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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2021-08-13
    Description: We analyze how tariff design incentivizes households to invest in residential photovoltaic and battery storage systems, and explore selected electricity sector effects. To this end, we develop an open-source electricity sector model that explicitly features prosumage agents and apply it to German 2030 scenarios. Results show that lower feed-in tariffs substantially reduce investments in residential photovoltaics, yet optimal battery sizing and self-generation are relatively robust. With increasing fixed parts of retail tariffs and, accordingly, lower volumetric retail rates for grid consumption, households have lower incentives for self-consumption. As a consequence, optimal battery capacities and self-generation are smaller, and households contribute more to non-energy power sector costs. A cap on hourly feed-in by households may relieve distribution grid stress without compromising PV expansion or prosumage models for households. When choosing tariff designs, policy makers should not aim to (dis-)incentivize prosumage as such, but balance effects on renewable capacity expansion and system cost contribution.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C61 ; Q41 ; Q42 ; Prosumage ; Retail tariff ; Feed-in tariff ; Photovoltaics ; Battery storage ; Renewable energy
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Data in Brief, Volume 16 Author(s): Tadayoshi Miyashita, Ryosuke Koizumi, Takao Myoda, Yoshimasa Sagane, Koichi Niwa, Toshihiro Watanabe, Kazuhiro Minami This data article describes the flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) responses, represented by changes in arterial diameter, and blood pressure changes in young adults after a single oral dose of camu camu ( Myrciaria dubia ) pericarp extract or placebo (cross-over design). Ten healthy men and 10 healthy women participated in this study. Ultrasonic diagnostic equipment was used to monitor arterial diameter changes, indicative of FMD, for 110 s after the administration of the camu camu extract or placebo. In addition, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were recorded.
    Print ISSN: 2352-3409
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 5
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering Author(s): Stefano Stacul, Nunziante Squeglia In high seismicity areas, it is important to consider kinematic effects to properly design pile foundations. Kinematic effects are due to the interaction between pile and soil deformations induced by seismic waves. One of the effect is the arise of significant strains in weak soils that induce bending moments on piles. These moments can be significant in presence of a high stiffness contrast in a soil deposit. The single pile kinematic interaction problem is generally solved with beam on dynamic Winkler foundation approaches (BDWF) or using continuous models. In this work, a new boundary element method (BEM) based computer code (KIN SP) is presented where the kinematic analysis is preceded by a free-field response analysis. The analysis results of this method, in terms of bending moments at the pile-head and at the interface of a two-layered soil, are influenced by many factors including the soil-pile interface discretization. A parametric study is presented with the aim to suggest the minimum number of boundary elements to guarantee the accuracy of a BEM solution, for typical pile-soil relative stiffness values as a function of the pile diameter, the location of the interface of a two-layered soil and of the stiffness contrast. KIN SP results have been compared with simplified solutions in literature and with those obtained using a quasi-three-dimensional (3D) finite element code.
    Print ISSN: 1674-7755
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 6
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source: Long Range Planning Author(s): Robert Randolph, Zhonghui “Hugo” Wang, Esra Memili Family involvement in corporate governance through ownership, management, and board membership presents a unique dilemma for understanding the strategic impetus and costs of entrenchment decisions. The presence of shared family ties and the family-centered goals of firm principals call to question the applicability of extant agency arguments regarding the nature and antecedents of managerial entrenchment. Exploring this, we develop and test a model of family firm-specific determinants (i.e., family ownership and family's involvement in management and governance) of entrenchment in publicly traded firms by drawing upon principal-principal agency theory. Findings of the empirical analysis of family owned S&P 500 firms suggest family firms are motivated to entrench managers when doing so supports the pursuit of family-centric goals. However, the extent to which entrenchment supports such goals varies at different levels of family ownership.
    Print ISSN: 0024-6301
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1872
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 7
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: April 2018 Source: World Development, Volume 104 Author(s): Rozana Himaz This paper looks at patterns of growth faltering and catch up of around 1000 children as they moved from 8 to 19 years of age, from middle childhood through adolescence to young adulthood, using Height for Age Difference (HAD) and the more conventional Height for age z-scores (HAZ). It also looks at what individual and household characteristics may have moved these children into or out of situations of nutritional deprivation and how their stunting profile in later childhood correlates with psychosocial outcomes at age 19 and how it may have intergenerational consequences. The paper uses 4 rounds of longitudinal data collected in 2002, 2006, 2009 and 2013 from Andhra Pradesh and Telengana, India when the children were aged 8, 12, 15 and 19. The paper finds that there are significant gender based biases in growth faltering later in childhood disfavouring girls and that becoming newly stunted as an adolescent is strongly correlated with a child reporting to have poorer relationships with peers compared to the group that were never stunted. We also find that a girl experiencing stunting in middle childhood or adolescence (even if they were not stunted at age 8 or eventually moved out of being stunted by age 19) correlates significantly with offspring being shorter and thinner than the offspring of girls never stunted. This is one of few, if any, studies that look at growth patterns in middle childhood and adolescence and outcomes as a young adult and the results are important for their implications for further research and policy.
    Print ISSN: 0305-750X
    Topics: Geography , Political Science , Sociology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 8
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-02
    Description: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2017 Source: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review Author(s): Elnaz Irannezhad, Carlo Prato, Mark Hickman This study presents a joint discrete-discrete copula-based model that simultaneously estimates the determinants of the choice to use a container terminal and of the choice of dwell time. Moreover, this study proposes the treatment of missing information as a latent variable by specifying a hybrid version of the joint copula-based model. Model estimates show the practicality of enriching a dataset with missing information via a robust econometric solution. Results also illustrate the importance of distance, time-of-day, and industry type on the choice of using CTs and on the decision of the dwell time in both import and export container transport.
    Print ISSN: 1366-5545
    Electronic ISSN: 1878-5794
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 9
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering Author(s): Jair A. Baldovino, Eclesielter B. Moreira, Wagner Teixeira, Ronaldo L.S. Izzo, Juliana L. Rose The soil of the Guabirotuba geological formation (Paraná Basin, Brazil) has physico-mechanical properties which are not suitable for its utilization in pavement construction, in protection of hillsides and slopes, or as shallow foundation support. Treatment of this soil by lime addition would improve its usability. The present context intends to determine the ratio between the splitting tensile strength ( q t ) and the unconfined compressive strength ( q u ) of clayey soil in the metropolitan region of Curitiba City, which has been treated with different lime contents and curing times. The control parameters evaluated include lime content ( L ), curing time ( t ), moisture content ( w ), and ratio of porosity to volumetric lime content ( η / L v ). It was observed that the q t / q u ratio is between 0.17 and 0.2 in relation to the curing time, and an exponential relation exists between them. Meanwhile, the unconfined compressive strength of lime-treated soil was found to be approximately four times the initial value.
    Print ISSN: 1674-7755
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 10
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Volume 87 Author(s): Liang Hu, Jing Dong, Zhenhong Lin, Jie Yang Electric taxis have the potential to improve urban air quality and save driver’s energy expenditure. Although battery electric vehicles (BEVs) have drawbacks such as the limited range and charging inconvenience, technological progress has been presenting promising potential for electric taxis. Many cities around the world including New York City, USA are taking initiatives to replace gasoline taxis with plug-in electric vehicles. This paper extracts ten variables from the trip data of the New York City yellow taxis to represent their spatial-temporal travel patterns in terms of driver-shift, travel demand and dwell, and examines the implications of these driving patterns on the BEV taxi feasibility. The BEV feasibility of a taxi is quantified as the percentage of occupied trips that can be completed by BEVs of a given driving range during a year. It is found that the currently deployed 280 public charging stations in New York City are far from sufficient to support a large BEV taxi fleet. However, adding merely 372 new charging stations at various locations where taxis frequently dwell can potentially make BEVs with 200- and 300-mile ranges feasible for more than half of the taxi fleet. The results also show that taxis with certain characteristics are more suitable for switching to BEV-200 or BEV-300, such as fewer daily shifts, fewer drivers assigned to the taxi, shorter daily driving distance, fewer daily dwells but longer dwelling time, and higher likelihood to dwell at the borough of Manhattan.
    Print ISSN: 0968-090X
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2359
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 11
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Publication date: April 2018 Source: World Development, Volume 104 Author(s): Marco J. Haenssgen The gains from digital technology diffusion are deemed essential for international development, but they are also distributed unevenly. Does the uneven distribution mean that not everyone benefits from new technologies to the same extent, or do some people experience an absolute disadvantage during this process? I explore this question through the case study of curative healthcare access in the context of rapid mobile phone uptake in rural India, contributing thus to an important yet surprisingly under-researched aspect of the social implications of (mobile) technology diffusion. Inspired by a previous analysis of cross-sectional data from rural India, I hypothesise that health systems increasingly adapt to mobile phone users where phones have diffused widely. This adaptation will leave poor non-adopters worse off than before and increases healthcare inequities. I use a panel of 12,003 rural households with an illness in 2005 and 2012 from the Indian Human Development Survey to test this hypothesis. Based on village-cluster robust fixed-effects linear probability models, I find that (a) mobile phone diffusion is significantly and negatively linked to various forms of rural healthcare access, suggesting that health systems increasingly adapt to phone use and discriminate against non-users; that (b) poor rural households without mobile phones experience more adverse effects compared to more affluent households, which indicates a struggle and competition for healthcare access among marginalised groups; and that (c) no effects emerge for access to public doctors, which implies that some healthcare providers are less responsive to mobile phone use than others. Overall, my findings indicate that the rural Indian healthcare system gradually adapts to increasing mobile phone use at the expense of non-users. I conclude that rapid mobile phone diffusion creates an opportunity to improve people’s access to healthcare in rural India, but it also creates new forms of marginalisation among poor rural households.
