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  • 1
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Publication date: April 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 17 Author(s): Hideaki Ohtsubo, Yusuke Sato, Yuji Matsuyoshi, Takahiro Suzuki, Wataru Mizunoya, Mako Nakamura, Ryuichi Tatsumi, Yoshihide Ikeuchi The data presented in this article are related to the research articles entitled “APOBEC2 negatively regulates myoblast differentiation in muscle regeneration” and “Data supporting possible implication of APOBEC2 in self-renewal functions of myogenic stem satellite cells: toward understanding the negative regulation of myoblast differentiation” (Ohtsubo et al., 2017a, 2017b) [1,2]. This article provides in vivo phenotypical data to show that Paired Box Transcription Factor 7 (Pax7)-positive cell number (per myofiber) is significantly lower in APOBEC2 (a member of apoB mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like family)-knockout muscle than the control wild-type tissue at the same age of 8-wk-old in mice. The emerging results support an essential role for APOBEC2 in the self-renewal functions of myogenic stem satellite cells, namely the re-establishment of quiescent status after activation and proliferation of myoblasts.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018 Source: Developmental Biology Author(s): Izumi Oda-Ishii, Tetsuya Abe, Yutaka Satou In animal embryos, transcription is repressed for a definite period of time after fertilization. In the embryo of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis (type A; or Ciona robusta ), transcription of regulatory genes is repressed before the 8- or 16-cell stages. This initial transcriptional quiescence is important to enable the establishment of initial differential gene expression patterns along the animal–vegetal axis by maternal factors, because the third cell division separates the animal and vegetal hemispheres into distinct blastomeres. Indeed, maternal transcription factors directly activate zygotic gene expression by the 16-cell stage; Tcf7/β-catenin activates genes in the vegetal hemisphere, and Gata.a activates genes in the animal hemisphere. In the present study, we revealed the dynamics of Gata.a and β-catenin, and expression profiles of their target genes precisely. β-catenin began to translocate into the nuclei at the 16-cell stage, and thus expression of β-catenin targets began at the 16-cell stage. Although Gata.a is abundantly present before the 8-cell stage, transcription of Gata.a targets was repressed at and before the 4-cell stage, and their expression began at the 8-cell stage. Transcription of the β-catenin targets may be repressed by the same mechanism in early embryos, because β-catenin targets were not expressed in 4-cell embryos treated with a GSK inhibitor, in which β-catenin translocated to the nuclei. Thus, these two maternal factors have different dynamics, which establish the pre-pattern for zygotic genetic programs in 16-cell embryos.
    Print ISSN: 0012-1606
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-564X
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 97 Author(s): Diana P. Castiblanco, Darrell D. Norton, Robert W. Maul, Patricia J. Gearhart Activation-induced deaminase (AID) introduces nucleotide substitutions within the variable region of immunoglobulin genes to promote antibody diversity. This activity, which is limited to 1.5 kb downstream of the variable gene promoter, mutates both the coding exon and downstream intronic sequences. We recently reported that RNA polymerase II accumulates in these regions during transcription in mice. This build-up directly correlates with the area that is accessible to AID, and manipulation of RNA polymerase II levels alters the mutation frequency. To address whether the intronic DNA sequence by itself can regulate RNA polymerase II accumulation and promote mutagenesis, we deleted 613 bp of DNA downstream of the J H 6 intron in the human Ramos B cell line. The loss of this sequence did not alter polymerase abundance or mutagenesis in the variable gene, suggesting that most of the intronic sequence is dispensable for somatic hypermutation.
    Print ISSN: 0161-5890
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9142
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
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    Elsevier
    In: Omega
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018 Source: Omega Author(s): Jingchen Liu, Xin Zhai, Lihua Chen Many innovating firms use trade-in programs to encourage consumers’ repeat purchasing. They can choose between dynamic pricing and preannounced pricing strategies to mitigate the impacts of consumers’ strategic behavior. This paper develops a dynamic game framework to explore the optimal pricing strategy when the firm sequentially introduces new generations of products to a market populated by strategic consumers with trade-in option offered. Results show that under either pricing strategy, the firm has an incentive to sell the old generation products to new consumers in the second period if the salvage value of the old generation product is high enough. When consumers are sufficiently strategic, if both the innovation incremental value of the new generation product and the salvage value of the old generation product are low enough, the firm is better off following the preannounced pricing strategy. Besides, as the firm becomes more farsighted, the comparatively dominant position of preannounced pricing over dynamic pricing disappears gradually.
    Print ISSN: 0305-0483
    Topics: Economics
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  • 5
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 117 Author(s): Marisa Beck, Nicholas Rivers, Randall Wigle Support programs for renewable electricity generation in Ontario have been in place since 2005, including feed-in-tariffs and a competitive procurement process. These programs have been criticized on a number of fronts. In particular, critics claim the level of support was excessive and creating surplus supply. However, prior studies have ignored one potential benefit of renewable energy support—that it can help to promote cost reductions in new technologies through learning-by-doing. This paper uses a recursive-dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model featuring learning-by-doing effects to assess the renewable support programs provided in Ontario. Our results, in line with previous studies, do not justify the high support rates paid in Ontario given our core range of assumptions. But our modeling approach allows us to identify the combination of key parameter values relating to learning effects and environmental damages that justify the observed rates. These parameters are hard to measure empirically, and our modeling approach introduces a new tool for examining the impact of variations in these parameters on policy analysis.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 6
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Publication date: 15 May 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Volume 339 Author(s): Nhung Cao, Michal Holčapek, Martin Štěpnička The aim of this paper is to extend the fuzzy relational compositions motivated by their applications to medical diagnosis problem by Bandler and Kohout. These compositions employ two quantifiers, the universal quantifier and the existential quantifier. As there exists a big gap between these two quantifiers, that may be appropriately filled in by intermediate generalized quantifiers, we take this as a motivation for our study. In particular, we introduce the concept of fuzzy relational compositions based on generalized quantifiers. Furthermore, we show that the properties that are typically valid for standard fuzzy relational compositions are also valid for the compositions based on generalized quantifiers, yet sometimes in a weaken form. Apart from fuzzy relational compositions, the use of generalized quantifiers is also applied to images and preimages of fuzzy sets under fuzzy relations.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 7
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Publication date: 15 May 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Volume 339 Author(s): Andrei Alexandru, Gabriel Ciobanu The classical theory of fuzzy sets is extended to a recently developed framework named Finitely Supported Mathematics in order to characterize fuzzy sets over infinite universes in a finitary manner by involving the concept of “finite support”. We prove some algebraic properties of the new fuzzy sets within Finitely Supported Mathematics (including some that cannot be obtained in Zermelo–Fraenkel mathematics), and introduce operations and extension principles over these fuzzy sets. We introduce a specific (infinite) membership-degree association, and connect it to the notions of invariant complete lattices and invariant monoids in Finitely Supported Mathematics.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 8
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems Author(s): Nataša Duraković, Slavica Medić, Tatjana Grbić, Aleksandar Perović, Ljubo Nedović The main result of this paper is a generalization of Portmanteau Theorem for a sequence of interval-valued pseudo-probability measures. The classical Lebesgue integral from Probability Theory had been substituted with the pseudo-integral of a real-valued function with respect to an interval-valued ⊕-measure.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 9
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018 Source: Global Ecology and Conservation Author(s): Kiswanto, Satoshi Tsuyuki, Mardiany, Sumaryono Availability of up-to-date land cover information is increasingly important for describing annual changes in tropical landscapes that significantly affect ecosystem–economy interactions and environmental management. However, land cover change monitoring in humid tropical areas is complicated by difficult remote sensing conditions, which often leads to a crucial lack of accurate land cover information. In this study, we use visual interpretation of Landsat images in combination with existing land cover maps to create a set of annual maps for the East Kalimantan Province in Indonesia from 2000 to 2016. These datasets allow us to analyze the development of land cover change trends in the province since 2000 with high spatial and temporal detail. Our results reveal the acceleration of land cover changes, with overall cover changes from natural forest to plantation forest and other cultivated land cover classes, and undeveloped shrublands. The mapping approach used in this study effectively provides information on land cover changes in humid tropical areas, which can support environmental monitoring and government development programs.
    Print ISSN: 2351-9894
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 10
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    Elsevier
    In: Heliyon
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Heliyon, Volume 4, Issue 3 Author(s): Xifeng Chen, Zhenzhen Guo, Peng Miao In this work, we have developed one-pot aqueous synthesis of glutathione (GSH) binding CdTe quantum dots (QDs) for cell imaging. UV-Vis absorption spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, photoluminescence spectrum, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy are applied to characterize the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposites. The bioimaging efficiency of the GSH-capped CdTe QDs is further evaluated on Hela cells. The groups on the surface of QDs are able to bind to basic proteins, which are abundant in cell nuclei, enabling the application of QDs for direct cell imaging. Experimental results also indicate the GSH layer on the surface of QDs is able to reduce the cytotoxicity significantly. In conclusion, the as-prepared GSH-capped QDs are highly promising fluorescent probes for cell imaging in the near future.
