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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 16 Author(s): Takao Someya, Katsura Sano, Kotaro Hara, Yoshimasa Sagane, Toshihiro Watanabe, R.G.S. Wijesekara This data article provides gene expression profiles, determined by using real-time PCR, of fibroblasts and keratinocytes treated with 0.01% and 0.001% extracts of neem plant (Azadirachta indica), local name “Kohomba” in Sri Lanka, harvested in Sri Lanka. For fibroblasts, the dataset includes expression profiles for genes encoding hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1), hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL1), hyaluronidase-2 (HYAL2), versican, aggrecan, CD44, collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1), collagen, type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1), collagen, type VII, alpha 1 (COL7A1), matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1), acid ceramidase, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF7), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and aquaporin 3 (AQP3). For keratinocytes, the expression profiles are for genes encoding HAS1, HAS2, HYAL1, HYAL2, versican, CD44, IL-1α, cox2, TGF-β, AQP3, Laminin5, collagen, type XVII, alpha 1 (COL17A1), integrin alpha-6 (ITGA6), ceramide synthase 3 (CERS3), elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 1 (ELOVL1), elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 4 (ELOVL4), filaggrin (FLG), transglutaminase 1 (TGM1), and keratin 1 (KRT1). The expression profiles are provided as bar graphs.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 4
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: 1 January 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 159
    Print ISSN: 0038-092X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 5
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 16 Author(s): Logan Cochrane, Yeshtila W. Bekele This article presents average agricultural yield data per hectare for key cereal, legume and root crops from 2001 until 2017. Data was obtained from the annual Agricultural Sample Surveys of the Central Statistics Agency (CSA) of Ethiopia. We present data at national, regional (SNNPRS) and zonal (Wolaita) levels. The data shows that average yields for all crops, at all levels, show increasing trends during the time period. Data for the main cereal crops is consistent and aligns with literature relatively well, however we raise questions about the root crop data in an effort to encourage greater critical reflection of components of data from the CSA.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 6
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Developmental Biology Author(s): Luca Massimino, Lisbeth Flores-Garcia, Bruno Di Stefano, Gaia Colasante, Cecilia Icoresi-Mazzeo, Mattia Zaghi, Bruce A. Hamilton, Alessandro Sessa During cerebral cortex development, neural progenitors are required to elaborate a variety of cell differentiation signals to which they are continuously exposed. RA acid is a potent inducer of neuronal differentiation as it was found to influence cortical development. We report herein that TBR2, a transcription factor specific to Intermediate (Basal) Neural Progenitors (INPs), represses activation of the RA responsive element and expression of RA target genes in cell lines. This repressive action on RA signaling was functionally confirmed by the decrease of RA-mediated neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells stably overexpressing TBR2. In vivo mapping of RA activity in the developing cortex indicated that RA activity is detected in radial glial cells and subsequently downregulated in INPs, revealing a fine cell-type specific regulation of its signaling. Thus, TBR2 might be a molecular player in opposing RA signaling in INPs. Interestingly, this negative regulation is achieved at least in part by directly repressing the critical nuclear RA co-factor ZFP423. Indeed, we found ZFP423 to be expressed in the developing cortex and promote RA-dependent neuronal differentiation. These data indicate that TBR2 contributes to suppressing RA signaling in INPs, thereby enabling them to re-enter cell cycle and delay neuronal differentiation.
    Print ISSN: 0012-1606
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-564X
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 7
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: April 2018 Source: World Development, Volume 104 Author(s): Suguru Mizunoya, Sophie Mitra, Izumi Yamasaki Out of school children are a critical issue in education and development. Very little is known as to whether a disability is associated with a higher risk of being out of school for children in developing countries. This paper presents and analyzes the gap in enrolment in both primary and secondary education between children with and without disabilities using for the first time an internationally tested and comparable measure of functional difficulties (e.g. seeing, hearing, and walking). Using nationally representative datasets from 15 developing countries, this paper finds a consistent and statistically significant disability gap in both primary and secondary school attendance. The paper econometrically examines potential explanations for this disability gap using several specifications. A household fixed effect model shows that disability reduces the probability of school attendance by a median 30.9 percentage points, and that neither individual characteristics nor their socio-economic and unobserved household characteristics explain the disability gap. While general poverty reduction policies through for instance social transfers to the poor may improve school attendance in general, they seem unlikely to close the disability gap in schooling. The disability gap for primary–age children follows an inverted U-shape relationship with GNI per capita. This suggests that, as GNI per capita rises and more resources become available for improving access to education in middle-income countries, children without disabilities increasingly attend school, whereas the situation of children with disabilities may improve more slowly. Despite the adoption of an inclusive education agenda globally, this paper shows that more research and policy attention is needed to make schooling disability-inclusive in developing countries. More attention is also necessary regarding the functional difficulties experienced by children, as some may be preventable and the schooling inequalities associated with them may thus be avoidable.
    Print ISSN: 0305-750X
    Topics: Geography , Political Science , Sociology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 8
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Jennifer R. Hamilton, Gayathri Vijayakumar, Peter Palese Influenza A virus (IAV) has shown promise as an oncolytic agent. To improve IAV as an oncolytic virus, we sought to design a transgenic virus expressing an immune checkpoint-inhibiting antibody during the viral life cycle. To test whether it was possible to express an antibody during infection, an influenza virus was constructed encoding the heavy chain of an antibody on the PB1 segment and the light chain of an antibody on the PA segment. This antibody-expressing IAV grows to high titers, and the antibodies secreted from infected cells exhibit comparable functionality with hybridoma-produced antibodies. To enhance the anti-cancer activity of IAV, an influenza virus was engineered to express a single-chain antibody antagonizing the immune checkpoint CTLA4 (IAV-CTLA4). In mice implanted with the aggressive B16-F10 melanoma, intratumoral injection with IAV-CTLA4 delayed the growth of treated tumors, mediated an abscopal effect, and increased overall survival. Graphical abstract Teaser Influenza virus has potential as an anti-cancer agent. Hamilton et al. engineer antibody-expressing influenza viruses and demonstrate that encoding a single-chain antibody blocking the immune checkpoint CTLA4 enhances the anti-cancer activity of influenza virus. These data suggest a strategy for improving the oncolytic nature of Orthomyxoviruses.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 9
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): J.J. David Ho, Nathan C. Balukoff, Grissel Cervantes, Petrice D. Malcolm, Jonathan R. Krieger, Stephen Lee The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B (eIF5B) is a homolog of IF2, an ancient translation factor that enables initiator methionine-tRNAi Met (met-tRNAi Met ) loading on prokaryotic ribosomes. While it can be traced back to the last universal common ancestor, eIF5B is curiously dispensable in modern aerobic yeast and mammalian cells. Here, we show that eIF5B is an essential element of the cellular hypoxic cap-dependent protein synthesis machinery. System-wide interrogation of dynamic translation machineries by MATRIX (mass spectrometry analysis of active translation factors using ribosome density fractionation and isotopic labeling experiments) demonstrated augmented eIF5B activity in hypoxic translating ribosomes. Global translatome studies revealed central carbon metabolism, cellular hypoxic adaptation, and ATF4-mediated stress response as major eIF5B-dependent pathways. These primordial processes rely on eIF5B even in the presence of oxygen and active eIF2, the canonical recruiter of met-tRNAi Met in eukaryotes. We suggest that aerobic eukarya retained eIF5B/IF2 to remodel anaerobic pathways during episodes of oxygen deficiency. Graphical abstract Teaser Ho et al. employed MATRIX to demonstrate that eIF5B is an essential hypoxic translation factor that facilitates met-tRNAi Met delivery to ribosomes, serving as the hypoxic surrogate of the textbook eIF2. Aerobic eukarya likely retained eIF5B for the oxygen-dependent regulation of central carbon metabolism and hypoxic survival.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 10
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Shanawaz Mohammed Ghouse, Anastasia Polikarpova, Lina Muhandes, Jan Dudeck, Iliana Tantcheva-Poór, Karin Hartmann, Matthias Lesche, Andreas Dahl, Sabine Eming, Werner Müller, Rayk Behrendt, Axel Roers High numbers of mast cells populate the stroma of many types of neoplasms, including human papilloma virus-induced benign and malignant tumors in man and mouse. Equipped with numerous pattern recognition receptors and capable of executing important pro-inflammatory responses, mast cells are considered innate sentinels that significantly impact tumor biology. Mast cells were reported to promote human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and neo-angiogenesis in an HPV-driven mouse model of skin cancer. We analyzed HPV-induced epithelial hyperplasia and squamous cell carcinoma formation, as well as growth of tumors inoculated into the dermis, in mice lacking skin mast cells. Unexpectedly, the absence of mast cells had no effect on HPV-induced epithelial growth or angiogenesis, on growth kinetics of inoculated tumors, or on the immunological tumor micro-milieu. Thus, the conspicuous recruitment of mast cells into tumor tissues cannot necessarily be equated with important mast cell functions in tumor growth. Graphical abstract Teaser Mast cells accumulate in high numbers in many human tumors, and they are widely viewed as important promoters of tumor growth. Ghouse et al. show that growth, angiogenesis, and the immunological micro-milieu of tumors growing in mice genetically deficient for mast cells are unchanged compared to control tumors.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 11
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Kinga Winczura, Manfred Schmid, Claudia Iasillo, Kelly R. Molloy, Lea Mørch Harder, Jens S. Andersen, John LaCava, Torben Heick Jensen Nuclear RNA metabolism is influenced by protein complexes connecting to both RNA-productive and -destructive pathways. The ZC3H18 protein binds the cap-binding complex (CBC), universally present on capped RNAs, while also associating with the nuclear exosome targeting (NEXT) complex, linking to RNA decay. To dissect ZC3H18 function, we conducted interaction screening and mutagenesis of the protein, which revealed a phosphorylation-dependent isoform. Surprisingly, the modified region of ZC3H18 associates with core histone proteins. Further examination of ZC3H18 function, by genome-wide analyses, demonstrated its impact on transcription of a subset of protein-coding genes. This activity requires the CBC-interacting domain of the protein, with some genes being also dependent on the NEXT- and/or histone-interacting domains. Our data shed light on the domain requirements of a protein positioned centrally in nuclear RNA metabolism, and they suggest that post-translational modification may modulate its function. Graphical abstract Teaser The ZC3H18 protein is involved in RNA decay mediated by the CBC-NEXT complex. Winczura et al. identify a phosphorylation-dependent interaction of ZC3H18 with histones, and they find separate CBCA-, NEXT-, and histone-binding domains. They suggest a role for ZC3H18 in mRNA biogenesis, which for some genes is independent of its role in RNA decay.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 12
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 66 Author(s): Genevieve Giuliano, Sanggyun Kang Is logistics decentralization a consistent trend across metropolitan areas? If so, is the trend more pronounced than population or employment decentralization? This paper examines logistics industry location trends from 2003 to 2013 in the four largest California metropolitan areas: Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Diego, and Sacramento. We define measures of both decentralization and de-concentration and compare logistics location trends with those of population and employment. Decentralization with respect to logistics establishments and employment is confirmed for Los Angeles; the other metro areas show mixed results. Possible explanatory factors include metropolitan size, economic development policies, share of non-local trade, and local geography.
