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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - A stall model to predict the performance of a blade row operating under rotating stall conditions, is proposed. Design/methodology/approach - The experiments were carried out on an isolated rotor row of an axial flow compressor of a radius ratio of 0.66 hub/tip. Wall static pressure tappings were used for measurement of blade row pressure rise. The mass flow rate through the machine was determined from the pressure drop at the intake. Detailed flow measurements were made using a hot wire "V" probe and transducers. An online data acquisition system was used in which data sampling was phase-locked with respect to stall cell trailing edge. Findings - Measurements indicate that a pressure depression occurs in the stalled region. The assumption of uniform static pressure at the exit of a stalled blade row is not supported by the present work. The assumption of uniform static pressure at the exit of a stalled row together with the assumption that flow in unstalled regions operates at fixed point on the unstalled characteristic leads to the conclusion that total-to-static pressure rise during stalled operation is independent of blockage. This view is not supported by the experiments carried out on an isolated rotor. Research limitations/implications - Additional experimental studies for axial compressors having different rotor and blade geometries and rotor speeds, are required. Practical implications - The results can be used in the design and operation of axial compressor rotors. Originality/value - A new stall model is presented in which the behavior during stalled operation with large blockage is different from that during, low blockage.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To give a closed-form solution of the relative pose determination problem based on monocular vision during final approach phase of spacecraft Rendzvous and Docking. Design/methodology/approach - Based on the assumption of scaled orthographic projection, the model of perspective projection is simplified by representing the relative attitude using unit quaternion. Then a closed-form solution is derived. Subsequently, this study correct the approximate solution to compensate the error caused by the assumption of scaled orthographic projection. Findings - Extensive simulation studies were conducted for the validation of the proposed algorithm using Matlab™. When there are no relative attitudes between RVD spacecrafts, target distance for camera=2-20?m. The simulation results show that the largest relative error of corrected relative position parameters is about 0.12 percent. When distance between RVD spacecrafts exceeds 5?m, the largest error of corrected relative attitude parameters are less than 0.3°. When the distance between spacecrafts are constant, the relative attitude parameters are changed, respectively, the simulition results show the largest relative error of relative position is 1 percent, and largest error of estimated relative attitude is 1.2°, when a relative attitude angle reaches 20°. Originality/value - The proposed algorithm avoids the multiple results problem in determining the relative position and attitude parameters and the closed-form solution is simple and effective, is more suitable for on-board implementation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - Provides two hybrid methods for the aerodynamic design of cascade profiles, of which the design constraints are the combination of aerodynamic and geometric conditions. Design/methodology/approach - In the first method, the design constrain is composed of the velocity (or pressure) distribution on part of the blade surface and the geometry of the rest part. In the second method, the aerodynamic load distribution, i.e. the pressure difference between the suction and pressure surfaces, and the blade thickness distribution are employed as the design constrain. These constraints, together with all the other boundary conditions, are involved in the stationary conditions of a variational principle. The solution domain, i.e. the blade-to-blade passage, is transformed into a square in the image plane, while the blade contour is projected to a straight line; thus, the difficulty caused by the unknown geometry of profile is avoided. Finite element method is employed to produce the calculation code. Findings - Applications show the accuracy and the flexibility of the two methods, which can satisfy the different needs from blade design. Finally, the possibility of combining the hybrid methods with the through-flow method is discussed, which would develop the present methods to three-dimensional design of cascades. Research limitations/implications - The design methods are limited to frictionless flow. Practical implications - A design software of cascade profiles based on this method has been developed, and will be provided to the engineering users for cascade design. Originality/value - The hybrid methods developed in this paper can satisfy the demands from different aspects of engineering designs: aerodynamics, strength, manufacture, etc.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To review the most commonly used mechanical surface enhancement (MSE) techniques and their applications available in aerospace industry. Design/methodology/approach - A brief description of each technique, as well as advantages and disadvantages over other techniques are given. The effects of those techniques on the surface characteristics and service properties of treated components are summarised. Finally, the applications of such techniques in the aerospace industry are presented with descriptive illustrations. Findings - Provides a know-how information and also comparison of techniques. Guides researchers and engineers to proper and appropriate use of each technique for relevant case or application. Research limitations/implications - The list of techniques can be extended to a wider range which may perhaps include specific and special purpose surface enhancement methods. The applications given in the paper are mainly industrial examples of such techniques which may reduce its usefulness in academia. Practical implications - A very useful source of information and reference for companies and engineers working in repair and production technologies of aerospace components, and also a valuable guidance for researchers and academia or for those who are intending to make a research on surface enhancement technologies. Originality/value - This paper introduces the most commonly used MSE techniques and their effects on the service properties of aerospace components, and provides a practical help and information for people in the industry and academia.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - In order to improve the practicability of the design in state estimation, the paper aims to present a novel disturbance decoupled reduced-order observer (DDRO) design scheme. Design/methodology/approach - The paper first uses equivalence transformation to eliminate unknown input appearing in measurement. Then based on Luenberger observer and using two non-singular coordinate transformation, the design observer can get no bias error in the state estimation. Findings - By using this approach we find that the conditions of DDRO depend on the system itself that is weaker than other observers. It is a qualified and simple and straightforward approach to be applied in wide domains. Research limitations/implications - We should note that the number of independent rows of the matrix C must not be less than the number of the independent columns of the matrix E to satisfy condition rank(CE)=rank(E)=q. In other words, the maximum number of disturbances which can be decoupled cannot be larger than the number of independent measurements. Practical implications - It is a very useful approach to solve the problem that the measurement is contaminated by disturbances. Originality/value - The paper proposed an equivalence transformation. It is used to eliminate unknown input appearing in measurement. At the same time the algebraic transformation guaranteed that it would lose no information of the unknown inputs. And compared with other known results, the design condition of the reduced-order observer which proposed in this paper depends on system itself, especially, which is weaker than others.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To study the flow of a two-dimensional, steady, incompressible and constant property fluid over a semi-infinite flat plate represented by the well-known Blasius equation. Design/methodology/approach - Differential transform method was used to solve this equation. The solution is based on matching of the inner and outer solutions. Findings - It is observed that the inner solution diverges at ??5.5 and the outer solution developed for ?=5.5 should be matched with the inner one. Originality/value - It is the first time, for the best of the authors' knowledge, the missing boundary condition f?(0), related to surface friction, is obtained in a closed form. Also, the matching technique implemented in this study can be used for this type of physical length sensitive problems.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To provide the basis and rule of theory analysis for the design of transmission parameters of the buffer system of the space docking mechanism. Design/methodology/approach - Setting up the dynamic model of the buffer system of the space docking mechanism by adopting virtual work theory, and analyzing the effects of the transmission parameters of the buffer system to the system dynamic characteristics on the basis of the decouple principle. Findings - The buffer characteristics of the docking mechanism varying with the change of the transmission parameters of the buffer system, and the change of the buffer force characteristics of the translation degree of freedom are more prominent than that of the turning angle degree of freedom; the mechanics characteristics of the buffer system will approximately satisfy the decouple requirement by selecting the appropriate transmission parameters. Research limitations/implications - Only consider the transmission parameters for the transmission elements in the buffer system dynamic model, without considering the mass and inertia parameters. Practical implications - Provides valuable method of parameter design to design the transmission system of the space docking mechanism. Originality/value - Putting forward up the method of approximation to solve the sub- diagonalize matrix of the stiff matrix and the damp matrix, and then determining some main transmission ratio of the system. This method is simple, practical for the system design.