    Print ISSN: 0305-750X
    Topics: Geography , Political Science , Sociology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 12
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems Author(s): Kesong Yan, Fanping Zeng Entropy of fuzzy dynamical systems has been investigated as an isomorphism invariant in Dumitrescu (1995) [13] . In this paper, we will introduce a new invariant called the conditional fuzzy entropy of fuzzy dynamical systems with respect to a finite fuzzy partition and an invariant sub- σ -algebra, which is an extension of fuzzy entropy on fuzzy dynamical systems. This new invariant possesses some basic properties, such as power rule, fuzzy version of Abramov–Rokhlin entropy additive formula and generating sequence.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 13
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems Author(s): Bo Wen Fang, Bao Qing Hu This paper introduces granular fuzzy rough sets in the view of fuzzy implicators and fuzzy coimplicators, and discusses the constructive and axiomatic approach to fuzzy granules based on fuzzy implicators and coimplicators. Moreover, we study the connection between fuzzy granules and fuzzy relations and discuss the relationship between existing granular fuzzy rough set models and that proposed in this paper. Considering the absolute error limit, we introduce the concept of the granular variable precision fuzzy rough sets based on fuzzy implicators and coimplicators. Then we present four propositions to ensure that the approximation operators can be efficiently calculated.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 14
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Miguel Vazquez, Michelle Hallack An important problem that has attracted significant amount of attention within the context of energy transitions is the carbon lock-in: a situation in which energy systems are locked-in to high carbon technologies through a path-dependent process. Several measures to avoid the carbon lock-in involve technology-specific measures, which in turn implies that those measures may result in an energy system locked-in to certain low carbon technologies. We consider that the Brazilian system needs policies to escape the carbon lock in, which are based on providing incentives to low carbon technologies. We develop an analytical framework to analyze the role of regulatory institutions in the possible lock-in to utility-scale photovoltaic, in the sense that they create barriers to the adoption of distributed-generation photovoltaic. We show that the definition of a process to adapt the institutional framework in a context of stress in the innovation system is crucial for the adoption of new technologies. Applying our framework to the Brazilian power sector, we observe that only when regulators consider the possibility that the system is locked-in to centralized production technologies (and not when they just consider the carbon lock-in) they manage to eliminate barriers to distributed generation based on solar PV.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 15
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems Author(s): Razieh Ghasemi Moghaddam, Tofigh Allahviranloo The fuzzy-valued vector function is defined and then divergence, Laplace, and gradient operators are defined for fuzzy-valued vector functions and fuzzy-valued functions. Moreover, a fuzzy Riemann line integral and its fundamental theorem are introduced. To complete our discussion, fuzzy Green's, fuzzy divergence, and fuzzy Green's identity theorems are proved. In detail, a fuzzy Poisson equation is considered by discussion of fuzzy maximum and minimum principles. Also, the uniqueness and stability of the solution of a fuzzy Poisson equation are investigated as theorems. Finally, for more illustration, some examples are solved.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 16
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    Elsevier
    In: Heliyon
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Heliyon, Volume 4, Issue 1 Author(s): Matilda Mali, Daniela Malcangio, Maria Michela Dell’ Anna, Leonardo Damiani, Piero Mastrorilli The environmental quality of Torre a Mare port (Italy) was assessed evaluating on one side, the chemical concentration of nine metals and metalloids within bottom sediments and on the other one, by exploring the impact of hydrodynamic conditions in contaminant’s transport within the most polluted basins. The investigated port was selected as case study because it resulted much more polluted than it was expected based on the touristic port activities and related stressors loading on it. In order to determine the origin and fate of contaminants in the port basin, 2D numerical simulations were carried out by MIKE21 software. The hydrodynamic module (HD) based on a rectangular grid was initially used to characterize the flow field into two domains that cover the inner and offshore harbor area. Then, advection–dispersion (AD) and water quality (WQ) modules were coupled in order to simulate the simultaneous processes of transport and dispersion of hypothetical pollutant sources. The dissolved/suspended sediment particulates (DSS) were selected as contaminant tracers. The comparative analysis between simulation responses and the real metal contaminant distribution showed high agreement, suggesting that contaminants mainly come from outside port and tend to accumulate in the inner basin. In fact, hydrodynamic circulations cause inflowing streams toward the harbor entrance and the particular port morphology hampers the exit of fine sediments from the inner basin, enhancing thus the accumulation of sediment-associated contaminants within the port area. The study confirms that the quality of touristic port areas strongly depends on both pollution sources located within and outside the port domain and it is controlled mainly by the hydrodynamic-driven processes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2405-8440
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 17
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 197 Author(s): Susana López-Bayón, Manuel González-Díaz, Vanesa Solís-Rodríguez, Marta Fernández-Barcala Although the supply chain (SC) management literature has extensively analyzed how features of SC relationships affect quality performance, it barely considers the role played by SC governance in managing and promoting quality performance. This study examines how quality performance is affected by two SC governance decisions in agri-food chains: (i) the adoption of a geographical indication (GI), and (ii) the creation of co-operative (co-op) ownership structures. Focusing on the wine industry, the study first examines how GIs encourage quality by improving vertical adaptation and leveraging resources ( e.g ., knowledge) of all SC members. Second, it analyzes how co-ops' collective action and horizon investment problems may hinder the delivery of high-quality products. The paper also examines how the effectiveness of GIs in promoting quality is contingent on the ownership structure of agri-food chains. Data from 327 wine producers and quality scores for 1951 bottled wines are used to test the hypotheses. The results reveal that on average, the quality of wineries is positively associated with the adoption of the most stringent GIs. Second, although co-ops are negatively correlated with final quality compared to investor-owned firms (IOFs), this disadvantage is moderated when co-ops are certified under the most stringent GIs. However, these GIs are not related to wine quality within IOFs, suggesting that quality certifications are more effective when used within suitable governance structures.
    Print ISSN: 0925-5273
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-7579
    Topics: Technology , Economics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 18
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Journal of Air Transport Management, Volume 67 Author(s): Ali Dadpay Airlines air traffic delays cause discomfort to passengers and cost airlines dearly, thus there is no wonder that a growing number of authors from different disciplines have studied air traffic delays and their patterns. This paper departs from existing literature by assuming air traffic delay to be a duration variable whose true distribution is unknown. It suggests a general model that includes several other models as subfamilies and utilizes an information contents based approach to find the most appropriate model to study air traffic delays. The results for two different airlines, American Airlines and United Airlines, reveal that airlines of comparable size and market influence air traffic delays could follow different patterns.
    Print ISSN: 0969-6997
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2089
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 19
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Protein Expression and Purification Author(s): Xiao-Dong Song, Chen-Jian Liu, Shi-Hao Huang, Xiao-Ran Li, En Yang, Yi-Yong Luo Quorum sensing (QS) is a means of cell-to-cell communication that regulates, via small signalling molecules, expression of a series of genes and controls multicellular behaviour in many bacterial species. The enzyme S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase (LuxS) transforms S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH) into 4, 5-dihydroxy-2, 3-pentanedione (DPD), the precursor of the interspecies QS signalling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2). In this study, two LuxS-coding genes, luxS1 and luxS2 , with 70% sequence identity were isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum YM-4-3, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the protein products were purified successfully. After incubation of LuxS1 or LuxS2 with SRH, the reaction products were able to induce Vibrio harveyi BB170 bioluminescence, clearly demonstrating that both LuxS1 and LuxS2 synthesize AI-2 from SRH in vitro . Ellman's assay results revealed optimal temperatures for LuxS1 and LuxS2 of 45 and 37 °C, respectively, and their activities were stimulated or inhibited by several metal ions and chemical reagents. In addition, enzyme kinetics data showed that K m , V max and K cat value of LuxS1 for the substrate (SRH) were higher than that of LuxS2. These results suggest that LuxS1 and LuxS2 mediate QS in a temperature-dependent manner and may play conserved roles in AI-2 synthesis but exhibit different activities in response to external environmental stress. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report of two luxS genes present in one bacterial genome and the subsequent comparative elucidation of their functions in AI-2 production. Collectively, our study provides a solid basis for future research concerning the AI-2/LuxS QS system in L. plantarum YM-4-3.