    Print ISSN: 0966-6923
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1236
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 13
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering Author(s): Ahmet Özbek, Murat Gül, Ergun Karacan, Övünç Alca This paper aims to study the effect of anisotropy on strengths of several metamorphic rocks of southern (Çine) submassif of Menderes metamorphic massif in southwest Turkey. Four different metamorphic rocks including foliated phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist) were selected and examined. Discontinuity surveys were made along lines for each rock and evaluated with DIPS program. L-type Schmidt hammer was applied in the directions parallel and perpendicular to foliation during the field study. Several hand samples and rock blocks were collected during the field study for measurements of dry and saturated densities, dry and saturated unit weights and porosity, and for petrographic analysis and strength determination in laboratory. L- and N-type Schmidt hammers were applied in the directions perpendicular (anisotropy angle of 0°) and parallel (anisotropy angle of 90°) to the foliation on selected blocks of phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist). The phyllite and schist have higher porosity and lower density values than the other rocks. However, coarse crystalline gneiss and marble (calcschist) have higher rebound values and strengths, and they are classified as strong–very strong rocks. Generally, the rebound values in the direction perpendicular to the foliation are slightly higher than that in the direction parallel to foliation. Rebound values of N-type Schmidt hammer are higher than the L-type values except for phyllite. Sometimes, the rebound values of laboratory and field applications gave different results. This may result from variable local conditions such as minerals differentiation, discontinuities, water content, weathering degree and thickness of foliated structure.
    Print ISSN: 1674-7755
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 14
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering Author(s): A. Taghichian, H. Hashemalhoseini, M. Zaman, S. Beheshti Zavareh Simultaneous multistage hydraulic fracturing of unconventional gas shale in parallel multilateral wells is an effective technique to raise the connectivity of the reservoir to the wellbore and improve reservoir permeability for an economical production. Of course, this technique should be accompanied with some optimization procedures to obtain an efficiently fractured reservoir with the highest production and the lowest cost. In unconventional hydraulic fracturing, fracture deviation/collapse and trapping are familiar phenomena which occur when a non-optimized fracturing pattern is used. These problems occur respectively when stress shadow size has not been considered in optimization and fracturing pressure is higher than the available pressure in the sealed section. Therefore, in an optimized hydraulic fracturing, having straight fractures with no deviation or collapse needs consideration of stress shadow effect (SSE). Apart from that, having efficiently propagated fractures to the extent of the reservoir without any fracture trap requires consideration of stress intensity factor (SIF) and aperture. SSE was studied and published by the authors in 2014. For the case of SIF, investigating any change in mode I SIF and aperture with different influencing variables such as fracture geometry and pattern are studied in the current research work. Three different fracturing techniques are assumed as multistage fracturing, simultaneous single-stage fracturing, and simultaneous multistage fracturing techniques. Since obtaining SIF for three-dimensional fractures is a challenging issue, a stress ratio technique is used for calculation of SIF ratios of different fracturing scenarios compared to the case of a single fracture. Therefore, changes of SIF for different fracturing schemes are estimated and analyzed to understand whether or not a fracturing scheme is efficient and all the spaced perforations are activated and change to hydraulic fractures.
    Print ISSN: 1674-7755
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 15
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Carmen Ferrà, Anna Nora Tassetti, Fabio Grati, Giulio Pellini, Piero Polidori, Giuseppe Scarcella, Gianna Fabi A growing concern about the depletion of marine resources due to fishing overexploitation and degradation of ecosystems has been demonstrated over the last decade. Monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of fishing activities is an important tool for fisheries management which can also be used by other sectors such as fisheries science, public authorities, policy-makers and marine spatial planning. In this paper we introduce the first map of fishing activity at a Mediterranean scale of EU and non-EU fishing vessels, extracted using Automatic Identification System ship tracking data. Fishing activity maps were produced for three different years with a spatial resolution of 0.01° × 0.01°. As a main result, for the first time, changes of bottom trawl fishing activities between two consecutive years were map for the whole Mediterranean Sea. The results confirmed the suitability of this monitoring system to obtain reliable information on the extent of bottom trawl fishing activities.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 16
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Quach Thi Khanh Ngoc Biodiversity conservation can alter the ecosystems and ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. Understanding this linkage is essential for management planning to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems and their values to human well-being. This study evaluates the impacts of coral reef conservation and marine protected areas (MPAs) on the well-being of fishing communities in Central Vietnam. The Cu Lao Cham MPA is chosen as the case study. Coral reef health and four aspects of human well-being (i.e., catch rate [also related to food security], access to the resource, employment, and income) are investigated following the protection in this MPA. Data on the four different aspects were gathered from different sources. The results show that there is good evidence for how coral reef conservation can transfer the flow of benefits from the ecosystem to local people. However, trade-offs also occur as a result of the development of tourism, including the degradation of fish resources and the environment. The managers of the MPA and the community should take into account trade-offs in resource management and should focus on appropriate MPA planning and fisheries management outside the MPA to achieve better outcomes for coral reef ecosystems and the present and future needs of the local community.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 17
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Frazen Tolentino-Zondervan, Paul Berentsen, Simon R. Bush, Alfons Oude Lansink This paper assesses the effect of Marine Stewardship Council certification on the allocation of fishing effort by Filipino purse seine fishers operating in the waters of the Parties to the Nauru Agreement. Targeting skipjack tuna, these purse seiners allocate effort under a vessel day scheme to either MSC certified free school fishing or non-MSC certified fishing on fish aggregating devices (FADs). Based on historical catch and price data, the optimal set of fishing activities are determined in terms of the mean and variance of fishers’ gross margin at given levels of risk aversion. The results show that MSC certification stimulates fishers to reduce their allocation of effort on non-MSC compliant FADs, and consequently convert this effort to MSC compliant free school purse seining. In general, the MSC also increases the yearly gross margin of fishers as compared to the situation without MSC certification. The MSC therefore appears to be effective to a certain extent in promoting a transition to more sustainable fishing practices. However, the results also indicate that the risk profile of fishers is a key but underexplored dimension of assessing the potential impact of MSC certification on effort allocation.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 18
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: International Soil and Water Conservation Research Author(s): Narayan Kayet, Khanindra Pathak, Abhisek Chakrabarty, Satiprasad Sahoo Mining operations result in the generation of barren land and spoil heaps which are subject to high erosion rate during the rainy season. The present study uses Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and SCS-CN (Soil Conservation Service - Curve Number) process to conclude the soil loss estimation in Kiruburu and Meghahatuburu mining sites area. The geospatial model of yearly soil loss rate has been driving through integrating environmental variables parameters in a raster pixels-based GIS framework. GIS layers with, rainfall passivity or runoff erosivity (R), soil erosivity (K), slope length and steepness (LS), cover management(C) and conservation practice (P) factors were calculated to condition their special effects on yearly soil erosion in the study area. The coefficient of determination (r 2 ) is 0.834, which indicates a strong correlation in runoff and rainfall. Sub -watershed 5,9,10 and 2 was highly runoff. Average annual soil loss was calculated (30*30 m raster grid cell) to recognize the critical soil loss areas (Sub-watershed 9 and 5). Total soil erosion area was classified five class, slight (10,025.2 ha), moderate (3124.62), high (973.17 ha), very high (260.02 ha) and severe (52.83 ha). The resulting map shows highest soil erosion of >40 t h-1 y-1 (severe) through connection to grassland, degraded and open forestry on the erect mining side-escutcheon. The Landsat pan sharpening image and DGPS survey field data were used in the justification of soil erosion results.