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To propose a robust and more effective algorithm for aerodynamic design optimization problem by using neural network. Design/methodology/approach - Neural network and genetic algorithm (GA) are hybridized in a new way, and quasi one-dimensional Euler equations are solved for internal flow in the nozzle. Findings - The results indicate that the nozzle design can be performed successfully and quickly by using the implemented algorithm. It is observed that using the method decreased CFD solver calls about 21 and 46 per cent for transonic and supersonic flow, respectively. Originality/value - It is the first time that the neural network is used for the candidate solution in the GA.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To provide an overview of design activity undertaken within the CAPECON Project supported by European Commission and devoted to development of HALE UAV being proposed for long endurance flights. Design/methodology/approach - Selected research methods devoted mainly to the improvement of dynamic stability of unmanned aerial vehicles have been described and their application into design optimisation are shown. The main goal of this research was to improve an economic effectiveness, safety and a modular arrangement of on-board systems, especially with respect to sensors being easy replaceable for different missions. Findings - The research and design process included an aerodynamic optimisation of swept wing, stability analysis, weight balance, some on-board redundant systems, reliability and maintability analysis, safety improvement, cost and performance optimisation. A number of design iterations were performed to achieve the required aircraft performances and characteristics. This iteration number was relatively moderate (four cycles only) due to employing a modern software and the essential role of theoretical analysis performed parallel to the design and redesign process. Research limitations/implications - Analysis and design methodology is limited to surveillance, high altitude long endurance platforms, where the design objectives are high reliability, safety and low cost of production and operation. Practical implications - A very useful source of design information and patterns to follow, especially for engineering students and engineers dealing with unmanned aviation. Originality/value - This paper offers practical help for designers being involved with an unmanned platform to be well optimised for high altitude long endurance mission, giving a lot of practical information about many aspects of longitudinal and lateral stability of Blended Wing Body configuration, on-board sensors and systems integrated with loading structure.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To devise a new technique to synthesise optimal feedback control law for non-linear dynamic systems through fuzzy logic. Design/methodology/approach - The proposed methodology utilizes the open-loop optimal control solutions (OCSs) of the non-linear systems for the training of the fuzzy system in the process of developing closed-loop fuzzy logic guidance (FLG). This is achieved through defining a set of non-dimensionalised variables related to the system states. Findings - FLG is capable of generating closed-loop control law for the non-linear problem investigated. Since the proposed fuzzy structure is independent of the system equations, the approach is potentially applicable to other non-linear system. Introduction of the non-dimensional variables in place of the regular states has effectively increased the fuzzy training performance and greatly reduced the number of fuzzy rule bases required to produce accurate solutions for other untrained scenarios. Originality/value - There exist many complex non-linear problems in guidance and control of aerospace vehicles. Determination of optimal control laws for such systems is usually a difficult task even in an open-loop form and in a noise-free off-line environment. On the other hand, closed-loop OCSs are highly desirable for their robust characteristics in actual operating environments, so are more suitable for online applications, but can seldom be realized for complex non-linear systems. Even though a few researchers have worked in the area of non-linear optimal control and application of fuzzy logic on such systems, non-have dealt with closed-loop optimal fuzzy controllers. This research proposes a new strategy for the determination of optimal feedback control laws for non-linear systems, which can be utilized in many spacecraft mission applications.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - Turbulent mixing of two co-axial jets having a low annular to core area ratio is enhanced by employing a chute mixer, directing part of the annular stream at 10° towards the core region. Aims to present results from measurements of time-averaged and fluctuating components of velocity under cold flow conditions. Design/methodology/approach - Experiments were conducted at a bypass ratio of 0.47 which is a typical value for low bypass turbofan engines. Contours of time-averaged velocity and streamwise and transverse turbulence intensities were obtained by making detailed measurements close to the chutes. Distributions of time-averaged velocity and turbulence intensity were obtained at different axial locations downstream of the chute mixer. Total and static pressure measurements were also performed. Findings - The high velocity annular stream was found to quickly diffuse after entering through the chutes and mix with the core stream due to high turbulence generation. A strong transverse turbulence component enhanced the mixing of the streams. With the aid of the chute mixer, nearly complete mixing is achieved over a length of 5 duct radii. A higher total pressure loss of about 1.38 percent is the penalty paid for the enhanced mixing. Originality/value - Provides results from experiments into the process of turbulent mixing of co-axial jets.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper is an overview of aero gas turbine engine starting systems and discusses the system design considerations and integration with other aircraft systems. Design/methodology/approach - Review of a range of recent publications on the subject, aiming to provide an introduction to modern aero gas turbine engine starting systems. Findings - Provides basic information on starter types and their limitations, and why some starter types are more favoured in modern installations. The effects of altitude and temperature are discussed which may not be initially considered as variables affecting aero start systems. Originality/value - This paper provides further information on the starting systems of modern aero gas turbines and the considerations associated with integration and efficiency.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To provide an effective numerical method for analysis and design of aerodynamic characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles basing on commercial package VSAERO. Design/methodology/approach - Calculation was made by VSAERO package, which is based on a classical panel method enhanced on boundary layer method. Paper explains how to use efficiently VSAERO package, which utilizes advanced CAD techniques, in modern designing of unmanned aircraft. Findings - During aerodynamic analysis of unmanned aircraft the computing cycle is repeated many times until the required accuracy is obtained and when the best performance of an aircraft is achieved. Design process depends on the number of iterations. If the preliminary configuration (the so-called starting design point) is well selected and the aerodynamic analysis is completed in a relatively short time, then the overall design time will be shortened. Research limitations/implications - The panel method is very useful tool in spite of different limitations. For example, the Reynolds number has to be sufficiently high, angles of attack and sideslip have to be small enough. Computational process is relatively fast and the accuracy depends on the geometry representation. The boundary layer included into the computational model improves the accuracy of aerodynamic calculations. This methodology is limited to subsonic and low transonic speeds. Practical implications - A very useful source of computational information and patterns to follow, especially for engineering students and engineers dealing with aerodynamic of unmanned aviation. Surface panel geometry can be transferred from UNIGRAPHICS via IGES files or can be generated from scratch using SPING or PEP software. Originality/value - This paper offers a practical help for designers planning to develop a new unmanned platform. VSAERO package appeared to be a very useful tool for aerodynamic calculation in the full cycle design activity. This software utilizes the panel method enhanced on a boundary layer model for determination of the fundamental aerodynamic characteristic of an arbitrary aircraft. Presented paper shows a very efficient way how to compute the aerodynamics necessary for design of a new MALE class UAV.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To investigate the effects of delamination on free vibration characteristics of graphite-epoxy composite pretwisted cylindrical shallow shells of various stacking sequences considering length of delamination as a parameter. Design/methodology/approach - A multipoint constraint algorithm which leads to unsymmetric elastic stiffness matrix is incorporated into an eight noded isoparametric plate bending finite element to satisfy the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. The study is focused upon long, intermediate and short cylindrical shells as defined by Aas-Jakobsen's parameters and considers symmetric and unsymmetric composite laminates. Findings - The non-dimensional fundamental natural frequencies are obtained for angle ply (45/-45/45, 45/-45) and cross ply (0/90/0, 0/90) configurations corresponding to different crack lengths and twist angles. The study implies the importance of the symmetric laminate as well as the long shell. Research limitations/implications - The standard eigenvalue computations using QR iteration algorithm for the present analyses take enormous time and hence, an efficient eigen-solver needs to be employed. Practical implications - New vibration modes are exhibited by the delaminated composite structures. The existence of invisible interlaminar cracking can be identified with the help of prior knowledge of natural frequencies for a delaminated composite pretwisted shell which can be idealized as a turbine blade with low aspect ratio. Originality/value - This paper presents a numerical approach for natural frequency determination of composite pretwisted shallow shells having delamination without taking care of the effect of dynamic contact between delaminated layers. The non-dimensional frequencies obtained could serve as reference solutions for future investigators.