    Print ISSN: 1046-5928
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-0279
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 20
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Publication date: 1 January 2018 Source: Solar Energy, Volume 159
    Print ISSN: 0038-092X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 21
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Paul V. Sabatini, Thilo Speckmann, Cuilan Nian, Maria M. Glavas, Chi Kin Wong, Ji Soo Yoon, Tatsuya Kin, A.M. James Shapiro, William T. Gibson, C. Bruce Verchere, Francis C. Lynn Depolarization of neuroendocrine cells results in calcium influx, which induces vesicle exocytosis and alters gene expression. These processes, along with the restoration of resting membrane potential, are energy intensive. We hypothesized that cellular mechanisms exist to maximize energy production during excitation. Here, we demonstrate that NPAS4, an immediate early basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS transcription factor, acts to maximize energy production by suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). As such, knockout of Npas4 from insulin-producing β cells results in reduced OXPHOS, loss of insulin secretion, β cell dedifferentiation, and type 2 diabetes. NPAS4 plays a similar role in the nutrient-sensing cells of the hypothalamus. Its knockout here results in increased food intake, reduced locomotor activity, and elevated peripheral glucose production. In conclusion, NPAS4 is critical for the coordination of metabolism during the stimulation of electrically excitable cells; its loss leads to the defects in cellular metabolism that underlie the cellular dysfunction that occurs in metabolic disease. Graphical abstract Teaser Sabatini et al. show that NPAS4 is critical for coordination of cellular and organismal metabolism. Its loss contributes to the defects that underlie both islet and hypothalamic dysfunction, which result in the development of type 2 diabetes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 22
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Helen Louise May-Simera, Qin Wan, Balendu Shekhar Jha, Juliet Hartford, Vladimir Khristov, Roba Dejene, Justin Chang, Sarita Patnaik, Quanlong Lu, Poulomi Banerjee, Jason Silver, Christine Insinna-Kettenhofen, Dishita Patel, Mostafa Lotfi, May Malicdan, Nathan Hotaling, Arvydas Maminishkis, Rupa Sridharan, Brian Brooks, Kiyoharu Miyagishima, Meral Gunay-Aygun, Rajarshi Pal, Christopher Westlake, Sheldon Miller, Ruchi Sharma, Kapil Bharti Primary cilia are sensory organelles that protrude from the cell membrane. Defects in the primary cilium cause ciliopathy disorders, with retinal degeneration as a prominent phenotype. Here, we demonstrate that the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), essential for photoreceptor development and function, requires a functional primary cilium for complete maturation and that RPE maturation defects in ciliopathies precede photoreceptor degeneration. Pharmacologically enhanced ciliogenesis in wild-type induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-RPE leads to fully mature and functional cells. In contrast, ciliopathy patient-derived iPSC-RPE and iPSC-RPE with a knockdown of ciliary-trafficking protein remain immature, with defective apical processes, reduced functionality, and reduced adult-specific gene expression. Proteins of the primary cilium regulate RPE maturation by simultaneously suppressing canonical WNT and activating PKCδ pathways. A similar cilium-dependent maturation pathway exists in lung epithelium. Our results provide insights into ciliopathy-induced retinal degeneration, demonstrate a developmental role for primary cilia in epithelial maturation, and provide a method to mature iPSC epithelial cells for clinical applications. Graphical abstract Teaser May-Simera et al. show that primary cilia regulate the maturation and polarization of human iPSC-RPE, mouse RPE, and human iPSC-lung epithelium through canonical WNT suppression and PKCδ activation. RPE cells derived from ciliopathy patients exhibit defective structure and function. These results provide insights into ciliopathy-induced retinal degeneration.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 23
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Katsufumi Dejima, Sayaka Hori, Satoru Iwata, Yuji Suehiro, Sawako Yoshina, Tomoko Motohashi, Shohei Mitani Balancer chromosomes are critical tools for genetic research. In C. elegans , reciprocal translocations that lead to aneuploidy have been widely used to maintain lethal and sterile mutations in stable stocks. Here, we generated a set of aneuploidy-free and structurally defined crossover suppressors that contain two overlapping inversions using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The toolkit includes 13 crossover suppressors and covers approximately 63% of all C. elegans coding genes. Together with the classical intrachromosomal crossover suppressors, the system now covers 89% of the coding genes. We also labeled the created balancers with fluorescent and phenotypic markers. We show that the crossover suppressors are better for embryonic analysis compared with translocational balancers. Additionally, we demonstrate an efficient method to generate lethal alleles by targeting essential genes on a chromosome balanced with a crossover suppressor. The toolkit will allow more efficient experiments in which lethal and sterile mutants can be analyzed. Graphical abstract Teaser Balancer chromosomes are critical tools for genetic research. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, Dejima et al. established a collection of balancer chromosomes in C. elegans . The toolkit will be useful not only for maintenance of lethal/sterile mutants but also for several other applications through customization to suit a particular use.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier on behalf of Cell Press.
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  • 24
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Andrée-Anne Berthiaume, Roger I. Grant, Konnor P. McDowell, Robert G. Underly, David A. Hartmann, Manuel Levy, Narayan R. Bhat, Andy Y. Shih Direct contact and communication between pericytes and endothelial cells is critical for maintenance of cerebrovascular stability and blood-brain barrier function. Capillary pericytes have thin processes that reach hundreds of micrometers along the capillary bed. The processes of adjacent pericytes come in close proximity but do not overlap, yielding a cellular chain with discrete territories occupied by individual pericytes. Little is known about whether this pericyte chain is structurally dynamic in the adult brain. Using in vivo two-photon imaging in adult mouse cortex, we show that while pericyte somata were immobile, the tips of their processes underwent extensions and/or retractions over days. The selective ablation of single pericytes provoked exuberant extension of processes from neighboring pericytes to contact uncovered regions of the endothelium. Uncovered capillary regions had normal barrier function but were dilated until pericyte contact was regained. Pericyte structural plasticity may be critical for cerebrovascular health and warrants detailed investigation. Graphical abstract Teaser Pericyte-endothelial contact is important for many aspects of cerebrovascular health. Berthiaume et al. use longitudinal two-photon imaging to show that the processes of brain capillary pericytes are structurally plastic in vivo . Their processes can grow hundreds of micrometers to ensure contact with exposed endothelium following ablation of a single pericyte.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Ecological Economics, Volume 147 Author(s): Surender Kumar, Shivananda Shetty This article examines the motivations for firms in India to participate in voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) using a unique data set of cement, power and steel industry for the year 2012. It examines the effects of regulatory, societal, market and internal factors in influencing voluntary environmental behavior. To this objective we estimate both, ordinal (Ordered Probit) and cardinal (Poisson) models. We find that the firm size, its location, export orientation, and intangible valuation have a positive and significant relationship with the number of VEPs undertaken by the firm. The MNC status of the firm has no impact while the debt equity ratio and average age of the firm has negative impact on the adoption of VEPs.
    Print ISSN: 0921-8009
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-6106
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 26
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Christina Christoffersen, Christine K. Federspiel, Anna Borup, Pernille M. Christensen, Andreas N. Madsen, Markus Heine, Carsten H. Nielsen, Andreas Kjaer, Birgitte Holst, Joerg Heeren, Lars B. Nielsen Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is the carrier of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in plasma high-density lipoproteins. S1P is a bioactive lipid interacting with five receptors (S1P 1–5 ). We show that lack of apoM in mice increases the amount of brown adipose tissue (BAT), accelerates the clearance of postprandial triglycerides, and protects against diet-induced obesity (i.e., a phenotype similar to that induced by cold exposure or β 3 -adrenergic stimulation). Moreover, the data suggest that the phenotype of apoM-deficient mice is S1P dependent and reflects diminished S1P 1 stimulation. The results reveal a link between the apoM/S1P axis and energy metabolism. Graphical abstract Teaser Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is the carrier of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in lipoproteins. Christoffersen et al. show that lack of apoM in mice increases the amount of brown adipose tissue, accelerates the turnover of fat, and protects against obesity. The results reveal a link between the apoM/S1P axis and energy metabolism.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Keita Masuko, Naoyuki Fuse, Kanae Komaba, Tomonori Katsuyama, Rumi Nakajima, Hirofumi Furuhashi, Shoichiro Kurata Drosophila imaginal disc cells exhibit a remarkable ability to convert cell fates in response to various perturbations, a phenomenon called transdetermination (TD). We previously identified winged eye ( wge ) as a factor that induces eye-to-wing TD upon overexpression in eye imaginal discs, but the molecular mechanisms underlying TD have remained largely unclear. Here, we found that wge induces various histone modifications and enhances the methylation of Lys9 on histone H3 (H3K9), a feature of heterochromatin. A histone methyltransferase, Su(var)3-9, is required for wge -mediated H3K9 methylation and eye-to-wing TD. Su(var)3-9 is also required for classical wound-induced TD but not for normal development, suggesting its involvement in several types of imaginal disc TDs. Transcriptome analysis revealed that wge represses eye identity genes independently of Su(var)3-9 and activates TD-related genes by acting together with Su(var)3-9. These findings provide new insights into diverse types of chromatin regulation at progressive steps of cell-fate conversions. Graphical abstract Teaser Drosophila imaginal discs switch disc identity by a process known as transdetermination. Masuko et al. demonstrate that expression of the winged eye gene induces transdetermination through histone modifications such as H3K9-methylation. winged eye regulates expression of transdetermination-related genes via a histone methyltransferase, Su(var)3-9.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Brian S. Muntean, Stefano Zucca, Courtney M. MacMullen, Maria T. Dao, Caitlin Johnston, Hideki Iwamoto, Randy D. Blakely, Ronald L. Davis, Kirill A. Martemyanov Modulation of neuronal circuits is key to information processing in the brain. The majority of neuromodulators exert their effects by activating G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that control the production of second messengers directly impacting cellular physiology. How numerous GPCRs integrate neuromodulatory inputs while accommodating diversity of incoming signals is poorly understood. In this study, we develop an in vivo tool and analytical suite for analyzing GPCR responses by monitoring the dynamics of a key second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP), with excellent quantitative and spatiotemporal resolution in various neurons. Using this imaging approach in combination with CRISPR/Cas9 editing and optogenetics, we interrogate neuromodulatory mechanisms of defined populations of neurons in an intact mesolimbic reward circuit and describe how individual inputs generate discrete second-messenger signatures in a cell- and receptor-specific fashion. This offers a resource for studying native neuronal GPCR signaling in real time. Graphical abstract Teaser Muntean et al. develop an in vivo reagent to study processing of neurotransmitter GPCR signals by monitoring real-time dynamics of cAMP responses. They demonstrate application of this approach, in combination with CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and optogenetics, to interrogate the functional organization of a striatal circuit.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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  • 29