    Electronic ISSN: 2405-8440
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 11
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    Elsevier
    In: Heliyon
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Heliyon, Volume 4, Issue 3 Author(s): Danilo Garcia, Björn N. Persson, Ali Al Nima, Joel Gruneau Brulin, Max Rapp-Ricciardi, Petri J. Kajonius Background The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) can be captured quickly with 12 items using the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (Jonason and Webster, 2010). Previous Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses of the original English Dark Triad Dirty Dozen have shown that all three subscales adequately tap into the dark domains of personality. The aim of the present study was to analyze the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen using IRT. Method 570 individuals ( n males = 326, n females = 242, and 2 unreported), including university students and white-collar workers with an age range between 19 and 65 years, responded to the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen ( Garcia et al., 2017a , b ). Results Contrary to previous research, we found that the narcissism scale provided most information, followed by psychopathy, and finally Machiavellianism. Moreover, the psychopathy scale required a higher level of the latent trait for endorsement of its items than the narcissism and Machiavellianism scales. Overall, all items provided reasonable amounts of information and are thus effective for discriminating between individuals. The mean item discriminations (alphas) were 1.92 for Machiavellianism, 2.31 for narcissism, and 1.99 for psychopathy. Conclusion This is the first study to provide IRT analyses of the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. Our findings add to a growing literature on the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen scale in different cultures and highlight psychometric characteristics, which can be used for comparative studies. Items tapping into psychopathy showed higher thresholds for endorsement than the other two scales. Importantly, the narcissism scale seems to provide more information about a lack of narcissism, perhaps mirroring cultural conditions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2405-8440
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 12
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    Elsevier
    In: Heliyon
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Heliyon, Volume 4, Issue 3 Author(s): Melissa Nursey-Bray, Robert Palmer Indigenous peoples are going to be disproportionately affected by climate change. Developing tailored, place based, and culturally appropriate solutions will be necessary. Yet finding cultural and institutional ‘fit’ within and between competing values-based climate and environmental management governance regimes remains an ongoing challenge. This paper reports on a collaborative research project with the Arabana people of central Australia, that resulted in the production of the first Indigenous community-based climate change adaptation strategy in Australia. We aimed to try and understand what conditions are needed to support Indigenous driven adaptation initiatives, if there are any cultural differences that need accounting for and how, once developed they be integrated into existing governance arrangements. Our analysis found that climate change adaptation is based on the centrality of the connection to ‘country’ (traditional land), it needs to be aligned with cultural values, and focus on the building of adaptive capacity. We find that the development of climate change adaptation initiatives cannot be divorced from the historical context of how the Arabana experienced and collectively remember colonisation. We argue that in developing culturally responsive climate governance for and with Indigenous peoples, that that the history of colonisation and the ongoing dominance of entrenched Western governance regimes needs acknowledging and redressing into contemporary environmental/climate management.
    Electronic ISSN: 2405-8440
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 13
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 167 Author(s): Kanghua Li, Rokas Kondrotas, Chao Chen, Shuaicheng Lu, Xixing Wen, Dengbing Li, Jiajun Luo, Yang Zhao, Jiang Tang Antimony selenide (Sb 2 Se 3 ) is a new thin film photovoltaic material and has received great research attention these days. ZnO, a nontoxic and wide bandgap material, has been successfully applied as the buffer layer in Sb 2 Se 3 solar cells. Device with high efficiency and exceptional stability has been obtained, and ZnO is thus regarded as the most-promising buffer layer for Sb 2 Se 3 photovoltaics. Herein we reported a simple sol–gel method to deposit ZnO film and construct ZnO/Sb 2 Se 3 heterojunction solar cells. We applied one-step annealing process to obtain smooth and compact ZnO and ZnO/Zn 1−x Mg x O thin films. We revealed that 10% Mg content was optimal for the sandwiched Zn 1−x Mg x O layer and finally obtained 4.45% device performance. Through careful characterization, we found out that the insertion of Zn 0.9 Mg 0.1 O upshifted the Fermi-level, leading to higher built-in potential ( V Bi ) and consequently larger open circuit voltage ( V OC ); it also promoted [2 2 1] orientation in Sb 2 Se 3 films and reduced interfacial defects of PN junction, enhancing short-circuit current density ( J SC ).
    Print ISSN: 0038-092X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 14
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018 Source: Solar Energy Author(s): Fan Zhang, Yonggao Yin, Xiaosong Zhang Solar cooling is one of the most promising solutions to the worsening energy and climate issues. A solar-driven liquid desiccant evaporative cooling air-conditioning system with solution storage tanks was proposed. The daily performance of the proposed system under the variable solution recirculation ratio ( R s ) adjusting method in a typical hot-humid summer day of Nanjing was investigated using a quasi-dynamic mathematical model. The solution storage effect and the coupled characteristics of the solar collecting subsystem and the liquid desiccant cycle were taken into account. The effects of water tank volume ( V wt ), the initial solution mass in the solution storage tank ( M s,storage,tank ) and the area of solar collector ( A sc ) on the overall system performance were also evaluated. The results show that with the help of the stored solution, the proposed system can effectively handle the space cooling load during the whole period of operation. The average values of thermal coefficient of performance (TCOP) and solar coefficient of performance (SCOP) are 0.66 and 0.31, respectively. The variable R s adjusting method can guarantee the required solution concentration and adapt well to the varying solar radiation. When A sc is limited, a smaller V wt and a larger M s,storage,tank are recommended to achieve a higher SCOP when covering the required space cooling load.
    Print ISSN: 0038-092X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 15
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2018 Source: Sustainable Materials and Technologies Author(s): Sheila Devasahayam Production of selective iron phases of iron carbide (nanoscale 〈2 nm), silicon carbide or ferro silicon using polymer resins and hematite is presented. Commercial epoxy resin, epiglue and silicones are used. Nonrenewable resources such as coke or high pure quartz are not used. A solid-liquid reaction provides for better intimate contact and reaction efficiency. Viscous epoxy and silicone resins can completely wet the reactants forming interfacial covalent bond between the metal oxide and the desired elements in the resins when cured at room temperature for 24 h, while facilitating migration of desired elements into iron matrix during reduction of hematite. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and off gas studies confirmed the formation of iron alloy phases. The study opens pathway for feedstock recycling of silicones maximizing resource recovery reducing the landfill/depolymerization of silicones. The valuable resources such as silicon, carbon and hydrogen in waste silicones, can replace metallurgical coke and quartzite as alloying elements in FeSi or SiC. Recyclable bioepoxy resin /bio renewable/recycled epoxy resin, which will otherwise be landfilled or incinerated, make this process sustainable, cleaner and cost-effective. FeSi formation at much lower temperature (~1500 °C) as opposed to very high temperatures (>1800 °C) spells energy savings and emission reductions. A potential replacement of nonrenewable coke by the composites of the resins and iron oxide as spacer provides for added benefit. The SiC, Fe 3 C and ferrosilicon find application in the economical production of high pure hydrogen and photovoltaic industry.
    Print ISSN: 2214-9937
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 16
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 111 Author(s): Moritz Behrend, Frank Meisel Item-sharing and crowdshipping are two concepts of the sharing economy. In item-sharing, members of a sharing community can temporarily rent items such as tools or leisure equipment from one another. In crowdshipping, private drivers offer to execute delivery jobs for other people on trips they would make anyway. Since the peer-to-peer exchange in item-sharing involves repeated, inefficient ‘last-mile’ transports of small shipments, we investigate here whether the integration of item-sharing and crowdshipping has the potential to facilitate collaborative consumption. To this end, the decision making for an integrated item-sharing and crowdshipping platform is modeled. This platform matches supplies, requests, and planned trips of the community members. We develop mathematical models and heuristics for maximizing the platform’s profit and the number of fulfilled requests. Our results quantify and confirm the substantial benefit of integrating item-sharing and crowdshipping.
    Print ISSN: 0191-2615
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2367
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 17
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: World Development, Volume 108 Author(s): Anne M. Larson, David Solis, Amy E. Duchelle, Stibniati Atmadja, Ida Aju Pradnja Resosudarmo, Therese Dokken, Mella Komalasari Although REDD+ is primarily a mechanism for reducing carbon emissions from forests, concerns regarding social benefits, wellbeing and gender are increasingly part of its mandate. This is consistent with the Paris Declaration as well as SDG 5 on gender equality and women’s empowerment. Critics have argued, however, that REDD+ design, both in policy and projects, does not take gender into account effectively, rather marginalizing women from decision making processes and exacerbating inequalities. Most of that research has been site specific or on single countries. This article uses data from a longitudinal study of subnational REDD+ initiatives in six countries to analyze their gendered impact on perceived wellbeing. Comparative research on subjective wellbeing was conducted at 62 villages participating in 16 REDD+ initiatives and 61 control villages at two periods in time, using a before-after-control-intervention (BACI) design. Focus groups with villagers (68% male) and women (100% female) permit a gendered comparison of definitions of wellbeing and outcomes of initiatives. The results highlight that while definitions of wellbeing overlapped between the two groups, almost half of the women’s focus groups thought that having their own source of income was important. Outcomes regarding wellbeing change suggest that perceived wellbeing decreased in REDD+ villages both for villagers as a whole and for women, relative to control villages, but the decrease was much worse for women – a decrease that is significantly associated with living in a REDD+ village. These declines may be due to unrealized expectations for REDD+, combined with little attention to gender in REDD+ initiatives, in spite of an important portion (46%) of specific interventions that women view positively. These interventions provide insights into potential ways forward. Overall, however, REDD+ initiatives appear to be repeating past mistakes, with insufficient attention to gender equality and safeguarding women’s rights. More effort needs to be paid to ensuring that gender is an integral part of future initiatives to combat climate change in rural communities.
    Print ISSN: 0305-750X
    Topics: Geography , Political Science , Sociology
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  • 18
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 83 Author(s): Panpan Xu, Sining Zheng We study the attraction–repulsion chemotaxis system of parabolic–elliptic type with logistic source: u t = Δ u − χ ∇ ⋅ ( u ∇ v ) + ξ ∇ ⋅ ( u ∇ w ) + f ( u ) , 0 = Δ v − β v + α u , 0 = Δ w − δ w + γ u , subject to the non-flux boundary conditions in a bounded domain Ω ⊂ R n ( n ≥ 1 ) with smooth boundary, f ( s ) ≤ a − b s η for all s ≥ 0 , where constants χ , ξ , η , α , δ , γ , b > 0 , a ≥ 0 . The global boundedness of solutions to this problem was established by Li and Xiang (2016) for the repulsion domination case χ α 〈 ξ γ with η ≥ 1 , the attraction domination case χ α > ξ γ with η > 2 (or η = 2 , b properly large), and the balance case χ α = ξ γ with η > 1 2 ( n 2 + 4 n − n + 2 ) , respectively. In the present paper we prove for the balance case χ α = ξ γ that the weakened restriction η > 2 n + 2 n + 2 is sufficient to ensure the global boundedness of solutions.