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 31 (2005), S. 17-20 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Purpose - To review a newly developed PCB fabrication process based on a parallel lamination technique. Design/methodology/approach - This paper has been written to introduce the SAVIA process, a new parallel lamination technique for PCB fabrication. The basic concept of the SAVIA process has been described along with the individual process steps and the reliability issues. The advantages of SAVIA process have been also discussed in both economical and technological aspects. Findings - It was found that the parallel lamination technique, a key process for SAVIA, was not only highly flexible and reliable but also a cost-effective fabrication method for high performance PCB. With the SAVIA process, manufacturing lead-times can be substantially reduced due to the nature of the parallel processing. It was also confirmed that a highly reliable metal alloy interconnection was created between the core and the adhesive layers during the lamination process. The formed metal alloy contacts showed excellent electrical and physical characteristics. The between layers was precise. Originality/value - The value of this paper is to introduce a novel PCB fabrication process based on a parallel lamination technique that is superior to conventional build-up processes from both technological and economical viewpoints. By applying a parallel lamination technique, it is expected that fabrication costs can be lowered due to reductions in manufacturing lead-time.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 31 (2005), S. 40-44 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Purpose - To give an overview of the issues encountered, and changes that need to be made in the various types of soldering process when converting them from conventional to lead-free assembly. Design/methodology/approach - This paper has been written to provide a review of the lead-free reflow, wave and hand soldering processes. Problem areas highlighted and methods for adjusting and optimising each type of soldering process for compatibility with lead-free solders are described. Findings - The move to lead-free soldering in electronics assembly can lead to a number of issues that affect process performance, yields and reliability. Problems that are sometimes encountered with conventional lead-bearing solders can exacerbated when moving to lead-free. Many of the issues are associated with the higher melting points of the recommended lead-free solders. Fortunately, these issues are now well known and, with care and attention to process optimisation, they can largely be avoided. Originality/value - The value of the paper lies in its ability to provide information on the types of problems and issues encountered when moving to lead-free solders and the advice it gives on how to avoid them. It also describes how to convert the various lead-free soldering processes used in PCB assembly using a range of measures that can minimise defects, avoid common problems and optimise yields. Sources of additional assistance are also identified.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 31 (2005), S. 14-20 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Purpose - There are many considerations that have to be taken into account when balancing the properties epoxy-based laminate and prepreg materials must have in order to meet the array of electrical, thermal and mechanical demands of today's multilayer printed circuit boards. Aims to discuss two different curing systems that are commonly employed in current laminate and prepreg materials. Design/methodology/approach - An examination of the two different curing systems - phenol novolac (PN) and dicyandiamide (DICY) based - that are commonly employed in current laminate and prepreg materials. Findings - DICY curing systems have properties such as good flexibility, good adhesion and good processability but have poor thermal resistance, higher water absorption and poor anti-CAF capability. Because PN resin systems utilize an aromatic ring structure, traditional PN cured epoxy resin results in having excellent thermal resistance, low water absorption and anti-CAF capability. Originality/value - Provides a comparison of interest to all those involved with laminate and prepreg materials in the circuit board industry.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 31 (2005), S. 42-46 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Purpose - To provide information about latest product developments to address and take away the fear of whisker formation on pure immersion tin surface finishes on PCBs. Design/methodology/approach - This paper summarises the latest findings on whisker formation of pure tin surface finishes and describes an effective methodology for whisker suppression in combination with other benefits for the use of this new immersion tin generation. Findings - Whisker formation is a typical feature of pure tin when coated, e.g. on copper and is a threat to the PCB industry, because of the risks of shortcuts involved. The main driving force for whiskers is an accumulation of internal stress created by diffusion at the boundary of copper and tin. A nano layer deposited from an organic metal-based pre-dip significantly reduces the diffusion by creating a unique sandwich layer with smooth concentration gradients. A drastic reduction of diffusion and stress was found, eliminating the driving force for whisker formation and prolonging the layer's shelf life and temperature stability at the same time. Practical implications - Whenever whisker formation on immersion tin is regarded as a potential risk, e.g. by OEMs, a whisker-reduced process is available and should be chosen to meet the market's specifications. Originality/value - This paper takes the edge off the whisker threat discussions, leading to a hesitant implementation of immersion tin surface finish technology for PCBs, which disregard its excellent features with respect to future lead-free soldering. Whisker-reduced immersion tin is a viable and preferable alternative solderable surface finish for the lead-free era.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Highly-skilled knowledge workers make location decisions in response to many determinants. This paper seeks to focus on life-time earnings and the desire to pursue a personal research program - a life-long pursuit of interesting puzzles. Design/methodology/approach - A conceptual discussion and approach are taken. Findings - The paper argues that access to personally interesting research problems and institutional support structures which allow them to be pursued should be considered alongside pure earnings factors in understanding why researchers and scientists move internationally - and why they may stay put when the economic incentives to move appear high. A nation's innovation policies can be important for influencing such workers' decisions and the impact of these policies shaped by migration flows. This little-researched connection is explored in the final, policy-oriented section. Originality/value - Provides insights on why, in a world of intensifying competition for scarce knowledge workers, countries can ill afford negative net migration of highly-skilled workers.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    International journal of social economics 32 (2005), S. 1035-1050 
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of natural resources accounting in sustainable development. Natural resource accounting is important because the welfare of a nation measured in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) has several weaknesses. Design/methodology/approach - This paper achieves this objective by identifying the present status, the constraints and the challenges for the economics and accounting professions. Findings - The main weakness of GDP as a measure of development is that it does not take into account damages to environmental resources. However, the improvement of the concept to include environmental resource use is made difficult because of the difficulties of measuring environmental damage. The challenge to the economics and accounting profession is to ensure interdisciplinary collaboration, development of a framework to explicitly include the environment, development of credible valuation procedures for the environment, and inclusion of the various ethical positions advanced by various groups on the value of the environment. Practical implications - Some headway has been made on these issues during the last decade but a major challenge still lies ahead in further improving these approaches so that sustainable development becomes an achievable goal. Originality/value - This paper brings together diverse views and fusing them together providing a future path for research in environmental accounting to achieve sustainable development.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The Chinese government has increasingly turned to industry policy as a means of promoting rural development. These industry policies have not necessarily led to an improvement in rural incomes nor to the achievement of other social and environmental goals. This paper examines ways of designing these policies to achieve better rural development outcomes. Design/methodology/approach - The approach adopts a detailed micro-level analysis of industry policy through the window of the cattle and beef industries. Intensive fieldwork and interviews are conducted with all segments of and participants in the industry in all major beef production and consumption regions. A series of normative analyses examines issues of integration, scale of development, regionalism and specialisation. Findings - Industry policy is a powerful mechanism by which to influence regional and rural development. Improving development outcomes requires that central and local government goals converge and that regions in inland China are well integrated with other regions and sectors of the economy. Large-scale development projects must be carefully designed to avoid displacing individual households from industry development. Originality/value - By crossing institutional, geographic and industry segment lines in a comprehensive manner, the research will aid Chinese decision makers concerned with rural development in the design of their industry development policies.