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: 2 January 2018 Source: Cell Reports, Volume 22, Issue 1 Author(s): Matthew M. Boisvert, Galina A. Erikson, Maxim N. Shokhirev, Nicola J. Allen Aging brains undergo cognitive decline, associated with decreased neuronal synapse number and function and altered metabolism. Astrocytes regulate neuronal synapse formation and function in development and adulthood, but whether these properties change during aging, contributing to neuronal dysfunction, is unknown. We addressed this by generating aged and adult astrocyte transcriptomes from multiple mouse brain regions. These data provide a comprehensive RNA-seq database of adult and aged astrocyte gene expression, available online as a resource. We identify astrocyte genes altered by aging across brain regions and regionally unique aging changes. Aging astrocytes show minimal alteration of homeostatic and neurotransmission-regulating genes. However, aging astrocytes upregulate genes that eliminate synapses and partially resemble reactive astrocytes. We further identified heterogeneous expression of synapse-regulating genes between astrocytes from different cortical regions. We find that alterations to astrocytes in aging create an environment permissive to synapse elimination and neuronal damage, potentially contributing to aging-associated cognitive decline. Graphical abstract Teaser The aging brain has reduced synapse number and decreased neuronal activity, functions regulated by neighboring astrocytes. Boisvert et al. investigated if aging astrocytes are contributing to these changes and found that aged astrocytes show increased expression of genes for inflammatory and synapse elimination pathways and decreased cholesterol synthesis enzymes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2211-1247
    Topics: Biology
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Volume 334 Author(s): Hang Zhan, Ya-Ming Wang, Hua-Wen Liu The aim of this paper is mainly to solve the functional equations given by the modularity condition. Several years ago, the modularity equations for t-norms, t-conorms, uninorms and t-operators, which are commutative and associative, have been studied. Our investigations are motivated by modularity condition for generalizations of these operators by removing associativity or commutativity. In this work, the following main conclusions are proved: (1) a continuous t-norm with respect to a continuous semicopula is modular if and only if they are equal. The case for a semicopula with respect to a strict t-norm is also the same. A semicopula with respect to a co-semicopula is modular if and only if the semicopula is min and the co-semicopula is max. The modularity condition does not hold for a co-semicopula with respect to a semicopula. (2) Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a semi-t-operator with respect to a semi-uninorm, a pseudo-uninorm with respect to a semi-t-operator to satisfy the modularity condition equation. New solutions to the modularity condition equations of the Case (1) are characterized.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Volume 334 Author(s): Ümit Ertuğrul In this study, we present two methods for the construction of nullnorms on bounded lattices based on the existence of t-norms as well as t-conorms on an arbitrary bounded lattice L . We demonstrate that these methods differ from the existing approaches mainly because of their more generalized structures. An equivalence relation is also defined based on a class of nullnorms and some properties of this relation are examined.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Volume 334 Author(s): Gang Li, Hua-Wen Liu In this paper, the study of the distributivity equation involving uninorms and t-conorms given in Li and Liu (2016) [3] is revised. Some errors in the proof of theorems in the mentioned reference are pointed out and their right versions are offered. Furthermore, the class of uninorms with continuous underlying operators which are (conditionally) distributive over a continuous t-conorm is characterized.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Volume 334 Author(s): Dragan Jočić, Ivana Štajner-Papuga The issue of conditional distributivity, or how it is also called, restricted distributivity, which is a form of relaxed distributivity on the restricted domain, is crucial for many different areas such as utility theory and integration theory. The focus of this paper is on this specific form of distributivity for a continuous semi-t-operator with respect to a continuous t-conorm and for a continuous semi-t-operator with respect to a uninorm of the form U min or U max with continuous underlying t-norm and t-conorm.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 197 Author(s): Jie Yang, Guangsheng Yu, Mingyu Liu, Hongming Xie, Haiwei Liu Drawn upon the marriage of transaction cost economics and social exchange theory, this study aims to examine the effect of cost transparency on cooperation efficiency in a cooperative exchange between a manufacturer and its key suppliers. It also investigates the contingent impact of the contextual factor (e.g., demand uncertainty) and contractual factor (e.g., contract specificity) on the link between cost transparency and efficiency. The results of path analysis of survey data collected from China indicate a curvilinear relationship between transparency and efficiency in the context of Chinese manufacturers. The findings of this study also show that this curvilinear relationship is contingent on demand uncertainty and contract specificity, which exert interacting effects on the transparency-efficiency connection. This study discusses contributions to the frontier of existing theories, implications for practitioners, and future stream of research.
    Print ISSN: 0925-5273
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-7579
    Topics: Technology , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Journal of Air Transport Management, Volume 67 Author(s): Antonio J. Torija, Rod H. Self With the environmental externalities of civil aviation under unprecedented scrutiny, and with the projected significant increase in air traffic demand over the next few decades, fleet-level studies are required to assess the potential benefit of novel aircraft technologies and operational procedures for minimizing environmental impact of aviation. Using a statistical classification process, the UK commercial aircraft fleet is reduced to four representative-in-class aircraft on the basis of aircraft physical characteristics, and aircraft noise and engine exhaust emissions. These four representative aircraft, that appropriately capture the noise and emissions characteristics for each category within the UK commercial fleet, are also selected to be used as baseline cases for the high-level assessment of the environmental benefit of novel aircraft technologies. For the particular case of aviation noise, the modelling tools are highly sensitive to the number of aircraft types in the flight schedule. A reduction of about 80% in computational time with relatively minor decrease in accuracy (between −4% and +5%) is observed when the whole aircraft fleet is replaced with the four representative-in-class aircraft for computing noise contours. Therefore, the statistical classification and selection of representative-in-class aircraft presented in this paper is a valid approach for the rapid and accurate computation of a large number of exploratory cases to assess aviation noise reduction strategies.
    Print ISSN: 0969-6997
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2089
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering Author(s): Ahmet Özbek, Murat Gül, Ergun Karacan, Övünç Alca This paper aims to study the effect of anisotropy on strengths of several metamorphic rocks of southern (Çine) submassif of Menderes metamorphic massif in southwest Turkey. Four different metamorphic rocks including foliated phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist) were selected and examined. Discontinuity surveys were made along lines for each rock and evaluated with DIPS program. L-type Schmidt hammer was applied in the directions parallel and perpendicular to foliation during the field study. Several hand samples and rock blocks were collected during the field study for measurements of dry and saturated densities, dry and saturated unit weights and porosity, and for petrographic analysis and strength determination in laboratory. L- and N-type Schmidt hammers were applied in the directions perpendicular (anisotropy angle of 0°) and parallel (anisotropy angle of 90°) to the foliation on selected blocks of phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist). The phyllite and schist have higher porosity and lower density values than the other rocks. However, coarse crystalline gneiss and marble (calcschist) have higher rebound values and strengths, and they are classified as strong–very strong rocks. Generally, the rebound values in the direction perpendicular to the foliation are slightly higher than that in the direction parallel to foliation. Rebound values of N-type Schmidt hammer are higher than the L-type values except for phyllite. Sometimes, the rebound values of laboratory and field applications gave different results. This may result from variable local conditions such as minerals differentiation, discontinuities, water content, weathering degree and thickness of foliated structure.
    Print ISSN: 1674-7755
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Frazen Tolentino-Zondervan, Paul Berentsen, Simon R. Bush, Alfons Oude Lansink This paper assesses the effect of Marine Stewardship Council certification on the allocation of fishing effort by Filipino purse seine fishers operating in the waters of the Parties to the Nauru Agreement. Targeting skipjack tuna, these purse seiners allocate effort under a vessel day scheme to either MSC certified free school fishing or non-MSC certified fishing on fish aggregating devices (FADs). Based on historical catch and price data, the optimal set of fishing activities are determined in terms of the mean and variance of fishers’ gross margin at given levels of risk aversion. The results show that MSC certification stimulates fishers to reduce their allocation of effort on non-MSC compliant FADs, and consequently convert this effort to MSC compliant free school purse seining. In general, the MSC also increases the yearly gross margin of fishers as compared to the situation without MSC certification. The MSC therefore appears to be effective to a certain extent in promoting a transition to more sustainable fishing practices. However, the results also indicate that the risk profile of fishers is a key but underexplored dimension of assessing the potential impact of MSC certification on effort allocation.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 38
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: International Journal of Production Economics Author(s): Dvir Shabtay, Moshe Zofi We study a single machine scheduling problem, where job processing times are controllable, and there is a fixed machine unavailability interval. We assume that the job processing time is a convex decreasing function of the amount of resource allocated to its processing operation. We further assume that there is a budget restriction on the total resource allocation cost. Our aim is to find a job schedule that minimizes the makespan. We prove that the problem is NP-hard and develop both a constant factor approximation Algorithm and a fully polynomial time approximation scheme (FPTAS) for solving it. The FPTAS is obtained despite the fact that we could not design a pseudo-polynomial time algorithm for finding the optimal solution.
    Print ISSN: 0925-5273
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-7579
    Topics: Technology , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Journal of Air Transport Management, Volume 67 Author(s): Muhammad Shoaib Farooq, Maimoona Salam, Alain Fayolle, Norizan Jaafar, Kartinah Ayupp This study is aimed to assess the quality of service provided by Malaysia Airlines and its impact on overall customer satisfaction. This study employed a convenience sampling method for collecting data from 460 respondents using a self-administered questionnaire, designed on five dimensions of AIRQUAL scale. Moreover, variance based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used for testing the proposed structural model. Findings of this study revealed that all five dimensions of AIRQUAL scale i.e. airline tangibles; terminal tangibles; personnel services; empathy and image have a positive, direct and significant impact on customer satisfaction of Malaysia Airlines. This study investigated the impact of service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction in Malaysia Airlines. Due to limited resources and time constraints this study involves respondents from Malaysia Airlines only; for that reason a comparative analysis of findings with other airlines was not possible; therefore it is considered a limitation of this study. Moreover, importance-performance map analysis (IPMA) was also performed for exploring the importance of various dimensions of service quality. Findings indicate that airlines should focus on all dimensions of service quality, with special focus on personnel services and image for enhancing their customer satisfaction. It is expected that findings of this study will help airlines to understand the role of various dimensions of service quality for enhancing their customer satisfaction.
    Print ISSN: 0969-6997
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2089
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Journal of Environmental Economics and Management Author(s): Linda Fernandez, Bowman Cutter, Ritu Sharma, Tom Scott We offer an improvement on the traditional hedonic property value estimation by using a repeat sales matching estimator applied to a policy context where the distance to nearest permanently protected preserves changes over time. We use several strategies to control for unobserved heterogeneity with data from multiple transactions on the same residential parcels from Western Riverside County in Southern California. We have developed data on the conversion to permanent preserves over a 16-year period. We present an empirical strategy to differentiate geographically broad treatment effects from neighborhood unobservables using Coarsened Exact Matching.