    Electronic ISSN: 2095-6339
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 19
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Journal of Air Transport Management, Volume 67 Author(s): Antonio J. Torija, Rod H. Self With the environmental externalities of civil aviation under unprecedented scrutiny, and with the projected significant increase in air traffic demand over the next few decades, fleet-level studies are required to assess the potential benefit of novel aircraft technologies and operational procedures for minimizing environmental impact of aviation. Using a statistical classification process, the UK commercial aircraft fleet is reduced to four representative-in-class aircraft on the basis of aircraft physical characteristics, and aircraft noise and engine exhaust emissions. These four representative aircraft, that appropriately capture the noise and emissions characteristics for each category within the UK commercial fleet, are also selected to be used as baseline cases for the high-level assessment of the environmental benefit of novel aircraft technologies. For the particular case of aviation noise, the modelling tools are highly sensitive to the number of aircraft types in the flight schedule. A reduction of about 80% in computational time with relatively minor decrease in accuracy (between −4% and +5%) is observed when the whole aircraft fleet is replaced with the four representative-in-class aircraft for computing noise contours. Therefore, the statistical classification and selection of representative-in-class aircraft presented in this paper is a valid approach for the rapid and accurate computation of a large number of exploratory cases to assess aviation noise reduction strategies.
    Print ISSN: 0969-6997
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2089
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 20
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Journal of Air Transport Management, Volume 67 Author(s): Muhammad Shoaib Farooq, Maimoona Salam, Alain Fayolle, Norizan Jaafar, Kartinah Ayupp This study is aimed to assess the quality of service provided by Malaysia Airlines and its impact on overall customer satisfaction. This study employed a convenience sampling method for collecting data from 460 respondents using a self-administered questionnaire, designed on five dimensions of AIRQUAL scale. Moreover, variance based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used for testing the proposed structural model. Findings of this study revealed that all five dimensions of AIRQUAL scale i.e. airline tangibles; terminal tangibles; personnel services; empathy and image have a positive, direct and significant impact on customer satisfaction of Malaysia Airlines. This study investigated the impact of service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction in Malaysia Airlines. Due to limited resources and time constraints this study involves respondents from Malaysia Airlines only; for that reason a comparative analysis of findings with other airlines was not possible; therefore it is considered a limitation of this study. Moreover, importance-performance map analysis (IPMA) was also performed for exploring the importance of various dimensions of service quality. Findings indicate that airlines should focus on all dimensions of service quality, with special focus on personnel services and image for enhancing their customer satisfaction. It is expected that findings of this study will help airlines to understand the role of various dimensions of service quality for enhancing their customer satisfaction.
    Print ISSN: 0969-6997
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2089
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 21
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2017 Source: Journal of Air Transport Management Author(s): Seyed Reza Madani, Ali Shahandeh Nookabadi, Seyed Reza Hejazi In the last few years, the p -hub maximal covering problem (pHMCP) has been applied in a variety of applications, including the design of air transportation networks, distribution systems for perishable products, postal delivery networks, and tourism routing. In hub-based systems, disruptions at hubs or unavailability of routes significantly affect service level and result in excessive costs. To tackle these problems, selecting backup hubs for unavailable hubs and rerouting the related flows are often proposed. This paper develops a bi-objective reliable single allocation p -hub maximal covering problem (BRSApHMCP) considering two objectives: maximizing expected covered flows and minimizing congestion. After formulating an initial non-linear model, a linear model is presented; the NP-Completeness of the developed model is proved and a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is proposed to solve it. In order to show the superior performance of the proposed NSGA-II, a well-known evolutionary algorithm, the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO), and the epsilon constraint methods are utilized and the results are analyzed and compared. The parameters of the proposed algorithms are calibrated using the Taguchi approach. Also, a case study and some parametric analyses are done. The results show that NSGA-II is able to find the better solutions in comparison with MOPSO and by opting this proactive strategy in the investigated case study, NSGA-II could recover up to 73% of lost flow in a well-balanced system.
    Print ISSN: 0969-6997
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2089
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 22
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra Author(s): Anuj Jakhar, Sudesh K. Khanduja, Neeraj Sangwan It is well known that if K 1 , K 2 are algebraic number fields with coprime discriminants, then the composite ring A K 1 A K 2 is integrally closed and K 1 , K 2 are linearly disjoint over the field of rationals, A K i being the ring of algebraic integers of K i . In an attempt to prove the converse of the above result, in this paper we prove that if K 1 , K 2 are finite separable extensions of a valued field ( K , v ) of arbitrary rank which are linearly disjoint over K = K 1 ∩ K 2 and if the integral closure S i of the valuation ring R v of v in K i is a free R v -module for i = 1 , 2 with S 1 S 2 integrally closed, then the discriminant of either S 1 / R v or of S 2 / R v is the unit ideal. We quickly deduce from this result that for algebraic number fields K 1 , K 2 linearly disjoint over K = K 1 ∩ K 2 for which A K 1 A K 2 is integrally closed, the relative discriminants of K 1 / K and K 2 / K must be coprime.
    Print ISSN: 0022-4049
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1376
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Discrete Mathematics, Volume 341, Issue 3 Author(s): Daniel A. Jaume, Gonzalo Molina Let T be a tree. We show that the null space of the adjacency matrix of T has relevant information about the structure of T . We introduce the Null Decomposition of trees, which is a decomposition into two different types of trees: N-trees and S-trees. N-trees are the trees that have a unique maximum (perfect) matching. S-trees are the trees with a unique maximum independent set. We obtain formulas for the independence number and the matching number of a tree using this decomposition. We also show how the number of maximum matchings and the number of maximum independent sets in a tree are related to its null decomposition.
    Print ISSN: 0012-365X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-681X
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 24
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 147 Author(s): Surender Kumar, Shivananda Shetty This article examines the motivations for firms in India to participate in voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) using a unique data set of cement, power and steel industry for the year 2012. It examines the effects of regulatory, societal, market and internal factors in influencing voluntary environmental behavior. To this objective we estimate both, ordinal (Ordered Probit) and cardinal (Poisson) models. We find that the firm size, its location, export orientation, and intangible valuation have a positive and significant relationship with the number of VEPs undertaken by the firm. The MNC status of the firm has no impact while the debt equity ratio and average age of the firm has negative impact on the adoption of VEPs.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6106
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 25
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Developmental Biology Author(s): Benita Wolf, Fernando R. Balestra, Antoine Spahr, Pierre Gönczy Genome stability relies notably on the integrity of centrosomes and of the mitotic spindle they organize. Structural and numerical centrosome aberrations are frequently observed in human cancer, and there is increasing evidence that centrosome amplification can promote tumorigenesis. Here, we use C. elegans seam cells as a model system to analyze centrosome homeostasis in the context of a stereotyped stem like lineage. We found that overexpression of the Plk4-related kinase ZYG-1 leads to the formation of one supernumerary centriolar focus per parental centriole during the cell cycle that leads to the sole symmetric division in the seam lineage. In the following cell cycle, such supernumerary foci function as microtubule organizing centers, but do not cluster during mitosis, resulting in the formation of a multipolar spindle and then aneuploid daughter cells. Intriguingly, we found also that supernumerary centriolar foci do not assemble in the asymmetric cell divisions that precedes or the one that follows the symmetric seam cell division, despite the similar presence of GFP::ZYG-1. Furthermore, we established that supernumerary centrioles form earlier during development in animals depleted of the heterochronic gene lin-14 , in which the symmetric division is precocious. Conversely, supernumerary centrioles are essentially not observed in animals depleted of lin-28 , in which the symmetric division is lacking. These findings lead us to conclude that ZYG-1 promotes limited centriole amplification solely during the symmetric division in the C. elegans seam lineage.
    Print ISSN: 0012-1606
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-564X
    Topics: Biology
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  • 26
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Energy Economics Author(s): Björn Felten, Jessica Raasch, Christoph Weber Demand side management has been proposed as one cornerstone for a future sustainable energy system. Local pricing may contribute to enable a smart behaviour of grid users by providing appropriate incentives. In this paper, we apply a local pricing algorithm on distribution grid level. We analyse its effects for a typical German rural low voltage grid with high penetration of photovoltaics and heat pumps. With households using electric heat pumps, a potentially flexible consumer type is implemented in detail. Such setup is used to assess two issues: Firstly, the exploited potential in terms of avoided curtailment and, secondly, redistributive effects of such local pricing mechanism under use of different stylized policy choices. Results show that – even with given local incentives – the consumption adjustment towards an efficient grid usage can frequently not be realized since complementarity of photovoltaics and space heating demand is limited and technical constraints do not allow to overcome this gap. Furthermore, we show that – despite limited merits in terms of system costs – the redistributive effects of local pricing mechanisms are very significant.