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This study attempts to find the socio-economic factors behind the differential achievement level in adult literacy in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach - Considers a number of theories. These include modernization theory, dependency/world systems theory, developmental state theory, new human ecology theory and convergence-divergence theory as an explanation of the differential level of adult literacy rate. Findings - The findings reveal the importance of the initial level of adult literacy and the population growth. Similarly short-term economic growth has a significant impact on the initial level of adult literacy, and the medium human development and low human development samples Originality/value - This attempt to find the factors behind adult literacy is of importance not only as a constituent indicator of the human development index, but also through its various contributions towards economic growth.
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  • 23
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    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Economics and sociology are two different theoretical disciplines dealing with one and the same subject. The aim of the paper is to integrate the two paradigms into one framework of interpretation and analysis. Design/methodology/approach - Economics is presented as a science that approaches human behaviour being subject to the omni-present phenomenon of scarcity, assuming rationality and social independence of human actors. Sociology is presented as a science that interprets human behaviour as group behaviour. Groups are motivated to rank one another in terms of status. Integration must take place by relating the two analyses based on these paradigms. Findings - The basic economic framework is about the relationship between preferences and scarce resources, determining the structure of allocation of goods. The basic sociological framework is about the relationship between the distribution of socially valued goods and the culture that gives goods their social meaning. A socio-economic framework is about the relation between allocation, distribution, culture and preferences. Originality/value - When applying the socio-economic framework to real-life phenomena both the economic and the social motives play a role in the explanation, which is not the case in applied economics and applied sociology.
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  • 24
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    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - In the Western world the voices calling for a secular society have grown ever louder over the last three centuries. This paper seeks to return to one of the founders of modernity for guidance. Adam Smith advocated globalization on economic and moral grounds.Design/methodology/approach - A discussion focusing on those calling for a secular society and, in addition to these normative advocates, various social scientists have propounded the "secularization thesis"; after analysing history from a purportedly positive view, they have argued that "modernization" leads to a secular society. Recently globalization has been seen as another cause of secularization. At the same time, the revival of various religions has cast doubt on these claims.Findings - Smith did not see secularization as an inevitable consequence of globalization. Further, despite his awareness of the arguments of the advocates of secular society (and contrary to some commentators like Minowitz), he rejected their advice. For him, a secular community was neither a necessary nor a desirable consequence of globalization.Originality/value - Provides a viewpoint on some of Adam Smith's thoughts and ideas.
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  • 25
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    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To assess not how Samuelson's individual models contributed to human knowledge but the very true foundation on which they rest, namely, sound theory, facts, and philosophy. Design/methodology/approach - This article has placed Samuelson as a philosopher seeking the truth, and as a theoretical contributor to the many sub-disciplines of economics. Findings - Shows that his truths bear the evidence of reality, and that his theoretical contributions are not different in kind from the logical theorists. Demonstrates how easily one could formulate a Samuelsonian impossibility theorem that places his thought on the level of the mathematical research started by Hilbert and concluded by Kurt Godel. Originality/value - The literature that has assessed his contributions in this regard is fragmented, and myopically sparse, leaving gaps to be filled in by a paper such as this.
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  • 26
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    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper seeks to evaluate different approaches to forest conservation in the areas outside the national parks of south-western Madagascar. Design/methodology/approach - Data from a household survey in the area are employed to analyse farmer strategies towards conservation of local forest resources, and present conservation strategies are evaluated in this light. Findings - It is argued that the prospects for future forest conservation in the area are dim at best, and that any policy proposal intended to remedy this situation must as a first priority establish alternative livelihood opportunities for the local population in order to ensure a minimum of incentives for conservation on their behalf. Originality/value - The paper is of value to all those interested or involved with sustainability issues.
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  • 27
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    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper aims to highlight the role of the United Nations in the formulation and implementation of the current understanding of "population assistance" and examine some of the arguments for "population assistance" in the form of reproductive health care. Design/methodology/approach - It presents the data for global population assistance and briefly compares these figures with data for other developmental sectors, recommending certain policy changes if real development is to be achieved. Findings - During the last decade increasingly large amounts of money have been spent on limiting population growth of underdeveloped countries. Population control is seen as the corner-stone of development and population activities. Thus, population control has become "population assistance," and birth control has become "reproductive health services." Population control is pursued at the expense of women's rights and to the detriment of real economic growth and social improvement. Originality/value - For more than two decades, John Conway O'Brien has written on the importance of ethics for economic growth. In a recent article, he concluded that "although the illuminated may have been activated by the most altruistic of motives, their search for the good society was doomed from the start." This paper attests the validity of his remarks.
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  • 28
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 541-555 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To guide students' thinking about joining professional associations. Design/methodology/approach - A few representative professional organizations are explored. Aspects such as organizational structure, history, culture, professional focus, and size are discussed. Findings - Many more professional associations exist and encourage student participation than most students are aware of when they enter the profession. Practical implications - Students can compare professional associations to find those most suited to their professional interests. These may not be the most local or well known national organizations. Originality/value - This is an attempt to help students recognize that professional organizations exist regardless of their niche interest, and despite the larger and more general associations that may be given local emphasis.
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  • 29
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 16-28 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To provide an overview of branding activity in the UK public library service. Design/methodology/approach - A review of branding literature was undertaken. The primary research was conducted over a four-week period and consisted of a questionnaire survey distributed to heads of services in order to gain data regarding branding of the service. Findings - The research indicated that heads of service do give consideration to branding in their marketing plans. Branding properly planned and developed may be one way in which the public library service can raise its image and allow employees to take ownership of the service. Research limitations/implications - Owing to the time element involved in the gathering of data responses were not as high as previously anticipated. Practical implications - A good insight into the application of branding in the UK public library sector which would interest practitioners and academics alike. Originality/value - Contributes to the domain of knowledge which is weak in the area of branding in libraries.
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  • 30
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 80-82 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To introduce statistics and issues raised in national study of American reading habits. Design/methodology/approach - Highlights from the National Endowment of the Arts reading survey, which was conducted in 2002 and published in 2004, are presented. These are presented alongside personal views on the current trends. Findings - A downturn in literary reading, as noted in the survey, is countered when compared with library circulation statistics over the same period. A major consideration is that many people now listen to their books, instead of reading them. Originality/value - The paper questions the popular blame of the internet for the downward trend in literary reading.