    Print ISSN: 0095-0696
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-0449
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Economics
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  • 41
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Microbes and Infection Author(s): Nira Pollock, Rakesh Dhiman, Nada Daifalla, Maha Farhat, Antonio Campos-Neto Identification of pathogen-specific biomarkers present in patients’ serum or urine samples can be a useful diagnostic approach. In efforts to discover Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) biomarkers we identified by mass spectroscopy a unique 21-mer Mtb peptide sequence (VVLGLTVPGGVELLPGVALPR) present in the urines of TB patients from Zimbabwe. This peptide has 100% sequence homology with the protein TBCG_03312 from the C strain of Mtb (a clinical isolate identified in New York, NY, USA) and 95% sequence homology with Mtb oxidoreductase (MRGA423_21210) from the clinical isolate MTB423 (identified in Kerala, India). Alignment of the genes coding for these proteins show an insertion point mutation relative to Rv3368c of the reference H37Rv strain, which generated a unique C-terminus with no sequence homology with any other described protein. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing public sequence data shows that the insertion mutation is apparently a rare event. However, sera from TB patients from distinct geographical areas of the world (Peru, Vietnam, and South Africa) contain antibodies that recognize a purified recombinant C-terminus of the protein, thus suggesting a wider distribution of isolates that produce this protein.
    Print ISSN: 1286-4579
    Electronic ISSN: 1769-714X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 42
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra Author(s): W.K. Nicholson
    Print ISSN: 0022-4049
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1376
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra Author(s): Alicja Jaworska-Pastuszak, Andrzej Skowroński We describe the structure of finite dimensional selfinjective algebras over an arbitrary field without short cycles of indecomposable modules.
    Print ISSN: 0022-4049
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1376
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Journal of the Franklin Institute Author(s): Tae H. Lee, Ju H. Park This paper is concerned with the stability analysis of time-varying delay systems. Unlike the construction of augmented Lyapunov functional and multiple integral Lyapunov functional, novel three Lyapunov functionals are suggested which are delay product type functions and lead to less conservative results. Based on newly developed Lyapunov functionals, three stability criteria are derived and their superiority is described by three numerical examples.
    Print ISSN: 0016-0032
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2693
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 45
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Journal of the Franklin Institute Author(s): Neyir Ozcan, M. Syed Ali, J. Yogambigai, Quanxin Zhu, Sabri Arik This paper is concerned with the problem of robust synchronization of a class of complex dynamical networks with time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms. To reflect most of the dynamical behaviors of the system, the parameter uncertainties are considered. A sampled-data controller with m stochastically varying sampling periods whose occurrence probabilities are given constants is considered. The control objective is that the trajectories of the system by designing suitable control schemes track the trajectories of the system with sample-data control. It is shown that, through Lyapunov stability theory, the proposed sample-data controllers are successful in ensuring the achievement of robust synchronization of complex dynamical networks even in the case of uncertainity and Markovian jumping parameters. By utilizing the Lyapunov functional method, Jensen’s inequality, Wirtinger’s inequality and lower bounds theorem, we establish a sufficient criterion such that, for all admissible parameter uncertainties, the complex dynamical network is robustly synchronized. The derived criteria are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities that can be easily checked by using the standard numerical software. Illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed results.
    Print ISSN: 0016-0032
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2693
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 46
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: The Lancet Author(s): Anna J Dare, Bisola Onajin-Obembe, Emmanuel M Makasa
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): R. Creed, B. Baily, J. Potts, M. Bray, R. Austin It is widely recognized that there is a need for engagement between stakeholders to establish locally accepted strategies for sustainable coastal management solutions around the world. Adaptive management approaches have emerged as one of the preferred mechanisms in coastal zone management. Central to the application of adaptive management is the effective engagement of stakeholders to encourage participatory decision-making. There are relatively few studies which have analysed the effectiveness and dynamics of stakeholder groups to establish sustainable adaptive management in practice, and identify what opportunities and challenges can arise from such collaborative approaches. This research critically evaluates stakeholder engagement in the adoption of adaptive management at East Head, England. The study has identified significant issues and opportunities that have arisen throughout the decision-making process. It has found that a major challenge has been to achieve acceptance of the mechanism of adaptive management, particularly in relation to aspects of uncertainty. However, it is of critical note that the advisory group in question has become a valuable vehicle in bringing together key stakeholders throughout all stages of the adoption of the adaptive management approach. It is suggested that this approach, has gradually reduced conflict through building knowledge, gaining trust and ultimately achieving acceptance. A widely applicable management model and recommendations for best practice are presented as derived from the views of the advisory group itself. This model has the potential to develop a more dynamic, holistic and sustainable approach to coastal governance both in the UK and at other locations further afield.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Thane A. Militz, Jeff Kinch, David S. Schoeman, Paul C. Southgate The Papua New Guinea (PNG) marine aquarium fishery was partly managed by total allowable catch (TAC) limits, implemented since the fishery's inception in 2008. Species-specific TACs, based on stock assessments conducted prior to the commencement of fishing, were established for all fish and invertebrate species presumed to be fished by the fishery. By analysing the selectivity of the PNG fishery in 2012, a large portion (74.9%) of the managed fish diversity ( n = 267 species) was found to be “weakly” to “strongly” avoided relative to their availability. More than half (53.2%; n = 142) of the fish species with TACs were never fished in 2012. Of those species with TACs that were actually fished, 76.8% ( n = 96) of fish and all invertebrate catches never exceeded 1% of their TACs. Catches of only seven fish species exceeded 10% of their TACs. Catch records also identified 124 fish species that were fished in the absence of species-specific TACs. Unbiased recursive partitioning was used to examine ecological attributes of these species to help identify flaws in the methods used for initial TAC assignment. Refining the role species-specific TACs play in the management of this fishery is necessary to optimise managerial resources. The lessons learned from this approach to marine aquarium fishery management are likely to be of interest and value to PNG, other developing island nations, and marine aquarium fisheries globally.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: The Lancet Author(s): Bruce M Biccard, Thandinkosi E Madiba, Hyla-Louise Kluyts, Dolly M Munlemvo, Farai D Madzimbamuto, Apollo Basenero, Christina S Gordon, Coulibaly Youssouf, Sylvia R Rakotoarison, Veekash Gobin, Ahmadou L Samateh, Chaibou M Sani, Akinyinka O Omigbodun, Simbo D Amanor-Boadu, Janat T Tumukunde, Tonya M Esterhuizen, Yannick Le Manach, Patrice Forget, Abdulaziz M Elkhogia, Ryad M Mehyaoui, Eugene Zoumeno, Gabriel Ndayisaba, Henry Ndasi, Andrew K N Ndonga, Zipporah W W Ngumi, Ushmah P Patel, Daniel Zemenfes Ashebir, Akwasi A K Antwi-Kusi, Bernard Mbwele, Hamza Doles Sama, Mahmoud Elfiky, Maher A Fawzy, Rupert M Pearse Background There is a need to increase access to surgical treatments in African countries, but perioperative complications represent a major global health-care burden. There are few studies describing surgical outcomes in Africa. Methods We did a 7-day, international, prospective, observational cohort study of patients aged 18 years and older undergoing any inpatient surgery in 25 countries in Africa (the African Surgical Outcomes Study). We aimed to recruit as many hospitals as possible using a convenience sampling survey, and required data from at least ten hospitals per country (or half the surgical centres if there were fewer than ten hospitals) and data for at least 90% of eligible patients from each site. Each country selected one recruitment week between February and May, 2016. The primary outcome was in-hospital postoperative complications, assessed according to predefined criteria and graded as mild, moderate, or severe. Data were presented as median (IQR), mean (SD), or n (%), and compared using t tests. This study is registered on the South African National Health Research Database (KZ_2015RP7_22) and ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03044899 ). Findings We recruited 11 422 patients (median 29 [IQR 10–70]) from 247 hospitals during the national cohort weeks. Hospitals served a median population of 810 000 people (IQR 200 000–2 000 000), with a combined number of specialist surgeons, obstetricians, and anaesthetists totalling 0·7 (0·2–1·9) per 100 000 population. Hospitals did a median of 212 (IQR 65–578) surgical procedures per 100 000 population each year. Patients were younger (mean age 38·5 years [SD 16·1]), with a lower risk profile (American Society of Anesthesiologists median score 1 [IQR 1–2]) than reported in high-income countries. 1253 (11%) patients were infected with HIV, 6504 procedures (57%) were urgent or emergent, and the most common procedure was caesarean delivery (3792 patients, 33%). Postoperative complications occurred in 1977 (18·2%, 95% CI 17·4–18·9]) of 10 885 patients. 239 (2·1%) of 11 193 patients died, 225 (94·1%) after the day of surgery. Infection was the most common complication (1156 [10·2%] of 10 970 patients), of whom 112 (9·7%) died. Interpretation Despite a low-risk profile and few postoperative complications, patients in Africa were twice as likely to die after surgery when compared with the global average for postoperative deaths. Initiatives to increase access to surgical treatments in Africa therefore should be coupled with improved surveillance for deteriorating physiology in patients who develop postoperative complications, and the resources necessary to achieve this objective. Funding Medical Research Council of South Africa.