    Print ISSN: 0140-9883
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6181
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 27
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Global Environmental Change, Volume 48 Author(s): Janet K. Swim, Theresa K. Vescio, Julia L. Dahl, Stephanie J. Zawadzki Extending theory and research on gender roles and masculinity, this work predicts and finds that common ways of talking about climate change are gendered. Climate change policy arguments that focus on science and business are attributed to men more than to women. By contrast, policy arguments that focus on ethics and environmental justice are attributed to women more than men (Study 1). Men show gender matching tendencies, being more likely to select (Study 2) and positively evaluate (Study 3) arguments related to science and business than ethics and environmental justice. Men also tend to attribute negative feminine traits to other men who use ethics and environmental justice arguments, which mediates the relation between type of argument and men’s evaluation of the argument (Study 3). The gendered nature of public discourse about climate change and the need to represent ethical and environmental justice topics in this discourse are discussed.
    Print ISSN: 0959-3780
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9495
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 28
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Journal of Environmental Economics and Management Author(s): Linda Fernandez, Bowman Cutter, Ritu Sharma, Tom Scott We offer an improvement on the traditional hedonic property value estimation by using a repeat sales matching estimator applied to a policy context where the distance to nearest permanently protected preserves changes over time. We use several strategies to control for unobserved heterogeneity with data from multiple transactions on the same residential parcels from Western Riverside County in Southern California. We have developed data on the conversion to permanent preserves over a 16-year period. We present an empirical strategy to differentiate geographically broad treatment effects from neighborhood unobservables using Coarsened Exact Matching.
    Print ISSN: 0095-0696
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-0449
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 29
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 66 Author(s): Alexandre Borges Santos, Renato Luiz Sproesser, Mário Otávio Batalha Firms in the transportation industry are continuously evolving in order to build competitive advantages. Understanding who the competitors are and how they behave is a basic prerequisite for firms to adopt the right strategic positioning. Strategy and performance, therefore, are considered to be inseparable. In this manuscript, we exploit these two central areas in the field of business management from the perspective of grain terminal operators. A framework of analysis based on robust operations and strategic management literature is built to identify the strategic pattern of 24 intermodal grain terminals spread throughout the five Brazilian regions. The operational efficiency of the terminals is assessed through Data Envelopment Analysis. Subsequently, strategic groups are identified with the support of Cluster Analysis. Results suggest the existence of two major strategic groups: diversified small-scale terminals and focused large-scale terminals. The study is concluded by arguing that diversified small-scale terminals tend to offer a wider range of secondary services as an alternative to counterbalance their small transshipment scale, therefore, are likely to adopt a differentiation strategy; large-scale terminals, on the other hand, tend to focus mainly on the transshipment process, thus, are likely to adopt a cost leadership strategy. Theoretical and managerial implications resultant from the findings are presented and discussed.
    Print ISSN: 0966-6923
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1236
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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  • 30
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 66 Author(s): Roger B. Chen, Ashok Sekar This paper examines the relationships between: (i) Sense of Place (SOP); (ii) non-motorized travel; and (iii) the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). A guiding principle in built environment design for sustainability and livability is a latent construct termed Sense of Place (SOP), which leads visitors to perceive and associate a strong identity or character with a particular location. We hypothesize that visitors' SOP affects their access of sites via walking/biking or other non-motorized travel modes. Furthermore, we also hypothesize their ICT use shapes their SOP. In an information era, mobile ICT provide ubiquitous information and communication across multiple geographies, expanding interaction with locations to include both the physical and virtual. Visitors can engage with a location pre and post-trip through online reviews or virtual visualizations, such as Google Street View. To investigate these interrelationships, we conduct a visitor intercept survey and analyze the responses to investigate the direction and magnitude SOP impacts on non-motorized site visit frequency. The estimation results indicate that SOP statistically impacts non-motorized visits; ICT use for learning about the site was found to positively impact visitors' estimated SOP.
    Print ISSN: 0966-6923
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1236
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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  • 31
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 66 Author(s): Nishant Singh, Vinod Vasudevan School trips have distinct characteristics compared with trips for other purposes (e.g., work and recreation). School trips have been extensively studied in North American and western European countries. However, these have not been studied in developing countries, except for a few studies in China and Iran. Therefore, the basic understanding of the school travel in South Asian cities remains unclear. Thus, this study explored the travel decisions of schoolchildren in the Indian context by using primary data collected from Kanpur, a city in India. A multinomial logit framework was used to model the choice decisions of making trips to schools. The results indicated that the absence of a public transit system and the lack of good-quality school bus services resulted in the dependence of schoolchildren on other motorized modes, such as family vehicles and paratransit. Furthermore, lack of infrastructure support negatively influenced the use of active modes of transport.
    Print ISSN: 0966-6923
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1236
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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  • 32
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: The Lancet Author(s): Anna J Dare, Bisola Onajin-Obembe, Emmanuel M Makasa
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 33
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Vinicius J. Giglio, Maria L.F. Ternes, Osmar J. Luiz, Cleverson Zapelini, Matheus O. Freitas Despite marine fish being an important food resource for coastal communities, the amount of fish caught by small-scale fisheries is unsustainable at many locations. Fish consumers have a critical role in species conservation because they can choose responsibly and avoid consuming overexploited or endangered species. In this study, local human consumption patterns and local knowledge about groupers and sharks caught by small-scale local fisheries were investigated in a Brazilian coral reef complex. Fish consumers were interviewed in a fish market setting regarding their monthly fish consumption, knowledge of endangered species, and strategies they do to consume fish responsibly. Of the 126 local fish consumers, 94% and 76% reported to buying sharks and groupers, respectively, on a monthly basis. The main strategies they used to consume fish responsibly were 1) getting fishmonger's advice and 2) buying fish on reliable fish markets. Our findings are important to understanding fish consumption preferences, which can contribute to the implementation of educational initiatives aiming to raise consumers’ awareness regarding responsible consumption.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 34
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Brock J. Bergseth, Matthew Roscher Compliance is critical for effective conservation, and non-compliance regularly negates the desired outcomes of the world's marine protected areas. To increase compliance, practitioners must understand why resource users are breaking the rules, why these behaviours continue to occur, and how to effectively confront non-compliance. This study interviewed 682 recreational fishers of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) to examine the social components of compliance management. These components included fisher's perceptions of non-compliance, or poaching (defined here as fishing in no-take zones), as well as the beliefs, attitudes, normative influences, consumptive orientation and perceived behavioural controls that may influence fisher's decisions to poach. Encouragingly, most fishers had high perceptions of the legitimacy of management agencies and thought poaching was socially and personally unacceptable. However, these findings suggest that four (mis)perceptions or mechanisms are likely operative and at least partially responsible for continued non-compliance by fishers. These included pluralistic ignorance, false consensus, social learning, and a perceived lack of deterrence. Numerous tools can be used to address and correct these perceptions, including social norms and influence approaches, strengthened coercive deterrence measures, fear-arousing communications, and social outreach. If properly implemented, these tools and approaches should not only increase compliance but also reduce support (whether active or passive) for a culture of non-compliance.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 35
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): R. Creed, B. Baily, J. Potts, M. Bray, R. Austin It is widely recognized that there is a need for engagement between stakeholders to establish locally accepted strategies for sustainable coastal management solutions around the world. Adaptive management approaches have emerged as one of the preferred mechanisms in coastal zone management. Central to the application of adaptive management is the effective engagement of stakeholders to encourage participatory decision-making. There are relatively few studies which have analysed the effectiveness and dynamics of stakeholder groups to establish sustainable adaptive management in practice, and identify what opportunities and challenges can arise from such collaborative approaches. This research critically evaluates stakeholder engagement in the adoption of adaptive management at East Head, England. The study has identified significant issues and opportunities that have arisen throughout the decision-making process. It has found that a major challenge has been to achieve acceptance of the mechanism of adaptive management, particularly in relation to aspects of uncertainty. However, it is of critical note that the advisory group in question has become a valuable vehicle in bringing together key stakeholders throughout all stages of the adoption of the adaptive management approach. It is suggested that this approach, has gradually reduced conflict through building knowledge, gaining trust and ultimately achieving acceptance. A widely applicable management model and recommendations for best practice are presented as derived from the views of the advisory group itself. This model has the potential to develop a more dynamic, holistic and sustainable approach to coastal governance both in the UK and at other locations further afield.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 36
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: The Lancet Author(s): Bruce M Biccard, Thandinkosi E Madiba, Hyla-Louise Kluyts, Dolly M Munlemvo, Farai D Madzimbamuto, Apollo Basenero, Christina S Gordon, Coulibaly Youssouf, Sylvia R Rakotoarison, Veekash Gobin, Ahmadou L Samateh, Chaibou M Sani, Akinyinka O Omigbodun, Simbo D Amanor-Boadu, Janat T Tumukunde, Tonya M Esterhuizen, Yannick Le Manach, Patrice Forget, Abdulaziz M Elkhogia, Ryad M Mehyaoui, Eugene Zoumeno, Gabriel Ndayisaba, Henry Ndasi, Andrew K N Ndonga, Zipporah W W Ngumi, Ushmah P Patel, Daniel Zemenfes Ashebir, Akwasi A K Antwi-Kusi, Bernard Mbwele, Hamza Doles Sama, Mahmoud Elfiky, Maher A Fawzy, Rupert M Pearse Background There is a need to increase access to surgical treatments in African countries, but perioperative complications represent a major global health-care burden. There are few studies describing surgical outcomes in Africa. Methods We did a 7-day, international, prospective, observational cohort study of patients aged 18 years and older undergoing any inpatient surgery in 25 countries in Africa (the African Surgical Outcomes Study). We aimed to recruit as many hospitals as possible using a convenience sampling survey, and required data from at least ten hospitals per country (or half the surgical centres if there were fewer than ten hospitals) and data for at least 90% of eligible patients from each site. Each country selected one recruitment week between February and May, 2016. The primary outcome was in-hospital postoperative complications, assessed according to predefined criteria and graded as mild, moderate, or severe. Data were presented as median (IQR), mean (SD), or n (%), and compared using t tests. This study is registered on the South African National Health Research Database (KZ_2015RP7_22) and ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03044899 ). Findings We recruited 11 422 patients (median 29 [IQR 10–70]) from 247 hospitals during the national cohort weeks. Hospitals served a median population of 810 000 people (IQR 200 000–2 000 000), with a combined number of specialist surgeons, obstetricians, and anaesthetists totalling 0·7 (0·2–1·9) per 100 000 population. Hospitals did a median of 212 (IQR 65–578) surgical procedures per 100 000 population each year. Patients were younger (mean age 38·5 years [SD 16·1]), with a lower risk profile (American Society of Anesthesiologists median score 1 [IQR 1–2]) than reported in high-income countries. 1253 (11%) patients were infected with HIV, 6504 procedures (57%) were urgent or emergent, and the most common procedure was caesarean delivery (3792 patients, 33%). Postoperative complications occurred in 1977 (18·2%, 95% CI 17·4–18·9]) of 10 885 patients. 239 (2·1%) of 11 193 patients died, 225 (94·1%) after the day of surgery. Infection was the most common complication (1156 [10·2%] of 10 970 patients), of whom 112 (9·7%) died. Interpretation Despite a low-risk profile and few postoperative complications, patients in Africa were twice as likely to die after surgery when compared with the global average for postoperative deaths. Initiatives to increase access to surgical treatments in Africa therefore should be coupled with improved surveillance for deteriorating physiology in patients who develop postoperative complications, and the resources necessary to achieve this objective. Funding Medical Research Council of South Africa.