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 19
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 83 Author(s): Zhong-Zhi Bai, Wen-Ting Wu For solving large sparse systems of linear equations by iteration methods, we further generalize the greedy randomized Kaczmarz method by introducing a relaxation parameter in the involved probability criterion, obtaining a class of relaxed greedy randomized Kaczmarz methods. We prove the convergence of these methods when the linear system is consistent, and show that these methods can be more efficient than the greedy randomized Kaczmarz method if the relaxation parameter is chosen appropriately.
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 20
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 83 Author(s): Said R. Grace, John R. Graef In this paper the authors examine the asymptotic behavior of solutions of a certain third order forced integro-differential equations with δ -Laplacian. Their main goal is to investigate whether nonoscillatory solutions behave at infinity like certain nontrivial nonlinear functions. They apply a technique involving Young’s, Hölder’s, and Gronwall’s inequalities.
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 21
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 83 Author(s): Yanfang Gao, Zhiyong Wang This paper concerns the semi-relativistic Hartree equation i ∂ t u = − Δ + m 2 u − ( | ⋅ | − 1 ∗ | u | 2 ) u in R 3 . We prove the concentration results for finite time blow-up solutions with general H x 1 ∕ 2 ( R 3 ) data, and show the relation between the concentration rate and the blow-up order.
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 22
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 82 Author(s): Mohammed Al-Refai In this paper, we consider a class of linear fractional differential equations involving the Caputo–Fabrizio fractional derivative of order 1 〈 α 〈 2 . We derive, in closed form, a reduction of order formula to obtain a second linearly independent solution. We then establish a fundamental set of solutions result to the equation. One example is presented to illustrate the validity of the obtained results.
    Print ISSN: 0893-9659
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 23
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 82 Author(s): Xinan Hao, Mingyue Zuo, Lishan Liu In this paper we investigate a system of impulsive integral boundary value problems with sign-changing nonlinearities. Using the fixed point theorem in double cones, we prove the existence of multiple positive solutions.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 24
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 82 Author(s): Bo Yang, Yong Chen In this letter, a study of the reductions of the Darboux transformations (DTs) for the PT -symmetric nonlocal Davey–Stewartson (DS) equations is presented. Firstly, a binary DT is constructed in integral form for the PT -symmetric nonlocal DS-I equation. Secondly, an elementary DT is constructed in differential form for the PT -symmetric nonlocal DS-II equation. Afterwards, a new binary DT in integral form is also found for the nonlocal DS-II equation. Moreover, it is shown that the symmetry properties in the corresponding Lax-pairs of the equations are well preserved through these DTs. Thirdly, based on above DTs, the fundamental rogue waves and rational travelling waves are obtained.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5452
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 25
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 82 Author(s): Zhen-Jun Yang, Shu-Min Zhang, Xing-Liang Li, Zhao-Guang Pang Based on the nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation that governs phenomenologically the propagation of laser beams in nonlocal nonlinear media, we theoretically investigate the propagation of sinh-Gaussian beams (ShGBs). Mathematical expressions are derived to describe the beam propagation, the intensity distribution, the beam width, and the beam curvature radius of ShGBs. It is found that the propagation behavior of ShGBs is variable and closely related to the parameter of sinh function (PShF). If the PShF is small, the transverse pattern of ShGBs keeps invariant during propagation for a proper input power, which can be regarded as solitons. If the PShF is large, it varies periodically, which is similar to the evolution of temporal higher-order solitons in nonlinear optical fiber. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the typical propagation characteristics.
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 82 Author(s): Xinguang Zhang, Yonghong Wu, Yujun Cui By introducing a growth condition and using an iterative technique, we establish the results for the nonexistence and existence of positive entire blow-up solutions for a Schrödinger equation involving a nonlinear operator. Our main results improve and extend some existing works. In addition, we also give an example to illustrate our results.
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 82 Author(s): Winfried Auzinger, Othmar Koch We propose a symmetrized version of the defect to be used in the estimation of the local time-stepping error of symmetric one-step methods for the time propagation of linear autonomous evolution equations. Using the anti-commutator of the numerical flow and the right-hand side operator in the definition of the defect of the numerical approximation, a local error estimator is obtained which has higher accuracy asymptotically than an established version using the common defect. This theoretical result is illustrated for a splitting method applied to a linear Schrödinger equation.
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  • 28
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 82 Author(s): Hui-Min Yin, Bo Tian, Jun Chai, Xiao-Yu Wu In this paper, we investigate the ( 2 + 1 ) -dimensional stochastic Broer–Kaup equations for the shallow water wave in a fluid or electrostatic wave in a plasma. Through the symbolic computation, Hirota method and white noise functional approach, the stochastic one- and two-soliton solutions are derived. Through the stochastic one soliton solutions, we derive the velocities of solitons, respectively, and graphically investigate the effect of the white noise on the velocities. The effects of the Gaussian white noise on the dynamic properties of the solitons are discussed. We get that the white noise poses some influence to the soliton of U , where U is related to the horizontal velocity of the water wave, with which the soliton of U would vanish with time instead of propagating stably. On the contrary, transmission of the soliton of V presents certain stability no matter whether the white noise exists, where V is related to the horizontal elevation of the water wave. Figures are displayed for the elastic collisions between the two oscillating-, parabolic- and bell-type solitons, respectively. In addition, collisions are shown to be elastic through the asymptotic analysis.
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  • 29
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 81 Author(s): Piyanuch Siriwat, Sergey V. Meleshko The group analysis method is applied to the extended Green–Naghdi equations. The equations are studied in the Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates. The complete group classification of the equations is provided. The derived Lie symmetries are used to reduce the equations to ordinary differential equations. For solving the ordinary differential equations the Runge–Kutta methods were applied. Comparisons between solutions of the Green–Naghdi equations and the extended Green–Naghdi equations are given.
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  • 30
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 81 Author(s): Guofeng Che, Haibo Chen In this paper, we study the following Schrödinger equation − Δ u + V λ ( x ) u + μ ϕ | u | p − 2 u = f ( x , u ) + β ( x ) | u | ν − 2 u ,  in  R 3 , ( − Δ ) α 2 ϕ = μ | u | p ,  in  R 3 , where μ ≥ 0 is a parameter, α ∈ ( 0 , 3 ) , ν ∈ ( 1 , 2 ) and p ∈ [ 2 , 3 + 2 α ) . V λ is allowed to be sign-changing and ϕ | u | p − 2 u is a Hartree-type nonlinearity. We require that V λ = λ V + − V − with V + having a bounded potential well Ω whose depth is controlled by λ . Under some mild conditions on V λ ( x ) and f ( x , u ) , we prove that the above system has at least two nontrivial solutions. Specially, our results cover the general Schrödinger equations and the Schrödinger–Poisson equations.
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 81 Author(s): Fanchao Kong, Zhiguo Luo In this paper, a system of neutral functional differential equations in critical case is investigated. Under some suitable assumptions, we prove that every bounded solution of the considered system tends to zero vector as t → + ∞ . An example and its numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the theoretical results.
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 81 Author(s): Won-Kwang Park In this paper, we develop a fast imaging technique for small anomalies located in homogeneous media from scattering parameter data measured at dipole antennas. Based on the representation of scattering parameters when an anomaly exists, we design a direct sampling method (DSM) for imaging an anomaly and establishing a relationship between the indicator function of DSM and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order. Simulation results using synthetic data at f = 1  GHz of angular frequency are illustrated to support the identified structure of the indicator function.
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 81 Author(s): Chunyuan Deng, Xiaoli Deng, Chujian Lin In this note, we give the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the solution and obtain the general solution to the equation A X B = B = B X A . The results improve the recent results by Vosough (2017).
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  • 34
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 80
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  • 35
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Computers in Industry, Volume 98 Author(s): Jiankang Liu, Xian Xiang Chen, Lipeng Fang, Jun Xia Li, Ting Yang, Qingyuan Zhan, Kai Tong, Zhen Fang With the development of biomedical equipment and healthcare level, large amounts of data have been brought out in hospital, especially in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). However, how to better exploit meaningful information from these rich data still remains a challenge. This paper focuses on ICU mortality prediction, which is a typical example of second use of ICU big data. Patient ICU mortality prediction faces challenges in many aspects, such as high dimensionality, imbalance distribution and time asynchronization etc. To solve these challenges, a series of analytical methods and tools, including variables selection, preprocessing, feature extraction & feature selection and predictive modeling, have been utilized and developed. High-dimensional and unbalanced natures of the ICU data badly affect the performance of classifiers. We modified the cost-sensitive principal component analysis (CSPCA), which is denoted by MCSPCA, to handle these problems in feature extraction stage. As for parameter optimization, a variant of standard particle swarm optimization called chaos particle swarm optimization (CPSO) was adopted for its capacity of finding optimal solution. In order to obtain the best prediction model, different algorithms were investigated and their AUC performances were evaluated in a large real world benchmark data. The final results show that our proposed method improved the performance of the traditional machine learning methods, in which the support vector machine (SVM) reach best AUC performance of 0.7718. This study gives a paradigm to handle similar problems in big health data and helps promote healthcare services. Graphical abstract
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    Topics: Computer Science , Technology
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  • 36
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 83 Author(s): Ying Lv, Shiqing Zhang Based on the works of Gordon (1977) and Zhang and Zhou (2001) on the variational minimizing properties for Keplerian orbits and Lagrangian solutions of Newtonian 2-body and 3-body problems, we use the constrained variational principle of Ambrosetti and Coti Zelati (1990) to compute the Lagrangian actions on Keplerian and Lagrangian elliptical solutions with fixed energies. We also find an interesting relation between the period and the energy for Lagrangian elliptical solutions with Newtonian potentials.
