 extends the reach of the EVB implementation to fast approximations of quantum effects, extended solvent descriptions and quick estimation of the contributions of individual residues to changes in the activation free energy of reactions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2352-7110
    Topics: Computer Science
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  • 71
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 147 Author(s): Fatemeh Bakhtiari, Jette Bredahl Jacobsen, Bo Jellesmark Thorsen, Thomas Hedemark Lundhede, Niels Strange, Mattias Boman
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6106
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 72
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 147 Author(s): Jérôme Ballet, Lucile Marchand, Jérôme Pelenc, Robin Vos The capability approach and the ecosystem services approach have experienced a rapprochement in recent years, evidenced in particular by the publication of several papers in Ecological Economics . Our article advances this rapprochement by embedding the concepts of identity and aspirations. First, we argue that a further set of components should be integrated into the framework: the aspirations set. Second, we argue that a new component within this set i.e. a personal identity conversion factor, must be added to the capability approach so that an integrated analysis framework can be developed. This component derives from the personal identity capability and the aspirations window, both of which are related to cultural ecosystem services. Our analytical framework then highlights all the ambiguity associated with this conversion factor, which can either be a negative or a positive factor in environmental protection.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6106
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 73
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 147 Author(s): Mairi-Jane V. Fox, Jon D. Erickson The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) was designed to reveal the economic, social, and environmental trade-offs associated with conventional economic growth as traditionally measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Although originally designed for use at the national scale, an interest has developed in the United States in a state-level uptake of the GPI to inform and guide policy. This study presents the first fifty-state estimate for U.S. GPI in order to address questions over its design, implementation, and ultimate potential as a tool to guide state-level economic policy. Following a review of the current state of analysis and critique of GPI, we provide an overview of methodology and database development. Results are then presented, including discussion of lessons learned through a fifty-state application. The paper concludes with suggestions for further research and next steps to consolidating a consistent methodology.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6106
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 74
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Nicholas Apergis, Grigorios Vouzavalis This paper investigates the asymmetric pass-through of oil prices to gasoline prices under the non-linear autoregressive distributed lags (NARDL) model. The analysis adds to the unsettled discussion of whether retail gasoline prices respond asymmetrically to oil prices and it is carried out for the US, the UK, Spain, Italy and Greece, spanning the period January 2009 to July 2016. These countries have been selected on the basis that fuel markets are differentiated by the structure of retail markets (oligopolistic behavior, production lags and market competition), which depends on extraction, refinery and distribution. The analysis considers markets that differ in terms of their structure. Both short- and long-run non-linearity are tested by deriving both the positive and negative partial sum decompositions of the dependent variable. In addition, it was feasible to quantify the responses to positive and negative oil price shocks from the asymmetric dynamic multipliers. The findings indicate that oil and gasoline prices provide mixed evidence of an asymmetric behavior. Short-run asymmetry is found in the Italian market, while in the Spanish market there is evidence of both short- and long-run asymmetry. The remaining cases (Greece, U.K., U.S.) illustrate a symmetric pass-through scheme of oil to retail gasoline prices.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 75
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Lorenzo Reus, Francisco D. Munoz, Rodrigo Moreno Centralized energy auctions for long-term contracts are commonly-used mechanisms to ensure supply adequacy, to promote competition, and to protect retail customers from price spikes in Latin America. In Chile, the law mandates that all distribution companies must hold long-term contracts—which are awarded on a competitive centralized auction—to cover 100% of the projected demand from three to fifteen years into the future. These contracts can be indexed to a series of financial parameters, including fossil fuel prices at reference locations. Drawing from portfolio theory, we use a simple example to illustrate the difficulties of selecting, through the current clearing mechanism that focuses on average costs and individual characteristics of the offers, a portfolio of long-term energy contracts that could simultaneously minimize the expected future cost of energy and limit the risk exposure of retail customers. In particular, we show that if the objective of the regulator is to limit the risk to regulated consumers, it could be optimal to include contracts that would not be selected based on individual characteristics of the offers and a least-cost auction objective, but that could significantly reduce the price variance of the overall portfolio due to diversification effects between indexing parameters.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 76
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Mauro Sarrica, Fulvio Biddau, Sonia Brondi, Paolo Cottone, Bruno M. Mazzara Transition towards low-carbon societies requires multi-scalar and coordinated actions. It implies top-down and bottom-up processes of translation connecting supra-national regulations and targets, with policies and discourses enacted at the national and local level. However, there is a dearth of research analysing the coordination among different scales. The present paper explores how alternative views associated with energy sustainability are translated, supported or resisted, across different scales. Data were collected at a national, regional and local level in Italy. Political debates and newspaper reports, as well as interviews with key local informants, were analysed. The findings indicate elements of coherence as well as tensions and inconsistencies between discourses on energy sustainability taking place at different scales, corresponding to diverse models of governance and policy scenarios. The results suggest the need for a better coordination between centralised and decentralised energy policies; the need to recognise and address bottom-up inputs and concerns into national/regional strategies; and the need for enhancing participation and public engagement in energy governance.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 77
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Yuwan Malakar This paper reinforces the concept that argues energy services should be evaluated from a ‘capability perspective’ rather than a mere utility point of view. It does so by evaluating the role of electricity in improving the quality of people's lives, using the capability approach, looking at the case of rural electrification in India. This study was carried out in two villages in Chittoor district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, using a qualitative approach. The findings suggest that electricity is a critical input to expand people's choices and opportunities in the pursuit of valued lives. However, the findings also indicate that the benefits of electricity are not equally distributed among all the families in the villages studied. The study recommends that rural electrification policies reconsider what defines an electrified village. Furthermore, this paper also suggests that the policy should promote not only access to electricity but also enhance social and political settings that may help people to transform electricity access into valued capabilities.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 78