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
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    Topics: Medicine
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 79 Author(s): Jitsuro Sugie, Kazuki Ishibashi The purpose of this paper is to provide an oscillation theorem that can be applied to half-linear differential equations with time-varying coefficients. A parametric curve by the coefficients is focused in order to obtain our theorem. This parametric curve is a generalization of the curve given by the characteristic equation of the second-order linear differential equation with constant coefficients. The obtained theorem is proved by transforming the half-linear differential equation to a standard polar coordinates system and using phase plane analysis carefully.
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 38
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Mechanisms of Development Author(s): Eugenia M. del Pino The study of oogenesis and early development of frogs belonging to the family Hemiphractidae provide important comparison to the aquatic development of other frogs, such as Xenopus laevis , because reproduction on land characterizes the Hemiphractidae. In this review, the multinucleated oogenesis of the marsupial frog Flectonotus pygmaeus (Hemiphractidae) is analyzed and interpreted. In addition, the adaptations associated with the incubation of embryos in the pouch of the female marsupial frog Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae) and the embryonic development of this frog are summarized. Moreover, G. riobambae gastrulation is compared with the gastrulation modes of Engystomops randi and Engystomops coloradorum (Leptodactylidae); Ceratophrys stolzmanni (Ceratophryidae); Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni and Espadarana callistomma (Centrolenidae); Ameerega bilinguis , Dendrobates auratus , Epipedobates anthonyi , Epipedobates machalilla , Epipedobates tricolor , and Hyloxalus vertebralis (Dendrobatidae) ; Eleutherodactylus coqui (Terrarana: Eleutherodactylidae), and X. laevis (Pipidae). The comparison indicated two modes of frog gastrulation. In X. laevis and in frogs with aquatic reproduction, convergent extension begins during gastrulation. In contrast, convergent extension occurs in the post-gastrula of frogs with terrestrial reproduction. These two modes of gastrulation resemble the transitions toward meroblastic cleavage found in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). In spite of this difference, the genes that guide early development seem to be highly conserved in frogs. I conclude that the shift of convergent extension to the post-gastrula accompanied the diversification of frog egg size and terrestrial reproductive modes.
    Print ISSN: 0925-4773
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6356
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Gwen Arnold, Benjamin Farrer, Robert Holahan We examine how different sources and types of information affect the knowledge of landowners confronting a controversial emergent technology, high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). HVHF may substantially affect the environmental, health, and economic and social realities faced by communities where drilling occurs. Yet how landowners in these areas learn about HVHF is largely unknown. Understanding landowner knowledge is important because HVHF development depends on voluntary choices of landowners, less knowledgeable landowners may be vulnerable to industry malfeasance, and support for HVHF is linked to familiarity with the industry. Using an original survey of Eastern Ohio landowners affected by HVHF, we find that they most frequently get information about HVHF from the news, oil/gas companies, social connections, and the internet. Information sourcing varies with demographics, socioeconomics, and political partisanship. Although landowners are exposed to many sources of information, most do not help them feel more informed about HVHF. Self-perceived familiarity with HVHF varies positively with the number of sources consulted, internet research, and receipt of information from the oil/gas industry and industry advocacy groups. Landowners often receive unsolicited information about HVHF, but this information rarely helps them feel more informed.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 40
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Oliver Hensengerth The literature on technology transfer has focussed on North-South transfer and has analysed transfer as a largely technical process. This is despite the increasing influence of rising powers in technology transfer, specifically in the area of energy generation. China is an important player in this field. This article has two aims: firstly, it adds to the small but emerging literature on South-South technology transfer by exploring the role of Chinese actors, using the Bui dam in Ghana as a case study. Secondly, the article develops an expanded notion of technology transfer by arguing that technology transfer is not only a technical process, but it is inherently political as it includes crucial issues on decision-making regarding the type of technology that is transferred, who is granted access to the decision-making process, and who benefits from the new technology. In examining technology transfer from this perspective, the article draws on the sociology of technologies approach and the sustainable transitions literature arguing that technology transfer is a contested process that takes place within complex political, economic, social and cultural settings and actor networks. This determines the technology that is transferred, who benefits most, and who is marginalized in the process.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 41
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Jim Krane, Kenneth B. Medlock The United States appears less exposed to geopolitical risks affecting its oil supply than at any time since the relatively stable period preceding the widespread oil sector nationalizations of the 1970s. Energy prosperity in the US contrasts with a more fraught period for traditional energy exporting states where geopolitical challenges have been compounded by fiscal stress and rising domestic energy demand. America's relationship with energy-exporting countries will continue to evolve as the US grows more self-sufficient and as more non-OPEC resources become viable, particularly in the Western Hemisphere. Expanded geographic diversification of oil production portends a gradual diminution of the strategic importance of large crude oil exporters. One longer term potential effect of the US shale revolution may be, for example, an unwillingness in Washington to maintain the Carter Doctrine's promise of protection for its interests in the Persian Gulf, although this appears unlikely in the near term. Nevertheless, continued economic growth in developing Asia and the unlocking of new energy resources around the world means the geostrategic relationships that have protected energy supplies over the last 40 years are unlikely to endure over the long run.
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 42
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Annie McCabe, Dorina Pojani, Anthony Broese van Groenou Low-income housing associations provide a unique opportunity for renewable energy installations, through potential scale of implementation sites, and in reducing social and financial costs to tenants. As an emerging field, a systematic review format was chosen as a method of providing a ‘state-of-the-art’ analysis for practitioners and researchers in the field of renewable energy and social housing applications. While literature reviews are common in analysis of energy applications across many fields, systematic reviews are much rarer. Because research/policy interest in the application of renewable energy technologies and social Šhousing appears to be growing, this review aims to bring together the disparate literature already available. This review set out to determine what are the common 1. Success Factors, 2. Barriers and 3. Motivations, evident in previous research surrounding the application of renewable energy technologies in social housing contexts? Common findings from 67 research cases were synthesised under 3 a priori themes of Motivations, Barriers and Success Factors. Many articles revolved around the user interface and potential barriers to integration of technology, particularly where user engagement is not carried out sufficiently. It is suggested that this emphasis reflects a broader trend in applying socio-technical approaches in the field of energy research.