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 83 Author(s): Shundong Zhu, Junfeng Song Based on the residual symmetry theorem, the residual symmetry is obtained for the (2+1)-dimensional generalized Broer–Kaup (GBK) equations. The multiple residual symmetries are presented and localized by introducing prolonged systems, and then n th Bäcklund transformation for the GBK system in terms of determinant is derived. By means of the consistent tanh expansion (CTE) method, we get various interaction solutions which describe soliton interacting with other nonlinear waves including multiple resonant soliton wave, error function wave, periodic wave and rational function wave.
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: September 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 83 Author(s): P. Amster, A. Déboli, M.P. Kuna A coupled Gompertz-like system of delay differential equations is considered. We prove the existence of T -periodic solutions under resonance assuming a Lazer–Leach type condition.
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 82 Author(s): G. Ke, E. Aulisa, G. Dillon, V. Howle In this paper, we apply the augmented Lagrangian (AL) approach to steady buoyancy driven flow problems. Two AL preconditioners are developed based on the variable’s order, specifically whether the leading variable is the velocity or the temperature variable. Correspondingly, two non-augmented Lagrangian (NAL) preconditioners are also considered for comparison. An eigenvalue analysis for these two pairs of preconditioners is conducted to predict the rate of convergence for the GMRES solver. The numerical results show that the AL preconditioner pair is insensitive with respect to the mesh size, Rayleigh number, and Prandtl number in terms of GMRES iterations, resulting in a significantly more robust preconditioner pair compared to the NAL pair. Accordingly, the AL pair performs much better than the NAL pair in terms of computational time. For the AL pair, the preconditioner with velocity as the leading variable gives slightly better efficiency than the one with temperature as the leading variable.
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  • 40
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 82 Author(s): Maria V. Demina, Nikolay A. Kudryashov The FitzHugh–Nagumo model is studied in the framework of analytic theory of differential equations. The Nevanlinna theory is used to find all meromorphic solutions of a second-order ordinary differential equation related to the FitzHugh–Nagumo model. As a consequence new exact solutions of the FitzHugh–Nagumo system are obtained in explicit form.
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 82 Author(s): Yu-Feng Wang, Bo-Ling Guo, Nan Liu In this paper, optical rogue waves for the coherently coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation with alternate signs of nonlinearities are investigated via Darboux transformation. We derive family of structures of rogue wave, including rogue waves with one peak and two valleys, bright rogue waves without valleys while with one peak or two peaks.
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  • 42
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 82 Author(s): Mansour Saeed Ibrahim Adam, Jiu Ding, Qianglian Huang, Lanping Zhu Let A be a matrix with A − 1 = A . We find all commuting solutions and some non-commuting solutions of the matrix equation A X A = X A X . All non-commuting solutions are also obtained under a full rank condition.
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  • 43
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 82 Author(s): Li-Dan Liao, Guo-Feng Zhang, Rui-Xia Li For complex symmetric linear systems, Axelsson et al. (2014) proposed the C-to-R method. In this paper, by further studying the C-to-R method with W and T being symmetric positive semidefinite, the optimal iteration parameter for the C-to-R method α o p t = 2 2 2 is obtained and the C-to-R method is optimized. Furthermore, based on the optimized C-to-R method, we further propose an optimized preconditioner. Eigenvalue properties of the optimized preconditioned matrix are analyzed, which show that all the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix are located in tighter interval. Numerical results are presented, not only confirm the validity of the theoretical analysis, but also demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed optimized C-to-R method.
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 82 Author(s): P. Hasil, J. Juránek, M. Veselý The aim of this paper is to mention a generalization of the adapted Riccati equation and, using this method, to prove a non-oscillatory result concerning half-linear differential equations with coefficients having mean values. Note that this result is new even for linear equations.
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  • 45
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 82 Author(s): Hai-Ping Zhu, Li-Rong Qian A (3+1)-dimensional nonautonomous partially nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation with different diffractions is reduced to an autonomous nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Based on solutions of the autonomous nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and using the Darboux transformation method, spatiotemporal bright and dark soliton solutions are obtained. Dynamical evolution of wirelike spatiotemporal bright and dark single soliton, separated and interactive wirelike wave bright and dark double soliton structures are discussed in the sinusoidal diffraction system. For specified value of the parameter n in the Hermite polynomial, bright and dark single soliton, parallel separated bright and dark double soliton and interactive bright and dark double soliton structures all exist n + 1 columns in z -direction.
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  • 46
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Applied Mathematics Letters, Volume 81
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  • 47
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: 3 April 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 23, Issue 1 Author(s): Theo A. Knijnenburg, Linghua Wang, Michael T. Zimmermann, Nyasha Chambwe, Galen F. Gao, Andrew D. Cherniack, Huihui Fan, Hui Shen, Gregory P. Way, Casey S. Greene, Yuexin Liu, Rehan Akbani, Bin Feng, Lawrence A. Donehower, Chase Miller, Yang Shen, Mostafa Karimi, Haoran Chen, Pora Kim, Peilin Jia, Eve Shinbrot, Shaojun Zhang, Jianfang Liu, Hai Hu, Matthew H. Bailey, Christina Yau, Denise Wolf, Zhongming Zhao, John N. Weinstein, Lei Li, Li Ding, Gordon B. Mills, Peter W. Laird, David A. Wheeler, Ilya Shmulevich, Raymond J. Monnat, Yonghong Xiao, Chen Wang DNA damage repair (DDR) pathways modulate cancer risk, progression, and therapeutic response. We systematically analyzed somatic alterations to provide a comprehensive view of DDR deficiency across 33 cancer types. Mutations with accompanying loss of heterozygosity were observed in over 1/3 of DDR genes, including TP53 and BRCA1/2 . Other prevalent alterations included epigenetic silencing of the direct repair genes EXO5 , MGMT , and ALKBH3 in ∼20% of samples. Homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) was present at varying frequency in many cancer types, most notably ovarian cancer. However, in contrast to ovarian cancer, HRD was associated with worse outcomes in several other cancers. Protein structure-based analyses allowed us to predict functional consequences of rare, recurrent DDR mutations. A new machine-learning-based classifier developed from gene expression data allowed us to identify alterations that phenocopy deleterious TP53 mutations. These frequent DDR gene alterations in many human cancers have functional consequences that may determine cancer progression and guide therapy. Graphical abstract Teaser Knijnenburg et al. present The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Pan-Cancer analysis of DNA damage repair (DDR) deficiency in cancer. They use integrative genomic and molecular analyses to identify frequent DDR alterations across 33 cancer types, correlate gene- and pathway-level alterations with genome-wide measures of genome instability and impaired function, and demonstrate the prognostic utility of DDR deficiency scores.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: 3 April 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 23, Issue 1 Author(s): Hua-Sheng Chiu, Sonal Somvanshi, Ektaben Patel, Ting-Wen Chen, Vivek P. Singh, Barry Zorman, Sagar L. Patil, Yinghong Pan, Sujash S. Chatterjee, Anil K. Sood, Preethi H. Gunaratne, Pavel Sumazin Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are commonly dysregulated in tumors, but only a handful are known to play pathophysiological roles in cancer. We inferred lncRNAs that dysregulate cancer pathways, oncogenes, and tumor suppressors (cancer genes) by modeling their effects on the activity of transcription factors, RNA-binding proteins, and microRNAs in 5,185 TCGA tumors and 1,019 ENCODE assays. Our predictions included hundreds of candidate onco- and tumor-suppressor lncRNAs (cancer lncRNAs) whose somatic alterations account for the dysregulation of dozens of cancer genes and pathways in each of 14 tumor contexts. To demonstrate proof of concept, we showed that perturbations targeting OIP5-AS1 (an inferred tumor suppressor) and TUG1 and WT1-AS (inferred onco-lncRNAs) dysregulated cancer genes and altered proliferation of breast and gynecologic cancer cells. Our analysis indicates that, although most lncRNAs are dysregulated in a tumor-specific manner, some, including OIP5-AS1, TUG1, NEAT1, MEG3, and TSIX, synergistically dysregulate cancer pathways in multiple tumor contexts. Graphical abstract Teaser Chiu et al. present a pan-cancer analysis of lncRNA regulatory interactions. They suggest that the dysregulation of hundreds of lncRNAs target and alter the expression of cancer genes and pathways in each tumor context. This implies that hundreds of lncRNAs can alter tumor phenotypes in each tumor context.
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Computers & Operations Research, Volume 95 Author(s): Jianguang Feng, Ada Che This paper considers the facility layout problem (FLP) that places a set of fixed-size rectangular departments on a given rectangular site in such a way that the total material flow between adjacent departments is maximized. We demonstrate that an existing integer linear programming (ILP) model for this problem is flawed. Then, two novel ILP models are developed by reformulating some constraints of the existing model from different perspectives. They both significantly reduce the quantity of decision variables. It is also shown that the proposed models can be simplified if all departments have the same size. Numerical experiments conducted on several benchmark instances show that the proposed models outperform the existing one with promising results. Our models can solve all tested instances to optimality within reasonable time, while the existing one cannot.