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 50
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Mechanisms of Development Author(s): Eugenia M. del Pino The study of oogenesis and early development of frogs belonging to the family Hemiphractidae provide important comparison to the aquatic development of other frogs, such as Xenopus laevis , because reproduction on land characterizes the Hemiphractidae. In this review, the multinucleated oogenesis of the marsupial frog Flectonotus pygmaeus (Hemiphractidae) is analyzed and interpreted. In addition, the adaptations associated with the incubation of embryos in the pouch of the female marsupial frog Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae) and the embryonic development of this frog are summarized. Moreover, G. riobambae gastrulation is compared with the gastrulation modes of Engystomops randi and Engystomops coloradorum (Leptodactylidae); Ceratophrys stolzmanni (Ceratophryidae); Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni and Espadarana callistomma (Centrolenidae); Ameerega bilinguis , Dendrobates auratus , Epipedobates anthonyi , Epipedobates machalilla , Epipedobates tricolor , and Hyloxalus vertebralis (Dendrobatidae) ; Eleutherodactylus coqui (Terrarana: Eleutherodactylidae), and X. laevis (Pipidae). The comparison indicated two modes of frog gastrulation. In X. laevis and in frogs with aquatic reproduction, convergent extension begins during gastrulation. In contrast, convergent extension occurs in the post-gastrula of frogs with terrestrial reproduction. These two modes of gastrulation resemble the transitions toward meroblastic cleavage found in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). In spite of this difference, the genes that guide early development seem to be highly conserved in frogs. I conclude that the shift of convergent extension to the post-gastrula accompanied the diversification of frog egg size and terrestrial reproductive modes.
    Print ISSN: 0925-4773
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6356
    Topics: Biology
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  • 51
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review Author(s): Hideki Oka, Yasukatsu Hagino, Takeshi Kenmochi, Ryota Tani, Ryuta Nishi, Kotaro Endo, Daisuke Fukuda This study aims at predicting travel pattern changes of freight trucks in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area by taking full advantage of the latest large-scale urban freight survey. We found that travel patterns changed significantly depending on the type of trucks. A route choice model with the concept of the maximum route-overlapping ratio was developed and the calibrated model was found to be appropriate for our analysis. Finally, we analyzed various policy scenarios and found that the full operation of the three ring roads would contribute to smoother traffic whereas the extension of weight-designated road might have a relatively small impact.
    Print ISSN: 1366-5545
    Electronic ISSN: 1878-5794
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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  • 52
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Volume 59 Author(s): Lingqian Hu, Tieshan Sun, Lanlan Wang This research investigates how evolving urban spatial structure explains commuting patterns in Beijing, China. To describe the dynamic and multi-dimensional urban spatial evolution, we identify emerging-, persisting-, and non-center areas between 2000 and 2008 in Beijing’s three subregions—the inner city, inner-ring suburbs, and outer-ring suburbs. Based on individual-level commuting data from the 2010 Beijing Household Travel Survey, we estimate workers’ commute distance and time using multi-level regression models with interaction terms that capture the spatial evolution. Results reveal commuting differences among persisting-, emerging-, and non-center areas, and, more importantly, varying differences across the subregions: in the inner city, persisting and emerging center areas induce similarly longer commutes than non-center areas. In the inner-ring suburbs, commutes to emerging centers are shorter than those to persisting centers. In the outer-ring suburbs, emerging center areas incur the longest commutes, while persisting center areas the shortest. The results reflect varying economic and urban functions in different subregions of Beijing and caution us that promoting polycentric urban development may increase commutes and relevant negative externalities in Chinese cities.
    Print ISSN: 1361-9209
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2340
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 53
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: World Development, Volume 105 Author(s): Jonathan Bauchet, Eduardo A. Undurraga, Victoria Reyes-García, Jere R. Behrman, Ricardo A. Godoy Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs to increase primary-school enrollment and attendance among low-income households have been shown to benefit children and households, but to date little is known about who joins such programs. We test three hypotheses about predictors of CCT program participation in indigenous societies in Bolivia, focusing on attributes of the household (ethnicity), parents (modern human capital), and children (age, sex). We model whether children receive a transfer from Bolivia’s CCT program ( Bono Juancito Pinto ), using data from 811 school-age children and nine ethnic groups. Children from the group least exposed to Westerners (Tsimane’) are 18–22 percentage points less likely to participate in the program than children from other lowland ethnic groups. Parental modern human capital and child sex do not predict participation. We discuss possible mechanisms underlying the findings and conclude that the Tsimane’s current lower returns to schooling are the most likely explanation.
    Print ISSN: 0305-750X
    Topics: Geography , Political Science , Sociology
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  • 54
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Protein Expression and Purification Author(s): Prachi Pathak, Ashu Kumar, Prabhu Prasad Sarangi, Sameer Bhagyawant, Duraipandian Thavaselvam Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by various species of the genus Brucella . The control of disease mainly depends on its accurate and early diagnosis. Culture methods employed for diagnosis are time consuming and require well equipped biosafety level 3 laboratories and hence serological tests are favored alternative for brucellosis diagnosis. At present serological diagnosis is based on LPS (lipopolysaccharide) which is less specific as the LPS antigen of Brucella species shows cross reactivity with other gram-negative bacteria. There is a need to develop serological diagnostic assay based on purified recombinant antigen of Brucella. T4SS (Type IV Secretion System) is an important virulent factor of Brucella and required for infection suggesting their expression in vivo and can be targeted as serological marker for infection . To test this concept, the present study is designed to clone, express and purify virB10 gene of Brucella T4SS under denaturing conditions and to evaluate its use as serological marker of Brucella infection. The immunoreactivity of this recombinant antigen was checked with antisera collected after experimental infection in Balb/C mice with B. melitensis 16M, BR31 (human clinical isolate) and Y. enterocolitica O:9 . The recombinant protein was also tested against a panel of 46 bovine sera samples collected from Leh, India. Antibody response against VirB10 was detected in experimental and natural host suggesting that it can be explored as potential target for serodiagnosis of Brucella infection.
    Print ISSN: 1046-5928
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-0279
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 55
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Volume 334
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 56
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Volume 334 Author(s): Jing Lu, Kaiyun Wang, Bin Zhao In this paper, an equivalence relation on the class of uninorms with the same neutral element induced by a U -partial order is provided and discussed. The equivalence classes linked to some special uninorms are characterized. Furthermore, the set of incomparable elements with respect to the U -partial order is deeply investigated. Finally, another equivalence relation on the class of uninorms with the same neutral element is introduced and studied.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0114
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-6801
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 57
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Volume 25 Author(s): Monzur Alam Imteaz, Amimul Ahsan In spite of continuous campaign and efforts large scale adoptions of solar panels are yet to be materialised, mainly due to lack of confidence on potential energy savings. This paper presents real efficiencies achieved from four houses in two Australian cities; Melbourne and Adelaide. Based on actual solar energy productions and actual incoming solar radiations during a monitoring period, efficiencies of solar panels installed in the selected houses were calculated. It was found that among the four monitored houses, a maximum efficiency of 7% was achieved. Considering this maximum achievable efficiency and annual average incoming solar radiations, potentials of energy savings for eight major cities of Australia are presented considering two different solar panel systems; 2 kW and 5 kW. It was found that for a typical 4-members household winter-demand, a 2 kW system and 5 kW system is expected to generate 19–29% and 49–73% of total energy. In addition, considering the current costs and expected savings, payback periods of different sized solar systems are presented for the eight cities.
    Print ISSN: 2213-1388
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 58
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Volume 25 Author(s): Abdulkadir Abdulrashid Rafindadi, Ibrahim Muhammad Muye, Rayyanu Abdulkarim Kaita This study empirically examine the effects of foreign direct investment inflows and energy consumption on environmental pollution in the GCC from 1990 to 2014. The study employed the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) methodology. The findings of the study discovered FDI inflows to have negative impact on the environment while energy consumption was detected to have positive impact and both were found to be statistically significant in explaining the extent of carbon emissions in the region. Additionally, higher disposable income, domestic investment, and FDI were detected to have significant influence on energy use in the GCC. The study also discovered how higher disposable income and FDI helps in improving environmental quality in the GCC. While energy use through domestic investment reduces it. Furthermore, relative income negatively impacts the environment through FDI. Our results did not support the idea that the selected GCC countries are pollution haven. The study conclude that for these countries to enjoy perpetual benefits of pollution free states, there is the need to prioritize full scale production of efficient, sufficient and sustainable green energy and ensure optimum energy mix management. This will reduce the level of CO 2 emission as a result of heavy energy consumption of these countries as discovered by the study.
    Print ISSN: 2213-1388
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 59
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: Topology and its Applications, Volume 236 Author(s): Mirosław Ślosarski In this article the new properties of relative retracts in the context of relative homotopy are studied. The results of the studies are particularly applied to the characterization of connected and locally connected spaces and absolute neighborhood retracts.
    Print ISSN: 0166-8641
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-3207
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 60
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Journal of Transport Geography Author(s): César Ducruet, Sylvain Cuyala, Ali El Hosni
    Print ISSN: 0966-6923
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1236
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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  • 61
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: April 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 115 Author(s): Hidenori Nakamura By employing an online social survey in a prefecture that is home to a nuclear power plant and a prefecture that consumes a large amount of energy, this paper investigates the following elements: levels of desire to understand the issues relevant to complex energy and environmental policies, their willingness to talk about such issues in a random sample at the national and prefectural levels, and the relationship between these two elements. Results found that 70–85% of respondents showed a moderate or strong willingness to learn about 14 relevant issues ranging from nuclear waste management to policy transition periods. Moreover, 35% of respondents indicated a moderate or strong willingness to participate in a national- or prefectural-level random sampling citizen dialogue on energy and environmental policy. A stronger desire to learn about the issues is directly associated with a greater willingness to participate in public discussions. The Japanese government produces and disseminates pertinent information reflecting the results of public dialogue, which shows citizens’ increasing willingness to participate in debates at the national level, particularly for those who are more inclined to pay for renewable energy. This survey shows the propensity of Japanese citizens to engage in talks on energy and environmental policy.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 62
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Energy Policy, Volume 114 Author(s): Diego García-Gusano, Diego Iribarren, Javier Dufour As in many countries, coal-fired power plants in Spain account for a significant contribution to the electricity mix. Nevertheless, renewable energy options and natural gas are paving the way for coal retirement. Alternatively, it is possible to reduce the emissions (especially SO 2 and NO x ) associated with coal combustion through technology retrofits focused on desulphurisation and denitrification in line with the EU Industrial Emissions Directive. Within a context of low coal and CO 2 prices, lifetime extension of coal-fired plants emerges as an option for power plant owners. This article prospectively evaluates the announced retrofit for 3560 MW of the Spanish coal power capacity under three alternative energy scenarios. In addition to prospective electricity production mixes, the evolution of key life-cycle sustainability indicators (climate change, human health, energy security) is assessed with time horizon 2050 using an enhanced energy systems optimisation model of power generation. When compared to the reference scenario, the results show that coal extension could favour the penetration of renewables in the long term. Notwithstanding, this would come at the expense of undesirable increases in climate change and human health impacts. Consequently, the implementation of the sustainability dimension in energy plans could avoid a “coal conundrum” situation in Spain.