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Gianluca Trotta The objective of this paper is to identify the socio-demographic, dwelling, and environmental factors that have the strongest influence on the daily energy-saving behaviours, the adoption of energy efficient appliances and the energy efficient retrofit investments made by British households. This study uses British household data from the “Survey of Public Attitudes and Behaviours towards the Environment” collected in 2009, and employs nonlinear principal components analysis (NLPCA), ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, and probit models. The results show different household profiles with specific features driving daily energy-saving behaviours and energy efficiency investments. Environmental variables are a good predictor of both energy-saving behaviours and investment in energy efficient appliances but not of energy efficient retrofit measures. Results of income and dwelling type variables with regard to energy-saving behaviours and energy efficient retrofit investments significantly diverge; in addition, interesting patterns emerge with respect to the respondents’ age, sex, and marital status. By evaluating and understanding the household and dwelling characteristics that affect energy-saving behaviours and energy efficiency investments, it is possible to obtain a clearer idea of where and how energy and emissions savings can be made, and to propose effective and targeted policies that promote energy-responsible lifestyles.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Diego García-Gusano, Diego Iribarren, Javier Dufour As in many countries, coal-fired power plants in Spain account for a significant contribution to the electricity mix. Nevertheless, renewable energy options and natural gas are paving the way for coal retirement. Alternatively, it is possible to reduce the emissions (especially SO 2 and NO x ) associated with coal combustion through technology retrofits focused on desulphurisation and denitrification in line with the EU Industrial Emissions Directive. Within a context of low coal and CO 2 prices, lifetime extension of coal-fired plants emerges as an option for power plant owners. This article prospectively evaluates the announced retrofit for 3560 MW of the Spanish coal power capacity under three alternative energy scenarios. In addition to prospective electricity production mixes, the evolution of key life-cycle sustainability indicators (climate change, human health, energy security) is assessed with time horizon 2050 using an enhanced energy systems optimisation model of power generation. When compared to the reference scenario, the results show that coal extension could favour the penetration of renewables in the long term. Notwithstanding, this would come at the expense of undesirable increases in climate change and human health impacts. Consequently, the implementation of the sustainability dimension in energy plans could avoid a “coal conundrum” situation in Spain.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 45
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Pengcheng Tang, Shuwang Yang, Jun Shen, Shuke Fu To realise the targets for controlling greenhouse gas emissions by 2020, China has issued three batches of low-carbon pilot programme since 2010. In this paper, we estimate the causal effect of the programme from the perspective of land transfer of energy-intensive industry, by using a difference-in-differences method. We also analyze the role of the local secretary, the de facto "first-in-command" official of local government. The results suggest that the pilot programme has come into play to a certain extent (a reduction of 26.271–29.158 ha’ land transfer of energy-intensive industry), but the effect attenuates quickly over time. After considering the moderating role of the secretary, the greater promotion potential (younger than 54 years old, more than the third year of time in office, and working experience in the upper level) is found to have worsened the pilot programme's effect. Therefore, the key to performing the pilot programme's function lies in enhancing the weight of the environment-related indicators in the promotion assessment system.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 46
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    In: Heliyon
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Heliyon, Volume 4, Issue 1 Author(s): Hari Prasad Ratnapuram, S.S. Vutukuru, Rajasri Yadavalli Influence of mixotrophic mode and its transition to various trophic modes under stress conditions was assessed during two stage cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa . Significant lipid productivity was triggered under low light intensity, glucose + bicarbonate supplementation and nitrogen starvation. The association between biomass and lipid productivity, fatty acid composition during mixotrophic transition was critically evaluated. Biomass in growth phase (GP) and stress phase (SP) was 6.14 g/l and 5.14 g/l, respectively, in mixotrophic mode. Higher lipid productivity of 284 g/kg and 154.3 g/kg of neutral lipids was achieved in SP in mixotrophic-mixotrophic (MM) and mixotrophic-heterotrophic (MH) modes, respectively. Stress conditions resulted in high unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters in MH mode. In addition, neutral lipid content was 58% in MH and 52% in MM, that can be attributed to carbon source that is supplemented even in stress phase. Exploring such novel strategies can generate sustainable avenues for biodiesel production.
    Electronic ISSN: 2405-8440
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 47
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: April 2018 Source: Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Volume 120
    Print ISSN: 0167-9473
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-7352
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 48
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018 Source: Journal of the Franklin Institute Author(s): Lingzhong Zhang, Yongqing Yang, Fei wang, Xin sui This paper studies drive-response synchronization in fractional-order memristive neural networks(FMNNs) with switching jumps mismatch. A comparison theorem for fractional-order systems with variable order is provided first. Theories of fractional order Filippov differential inclusions are used to treat FMNNs because the parameters of FMNNs are state dependent and the FMNNs has discontinuous right hand sides. Based on Laplace transform and linear feedback control, some lag quasi-synchronization conditions are obtained with variable order α : 0 〈  α  〈 1 and 1 〈  α  〈 2. The error level is estimated and the larger synchronization regain is discussed . Finally, two numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed theorems.
    Print ISSN: 0016-0032
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2693
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 49
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018 Source: Journal of the Franklin Institute Author(s): Tianrong Weng, Lei Wang, Zhikun She, Quanyi Liang In this paper, a distributed projection algorithm based on the subgradient method is presented to solve the distributed optimization problem with a constrained set over a directed multi-agent network, where the designed protocol is scaled by the left eigenvector associated with the weighted adjacency matrix. By using the property of the projection operation and nonnegative almost supermartingales, we give the convergence analysis of our algorithm and show that the optimal solution is the ultimate consensus state of all agents to be reached. A numerical simulation for a specific optimization problem is given to verify the effectiveness of our algorithm.
    Print ISSN: 0016-0032
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2693
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 50
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018 Source: Journal of the Franklin Institute Author(s): Huayun Han, Ying Yang, Linlin Li, Steven X. Ding This paper addresses L 2 observer-based fault detection issues for a class of nonlinear systems in the presence of parametric and dynamic uncertainties, respectively. To this end, three different types of uncertain affine nonlinear system models studied in this paper are described first. Then, the integrated design schemes of L 2 observer-based fault detection systems are derived with the aid of Hamilton-Jacobi inequalities (HJIs), respectively. Numerical examples are also provided in the end to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.
    Print ISSN: 0016-0032
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2693
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 51
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Douglas G Adler
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 52
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Rachel Jewkes
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 53
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Michel Zaffran, Michael McGovern, Reza Hossaini, Rebecca Martin, Jay Wenger
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
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    Topics: Medicine
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  • 54
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Sharmila Devi
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
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  • 55
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Andrew Green
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
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  • 56
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Richard Horton
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  • 57
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Petra Boynton
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
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  • 58
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Danielle Ofri
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
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  • 59
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Norbert Hirschhorn
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
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  • 60
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Alain Braillon
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
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  • 61
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Jayant S Vaidya, Max Bulsara, Frederik Wenz, Jeffrey S Tobias, David Joseph, Michael Baum
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
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  • 62
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Charlotte E Coles, Joanne S Haviland, Anna M Kirby, Jenny Titley, Maggie Wilcox, Judith M Bliss, John R Yarnold
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  • 63
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Duncan Selbie
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  • 64
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Michael G Crooks, Shoaib Faruqi, Alyn H Morice
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  • 65
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Peter G Gibson
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  • 66
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Louis Hofstetter, Franz H Messerli
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  • 67
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
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  • 68
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Layal Chaker, Antonio C Bianco, Jacqueline Jonklaas, Robin P Peeters
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  • 69
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Francesc Maynou, Maria del Mar Gil, Sergio Vitale, Giovan Battista Giusto, Antigoni Foutsi, Mafalda Rangel, Rita Rainha, Karim Erzini, Jorge M.S. Gonçalves, Luis Bentes, Claudio Viva, Paolo Sartor, Francesco De Carlo, Ilaria Rossetti, Maria Christou, Konstantinos Stergiou, Christos D. Maravelias, Dimitrios Damalas The estimated impact of the EU Landing Obligation was investigated, which bans discards of regulated species, in South European fisheries through stakeholders’ perceptions with the intention to identify implementation shortcomings and practicalities that might lead to obstacles to enforcement. Structured interviews were conducted with 173 fishers in 4 countries practicing 4 generic fisheries (as typified by the dominant fishing gear) asking a total of 26 questions. Results show that fishers estimate that the full implementation of the discards ban will result in longer sorting times. Added to the limited space on board, especially in the more productive trawl and purse seine vessels, this may lead to practical difficulties in relation to compliance. Most of the respondents estimate that there are no realistic possibilities of utilizing the formerly discarded fish in the short term, because of the lack of adequate infrastructure on land Furthermore, the possible utilization types foreseen in the regulation will not help offset the costs of bringing former discards to land. The outcomes of this study have confirmed the implementation difficulties of the landing obligation, especially when the fishing industry cannot expect any medium to long-term benefits.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 70
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: 6–12 January 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10115 Author(s): Sandra van Brunschot, Janneke van Grinsven, Hjalmar C van Santvoort, Olaf J Bakker, Marc G Besselink, Marja A Boermeester, Thomas L Bollen, Koop Bosscha, Stefan A Bouwense, Marco J Bruno, Vincent C Cappendijk, Esther C Consten, Cornelis H Dejong, Casper H van Eijck, Willemien G Erkelens, Harry van Goor, Wilhelmina M U van Grevenstein, Jan-Willem Haveman, Sijbrand H Hofker, Jeroen M Jansen, Johan S Laméris, Krijn P van Lienden, Maarten A Meijssen, Chris J Mulder, Vincent B Nieuwenhuijs, Jan-Werner Poley, Rutger Quispel, Rogier J de Ridder, Tessa E Römkens, Joris J Scheepers, Nicolien J Schepers, Matthijs P Schwartz, Tom Seerden, B W Marcel Spanier, Jan Willem A Straathof, Marin Strijker, Robin Timmer, Niels G Venneman, Frank P Vleggaar, Rogier P Voermans, Ben J Witteman, Hein G Gooszen, Marcel G Dijkgraaf, Paul Fockens Background Infected necrotising pancreatitis is a potentially lethal disease and an indication for invasive intervention. The surgical step-up approach is the standard treatment. A promising alternative is the endoscopic step-up approach. We compared both approaches to see whether the endoscopic step-up approach was superior to the surgical step-up approach in terms of clinical and economic outcomes. Methods In this multicentre, randomised, superiority trial, we recruited adult patients with infected necrotising pancreatitis and an indication for invasive intervention from 19 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients were randomly assigned to either the endoscopic or the surgical step-up approach. The endoscopic approach consisted of endoscopic ultrasound-guided transluminal drainage followed, if necessary, by endoscopic necrosectomy. The surgical approach consisted of percutaneous catheter drainage followed, if necessary, by video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement. The primary endpoint was a composite of major complications or death during 6-month follow-up. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN09186711. Findings Between Sept 20, 2011, and Jan 29, 2015, we screened 418 patients with pancreatic or extrapancreatic necrosis, of which 98 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the endoscopic step-up approach (n=51) or the surgical step-up approach (n=47). The primary endpoint occurred in 22 (43%) of 51 patients in the endoscopy group and in 21 (45%) of 47 patients in the surgery group (risk ratio [RR] 0·97, 95% CI 0·62–1·51; p=0·88). Mortality did not differ between groups (nine [18%] patients in the endoscopy group vs six [13%] patients in the surgery group; RR 1·38, 95% CI 0·53–3·59, p=0·50), nor did any of the major complications included in the primary endpoint. Interpretation In patients with infected necrotising pancreatitis, the endoscopic step-up approach was not superior to the surgical step-up approach in reducing major complications or death. The rate of pancreatic fistulas and length of hospital stay were lower in the endoscopy group. The outcome of this trial will probably result in a shift to the endoscopic step-up approach as treatment preference. Funding The Dutch Digestive Disease Foundation, Fonds NutsOhra, and the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development.