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    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 18 Author(s): Michał Tomaszewski, Bogdan Ruszczak, Paweł Michalski Electrical insulators are elements of power lines that require periodical diagnostics. Due to their location on the components of high-voltage power lines, their imaging can be cumbersome and time-consuming, especially under varying lighting conditions. Insulator diagnostics with the use of visual methods may require localizing insulators in the scene. Studies focused on insulator localization in the scene apply a number of methods, including: texture analysis, MRF (Markov Random Field), Gabor filters or GLCM (Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix) [1,2] . Some methods, e.g. those which localize insulators based on colour analysis [3] , rely on object and scene illumination, which is why the images from the dataset are taken under varying lighting conditions. The dataset may also be used to compare the effectiveness of different methods of localizing insulators in images. This article presents high-resolution images depicting a long rod electrical insulator under varying lighting conditions and against different backgrounds: crops, forest and grass. The dataset contains images with visible laser spots (generated by a device emitting light at the wavelength of 532 nm) and images without such spots, as well as complementary data concerning the illumination level and insulator position in the scene, the number of registered laser spots, and their coordinates in the image. The laser spots may be used to support object-localizing algorithms, while the images without spots may serve as a source of information for those algorithms which do not need spots to localize an insulator.
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 149 Author(s): Gianluca Grilli, John Curtis, Stephen Hynes, Paul O’Reilly The relationship between angling effort and catch is well-recognised, in particular that effort influences catch rates. But increased catch, which can be considered an attribute of fishery quality, may influence effort in terms of number of fishing trips. This suggests bi-directional feedback between catch and effort. In many travel cost applications little attention has been given to this endogeneity problem. In this paper we expand the application of structural equation models to address this issue by jointly estimating demand (effort) and catch functions. Using a cross-section dataset of sea bass anglers we propose two separate joint models. First, we include expected catch as an explanatory variable in the demand equation. In the second, we reverse the causality and use the expected number of fishing days as a covariate in the catch function. The two approaches produce similar model estimates, and perform better at predicting anglers' catch and effort than standard models. The findings confirm that sea bass angling is highly valued, with a consumer surplus of about €282–318 per angler per day, though this is likely to be biased upwards. Furthermore higher catches result in more days fished, on average in a 2:1 ratio. Whereas on average, an additional fishing day results in 3–4 additional bass caught.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 149 Author(s): Veronika Stolbova, Irene Monasterolo, Stefano Battiston Existing approaches to assess the economic impact of climate policies tend to overlook the financial sector and to focus only on direct effects of policies on the specific institutional sector they target, neglecting possible feedbacks between sectors, thus, underestimating the overall policy effect. To fill in this gap, we develop a methodology based on financial networks, which allows for analyzing the transmission throughout the economy of positive or negative shocks induced by the introduction of specific climate policies. We apply the methodology to empirical data of the Euro Area to identify the feedback loops between the financial sector and the real economy both through direct and indirect chains of financial exposures across multiple financial instruments. By focusing on climate policy-induced shocks that affect directly either the banking sector or non-financial firms, we analyze the reinforcing feedback loops that could amplify the effects of shocks on the financial sector and then cascade on the real economy. Our analysis helps to understand the conditions for virtuous or vicious cycles to arise in the climate-finance nexus and to provide a comprehensive assessment of the economic impact of climate policies.
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 149 Author(s): Makoto Ehara, Kimihiko Hyakumura, Ren'ya Sato, Kiyoshi Kurosawa, Kunio Araya, Heng Sokh, Ryo Kohsaka The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework has been applied to various environmental problems at multiple spatial and temporal scales and attempts have been made to conceptually improve the framework to encompass various stakeholder perspectives. However, recent literature experiences in the field have challenged the inclusive character of the framework applications. In particular, the framework's inability to incorporate the aggregated informal responses of people affected by changes in ecosystem service provisions has not been fully addressed. This limits the framework's validity in categorizing and disseminating information for addressing particular environmental challenges. Herein, we address this problem by analyzing a case study of deforestation and its impact on non-timber forest product collections by rural residents in Cambodia. We incorporate the concept of maladaptive coping strategies into the DPSIR framework and then further elaborate Ness et al.'s (2010) approach of merging the DPSIR framework with Hägerstrand's (2001) system of nested spatial domains . This conceptualizes the incorporation of the aggregated informal responses into the system, as exemplified in the case study.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Publication date: January–June 2018 Source: SoftwareX, Volume 7 Author(s): S. Cherubin, G. Agosta We present libVersioningCompiler , a C++ library designed to support the dynamic generation of multiple versions of the same compute kernel in a HPC scenario. It can be used to provide continuous optimization, code specialization based on the input data or on workload changes, or otherwise to dynamically adjust the application, without the burden of a full dynamic compiler. The library supports multiple underlying compilers but specifically targets the llvm framework. We also provide examples of use, showing the overhead of the library, and providing guidelines for its efficient use.
    Electronic ISSN: 2352-7110
    Topics: Computer Science
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018 Source: Molecular Immunology Author(s): Joanna Bandola-Simon, Paul A. Roche The ability to mount an effective anti-tumor immune response requires coordinate control of CD4 T cell and CD8 T cell function by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Unfortunately, tumors create an immunosuppressive microenvironment that helps protect tumor cells from immune recognition. In many cases this defect can be traced back to a failure of APCs (most importantly dendritic cells (DCs)) to recognize, process, and present tumor antigens to T cells. In this review, we will summarize work addressing the role of different DC subsets in anti-tumor immunity and the various mechanisms used by tumor cells to suppress the ability of APCs to stimulate potent anti-tumor T cell responses.
    Print ISSN: 0161-5890
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9142
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 56
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 18 Author(s): Jing-Jing Li, Wei Xia, Hong-Po Dong, Lin-Jian Ou Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu is one of the most frequently occurred harmful algae in the coastal waters of China. The growth of P. donghaiense can be limited by nitrogen or phosphorus in marine environment. However, molecular mechanism of P. donghaiense in response to nitrogen and phosphorus limitation is poorly understood. In this study, we summarized the transcriptome datasets of P. donghaiense in response to nitrogen or phosphorus depletion. Raw data of approximately 19 GB in size were generated from IlluminaHiSeq TM 4000 sequencer. From 250, 539, 604 raw reads, 211, 394, 052 clean reads were obtained. The raw data were deposited into SRA database with the BioProject ID 436946. Our dataset will provide more scientific and valuable information for analyses of gene expression related to metabolic processes in P. donghaiense .
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    Topics: Biology
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  • 57
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 149 Author(s): Ina Lehmann, Adrian Martin, Janet A. Fisher In light of trade-offs related to the allocation of ecosystem services we investigate the prevalent norms that are drawn upon to justify why ecosystem governance should prioritise poverty alleviation. We are specifically concerned with poverty alleviation because we consider this an urgent problem of justice. We review empirical literature on social trade-offs in ecosystem services governance in order to identify the prevalent conceptions of justice that inform scholarly assessments of current practice. We find that empirical studies do present specific notions of justice as desirable benchmarks for ecosystem services governance but that they rarely attempt to spell out the precise meaning of these notions or what makes them desirable. For those notions of justice that we identify in this literature - sufficientarianism, egalitarianism and participatory approaches - we draw on philosophical justice literature in order to better articulate the normative arguments that could support them and to be more precise about the kind of actions and expectations that they invoke. Moreover, we point to some striking normative silences in the ecosystem services literature. We conclude that the ecosystem services justice discourse would benefit from more conceptual clarity and a broader examination of different aspects of justice.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 149 Author(s): Laure Kuhfuss, Julie Subervie Agri-environmental schemes (AES) are a central component of the European environmental policy, but few of these schemes have been carefully evaluated and doubts are often expressed about their effectiveness. We use original data collected from winegrowers who participated in an AES targeting non-point source pollution from herbicides in 2011 and 2012 in the South region of France. Using the variation in the implementation of the scheme across time and space and a matching approach, we show that the quantity of herbicides used by participants in the scheme in 2011 ranges from 38 to 53% below what they would have used without the scheme and this percentage is between 42 and 50% in 2012. Further, our results suggest that least demanding AES options are effective in avoiding pollution peaks when weed pressure is high, whereas more demanding AES options guarantee an overall reduction in herbicide use, even during relatively easy farming years in which less weed pressure is experienced.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6106
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  • 59
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 149 Author(s): Carsten Herrmann-Pillath This paper submits the philosophical case for establishing ‘technosphere science’ that draws on results of many other disciplines, reaching from physics to the social sciences and humanities. I present claims about the type of entities that are studied by technosphere science and their causal relationships, and introduce central organizing concepts, such as ‘information’ and ‘function’. Agency is no longer seen as a property exclusive to humans, but as being distributed in networks of ontologically diverse entities. Technosphere science draws on various uses of the concept of ‘networks’ across disciplines, such as scaling laws and builds on a universal evolutionary framework that generalizes over biological evolution. In this perspective, the economy is the medium by which human action becomes functional relative to the reproduction and growth of the technosphere. I conclude with showing how human autonomy and ethical commitments remain possible.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6106
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 118 Author(s): Zuzana Dobrotkova, Kavita Surana, Pierre Audinet This paper examines the viability of low PV prices in developing countries from recent competitive auctions and discusses the sustainability of these low prices for further market expansion. Our analysis of utility-scale PV projects procured through major auctions in developing countries between 2013 and 2016 reveals that low PV prices are viable. PV prices of $0.06–0.08/kWh are consistent with market fundamentals and prices lower than $0.03/kWh are viable under exceptional conditions in some countries. Maintaining low prices while ensuring deployment of quality projects requires a combination of high capacity factors, low equipment prices, low cost of capital, de-risked investment environments, e.g., through the presence of guarantees, and other factors such as particular project developer strategies. Overall, developing countries with abundant local solar resources are well-positioned to drive the global expansion of PV capacity. Well-designed auctions offer a unique opportunity to expand solar PV capacity to many markets in a cost-effective manner.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 118 Author(s): Surina Esterhuyse, Marinda Avenant, Nola Redelinghuys, Andrzej Kijko, Jan Glazewski, Lisa Plit, Marthie Kemp, Ansie Smit, A. Tascha Vos Biophysical and socio-economic monitoring during unconventional oil and gas (UOG) extraction is important to assess change and to have reference conditions against which to identify UOG extraction activity impacts. The large-scale cumulative impacts of UOG extraction makes standardised monitoring across geographic and socio-political regions important. This article emphasises the importance of a robust monitoring framework that must serve as a guideline for planning monitoring activities during UOG extraction. A case study from South Africa is presented to illustrate important aspects to address during the development of a UOG extraction monitoring framework. The South African case is critically assessed and resultant policy implications are discussed. Important policy considerations include performing baseline monitoring during UOG extraction, performing UOG extraction monitoring in an integrated, systematic, and standardised manner, ensuring that proper resources are available to perform the monitoring and implementing an adaptive management plan that is linked to UOG extraction monitoring.