    Print ISSN: 0301-4215
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science
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  • 63
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: Marine Policy Author(s): Brock J. Bergseth, Matthew Roscher Compliance is critical for effective conservation, and non-compliance regularly negates the desired outcomes of the world's marine protected areas. To increase compliance, practitioners must understand why resource users are breaking the rules, why these behaviours continue to occur, and how to effectively confront non-compliance. This study interviewed 682 recreational fishers of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) to examine the social components of compliance management. These components included fisher's perceptions of non-compliance, or poaching (defined here as fishing in no-take zones), as well as the beliefs, attitudes, normative influences, consumptive orientation and perceived behavioural controls that may influence fisher's decisions to poach. Encouragingly, most fishers had high perceptions of the legitimacy of management agencies and thought poaching was socially and personally unacceptable. However, these findings suggest that four (mis)perceptions or mechanisms are likely operative and at least partially responsible for continued non-compliance by fishers. These included pluralistic ignorance, false consensus, social learning, and a perceived lack of deterrence. Numerous tools can be used to address and correct these perceptions, including social norms and influence approaches, strengthened coercive deterrence measures, fear-arousing communications, and social outreach. If properly implemented, these tools and approaches should not only increase compliance but also reduce support (whether active or passive) for a culture of non-compliance.
    Print ISSN: 0308-597X
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9460
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 64
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Volume 25 Author(s): Velimir P. Stefanovic, Sasa R. Pavlovic, Evangelos Bellos, Christos Tzivanidis The objective of this work is to investigate parametrically an innovative solar dish collector with a spiral-coil absorber and to determine its optimum operating conditions. This solar dish collector is a lightweight and low-cost technology which can operate mainly at medium temperature levels. A thermal model is developed in Engineering Equation Solver and it is validated with the experimental results. Different parameters as the inlet temperature, the flow rate, the absorber emittance, the optical efficiency, the wind velocity and the ambient temperature are investigated parametrically in order to investigate their impact on the collector performance. The analysis is performed in energetic and exergetic terms and the emphasis is given in the quantity and the quality of the useful product. In the last part of this work, the optimum inlet temperature and flow rate, which maximize the collector exergetic performance, are determined for various design cases. According to the results, the optimum fluid temperature is 212.3 °C and the optimum flow rate is 314.6 L/h with the thermal and exergetic efficiencies to be 49.83% and 21.42% respectively. The results of this work can be utilized for the improvement of the examined physical model in order to establish it as a reliable solar technology.
    Print ISSN: 2213-1388
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 65
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: May 2018 Source: Protein Expression and Purification, Volume 145 Author(s): Asmita D. Pawar, Deepshikha Verma, Venu Sankeshi, Rajeev Raman, Yogendra Sharma The reliability and accuracy of conformational or functional studies of any novel multidomain protein rely on the quality of protein. The bottleneck in structural studies with the complete Big_2 domain containing proteins like LigA, LigB or Mp IBP is usually their large molecular size owing to their multidomain (>10–12 domains) architectures. Interestingly, a soil bacterium Paenarthrobacter aurescens TC1, harbours a gene that encodes a protein comprising of four predicted Big_2 domains. We report here the expression and purification of this novel, multiple Big_2 domains containing protein, Arig of P . aurescens TC1. During overexpression, recombinant Arig formed inclusion bodies and hence was purified by on-column refolding. The refolded Arig revealed a β-sheet conformation and a well-resolved near-UV CD spectra but did not exhibit a well-dispersed 2D [ 1 H- 15 N]-HSQC NMR spectrum, as expected for a well-folded β-sheet native conformation. We, therefore, further optimized Arig overexpression in the soluble fraction by including osmolytes. CD spectroscopic and 2D [ 1 H- 15 N]-HSQC analyses consolidate that Arig purified alternatively has a well-folded native conformation. While we describe different strategies for purification of Arig, we also present the spectral properties of this novel all-β-sheet protein.
    Print ISSN: 1046-5928
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-0279
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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    In: SoftwareX
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018 Source: SoftwareX Author(s): Paul Bauer, Alexandre Barrozo, Miha Purg, Beat Anton Amrein, Mauricio Esguerra, Philippe Barrie Wilson, Dan Thomas Major, Johan Åqvist, Shina Caroline Lynn Kamerlin Atomistic simulations have become one of the main approaches to study the chemistry and dynamics of biomolecular systems in solution. Chemical modelling is a powerful way to understand biochemistry, with a number of different programs available to perform specialized calculations. We present here Q6, a new version of the Q software package, which is a generalized package for empirical valence bond, linear interaction energy, and other free energy calculations. In addition to general technical improvements, Q6 extends the reach of the EVB implementation to fast approximations of quantum effects, extended solvent descriptions and quick estimation of the contributions of individual residues to changes in the activation free energy of reactions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2352-7110
    Topics: Computer Science
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  • 67
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Volume 25 Author(s): Rahim Hassanzadeh, Mohsen Darvishyadegari, Samaneh Arman This paper presents a new idea for dissipating the higher amounts of thermal energy with enhanced horizontal straight ground source heat exchangers (GSHEs) comparing to the conventional GSHEs. For this purpose, the buried pipes were integrated with longitudinal galvanized bridges having the thickness and height of 2.5 mm and 117.5 cm within the ground, respectively. Several scenarios were examined in terms of the number and location of the bridges around the pipes. Attentions were attracted to three different soil types having thermal conductivities of 0.35 (soil I), 1.26 (soil II), and 2.60 (soil III) W/mK. On the other hand, different ambient air conditions on the ground were considered in order to extend the obtained results for various climates. It was found that once the buried pipes of GSHEs were equipped with galvanized bridges, the rate of heat transfer between the pipes and ground enhances significantly in comparison to the conventional GSHEs. It was demonstrated that the applied method for heat transfer enhancement was more effective for lower conductivity soils in comparison to soils with higher conductivities. Finally, maximum enhancements in the thermal energy dissipation of 90.46%, 28.84%, and 12.58% were determined for soil I, soil II, and soil III, respectively.
    Print ISSN: 2213-1388
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: Topology and its Applications, Volume 236 Author(s): Yan Wu, Jingming Zhu In this paper, we are concerned with the study of metric spaces with complexity of the smallest infinite ordinal number. We give equivalent formulations of the definition of metric spaces with complexity of the smallest infinite ordinal number and prove that the exact complexity of the finite product Z ≀ Z × Z ≀ Z × ⋯ × Z ≀ Z of wreath products is ω , where ω is the smallest infinite ordinal number. Consequently, we obtain that the complexity of ( Z ≀ Z ) ≀ Z is ω + 1 .
    Print ISSN: 0166-8641
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-3207
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source: Technological Forecasting and Social Change Author(s): Abdul-Nasser El-Kassar, Sanjay Kumar Singh Faced with internal and external pressure to adapt and implement environmental friendly business activities, it is becoming crucial for firms to identify practices that enhance their competitive advantage, economic, and environmental performance. Green innovation, green technologies, and the implementation of green supply chain management are examples of such practices. Green innovation and the adoption of the combination of green product innovation and green process innovation involve reduction in consumption of energy and pollution emission, recycling of wastes, sustainable utilization of resources, and green product designs. Although the extent research in this area is substantial, research on the importance of considering corporate environmental ethics, stakeholders view of green product, and demand for green products as drivers of green innovation must be conducted. Moreover, the role of large scale data, management commitment, and human resource practices play to overcome the technological challenges, achieve competitive advantage, and enhance the economic and environmental performance have yet to be addressed. This paper develops and tests a holistic model that depicts and examines the relationships among green innovation, its drivers, as well as factors that help overcome the technological challenges and influence the performance and competitive advantage of the firm. This paper is among the first works to deal with such a complex framework which considers the interrelationships among numerous constructs and their effects on competitive advantage as well as overall organizational performance. A questionnaire was designed to measure the influence of green innovation adoption/implementation and its drivers on performance and competitive advantage while taking into consideration the impact of management commitment and HR practices, as well as the use of large data on these relationships. Data collected from a sample of 215 respondents working in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and Golf-Cooperation Countries (GCC) were used to test the proposed relationships. The proposed model proved to be fit. The hypotheses were supported, and implications were discussed.