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Volume 111 Author(s): Soheil Sibdari, Iman Mohammadian, David F. Pyke Using publicly available datasets, we analyze three capacity decisions (flight frequency, aircraft size, and load factor) of seven major airlines and address their relationship with the level and fluctuations of three exogenous factors (fuel cost, total passenger demand, and unemployment rate). Our results show that increased passenger demand is associated with smaller aircraft and more frequent flights, while higher fuel costs are associated with larger aircraft and less frequent flights. Overall, our results indicate that airlines adjust both flight frequency and aircraft sizes to manage capacity and maintain load factors in response to fluctuations in passenger demand and fuel cost.
    Print ISSN: 1366-5545
    Electronic ISSN: 1878-5794
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Volume 110 Author(s): Xiunian Zhang, Jasmine Siu Lee Lam The competition between bulk and containers in reefer shipping has become increasingly intensified in recent years. This study aims to investigate the modal choice between reefer bulk and container vessels by applying the value-based management tool in cold chain management. A value-based decision model is developed for operational and financial planning with Economic Value Added as the objective function. The commodity character and the voyage distance are identified as the main factors that affect the modal choice. The numerical study and sensitivity analysis reveal the change in modal choice and route choice under different operational and financial scenarios.
    Print ISSN: 1366-5545
    Electronic ISSN: 1878-5794
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 53 Author(s): Trond Nordfjærn, Torbjørn Rundmo The current study aims to examine differences in risk evaluations according to whether individuals have been exposed to adverse security events in transport during the last five years. In addition, a path model is tested where risk evaluations predict intentions to use public transport and use of such transport in these groups. The results are based on a survey conducted in a randomly obtained representative sample of the Norwegian urban public (n = 1043). The results showed that individuals who had been exposed to adverse security events in public transport reported substantially higher risk perception of experiencing security issues in such transport than those who were not exposed. Exposed individuals also reported higher probability judgements and more worry of experiencing injury in public transport. The path model showed that high probability judgements of experiencing injury in public transport were related to a lower intention of using such transport, whereas corresponding worry in the private motorized sector predicted a stronger intention to use public transport. Demand for risk mitigation in the public transport sector was found to be more relevant for intentions to use public transport than similar demands in the private motorized sector. The path model and coefficients were not found to differ significantly according to exposure to security events in public transport. The findings are discussed in relation to the role of negative risk experiences for risk evaluations in transport.
    Print ISSN: 1369-8478
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5517
    Topics: Psychology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Protein Expression and Purification, Volume 145 Author(s): Matsujiro Ishibashi, Ryo Kawanabe, Norie Amaba, Shigeki Arai, Fina Amreta Laksmi, Kenta Komori, Masao Tokunaga Luciferase from Renilla reniformis (RLuc) is a good research tool as a reporter protein and bioimaging probes, yielding blue light using the substrate coelenterazine. However, the applications are limited since RLuc is unstable under various conditions. Therefore, an attempt was made to increase RLuc thermostability. In this study, 5 mutations reported previously [1] and one mutation obtained using site-directed mutagenesis were combined. As a result of this combination, the thermostability effect increased, with the mutant showing approximately 10 °C higher stability. Furthermore, the mutant simultaneously improved a tolerance for protease digestion, e.g. trypsin and proteinase K, and for organic solvent. Residual activity of the mutant after treatment with 10% 2-propanol, 10% DMF and 20% DMSO at 35 °C for 1 h was 29.4, 24.8 and 91.3%, respectively, whereas that of the wild type was 0.4, 0.1 and 24.3%, respectively.
    Print ISSN: 1046-5928
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-0279
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 94 Author(s): Taku Naito, Sawako Muroi, Ichiro Taniuchi, Motonari Kondo Tri-methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) is a repressive epigenetic modification catalyzed by polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that is required for proper cell fate determination as well as cellular function. Numerous studies have been performed to elucidate the role of PRC2 in T-cell differentiation and function; however, its role in the regulation of T-helper (Th) subset differentiation and identity has not been fully explored. Here, we report that Eed, an essential subunit of PRC2, is crucial to maintain the identity of CD4 + T cells under TGFβ-induced regulatory T cell (Treg)-polarizing conditions. Mouse CD4 + T cells lacking Eed exhibited unstable CD4 expression upon TCR stimulation in vitro . Helper lineage instability was further augmented by Treg-polarizing conditions, leading to the immense up-regulation of CD8α as well as other molecules, resembling CD4 + CD8αα + intraepithelial lymphocyte (DP-IEL) differentiation. Genetic studies suggested that the altered balance between transcription factors T-bet, Runx3, and Th-POK underlies the induction of the DP-IEL-like phenotype in Eed -deficient CD4 + cells. Furthermore, comparison to Th1- and Th17-polarizing conditions indicated that cooperation between Smad3 and the T-bet-Runx3 axis facilitated by the loss of H3K27me3 is crucial for phenotype induction. Collectively, our results provide insight into the molecular mechanism that maintains and regulates the proper cellular response upon TGFβ signaling in CD4 + T cells.
    Print ISSN: 0161-5890
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9142
    Topics: Medicine
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 162 Author(s): Srinivasa Rao Pathipati, Muhammad Naeem Shah A two-step sequential deposition has been widely adopted to fabricate a perovskite film of planar heterojunction organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells. However, in this method complete conversion of Lead iodide (PbI 2 ) into CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 is limited by the diffusion of CH 3 NH 3 I into PbI 2 film, thus limits current density. Here, we report a facile method for enhancing perovskite film morphology by introducing a small amount of ammonium iodide (NH 4 I) as a halogen additive into PbI 2 solution, which can react with PbI 2 and forms nanostructured platelet structure that helps to diffusion of CH 3 NH 3 I, for further improving CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 film morphology. Under the optimized NH 4 I additive concentration of 5 wt%, the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) is 17.4% achieved, which is an improvement of 14% compared to that of the original device without the additive. SEM studies reveal that addition of NH 4 I into PbI 2 films improves the porosity of the films, which helps to improve the perovskite film morphology by increasing the grain size. The enhancement of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 film morphology is useful for increasing the optical absorption of perovskite film thereby increasing short-circuit current density, whence an improvement in the efficiency of the perovskite solar cell devices. The perovskite solar cells fabricated by this method preserved high crystallinity, negligible hysteresis, reliable reproducibility and improved stability.