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  • 31
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 58-66 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this study was to examine the ethical perspectives of library and information science professionals prior to their entry into the profession. Design/methodology/approach - The population consisted of 46 graduate students enrolled in a library and information science program during summer 2003. Three scenarios related to general, legal, and health ethical issues were used. Participants were randomly assigned to a scenario. First, they read the scenario and provided initial reactions. Second, they read the professional code of ethics related to the scenario. Finally, they re-read the scenario and provided reactions based on the professional code of ethics. Findings - The initial reactions of participants to the scenarios were similar to their reactions after reading and applying the assigned code of ethics. For example, participants initially reported that the library director should permit staff to attend the American Library Association conference in Toronto even with the SARS issue (85 percent), After reading the Health Sciences Code of Ethics, they selected promoting access to health information and working without prejudice to support their positions. Originality/value - The findings of this study illustrate the influence of codes of ethics on students' ethical perspectives. Investigating the professional ethics of future library and information science graduate students is of value to students and faculty.
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  • 32
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 164-172 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - Attempts to define the digital divide and examines the significant differences in, and implications of, the extent of internet connectivity both globally and, more specifically, within the European Union (EU). Design/methodology/approach - The paper was designed using and combining objective data and literature, adding the author's personal experiences and opinions. Findings - After 1 May 2004, when the EU was enlarged from 15 to 25 member states, the digital divide in the EU widened substantially (national connectivity varying from less than 10 to more than 60 per cent), caused by regional lack of technological infrastructure as well as cultural and psychological factors. Research limitations/implications - Many "most recent" national data on internet-connectivity are two years old. Practical implications - Inequality in internet-connectivity in the EU will increase dramatically, with all consequences for communication, dissemination of information, economy (e-commerce!), etc. Consequently, parallel to digital media, traditional means of dissemination of information - such as printed books, public libraries, local broadcasting - should be maintained and furthered.
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  • 33
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 219-233 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - This research seeks to observe the occupancy of study areas in a university library over a period of several months with the aim of evaluating the efficiency of library resources usage. Design/methodology/approach - In undertaking the research, study facilities of a library, such as chairs, sofas, carrels, and tables, were first drawn as features on maps using a GIS application. Geospatial databases were then created to store data of occupancy of the facilities by library users, which were observed by the author. On connecting records in the databases to features on the maps, GIS functions were explored to analyze observed data and exhibit the analytical results on the maps. Findings - The findings of this research challenge the predominant opinion that insists that academic library users have a preference of study carrels over tables for studying. Instead, the research reveals that student users tend to select tables to study, especially tables equipped with electrical and internet connections. At the same time, group study rooms are overwhelmingly welcomed. Practical implications - This research demonstrates the potential of GIS technology for assisting library operations with regard to study space management. With GIS, libraries can have an automation tool to record their daily activities, analyze the data, and exhibit the analysis on maps for better understanding. Originality/value - This is an experimental work. Librarians may find it useful in managing the activities of their library and helpful in providing information for space rearrangement and service enhancement.
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  • 34
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 284-285 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To introduce the growing trend of closings of public libraries in the USA due to funding shortages. Design/methodology/approach - Body of knowledge compiled by author from current news and professional sources and personal historical files. Findings - While public libraries are being heavily used, they still face funding challenges due to tax resistance, the economic down-turn, and competition for their services. Originality/value - The column stresses the importance of public library administrators to track and respond to public support.
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  • 35
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 332-342 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - The aim was to explore the issues related to acquiring copyright permission with the goal of determining effectiveness and efficiency using the least complex process. Design/methodology/approach - A random sample of books was chosen, relevant information was recorded, request letters were sent and tracked, and results (permission received or denied) were analyzed with respect to publisher, publication data, time required, and issues related to the process. Findings - About 52 percent responded with a yes or no with 24 percent yes responses. Nearly 25 percent never responded, addresses were not found for about 16 percent, approximately 7 percent were too complicated to pursue and response time averaged about three months. Research limitations/implications - Results were affected by the limited staff time available to work on the project, the many changes in staff, and the sometimes lengthy time between follow-ups. Practical implications - The low rate of positive responses indicates the need to focus on publications and publishers most likely to provide permission: older and out-of-print materials, non-commercial publishers, special collections, while using designated staff and personal contact to improve effectiveness. Originality/value - Few previous studies exist in this area. This study might benefit other libraries with respect to planning, defining procedures, and improving results.
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  • 36
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 378-380 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To focus on the importance of providing appropriate and specialized services for the senior population. Design/methodology/approach - Body of knowledge compiled by author from current news, professional sources and personal topical files. Findings - Libraries in the US have a wide variety of creative programs and services for senior-aged patrons, as well as handicapped users. Originality/value - The column stresses the importance of libraries to study and plan for the challenges of serving a rapidly growing senior population.
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  • 37
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 441-449 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To provide an overview of recent audience development work at The Women's Library, London Metropolitan University. Design/methodology/approach - The Women's Library used visitor research to identify key areas for building new audiences. Using library and archival collections as a starting point, the library forged strategic creative partnerships and developed a public programme designed to raise the profile of the library and increase attendance amongst the target audience groups. Findings - The study provides detailed information about the planning process and implementation of the project, including the marketing campaign, and gives examples of ways in which the library used collaborative partnerships to engage with new and diverse audiences. Research limitations/implications - The case study focuses on one organisation, a University Library with museum and archival collections, but contains information transferable to other library services. Practical implications - An insight into ways of working to increase library users and broaden audiences, using visitor research, marketing and audience development as an integral part of strategic planning. Originality/value - This paper showcases innovative work in the library sector, and in a broader context, reflects activity in the cultural sector in the UK.
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  • 38
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 187-189 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To outline the different learning and working styles between generations in our current digital environment. Design/methodology/approach - Connects common theories of popular author and library industry study. These are presented alongside personal views on the current trends. Findings - As native speakers of digital language, young people think and process information in an entirely different way from previous generations. Experts suggest that they may have remapped their brains. Originality/value - The article stresses the importance of gaining a better understanding of the learning styles and tastes of young people. Libraries should consider tapping into this resource for future development, since these people are the future support base for libraries.
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  • 39
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    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 560-584 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The paper reports on an exploratory study aimed at analysing a series of independent variables derived from international industrial marketing and channel management literature. Design/methodology/approach - The respondents represent a number of dyadic business-to-business relationships of different duration, and involve firms of different size (multinational enterprise buyers and their corresponding medium sized enterprise suppliers). Findings - Initial findings support much of the extant literature on relationship marketing, demonstrating that certain aspects of a relationship tend to change over time. In particular, the study revealed that: there is a high degree of optimism associated with dyadic relationships at early stages, and these are characterised by both parties having high initial perceptions of the relationship; in mid-term relationships some negativity maybe apparent, where certain aspects regress; and in long-term situations, there is a tendency for relationships to be well structured, and these are particularly highly perceived among both exchange parties. Research limitations/implications - The research approach shares those benefits as well as limitations associated with earlier empirical investigations. That is a trade-off in favour of undertaking dyadic exploration, than administering large samples and data sets. As a consequence of the sample size, some caution should be exercised when interpreting these findings. Practical implications - Firms need to pay particular attention to relationships of differing time duration. This is because specific aspects of relationships may not develop in a uniform direction. Originality/value - The research attempts to unravel the complexities and difficulties associated with obtaining data of a dyadic perspective for a significant number of relationships of different length. Such studies that map the evolvement of buyer-seller relations over time are rare.