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 147 Author(s): John K. Pattison-Williams, John W. Pomeroy, Pascal Badiou, Shane Gabor This paper applies a social return on investment (SROI) analysis to the issue of flood control and wetland conservation in the Smith Creek basin of southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada. Basin hydrological modeling applied to wetland loss and restoration scenarios in the study area provides local estimates of the ecosystem service (ES) provision related to flood control and nutrient removal. Locally appropriate monetary values are applied to these services to gauge the cost effectiveness of wetland conservation funding at two levels: flood control capacity alone and then incorporating a suite of ES. SROI ratios for flood control alone provide ratios between 3.17 (retention) and 0.80 (full restoration) over 30 years; when other ES are included, the ratios increase, ranging from 7.70 (retention) to 2.98 (full restoration) over 30 years. Retention of existing wetlands provides the highest SROI and therefore we argue that government policy should focus on preventing further loss of wetlands as a strategic investment opportunity. Overall, these results indicate that wetland retention is an economically viable solution to limit the financial, social and environmental damages of flooding in Saskatchewan specifically and the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) generally.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6106
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 79
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Energy Economics, Volume 69
    Print ISSN: 0140-9883
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6181
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 80
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018 Source: Energy Economics Author(s): Bangzhu Zhu, Shunxin Ye, Ping Wang, Kaijian He, Tao Zhang, Yi-Ming Wei In this study, a novel multiscale nonlinear ensemble leaning paradigm incorporating empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and least square support vector machine (LSSVM) with kernel function prototype is proposed for carbon price forecasting. The EMD algorithm is used to decompose the carbon price into simple intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and one residue, which are identified as the components of high frequency, low frequency and trend by using the Lempel-Ziv complexity algorithm. The Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model is used to forecast the high frequency IMFs with ARCH effects. The LSSVM model with kernel function prototype is employed to forecast the high frequency IMFs without ARCH effects, the low frequency and trend components. The forecasting values of all the components are aggregated into the ones of original carbon price by the LSSVM with kernel function prototype-based nonlinear ensemble approach. Furthermore, particle swarm optimization is used for model selections of the LSSVM with kernel function prototype. Taking the popular prediction methods as benchmarks, the empirical analysis demonstrates that the proposed model can achieve higher level and directional predictions and higher robustness. The findings show that the proposed model seems an advanced approach for predicting the high nonstationary, nonlinear and irregular carbon price.
    Print ISSN: 0140-9883
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6181
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 81
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    In: Heliyon
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Heliyon, Volume 4, Issue 1 Author(s): Hari Prasad Ratnapuram, S.S. Vutukuru, Rajasri Yadavalli Influence of mixotrophic mode and its transition to various trophic modes under stress conditions was assessed during two stage cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa . Significant lipid productivity was triggered under low light intensity, glucose + bicarbonate supplementation and nitrogen starvation. The association between biomass and lipid productivity, fatty acid composition during mixotrophic transition was critically evaluated. Biomass in growth phase (GP) and stress phase (SP) was 6.14 g/l and 5.14 g/l, respectively, in mixotrophic mode. Higher lipid productivity of 284 g/kg and 154.3 g/kg of neutral lipids was achieved in SP in mixotrophic-mixotrophic (MM) and mixotrophic-heterotrophic (MH) modes, respectively. Stress conditions resulted in high unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters in MH mode. In addition, neutral lipid content was 58% in MH and 52% in MM, that can be attributed to carbon source that is supplemented even in stress phase. Exploring such novel strategies can generate sustainable avenues for biodiesel production.
    Electronic ISSN: 2405-8440
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 82
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 66 Author(s): Zhuo Yang, Mark L. Franz, Shanjiang Zhu, Jina Mahmoudi, Arefeh Nasri, Lei Zhang Taxis remain a key asset for urban mobility despite the tremendous growth of modern mobility-on-demand service providers such as Uber and Lyft. A fundamental understanding of the factors that impact the taxi demand is essential for planning an effective multi-modal transportation system, and can also shed lights on new on-demand services. This study addressed a gap in literature by investigating the correlation between demand for taxi, land use patterns, and accessibility to other modes using detailed GPS and GIS information collected from the Washington D.C. metropolitan area. The results of the models showed a strong link between demand for taxi, land use patterns, and accessibility to other modes. Mixed land use did not show a strong correlation with taxi demand. The study also found that the taxi mode is likely to complement metro trips, but compete with bus trips, although both of these modes of travel are considered public transit. Airport trips were found to be the most important source for taxi travel. These findings were further supported by the time-of-day and seasonality analysis.
    Print ISSN: 0966-6923
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1236
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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  • 83
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 66 Author(s): Feng Zhen, Xiaojuan Du, Jason Cao, Patricia L. Mokhtarian The proliferation of e-shopping has implications for shopping travel and commercial land use. Using data collected from adult internet users in Nanjing, China in 2015, this study develops trivariate probit models to explore the influence of spatial attributes on shopping channel choices at the pre-purchase and purchase stages in the shopping process for both search goods (books) and experience goods (clothing). We find that those who live and work in suburban areas are more likely than others to shop at traditional stores to conduct pre-purchase and purchase activities for books and clothing, likely because of the slow diffusion of e-shopping in these areas. On the other hand, travel time to stores is positively associated with online shopping for books but not for clothing, and onerous travel modes are associated with pre-purchase activities on the internet. Thus, shopping accessibility negatively affects e-shopping. However, its effects vary by shopping stage and product type.
    Print ISSN: 0966-6923
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1236
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): The Lancet
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736