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 62
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 117 Author(s): Eric O’Shaughnessy, Robert Margolis Installed prices for residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have declined significantly in recent years. However price dispersion and limited customer access to PV quotes prevents some prospective customers from obtaining low price offers. This study shows that improved customer access to prices – also known as price transparency – is a potential policy lever for further PV price reductions. We use customer search and strategic pricing theory to show that PV installation companies face incentives to offer lower prices in markets with more price transparency. We test this theoretical framework using a unique residential PV quote dataset. Our results show that installers offer lower prices to customers that are expected to receive more quotes. Our study provides a rationale for policies to improve price transparency in residential PV markets.
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 117 Author(s): K. Johansen, J. Emborg The Danish Renewable Energy Act features several financial incentive structures with direct local-level implications. One of these is the wind farm co-ownership scheme, OPSS. In this study, we explore local perceptions of OPSS via survey-data collected during the Danish near-shore bid for tender in 2015 from almost 2000 respondents. Empirical evidence suggests that demographic facts, such as gender and age, influence the general appeal of the scheme, and as engagement in wind-projects via OPSS presupposes investment liquidity, OPSS is not equal for all. Furthermore, most potential OPSS-investors already support the planned wind farm projects, and many project opponents will not engage themselves in something they are against in principle. Finally, economic benefits potentially gained via OPSS do not appear to compensate for values feared violated by wind farms by many wind farm project stakeholders. While OPSS is a very positive policy attempt at creating local engagement via wind farm co-ownership, it is clear that the scheme alone will not adequately compensate for local wind farm related grievances. Real world facts and complications, such as demographics, preconceived project perceptions and personal values, get in the way. Implications of the study for related policies are discussed.
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 117 Author(s): Creed Tumlison, Eric D. Button, Geoboo Song, John Kester In this paper, we attempt to identify individual-level determinants that shape renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE/EE) policy adoption decisions, utilizing the grid-group cultural theory (CT) mixed with rational choice perspectives. Through an analysis of data collected from a statewide survey of 420 local policy elites in more than 50 Arkansas cities in 2014, we found that cultural values – particularly those of egalitarianism and individualism – significantly influence RE/EE policy preferences, with egalitarians demonstrating higher support for RE/EE policies and individualists demonstrating lower levels of support. We further found that feasibility considerations – particularly economic and land use feasibility perceptions – significantly influence RE/EE policy preferences, with higher levels of perceived feasibility being associated with higher levels of support for RE/EE policies. However, feasibility perceptions were not strong enough to overcome the effects of cultural values, particularly for egalitarians and individualists. In sum, such feasibility considerations are present in policy elites’ related policy preference formation, but are constrained by their cultural value predispositions. We conclude by discussing various ramifications of our research findings.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018 Source: Geoscience Frontiers Author(s): Rong-Guo Zheng, Jin-Yi Li, Wen-Jiao Xiao, Li-Jia Wang The Alxa region, located in the southernmost part of Central Asian Orogenic Belt, is a key region for understanding the tectonic processes associated with the closure of the Paleo–Asian Ocean. Issues of late Paleozoic tectonic settings and tectonic unit divisions of the Alxa region still remain controversial. In this study, we report a new ophiolitic mélange named the Tepai ophiolitic mélange in the northern Alxa region, northwest of Alxa Youqi. The tectonic blocks in the Tepai ophiolitic mélange are mainly composed of serpentinized peridotites, serpentinites, mylonitized gabbros, gabbros, basalts, and quartzites, with a matrix comprising highly deformed clastic rocks. A gabbro exhibits a zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 278.4±3.3 Ma. Gabbros exhibit high MgO and compatible element contents, but extremely low TiO 2 , totally rare earth element and high field strength element contents. These rocks exhibit light rare earth element depleted patterns, and display enriched in large-ion lithophile elements and depleted in high field strength elements. Boninite-like geochemical data show that they were formed in a subduction-related environment, and derived from an extremely depleted mantle source infiltrated by subduction-derived fluids and/or melts. The Tepai ophiolitic mélange exhibits similar zircon U-Pb-O isotopic compositions and whole-rock geochemical characteristics to those of the Quagan Qulu ophiolite. Therefore, we propose that the Tepai ophiolitic mélange may have been the western continuation of the Quagan Qulu ophiolite. Our new finding proves the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean might have taken place later than the early Permian. Graphical abstract
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    Topics: Geosciences
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: January–June 2018 Source: SoftwareX, Volume 7 Author(s): Elias Rudberg, Emanuel H. Rubensson, Paweł Sałek, Anastasia Kruchinina Ergo is a C++ program for all-electron Hartree–Fock and Kohn–Sham density functional theory electronic structure calculations using Gaussian basis sets. The program uses algorithms for which the computational cost increases linearly with system size for all parts of the calculation, including computation of the Fock/Kohn–Sham matrix and density matrix construction. Both spin-restricted and unrestricted calculations are supported, and both pure and hybrid density functionals. The program also supports linear-scaling computation of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) vectors. This paper briefly describes how the code is organized and provides examples of how it can be used.
    Electronic ISSN: 2352-7110
    Topics: Computer Science
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: 15 May 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 166 Author(s): J.J. Ramírez-Minguela, J.A. Alfaro-Ayala, V.H. Rangel-Hernández, A.R. Uribe-Ramírez, J.M. Mendoza-Miranda, V. Pérez-García, J.M. Belman-Flores In this work, a comparison of the thermo-hydraulic performance and the entropy generation rate for two different types of low temperature solar collectors: flat plate solar collector (FPC) and water-in-glass evacuated tube solar collector (ETC), is addressed. The absorber area for both solar collectors were considered to be equal for a reliable comparison. The operation of the solar collectors was simulated under different volumetric flow rates and solar radiation values for the state of Guanajuato in Mexico. The volumetric flow rate for both collectors ranged from 1 to 9 L/min. The variation of the solar radiation was based on: (1) the solar radiation taken from several experimental tests reported elsewhere, (2) the month with the lowest average solar radiation in one year, (3) the average solar radiation of one year and (4) the month with the highest average solar radiation in one year. The buoyancy effects were considered in the CFD simulations using the Boussinesq approximation (BA) model. The distribution profiles of temperature, pressure, and velocity inside the tubes of the solar collectors, along with the local entropy generation rate distribution due to heat transfer and the fluid viscosity, are shown in detail. The results show a better thermal performance for the solar water-in-glass evacuated tube collector (ETC) than for the flat plate solar collector (FPC) at low flow rates (under 3.0 L/min). The outlet temperature reached is similar in both collectors for volumetric flow rates higher than 3.0 L/min. The analysis of the entropy generation rate shows that the generation due to the transfer of heat is higher for the ETC than for the FPC, and this contribution is up to 10% of the total entropy generation rate; on the other hand, the generation rate due to the fluid viscosity is higher for the FPC than the ETC at high volumetric flow rates (above 3.5 L/min), however, this contribution is negligible. Finally, the total entropy generation rate is higher for the FPC than the ETC at low volumetric flow rates (below 3.0 L/min) and this is increased if the solar radiation increases.