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  • 40
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    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 885-909 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Drawing on the resource-based view of the firm and the dynamic capabilities perspective, this paper sets out to argue that salespeople's selling skills and their inter- and intra-unit collaborative skills are valuable, rare, socially complex, and inimitable knowledge-based resources embedded in the human and social capital of field sales units (FSUs). Salespeople's selling and collaborative skills, both directly and interactively, should help field sales units generate greater economic rents. This paper also aims to explore the effect of salespeople's selling and collaborative skills on the level of total compensation through the mediating role of sales unit performance. Design/methodology/approach - The data were obtained from a sample of managers of FSUs in 102 large Canadian organizations. The proposed model and its hypotheses were tested using hierarchical moderated regression analysis. Findings - Collaborative skills, but not selling skills, are directly related to FSU performance; the effect of selling skills on FSU performance is strengthened by the complementary role of collaborative skills; and selling skills and collaborative skills both individually and interactively result in the payment of higher compensation to salespeople as a result of their enhanced performance. Research limitations/implications - Salespeople's selling skills and collaborative skills (both directly and interactively) not only enable the FSU to generate higher levels of performance, but they also increase individual salespeople's compensation. Practical implications - It is necessary for managers to acknowledge the role of knowledge-based resources in building/developing organizational dynamic capabilities. Originality/value - This is one of the few studies that explores the strategic role of salespeople in creating a competitive advantage and links the sales management literature to the literature on the RBV of the firm and social capital/human capital theory.
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  • 41
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    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 755-784 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The article aims to test how pricing strategy adaptation to the foreign market mediates the relationship between export assistance and annual export performance improvement. It also aims to consider the effects of management international experience and export market competition. Design/methodology/approach - Structural equation modelling with WLS estimation is used to test the direct and indirect influences of the variables on short-term export performance. Findings - Surprisingly, the findings reveal that the total effects of export assistance on annual export performance improvement are non-significant, because although export assistance has a direct positive impact on performance, there is a negative indirect impact through export pricing strategy adaptation. Research limitations/implications - These surprising results suggest that future research is required to incorporate and test the intervening and indirect effects among variables. Practical implications - The findings also indicate that both export assistance and short-term export performance improve with management international experience and export market competition. Originality/value - Since both managers and public policy makers are often short-term oriented, it is urgent to develop research to better understand determinants of short-term performance as well as the antecedents of managerial and public policy resource allocation in the short term.
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  • 42
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    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 926-946 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Information has created a new segment of knowledgeable customers. Marketers should pay attention to the reversed information sharing by this active group of customers. The major aims of this article are to provide the results of an in-depth investigation of the relationship between antecedents of information diffusion and perceived cyber segments in the financial services industry and to discuss the importance of the perceived positioning of different segments. This study investigates how information diffusion antecedents and consequences affect the interconnectedness between customers and financial services providers. Design/methodology/approach - This study analyzes corporate attitudes towards using the internet to share information and identifies the major factors behind the information diffusion process. An investigation into information competence and information sharing was undertaken to examine how information was related to six factors, i.e. relevancy, readiness, response, recklessness, reliance and reciprocity. The research tool for this study is a questionnaire-based survey carried out in Chinese financial services. The questionnaire is designed to investigate how Chinese practitioners perceive the benefits of using the internet to share information with their customers. Findings - A theoretical framework abstracts three major elements of cyber marketing development, i.e. antecedents, information diffusion and consequences. The positioning of different cyber segmentation is reported. The adoption of any mass customization will require an important commitment of corporate resources in two critical disciplines. First, database marketing requires mass marketers to become direct marketers to constantly retarget and tailor their relevant messages. Second, creating the middleware necessary to tailor personalized messages to customers' ever-changing needs and situations will be the key for building new databases and upgrading legacy systems at the right time. Orginality/value - This study will be most valuable in assisting corporations to understand what specific elements are required to implement effective customer targeting programs and what substantial advantages a long-term CRM program can bring to them, because attracting new customers and turning them into loyal customers are critical to increasing profits and market share.
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  • 43
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Journal of European industrial training 29 (2005), S. 712-729 
    ISSN: 0309-0590
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this research paper is to examine the implications of new banking regulations (Basel II) for the Irish SME sector. Training gaps are identified and recommendations to advance social capital networks are provided. Design/methodology/approach - The Irish SME dependence on external (bank) finance and their susceptibility to legislative changes in that sector is explored through a survey of Irish SMEs. Additionally, banks' preparedness is investigated through semi-structured interviews of five major banks, all serving the Irish SME sector. Findings - The results show a high degree of Irish SME dependence on banks as a source of funding. Furthermore, there is evidence of increases in bank rates/charges over the past two years with limited switching between banks to avail of better rates. Moreover, the findings indicate that, while banks operating in the SME sector are on target for Basel II adoption, Irish SMEs remain unaware and unprepared for the possible implications of this change. The future competitive consequences for Irish banks that are slow to achieve sophisticated compliance with the new regulations are also discussed, in relation to their secondary effect on the SME sector. Originality/value - The key contribution of this paper is that it highlights the need for Irish SMEs to proactively manage their potential funding sources. As part of the development of the necessary management skills, various training recommendations are made for Irish SMEs facing a more sophisticated global financial regulatory environment.
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  • 44
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Journal of European industrial training 29 (2005), S. 425-435 
    ISSN: 0309-0590
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue of the Journal of European Industrial Training. A brief commentary on each of the articles is provided and the whole issue is set in the context of national policy and research methodology from which the Programme for University Industry Interface derives its impetus. The paper highlights the potential and the problems of active engagement of government, industry and education in addressing issues of sustaining national economic competitiveness in a global economy. Design/methodology/approach - The discussion in this paper is predominantly desk-based, using a combination of primary and secondary sources to generate an analysis of policy discourse and its realisation in practice. Findings - In addition to commenting on the findings from each of the papers in the special issue, this paper draws positive attention to the partnership model used by the government of Ireland in policy formation. It also indicates that the partnership model in general, and the methodology for enhancing it in particular, are well-regarded in industry but that their full acceptance in higher education has not yet been fully tested. Originality/value - The paper allows the reader of the special issue to set each of the other papers in a context and to interpret them against a national agenda for sustainability in graduate employment.
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  • 45
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Journal of European industrial training 29 (2005), S. 405-418 
    ISSN: 0309-0590
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To compare in a fruitful way the human resources (HR) policies that exist in the European Union (EU) and in the United States of America (USA). Nowadays, the world is evolving to a situation in which big economic spaces like Brazil, Russia, India, China, Japan, the EU and the USA are becoming dominant. Those spaces can learn from one another on how to guide their HR policies. The comparison between the EU and the USA is further justifiable because the EU seeks to become the world leader by 2010, and is facing a strong "neo-liberal" ideological trend. Design/methodology/approach - Having in mind the known theories on HR, the various types of welfare states that may underlie HR policies and also some basic questions regarding the practical organization of those policies are analyzed. Findings - The EU comprises five different types of welfare states, the USA one. Regarding specific aspects of HR policies, for example, the role of the Federal authority, redistribution, eligibility and policy priorities and the evaluation procedures, the USA has the edge over the EU. Research limitations/implications - This is an initial work. Further analysis could be made both enlarging the analysis to another cases (Brazil, Russia, India, China, Japan) and trying to find more specific and actual data on all the questions addressed. Practical implications - Much caution should be taken in comparing HR practices, and transferring them, because E&T systems have historic roots and depend on the economic characteristics of the country in question. The EU should increase and improve its role in the command of HR policies in Europe. Originality/value - An original study on the way of looking at the EU's HR policy framework and on the way of dealing with the question of the "Americanization" of the world, namely in the HR field.