    Print ISSN: 0040-1625
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-5509
    Topics: Sociology , Technology
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Publication date: February 2018 Source: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 108 Author(s): Qinglong Yan, Zhe Sun, Qijian Gan, Wen-Long Jin The existence of stationary states during peak periods has been an underlying assumption of many studies on analysis, operations, control, and management of transportation networks. In Cassidy (1998), a method was proposed to manually identify near-stationary states by visually inspecting transformed curves of cumulative total vehicle counts and occupancies. Such near-stationary states are important for calibrating fundamental diagrams, identifying active bottlenecks and incidents, and quantifying capacity drop magnitudes. To the best of our knowledge, however, there lacks an automatic method that can be applied to efficiently identify near-stationary states from a large amount of data. In this study, we attempt to fill this gap. We start with definitions of steady, stationary, and equilibrium states and discuss their relations. Then we present a novel four-step method for automatically identifying near-stationary states from raw loop-detector data: first, the raw data are pre-processed to obtain healthy datasets, fill in missing values, and normalize averaged vehicle counts and occupancies to the same scale; second, daily time series are partitioned into multiple candidate intervals based on the pruned exact linear time (PELT) changepoint detection method; third, the characteristics of the candidate intervals are calculated; and finally, near-stationary states are selected based on modified Cassidy’s gap and duration criteria. We further close the loop by presenting an algorithm to automatically determine the penalty threshold in the second step and the gap threshold in fourth step to ensure the quantity as well as the quality of identified near-stationary states. In a case study, we apply the proposed method to identify near-stationary states from a large set of 30-s raw loop-detector data at a freeway mainline station. We verify the validity of identified near-stationary states both directly and indirectly. The results show that the identified near-stationary states are valid with high quality and the calibrated triangular fundamental diagram is well-fitted and physically meaningful. We finally conclude by discussing some future improvements and potential applications.
    Print ISSN: 0191-2615
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2367
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Economics
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: April 2018 Source: Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Volume 120
    Print ISSN: 0167-9473
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-7352
    Topics: Mathematics
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018 Source: Journal of Ocean Engineering and Science Author(s): Tarikul Islam, M. Ali Akbar, Abul Kalam Azad In this article, the analytical solutions to the space-time fractional foam drainage equation and the space-time fractional symmetric regularized long wave (SRLW) equation are successfully examined by the recently established rational ( G ′/ G )-expansion method. The suggested equations are reduced into the nonlinear ordinary differential equations with the aid of the fractional complex transform. Consequently, the theories of the ordinary differential equations are implemented effectively. Three types closed form traveling wave solutions, such as hyperbolic function, trigonometric function and rational, are constructed by using the suggested method in the sense of conformable fractional derivative. The obtained solutions might be significant to analyze the depth and spacing of parallel subsurface drain and small-amplitude long wave on the surface of the water in a channel. It is observed that the performance of the rational ( G ′/ G )-expansion method is reliable and will be used to establish new general closed form solutions for any other NPDEs of fractional order.
    Electronic ISSN: 2468-0133
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018 Source: Journal of the Franklin Institute Author(s): Liuliu Zhang, Yafeng Li, Changchun Hua, Yu Zhang, Xinping Guan This paper investigates the output feedback control for a class of stochastic nonlinear time delay systems based on dynamic gain technique. The nonlinear terms of the stochastic system satisfy linear growth condition on unmeasured state variables with the output dependent incremental rate, which makes the studied time delay stochastic system more general than the exiting results. Firstly, the full order dynamic gain observer is constructed. Then, the linear-like controller is designed without using recursive design method. Next, the stability analysis is given and a useful corollary is obtained. Finally, a simulation is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
    Print ISSN: 0016-0032
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2693
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018 Source: Journal of the Franklin Institute Author(s): Tianrong Weng, Lei Wang, Zhikun She, Quanyi Liang In this paper, a distributed projection algorithm based on the subgradient method is presented to solve the distributed optimization problem with a constrained set over a directed multi-agent network, where the designed protocol is scaled by the left eigenvector associated with the weighted adjacency matrix. By using the property of the projection operation and nonnegative almost supermartingales, we give the convergence analysis of our algorithm and show that the optimal solution is the ultimate consensus state of all agents to be reached. A numerical simulation for a specific optimization problem is given to verify the effectiveness of our algorithm.
    Print ISSN: 0016-0032
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-2693
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Publication date: January 2018 Source: Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 66 Author(s): Zhuo Yang, Mark L. Franz, Shanjiang Zhu, Jina Mahmoudi, Arefeh Nasri, Lei Zhang Taxis remain a key asset for urban mobility despite the tremendous growth of modern mobility-on-demand service providers such as Uber and Lyft. A fundamental understanding of the factors that impact the taxi demand is essential for planning an effective multi-modal transportation system, and can also shed lights on new on-demand services. This study addressed a gap in literature by investigating the correlation between demand for taxi, land use patterns, and accessibility to other modes using detailed GPS and GIS information collected from the Washington D.C. metropolitan area. The results of the models showed a strong link between demand for taxi, land use patterns, and accessibility to other modes. Mixed land use did not show a strong correlation with taxi demand. The study also found that the taxi mode is likely to complement metro trips, but compete with bus trips, although both of these modes of travel are considered public transit. Airport trips were found to be the most important source for taxi travel. These findings were further supported by the time-of-day and seasonality analysis.
    Print ISSN: 0966-6923
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-1236
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2018 Source: Geodesy and Geodynamics Author(s): Munawar Shah, Shuanggen Jin The seismo-ionospheric anomalies may provide some insights about the earthquake. In this paper, seismo-ionospheric anomalies are investigated before the September 24, 2013 ( M w = 7.7) Awaran (Pakistan) earthquake from GPS TEC (Total Electron Content) and COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) data. The TEC data are showing anomalies on September 21, 2013. The abnormality detected in the temporal data is about 10 TECU beyond the 30-day running median. The percentage deviation of the TEC anomaly on September 21, is 30% above the upper confidence interval. The anomalies prevail 5° in Latitude and 10° in Longitude over the epicenter. The spatial and temporal data of TEC showed anomalies in TEC from UT = 08 to UT = 12. In addition, the enhancement on September 21, 2013 is also very significant in COSMIC data. The results of COSMIC completely agreed with GPS TEC anomalies on September 21, 2013. The percentage deviation of the peak plasma frequency on September 21 is 5% of the normal distribution. The storm indices are quiet before and after the earthquake. The ionospheric anomalies are mainly associated with the 2013 M w = 7.7 Awaran (Pakistan) earthquake.
    Print ISSN: 1674-9847
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018 Source: International Journal of Production Economics Author(s): Matthieu Godichaud, Lionel Amodeo Disassembly economic order quantity models are proposed in this paper in order to reduce inventory costs in reverse logistics. The problems is to determine the quantities and the timings of disassembly operations to generate components for which there are known, continuous and constant demands over a planning horizon. Disassembly operations generate unnecessary inventories when the demands are not the same for all components. The proposed models integrate disposal decisions to handle this inventory surplus. Three new models are developed to determine reorder intervals in disassembly systems according to fixed disassembly order costs and inventory costs. The first one is a single stage model (one product to disassemble with several requested components) with one reorder interval to determine. The other two are for multi-stage disassembly systems (one reorder interval to be determined for each stage) under nested policies and integer-ratio ratio policies.
    Print ISSN: 0925-5273
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-7579
    Topics: Technology , Economics
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Publication date: March 2018 Source: Global Environmental Change, Volume 49 Author(s): Jessica Aschemann-Witzel, Ana Giménez, Gastón Ares The extent of food waste raises concern about its effect on natural resource use, food security and future sustainability of the international food sector. It is expected that emerging countries with a growing middle class will exhibit a similar extent and pattern of consumer-related food waste, which is disturbing given that food waste coexists with food insecurity. However, the topic is yet under-researched, as are potential actions against food waste. Through an experimental survey, individual consumer characteristics explaining self-reported food waste at home and choice of price-reduced suboptimal food otherwise wasted in stores were explored among a sample of 1124 Uruguayan consumers. Results showed that food waste was higher among price and convenience-oriented, but lower for value conscious consumers. Choice of suboptimal food was more likely for price-oriented consumers and less likely for convenience-oriented ones. Gender and age explained wastage and choice of suboptimal food. Perceived norms did not play any role, but perceived quality of suboptimal food had a major effect. For packaged foods, value consciousness decreased suboptimal food choice likelihood, while convenience orientation decreased the latter for fresh foods. Consumer price orientation impacted food waste when related to eating food waste incidents more than to storage food waste incidents. The findings show that convenience orientation is a driver of food waste behaviours both when shopping and at home. However, findings imply that tackling food waste requires context-specific consumer-targeted strategies: food market stakeholders should appeal to value consciousness in the household, and perceived quality and price orientation in the store. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 0959-3780
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9495
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018 Source: Human Resource Management Review Author(s): Lisa H. Nishii, Rebecca M. Paluch While the problem of the gap between espoused and implemented HR practices has been widely recognized in the past, consideration of the role that leaders, and particularly direct managers, play in implementing HRM has not been well defined. In an effort to close this gap, we argue that more attention needs to be paid to the critical role of managers, as they are the ones who shape employees' climate perceptions by interpreting and providing meaning about the intended messages of HR practices as they relate to the specific job expectations of employees. In particular, we identify four HR implementation leader behaviors for facilitating a strong HR system. We expect that when leaders verbally articulate the intended meanings and expectations, role model desired behaviors, reinforce preferred behaviors, and assess followers' interpretations of the provided meanings so that further adjustments can be made in the meaning-making process, that cohesive climate perceptions that drive a strong HR system will ensue.
    Print ISSN: 1053-4822
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-7889
    Topics: Economics
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018 Source: Long Range Planning Author(s): Andreas Alexiou, Saeed Khanagha, Michaéla C. Schippers The ability of an organization to cope with radical technological change is regarded to be heavily dependent on its ability to absorb and apply knowledge from its environment. This study investigates the role of organizational structure in driving absorptive capacity and uncovers the role of the emergent phenomenon of organizational energy as the enabler of this relationship. A field study was conducted among firms that are challenged by the disruptive nature of Cloud computing. Our results show that organizational design affects the degree of mobilization of an organization's affective, cognitive and behavioral resources, which in turn influence the effectiveness of learning processes related t