    Print ISSN: 0038-092X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: 15 May 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 166 Author(s): S. Sathiesh Kumar, S. Vairam, N. Neelakandeswari, S. Aruna Despite the development of new technologies, cost and methods of fabricating the solar cells are complex. In this work, new heterojunction solar cells have been developed by facile methods using nano CuO/Cu 2 O ingrained multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the active absorber layer and zinc oxide as the transparent window layer. Nano pastes were formulated by ball milling and casted on fluorine doped tin oxide substrates using spin coating process. Solar cells, having copper oxides as absorber layers, exhibited an efficiency of 0.03–0.19%, while the copper oxide ingrained multi-walled carbon nanotube layers boosted up the efficiency of solar cells to a maximum of 2.32% by synergistic action. Fine-tuning of the thickness of MWCNT nanocomposite layer further enhanced the efficiency of the champion solar cell to 4.08%. Even though more optimization of the fabrication parameters is required for achieving higher photon conversion efficiencies and meeting up the commercial standards, this work successfully demonstrated a simplistic approach for the fabrication of low cost solar cells. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 0038-092X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: 15 May 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 166 Author(s): S. Bouaddi, A. Fernández-García, A. Ihlal, R. Ait El Cadi, L. Álvarez-Rodrigo The task of cleaning reflectors is a widely adopted strategy to handle the soiling in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants. The dynamics of the soiling of frequently cleaned mirrors is dependent on many factors such as the cleaning method, its frequency and the seasonal soiling rate. This study proposes a new approach to model the soiling of regularly cleaned reflectors instead of the inaccurate methods undermining the CSP yield by using fixed reflectance assumptions. Markov switching (MS) regime, which is a non linear time series approach where parameters are allowed to switch between the regimes, are applied on the reflectance data of second surface silvered-glass mirrors, exposed at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in Spain during two years and cleaned biweekly using high pressure demineralized water. The nonlinearities typically exhibited by such reflectance time series are successfully modeled by accounting for two regimes, a soiled and a clean regime, and incorporating various parameters (rain, washing cycle, and lagged autoregressive terms) in the suggested MS models. Based on the information criteria and the diagnostic of the models residuals, the best model has a switching normalized reflectance mean of 0.944 during the clean regime versus 0.688 during the soiled regime, in addition to one fixed lag autoregressive term. In order to evaluate the adequacy of the proposed model versus the traditional approach, which uses fixed reflectance as input for estimating CSP plants yield, four reflectance scenarios were studied by simulating the output of a 30 MWe plant using TRNSYS© (TRaNsientSYstem Simulation) program. The first and the second scenarios used the time series of the measured and fitted model reflectance data, while the third and the forth scenarios used fixed inputs (a maximum and a yearly average reflectance). The comparison of the simulation results showed that adopting the innovative proposed concept of switching regimes results in very good performance, especially in the soiled regime during which the simplistic reflectance considerations, which ignore the soiling dynamics and the applied washing cycle, undermine the generated power. Graphical abstract
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: 15 May 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 166 Author(s): Yuancheng Qin, Shuqiang Liu, Huihui Gu, Weili Dai, Xubiao Luo For high performance polymer solar cells, the effects of planarity and alkyl chain steric hindrance are systematically examined in the polymer poly[1-(4-(4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)-6-methylbenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophen-2-yl)-6-methylthieno[3,4-b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-ethylhexan-1-one] ( P4 ) constructed with a benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′] dithiophene ( BDT) plane with symmetrical thiophene side chains, poly[2-ethyl-1-(6-methyl-4-(6-methyl-4,4-dioctyl-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,4-b]thiophen-2-yl)hexan-1-one] ( P5 ), composed of silaindacenodithiophene, poly[2-ethyl-1- (6-methyl-4-(6-methyl-4-octyl-4H-dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]pyrrol-2-yl)thieno[3,4-b]thiophen-2-yl)hexan-1-one] ( P6 ), based on pyrrole moieties and the corresponding F-containing polymers, poly[1-(4-(4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)-6-methylbenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophen-2-yl)-3-fluoro-6-methylthieno[3,4-b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-ethylhexan-1-one] (P1) , Poly[2-ethyl-1-(3-fluoro-6-methyl-4-(6-methyl-4,4-dioctyl-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,4-b]thiophen-2-yl)hexan-1-one] (P2) , and Poly[2-ethyl-1-(3-fluoro-6-methyl-4-(6-methyl-4-octyl-4H-dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]pyrrol-2-yl)thieno[3,4-b]thiophen-2-yl)hexan-1-one] ( P3 ). Except for P1 and P4 , the alkyl chain is directly linked to the main chain in the polymers. P1 has a high degree of flatness because flanking thienyls can decrease the torsion angle between conjugated units. In addition, the introduction of fluorine (F) on the thienothiophene acceptors of P4 reduces the dihedral angle between the BDT and thienothiophene, resulting in a more planar P1 . Moreover, the introduction of short alkyl and thiophene side chains minimizes the intermolecular steric hindrance of P1 and ensures strong inter-chain aggregation and π-π stacking. However, the introduction of F in P2 and P3 increases the dihedral angle relative to non-F-containing P5 and P6 . Finally, an efficiency of 7.1% is obtained for P1 , leading to a 50% increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared with P4. This work is a step towards enhanced polymer planarity and minimal intermolecular steric hindrance for the development of efficient polymer heterojunction solar cells. Graphical abstract
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018 Source: Space Policy Author(s): Christopher J. Newman, Mark Williamson The 21st Century has seen a significant increase in space activity, driven by private sector entities using space for commercial enterprises. This increased use of space is not without cost to the delicate space environment. The threat posed by human-made debris in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is now widely recognised as presenting a danger to current levels of space activity and a more sustainable approach is sought by private and public sector actors. This article will evaluate sustainability in LEO and whether the consensus regarding orbital debris is matched by legislative or governmental action. More broadly, however, it will be contended that notions of space sustainability have largely been restricted to LEO. This article will seek to move the sustainability debate beyond LEO, by highlighting the potential risks to delicate space environments that arise from human activity in both exploring and settling other celestial bodies. The article will attempt to reframe the discussion on sustainability, advocating legal and policy solutions that need to guide future space activity to ensure that humanity avoids replicating the problems now found in LEO.
    Print ISSN: 0265-9646
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-338X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Political Science
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 55 Author(s): Milada Šťastná, Antonín Vaishar, Jana Zapletalová, Miloslava Ševelová Reducing pollution and preventing heavy traffic in cities together with recent transport policies are encouraging people to use more sustainable modes of transport, such as walking, cycling or public transport, in preference to private cars. The study was aimed at analysing general conditions for bicycle utilization, and their application to the outskirts of the largest Moravian town, Brno, and discussing the possible future of bicycling in this region, including its relation to health. What motivating factors could influence people’s decision to use bicycles as a means of transport? A survey was conducted at the third-largest university in Brno, where the respondents were approached. According to the obtained results, more than half of the respondents used bicycles mostly for leisure purposes. Nevertheless, almost one-third mentioned bicycling for transport purposes. Thus, there is a potential for cycling to become a significant part of transport and thus contribute to human health and a healthy city environment; however, the region should considerably adjust its infrastructure to encourage cyclists to visit Brno and its surroundings.
    Print ISSN: 1369-8478
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5517
    Topics: Psychology
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 55 Author(s): Wouter van Haperen, Stijn Daniels, Tim De Ceunynck, Nicolas Saunier, Tom Brijs, Geert Wets Channelized right-turn lanes (CRTLs) improve traffic flow efficiency, enabling right-turning drivers to bypass traffic lights at signalised intersections (for right-hand drive countries). Many CRTLs provide crossing facilities for pedestrians and cyclists. Previous studies examining the safety performance of CRTLs indicate that they increase overall safety levels but hint that safety issues regarding vulnerable road users exist. This study investigated these issues through site-based observations of yielding behavior and evaluated the effect of the priority rule on cyclists’ safety in two CRTL designs. Four locations in Belgium were selected for video observations: two where the priority rule favoured cyclists and two where motorists had priority. With regard to yielding, four types of crossing behavior were identified and defined. Independent of the priority rule, cyclists crossed the conflict zone first in most interactions without taking the initiative to cross first. Underlying reasons for motorists willingly giving away their right-of-way could not be determined, but possible courtesy or fear of inflicting injuries at vulnerable road users might be at hand. A safety evaluation was performed using two traffic conflict indicators (TTC min and the TA value). High correlations between the two indicators were found (r 2  > 0.83), but no conclusions about the safest priority rule for cyclists could be drawn. The results hinted, however, that locations with motorist priority and cyclists crossings from right to left (from the driver’s point of view) yields the highest proportion of safety critical events.
    Print ISSN: 1369-8478
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5517
    Topics: Psychology
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 55 Author(s): Sébastien Lord, Marie-Soleil Cloutier, Benoît Garnier, Zoi Christoforou Pedestrians aged over 65 are known to be a critical group in terms of road safety because they represent the age group with the highest number of fatalities or injured persons in road accidents. It is widely recognized that the latter is due to the physical vulnerability of this age group in case of injury. However, physical and cognitive decline come into play during the action of crossing a street. Various studies have attempted to connect the crossing behaviours of the elderly with variables such as age, gender, sensory acuity, level of attentiveness, physical decline and the design of intersections. In demonstrating the complexity of the relationship between people and their environments, the literature suggests that age, physical ability, and the spatial configuration of roads are major components of road safety. Moreover, people’s knowledge and mastery of their environments, as well as their ability to adapt to change affects how they move through space. Taking these factors into account, this study examines the perceptions of elderly pedestrians with regards to the quality and risks of road crossings in the context of Montréal, Québec, in Canada. The analyze are based on observations and questionnaires in order to bring to light a better understanding of the relationship between the crossing behaviours, characteristics and perceptions of the elderly. While previous studies have examined perception and observation separately, this study is unique in having looked at both angles simultaneously. Five profiles of elderly people in both urban and suburban environments were established. A sample of 181 elderly pedestrians (65–93 years of age, AVG = 74) were surveyed using a questionnaire. In addition to close-ended questions, respondents were asked to evaluate 17 environmental ambiance and risk behaviours according to various scales. Using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), the data was grouped into 6 categories that define and distinguish 7 profiles of elderly people. These profiles were explored according to the socioeconomic status and crossing behaviours of respondents. The probabilities of adopting different crossing behaviours were tested by employing logistic regression models. The results reveal greater variability in the perceptions of the elderly in terms of risk related to crossing behaviours and type of signalisation at intersections. Even among seniors, the perceptions of risk varied greatly, which may have had an impact on their behaviours. While some of the behaviours observed coincided with the perceptions of respondents, the results of this study suggest that they only play a marginal role.
    Print ISSN: 1369-8478
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5517
    Topics: Psychology
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 55 Author(s): Emma Zicat, Joanne M. Bennett, Eugene Chekaluk, Jennifer Batchelor Young drivers (aged 17–25 years) are the highest risk age group for driving crashes and are over-represented in car crash statistics in Australia. A relationship between cognitive functioning and driving in older drivers (60 years and older) has been consistently supported in previous literature, however, this relationship has been neglected in research regarding younger drivers. The role of cognitive functioning in young people’s driving was investigated both independently and within a current model of younger peoples driving performance. With young drivers as participants, driving behaviour, attitudes, personality and cognitive functioning were tested and driving performance was operationalised through two measures on a driving simulator, speeding and lane deviations. Cognitive functioning was found to contribute to driving behaviour, along with driving attitudes and personality traits, in accounting for young people’s driving performance. The young drivers who performed better on cognitive functioning tasks engaged in less speeding behaviour and less lane deviation on the driving simulator than those who performed worse on these tasks. This result was found independent of the role of driving behaviour, driving attitudes and personality traits, accounting for unique variance in driving ability.