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  • 46
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    Journal of European industrial training 29 (2005), S. 436-446 
    ISSN: 0309-0590
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - In the current knowledge-based economic climate, the success of an organisation is inextricably linked to the individual. This article seeks to consider the key relationships between the individual, lifelong learning, the workplace and employability in the context of the knowledge society. The aim is to extend understanding of these relationships and their impact on future employability. Design/methodology/approach - The paper examines the key relationships between the individual, lifelong learning, the workplace and employability from the perspective of the Programme for University Industry Interface (PUII). Findings - The discussions focus on the implications of the current situation for the future and suggest ecology as a metaphor for the way in which learning is intertwined in a complex environment that incorporates the learner, the workplace, the external company environment and the knowledge repositories. Originality/value - The paper sheds light on these particular issues through the findings of the PUII. The authors also explore potential avenues for advancement or resolution of some issues, e.g. strategies for developing self-directed learners and approaches to workplace learning based on these findings.
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  • 47
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Journal of European industrial training 29 (2005), S. 472-487 
    ISSN: 0309-0590
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The motivation for this investigation is to apply social networking features to a semantic network portal, which supports the efforts in enterprise training units to up-skill the employee in the company, and facilitates the creation and reuse of knowledge in online communities. Design/methodology/approach - The paper provides an overview of an emerging area for work-related research in the field of knowledge management and collaborative online communities. Findings - The growing number of social network online communities requires a systematic assessment of the application and design of social network technologies, which makes this study relevant and timely. Practical implications - This paper gives guidance in an emerging research area with major implications for online communities and human resources management. Originality/value - Fulfils a need, since a lack of literature in the field is apparent.
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  • 48
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Journal of European industrial training 29 (2005), S. 572-592 
    ISSN: 0309-0590
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To explore, through a case study, some of the key career-related HRD issues that senior managers are currently facing in the Estonian civil service. Design/methodology/approach - Presents primary empirical research into career management in the Estonian civil service since 1991, that is, in the post-Soviet era. The research involved in-depth interviews with a group of 12 senior staff employed by the Estonian civil service. Findings - The interview data reveal the ways in which downsizing and de-layering in the Estonian public sector have led to shortened career paths, increased functional flexibility, increased spans of control and shifts towards open job systems. Research limitations/implications - The research explored career-related issues solely within the Estonian civil service. Further research would be needed in a wider range of organisations and countries before the transferability of the findings could be established to transitional economies more generally. Practical implications - Provides practical insights into the difficulties of career management in transitional economies situations from an HR perspective. Originality/value - Offers a valuable contribution by demonstrating that, within certain parameters, Western-based career management strategies and techniques may be adapted to fit transitional public services in Estonia but only as one element of a comprehensive HR modernisation programme.
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  • 49
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    Journal of European industrial training 29 (2005), S. 604-626 
    ISSN: 0309-0590
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To investigate individual and contextual antecedents of learning, transfer of learning, training generalization and training maintenance in a work context. Design/methodology/approach - The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analysis on data obtained from 119 employees who attended training programs. Findings - The data supported the relationship between continuous-learning culture and supervisor support and training motivation. Although training motivation was directly related only to training maintenance, it interacted with performance goal orientation in affecting training transfer and generalization. Practical implications - Practitioners interested in designing interventions directed at increasing similar training outcomes can use various approaches aimed at assessing and monitoring factors such as continuous-learning culture, supervisor support and training motivation. More importantly, based on the current results, practitioners can manage selectively the performance goal orientation of their trainees, given its differential relationship with training outcomes. Originality/value - The findings are valuable for researchers and practitioners. From a theoretical perspective, the study offers a better-specified model of training effectiveness by including both contextual and individual factors important for improving training effectiveness. Practitioners can use these ideas to design corresponding training and training transfer interventions.
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  • 50
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    Journal of European industrial training 29 (2005), S. 641-652 
    ISSN: 0309-0590
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To report on an investigation amongst small firm owner-managers in the service sector into potential demand for an MBA. Design/methodology/approach - Relevant recent literature is critiqued concerning small firms and learning, and MBAs and small firms. A description is given of the research methods employed involving a mail questionnaire sent to 600 small and microenterprises eliciting 99 completed questionnaires, and follow-up interviews with a sample of 20 respondents. Findings - Identifies a potential market for an MBA tailor-made to the requirements of a "learning segment" of small firm owner-managers. Finds owner-managers have sophisticated product requirements to be satisfied which would necessitate significant changes in higher education course provision and processes. Research limitations/implications - The research was not concerned with investigating price. Bridging the gap between meeting the educational needs of small firms and higher education provision would help to address issues of social exclusion and potentially enhance the competitive economy. Practical implications - Higher education institutions need to make significant changes to course provision and teaching, learning and assessment processes in order to develop an MBA product appropriate for the small firm market. Originality/value - Assists with planning and designing a small firm MBA. Furthers debate concerning small firms and lifelong learning in order to develop a more competitive economy.
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  • 51
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    Journal of European industrial training 29 (2005), S. 663-674 
    ISSN: 0309-0590
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To develop more sensitivity for different patterns of human resource management in multinational companies. Design/methodology/approach - Systemic approach; the concepts and models are based on the evaluation of consulting projects in the field of human resource management. Findings - A concept of four typical varieties of human resource management, a model and important aspects for designing the cooperation processes between human resource departments and company management in multinational companies. Originality/value - This paper provides a complex mindset about human resource management in a multinational context, which is a prerequisite for designing constructive cooperation processes between human resource departments and company management and for increasing the effectiveness of human resource activities.
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  • 52
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    Compel 24 (2005), S. 344-352 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Purpose - To use an experimentally calibrated turbulent flow model to determine whether two- and three-phase electromagnetic stirrers provide equivalent stirring when continuously casting steel billets and blooms. Design/methodology/approach - The results obtained in this paper were obtained by using a 3D quasistatic electromagnetic model to obtain the Lorentz forces that act on the liquid steel. A computationally efficient method was used to account for the effect of the conducting fluid motion on the forces. A 3D turbulent flow model that incorporated Reynolds stresses and high order upwinding was used to predict the fluid flow. The model has been calibrated using the experimental data. Findings - The paper shows that for square and rectangular cross section casting moulds, having inside dimensions of 140?×?140?mm and 140?×?196?mm, respectively, a two-phase electromagnetic stirrer consistently produces stirring velocities that are 12-15 percent below those produced by an equivalent three-phase design. Research limitations/implications - The impact on the fluid entering the casting mould through the submerged nozzle has been neglected. The model should be further developed to consider this important factor. Practical implications - A two-phase stirrer is much more compact than the equivalent three-phase design, and since space is at a premium in the vicinity of the casting mould, being able to use a compact design is desirable. The two-phase design was long believed to produce inferior stirring due to the negative impact of electromagnetic space harmonics. This paper shows that for the range of mould dimensions considered in the paper, there is a good trade-off between the compact two-phase design and the slightly lower stirring velocities that result. Originality/value - The paper presents the first quantitative comparison between two- and three-phase electromagnetic stirrers that illustrates, in a practical sense, the stirring effectiveness of each approach. The paper will be of value to users of this equipment.