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 161 Author(s): Shilpi Shital, Sanjay Kumar Swami, Piers Barnes, Viresh Dutta Bifacial dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) show potential for use in diffuse and low light environments, but their photoanode light scattering properties have not been optimised. We examine DSSC photoanodes composed of a mixed scattering layer (made by blend of 18NR-T and WER2-O pastes), sandwiched between nanostructured TiO 2 layers (made by 18NR-T paste). WER2-O paste was chossen after accessing scattering properties: scattering coefficient (S), forward scattering ratio (FSR) and forward path length enhancement (FPLE) of the solid TiO 2 particles of different shapes and sizes. Monte Carlo simulations of light harvesting indicate the optimal volume fraction of scattering particles ( f vsca ) in the sandwiched layer to be 5–30%. The proposed photoanode absorbs light effectively and the DSSC with scattering layer made by blend of 60% of 18NR-T and 40% of WER2-O paste showed the power conversion efficiency (PEC) of 8.54% and 5.26%, when illuminated from photoanode (PA) and counter electrode (CE) side, respectively. The effective sorting criteria and optimization routine used in this work can also be used for other devices like perovskite solar cells. Graphical abstract
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 161 Author(s): M.M. Matheswaran, T.V. Arjunan, D. Somasundaram In this present work an exergy efficiency of the single pass double duct jet plate solar air heater (SPDDJPSAH) is analytically investigated. The analysis is carried out for different mass flow rate m  = 0.002–0.023 kg/s, stream wise pitch ratio X / D h  = 0.435–1.739, span wise pitch ratio Y / D h  = 0.435–0.869 and jet diameter ratio D j /D h  = 0.043–0.109. The overall performance of solar air heaters is effectively evaluated by the exergy analysis by considering both the useful energy gain and subsequent pumping power requirement. Results show that SPDDJPSAH has been enhancing the effective efficiency by 21.2% and exergy efficiency by 22.4% when compared with Single Pass Single Duct Jet Plate Solar Air Heater (SPSDJPSAH). The effects of mass flow rate and jet plate design parameters on the exergy efficiency have been presented. The optimized values of stream wise pitch ratio X / D h  = 1.739, span wise pitch ratio Y / D h  = 0.869 and jet diameter ratio D j / D h  = 0.065 are identified at the mass flow rate of 0.0035 kg/s and yields the maximum exergy efficiency of 4.36%. Design plots are also prepared in order to identify the optimum values of jet plate design parameters to achieve the desired temperature rise. Using the analytical results, the correlations have been developed for predicting the exergy efficiency in terms of Reynolds number and jet plate design variables.
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 161 Author(s): Aimen Zeiny, Haichuan Jin, Lizhan Bai, Guiping Lin, Dongsheng Wen Direct absorption nanofluid has been introduced as an effective alternative to increase solar thermal conversion efficiency. Hybrid nanofluids were also recently proposed to broaden the absorption spectrum. However, a comparative assessment of the performance of commonly used nanomaterials for solar energy harness is still lacking. In this study, a well-controlled experiment was performed using three different categorised nanofluids, i.e., gold, copper, carbon black nanofluids and their hybrids, to assess their performance in terms of photothermal conversion efficiency (PTE), specific absorption rate (SAR) and materials cost. A mathematical model was built based on the Beer’s law to predict the PTE enhancement. The results revealed, contrary to previously reported, the PTE was not increased by blending different nanofluids with different absorbance peaks, which is mainly due to the dilution of nanoparticles’ concentration. Furthermore, it is found that although gold nanofluids have high SAR, their expensive cost limits their practical use, whereas carbon black nanofluids are more feasible. In addition it was found that the theoretical PTE can be well predicted mathematically based on the optical properties of the used nanofluids.
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 161 Author(s): Kalpana Galappaththi, Piyasiri Ekanayake, Mohammad Iskandar Petra We have computationally designed and characterized a series of new organic D−π−A architected dyes that have originated from cyanidin, which is vastly available in nature, for effective sensitization of DSSCs with absorption spectra extending up to near infrared region. Cyanidin acts as the donor group while cyanoacrylic acid and thieno [3, 2-b] thiophene are employed as the acceptor and π-spacer, respectively. Sensitization performance, depending on the substituted position of the π-spacer-acceptor (π-A) combination on cyanidin molecule, is examined by the results of density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. The calculated data of free energy change driving force ( Δ G inject ), electron regeneration driving force ( Δ G regen ), open circuit potential eV OC and light harvesting efficiency (LHE) suggest two preferred substitutions of π-A combination to cyanidin molecule that leads to an efficient DSSC. At LUMO the designed sensitizers have denser electron cloud towards acceptor group that leads to an efficient electron injection process. All π-A substitutions resulted a broader absorption spectrum with a redshift up to 2500 nm which is a significant improvement compared to the vast majority of reported sensitizers. Graphical abstract
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 161 Author(s): Mansour Alramlawi, Aouss Gabash, Erfan Mohagheghi, Pu Li In many developing countries where the energy supply capacity is less than the demand, energy companies distribute the available power according to a specific time schedule, leading to grid scheduled blackouts (GSBs) for the costumers. A suitable way to solve this problem for residential loads is to install a combined photovoltaic (PV) and battery storage system as a replacement of the grid during the blackout periods. However, it is well-known that the lifetime of battery storage will be considerably shortened, if it is not operated appropriately. This paper explores the potential benefits of applying economic model predictive control (EMPC) to optimize the operation of a hybrid PV-battery system to address the GSB problem. The aim of our control strategy is to cover the load as much as possible and meanwhile minimize the total cost of the energy consumed from the grid. In particular, the battery is operated in such a way that its lifetime will be prolonged. A comparison between different operation strategies for the system considering the seasonal variation in the load and the PV power generation is made. The results show that the proposed approach leads to a significant reduction of the total energy consumed from the grid while decreasing the curtailment of the generated power from the PV-array, and maximizing the battery lifetime. Graphical abstract
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 161 Author(s): Subrahmanyam Pulipaka, Rajneesh Kumar This paper introduces a soil distortion factor (SDF) to establish a relationship between particle size compositions of soil and irradiance received by a tilted soiled solar panel. Particle size composition of five soil samples was determined using sieve analysis and artificial soiling experiments were performed to measure open circuit voltage (V oc ) and short circuit current (I sh ) to calculate power output of soiled panel. The power obtained from experimental data was compared with the ideal power output of a clean panel to quantify SDF at three regions of tilt angle. Further, SDF is expressed in terms of particle size composition of soil using regression analysis to calculate irradiance loss. It was observed that the irradiance loss varies with tilt angle and particle composition of soil. Soils rich in particles with 150 µm diameter (Soil 1) and 300 µm diameter (Soil 3) cause irradiance losses up to 6% and 21% while Soil 2 with high composition of 75 µm particle size leads to maximum losses of 10%. Soil 4 with 300 µm particles as its major composition causes losses as high as 22% in the same tilt angle range. Soil 5 having the highest composition of less than 75 µm size particles causes 12% irradiance loss in 0–60° tilt angle region.
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 161 Author(s): Savas Ozturk, Levent Aydin, Erdal Celik Systematic cutting process design and optimization problems are studied for surface roughness minimization by stochastic algorithms. As the experimental background of the study, n-type single crystalline silicon (Si) ingot are cut into Si wafer with a thickness of 375 µm using a wire saw machine. In order to optimize the cutting parameters successfully, a two-step study has been organized as (i) a detailed study on multiple nonlinear regression analysis of the process parameters for predicting the feed rate and wire speed effects, (ii) design and optimization steps. Regression models include linear, quadratic, trigonometric, logarithmic and their rational forms for the same surface roughness problem. In design and optimization section, four distinct stochastic optimization algorithms (Differential Evaluation, Nelder-Mead, Random Search and Simulated Annealing) have been performed systematically to avoid inherent scattering of the stochastic processes. To investigate the advantages and disadvantages of the introduced mathematical processes for the similar cutting process problems, a review list are also given for the optimization on volumetric metal removal rate (VMRR), wear ratio (WR), material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR) by distinguishing the modeling methodology, model types, and optimization algorithms. It is also shown that different rational regression models can be utilized with the collaboration of stochastic optimization methods successfully to minimize the surface roughness of Si wafers.
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 161 Author(s): Zhongbin Qiu, Xiaopeng Xu, Liang Yang, Yong Pei, Mengbin Zhu, Qiang Peng, Yu Liu Two narrow band-gap small molecules with D(A-Ar) 2 framework, namely DMPh(DPP-Py) 2 and DFPh(DPP-Py) 2 , were designed and synthesized for high-performance small molecule organic solar cells (SMOSC), in which the 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DMPh) and 1,4-difluorobenzene (DFPh) were employed as rigid donor cores, respectively, and the pyrenere (Py) unit is selected as terminal-capping groups on an electron-deficient diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based linear backbone. The impacts of the fluorine-sulfur (F⋯S) atoms and oxygen-sulfur (O⋯S) atoms noncovalent interaction on their absorption spectra, molecular energy levels, morphological properties, hole mobilities and photovoltaic properties were investigated thoroughly. The fluorinated DFPh(DPP-Py) 2 possess a relatively lower-lying HOMO energy level, better miscibility of the blend with PC 71 BM, as well as higher mobility in comparison with those of the methoxyled DMPh(DPP-Py) 2 . As a consequence, the OSCs devices based on DMPh(DPP-Py) 2 and DFPh(DPP-Py) 2 exhibited PCEs of 5.47% and 7.54%, respectively. Obviously, the device based on DFPh(DPP-Py) 2 presented a better performance, which should be ascribed to the improved simultaneously V oc of 0.77 V, J sc of 15.3 mA cm −2 , and FF of 64%. The results indicated that the choice of the fluorination designation on the molecular backbone is an effective approach to develop D(A-Ar) 2 type small molecule donors for highly efficient solar cell applications. Graphical abstract
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