    Print ISSN: 1369-8478
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5517
    Topics: Psychology
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  • 76
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: World Development, Volume 107 Author(s): Yanto Chandra This article views social entrepreneurship as a relatively new model for achieving sustainable development. It also identifies development narratives that social entrepreneurs (SEs) construct to represent and promote their work as an important research gap in development studies. Drawing on the development and narratology literature, and employing computational linguistics (CL) techniques, this article compares the development narratives of 1076 Ashoka SEs across two periods (2009–2013 and 1994–1998) and two economies (developing and developed). CL analyses reveal important themes that characterize the identity, framing and orientations of development SEs across time and economies. The findings demonstrate how SE development narratives i) tend to be more pragmatic and solution-centric, and contain less political ideology than conventional development narratives, ii) combine extant development ideas and models but reframe them in new ways to address contemporary, complex development challenges, and iii) reflect a ‘bottom-up’ approach that encourages local ownership and collaborations with various social and economic sectors to achieve development goals. Overall, this study identifies the increasing importance of SEs in the development industry and reveals new aspects of SEs—their latent political framing, collective-utilitarian identities, and topical areas—that require further research via development narratives.
    Print ISSN: 0305-750X
    Topics: Geography , Political Science , Sociology
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: World Development, Volume 107 Author(s): Päivi Lujala The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) has become an international hallmark of the efforts to promote better extractive-sector management and improved societal development in natural resource-rich countries. Since its establishment in 2003, a large number of resource-dependent countries have committed to the EITI Standard, and support of the EITI from donors, nongovernmental organizations, and extractive industry companies has been vast. To understand whether and how adherence to the EITI Standard can affect resource governance and development, it is crucial to examine what factors influence a country’s decision to join and implement the Standard. This article examines why and how rapidly countries adopt the Standard using survival analysis methods and a global dataset on countries’ progress in implementing the EITI Standard. It finds that several factors influence progress and proposes that these can be categorized as internal motivation, internal capacity, and external pressure to implement the Standard. This article contributes to understanding why the EITI Standard implementation stalls in some countries whereas it progresses in others. Importantly, it outlines which factors need to be controlled for in studies that seek to evaluate the impact of the EITI on resource governance and societal development, and argues that such impact evaluations need to correct for the selection biases in countries’ decisions to commit to and implement the EITI Standard.
    Print ISSN: 0305-750X
    Topics: Geography , Political Science , Sociology
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  • 78
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: World Development, Volume 107 Author(s): Meir Alkon Do special economic zones induce local development? Research drawing on the case of China’s special economic zones suggests that subnational polities can target the location of export zones in order to catalyze local and regional socioeconomic development. Since 2006, a number of Indian states have pushed forward similar zones in the face of accusations of land grabbing, arguing that the zones will be engines for improvement in exports, employment, and infrastructure. I argue that local development spillovers are an important, albeit previously understudied, dimension by which to evaluate the effects of special economic zones. I then present the first systematic analysis of the developmental effects of India’s SEZs, leveraging an original dataset on their locations, together with 2001 and 2011 census data containing a host of social and economic developmental variables. The findings show these SEZs have failed to bring about local socioeconomic development. To explain this absence of developmental spillovers, I provide a theoretical framework based on the crucial role of political economy incentive structures facing local politicians. I outline the mechanism through which Indian state politicians use state-owned development corporations for rent capture, undermining the potential effectiveness of SEZs and leading to their developmental failures. The combination of available means for extracting rents and the limited political constraints on such rent extraction leads to a lack of developmental spillovers. This framework can also help to explain the difference in the effects of SEZs in India and in China. These findings have theoretical importance for understanding the conditions under which subnational polities can use export zones and other export policies to catalyze development, and practical implications for understanding the mixed pattern of SEZ success across the world.
    Print ISSN: 0305-750X
    Topics: Geography , Political Science , Sociology
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  • 79
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: World Development, Volume 107 Author(s): M. Shahe Emran, Forhad Shilpi This paper uses a framework that goes beyond rural-urban dualism and highlights the role of small-town economy in understanding structural change in a developing country. It provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of the role of agricultural productivity in structural transformation in the labor market in small towns and the surrounding rural areas. The empirical work is based on a general equilibrium model that formalizes the demand and labor market linkages: the small-town draws labor away from the rural areas to produce goods and services whose demand may depend largely on rural income. The theory clarifies the role played by the income elasticity of demand and the elasticity of wage with respect to productivity increase in agriculture. For productivity growth to lead to a demand effect, the wage elasticity has to be lower than a threshold. When the demand for goods and services produced in small towns comes mainly from the adjacent rural areas, the demand effect can outweigh the negative wage effect and lead to higher employment in the town-goods sector. The empirical analysis finds a significant positive effect of higher rainfall on rice yield and wages. Using rainfall shocks as a source of exogenous variation, we provide instrumental variables estimates of the effects of agricultural productivity on agricultural wages. The increase in wages is larger in the rural sample compared with the small town economy sample, but structural change in employment is more pronounced in the small town economy. In the rural sample, the positive employment effect is observed only in small-scale manufacturing and services. In contrast, a positive productivity shock in small towns sample has large and positive effect on employment in large scale manufacturing and services (construction, transport, education, and health). Agricultural productivity growth induces structural transformation within the services sector in small towns, with employment in skilled services growing at a faster pace than that in low skilled services.
    Print ISSN: 0305-750X
    Topics: Geography , Political Science , Sociology
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  • 80
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-08
    Description: Publication date: August 2018 Source: Computers in Industry, Volume 99 Author(s): J.C. Arbeláez, Gilberto Osorio-Gómez Decision-making activities affect to a larger extent the quality, cost, time and success of a product. However, there are fewer alternatives when it comes to supporting in aesthetic evaluation during the product design stages. Therefore, is proposed a Crowdsourcing Augmented Reality Environment (CARE) that use the user's mobile devices for getting the feedback from the evaluation of products using a Semantic Differential (SD) that consider the user's context-light interaction in real time. Finally, two products were evaluated using CARE vs. the real products under different lighting and surrounding conditions. Obtaining a similar measure of products aesthetic perception between CARE and the real product, with slight variations. Additionally, an evaluation pattern among users was recognizable in the same context with slight variations using different lighting setup, that was similarly recreated with CARE.
    Print ISSN: 0166-3615
    Topics: Computer Science , Technology
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-08
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Computers in Industry, Volume 98 Author(s): Petra Bosilj, Tom Duckett, Grzegorz Cielniak Discriminating value crops from weeds is an important task in precision agriculture. In this paper, we propose a novel image processing pipeline based on attribute morphology for both the segmentation and classification tasks. The commonly used approaches for vegetation segmentation often rely on thresholding techniques which reach their decisions globally. By contrast, the proposed method works with connected components obtained by image threshold decomposition, which are naturally nested in a hierarchical structure called the max-tree, and various attributes calculated from these regions. Image segmentation is performed by attribute filtering, preserving or discarding the regions based on their attribute value and allowing for the decision to be reached locally. This segmentation method naturally selects a collection of foreground regions rather than pixels, and the same data structure used for segmentation can be further reused to provide the features for classification, which is realised in our experiments by a support vector machine (SVM). We apply our methods to normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) images, and demonstrate the performance of the pipeline on a dataset collected by the authors in an onion field, as well as a publicly available dataset for sugar beets. The results show that the proposed segmentation approach can segment the fine details of plant regions locally, in contrast to the state-of-the-art thresholding methods, while providing discriminative features which enable efficient and competitive classification rates for crop/weed discrimination.
    Print ISSN: 0166-3615
    Topics: Computer Science , Technology
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  • 82
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-08
    Description: Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source: Developmental Biology, Volume 436, Issue 2
    Print ISSN: 0012-1606
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-564X
    Topics: Biology
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  • 83
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-04-08
    Description: Publication date: April 2018 Source: The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, Volume 21, Issue 1
    Print ISSN: 1110-9823
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-08
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 18 Author(s): T.A. Adagunodo, O.S. Hammed, M.R. Usikalu, W.A. Ayara, R. Ravisankar This article consists the in situ data sets of activity concentrations of radionuclides (K-40, Th-232 and U-238) and gamma radiation dose rates measured about 1 m above a kaolinitic terrain in Ifonyintedo, Dahomey Basin, SW Nigeria. Nineteen (19) data points were randomly occupied at the lower axis of the kaolin field using a hand-held detector known as Super-Spec (RS 125). At each data point, the measurements were taken four times, while their averages and standard deviations were estimated in order to ensure accuracy. The radiometric survey was carried out between December, 2017 and January, 2018. The data sets were processed and analyzed via a descriptive statistics. The data can be explored further by estimating the radiological risks to the miners on the field, and to correlate the activity concentrations of the data with the activity concentrations of the tiles that are produced from the kaolin deposits in Ifonyintedo. Furthermore, the data from this article could be compared with other data acquired over a kaolinitic terrain across the globe.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-08
    Description: Publication date: July 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 118 Author(s): Rosa Duarte, Julio Sánchez-Chóliz, Cristina Sarasa In recent decades, the need to strengthen efforts to reduce GHG emissions to combat Climate Change has become a major global concern, as reflected in the 2015 Paris Agreement and the EU Climate strategy (2016). In this context, EU countries are required to organize their contributions to environmental improvement through national strategies. Given the potential importance of demand-side actions, both directly and through their relationship with the productive system, as well as the need for a dynamic evolution, we assess the dynamic path and medium-term environmental impact of certain consumer-oriented measures, using a dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. Specifically, we generate scenarios that follow Spain's strategies and evaluate the dynamic impact of more efficient technologies on electricity consumption and the use of transport services, both in terms of environmental (GHG and SO x ) and economic effects. Our results confirm the role of technology improvements in delivering positive results for the environment, and the importance of economy-wide rebound effects, through a detailed study of energy uses as a result of efficiency improvements in household energy consumption. Our findings show that reductions in emissions per person are consistent with economic growth.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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