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  • 53
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    Compel 24 (2005), S. 458-467 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Purpose - Improved numerical calculation techniques for low-frequency current density distributions within high-resolution anatomy models caused by ambient electric or magnetic fields or direct contact to potential drops using the finite integration technique (FIT). Design/methodology/approach - The methodology of calculating low-frequency electromagnetic fields within high-resolution anatomy models using the FIT is extended by a local grid refinement scheme using a non-matching-grid formulation domain. Furthermore, distributed computing techniques are presented. Several numerical examples are analyzed using these techniques. Findings - Numerical simulations of low-frequency current density distributions may now be performed with a higher accuracy due to an increased local grid resolution in the areas of interest in the human body voxel models when using the presented techniques. Originality/value - The local subgridding approach is introduced to reduce the number of unknowns in the very large-scale linear algebraic systems of equations that have to be solved and thus to reduce the required computational time and memory resources. The use of distributed computation techniques such as, e.g. the use of a parallel solver package as PETSc follows the same goals.
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  • 54
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    Compel 24 (2005), S. 468-479 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Purpose - Various parallelization strategies are investigated to mainly reduce the computational costs in the context of boundary element methods and a compressed system matrix. Design/methodology/approach - Electrostatic field problems are solved numerically by an indirect boundary element method. The fully dense system matrix is compressed by an application of the fast multipole method. Various parallelization techniques such as vectorization, multiple threads, and multiple processes are applied to reduce the computational costs. Findings - It is shown that in total a good speedup is achieved by a parallelization approach which is relatively easy to implement. Furthermore, a detailed discussion on the influence of problem oriented meshes to the different parts of the method is presented. On the one hand the application of problem oriented meshes leads to relatively small linear systems of equations along with a high accuracy of the solution, but on the other hand the efficiency of parallelization itself is diminished. Research limitations/implications - The presented parallelization approach has been tested on a small PC cluster only. Additionally, the main focus has been laid on a reduction of computing time. Practical implications - Typical properties of general static field problems are comprised in the investigated numerical example. Hence, the results and conclusions are rather general. Originality/value - Implementation details of a parallelization of existing fast and efficient boundary element method solvers are discussed. The presented approach is relatively easy to implement and takes special properties of fast methods in combination with parallelization into account.
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  • 55
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    Compel 24 (2005), S. 509-520 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Purpose - To develop new and existing coupled thermal and mechanical models of electromagnetic solids for the simulation of coupled field problems based on a consistent theoretical and computational framework. Design/methodology/approach - The finite element computational models we describe involve the combination of classical electrodynamics, continuum mechanics, and thermodynamics. In order to create consistent coupled models, we employ the fundamental principles of thermodynamics as a common framework. Findings - Our procedure requires the necessary thermodynamical considerations for building consistent multiphysics models and develops some novel implementation issues that are important from the designers' point of view. Additionally, efficient numerical algorithms for solving the arising static and dynamic nonlinearities are discussed. Research limitations/implications - The paper targets the simulation of coupled problems in macroscopic electromagnetic continua. Practical implication - The application areas of the coupled field models are identified and illustrated by the solution of complex industrial problems. Originality/value - We introduce new computational models and techniques for the solution of some coupled field problems in electromagnetic solids. While some elements of these computational models and techniques have been used for decades, the complete theoretical and computational framework is presented for the first time here.
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  • 56
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    Compel 24 (2005), S. 480-494 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Purpose - To introduce a Whitney-element based coupling of the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Boundary Element Method (BEM); to discuss the algebraic properties of the resulting system and propose solver strategies. Design/methodology/approach - The FEM is interpreted in the framework of the theory of discrete electromagnetism (DEM). The BEM formulation is given in a DEM-compatible notation. This allows for a physical interpretation of the algebraic properties of the resulting BEM-FEM system matrix. To these ends we give a concise introduction to the mathematical concepts of DEM. Findings - Although the BEM-FEM system matrix is not symmetric, its kernel is equivalent to the kernel of its transpose. This surprising finding allows for the use of two solution techniques: regularization or an adapted GMRES solver. Research limitations/implications - The programming of the proposed techniques is a work in progress. The numerical results to support the presented theory are limited to a small number of test cases. Practical implications - The paper will help to improve the understanding of the topological and geometrical implications in the algebraic structure of the BEM-FEM coupling. Originality/value - Several original concepts are presented: a new interpretation of the FEM boundary term leads to an intuitive understanding of the coupling of BEM and FEM. The adapted GMRES solver allows for an accurate solution of a singular, unsymetric system with a right-hand side that is not in the image of the matrix. The issue of a grid-transfer matrix is briefly mentioned.
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  • 57
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    Compel 24 (2005), S. 521-533 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Purpose - The paper presents the band gap computation in one- and two-dimensional photonic crystals built up from porous silicon. The frequency dispersion of the dielectric materials is taken into account. Design/methodology/approach - The behavior of the light in a photonic crystal can be well described by the Maxwell equations. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is applied to determine the band structure. The frequency dependence of the dielectric constant is taken into account by a sum of second-order Lorenz poles. The material parameters are determined applying a conjugate gradient-based minimization procedure. Passing a light pulse of Gaussian distribution through the photonic crystal and analyzing the transmitted wave can explore the photonic bands. Findings - The realized simulations and visualizations can lead to a much better understanding of the behavior of electromagnetic waves in dispersive photonic crystals, and can make possible to set up experimental conditions properly. The obtained results show again that silicon and porous silicon can be used for the fabrication of photonic crystals. Research limitations/implications - Due to the high computational requirements of the three-dimensional case we plan to work out a parallel version of the presented FDTD algorithm. Originality/value - This paper presents a simple way to take into account the frequency dispersion in the simulation of photonic crystals with the FDTD method.
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  • 58
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    Compel 24 (2005), S. 1093-1119 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Purpose - To provide a new and simple inverse rotor time constant identification method which can be used to update an indirect rotor field oriented controlled (IRFOC) induction motor algorithm. Design/methodology/approach - Two different equations are used to estimate the rotor flux in the stator reference frame. One of the equations is a function of the rotor time constant, rotor angular velocity and the stator currents. The other equation is a function of measured stator currents and voltages. The equation that uses the voltage and the current signals of the stator serves as reference model, however, the other equation works as an adjustable model with respect to the variation of the rotor time constant. Voltage signals used in the reference model equation are obtained from the measured DC bus voltage and the inverter gating signals. The proposed scheme is verified using a MATLAB/SIMULINK model for two different motors and experimentally using a DSP development tool (MCK 243) supplied by Technosoft S.A. Findings - The proposed estimator was able to successfully track the actual value of the inverse rotor time constant for different load torque and speed operating conditions. Increased oscillations in the estimated inverse rotor time constant appeared at lower speeds (below 10 per cent of rated speed) due to drift in a PI regulator (used at the estimator side), which was tuned under rated operating conditions and using parameters nominal values. Research limitations/implications - This estimation scheme is limited when near zero speed operation is demanded; otherwise it gives a simple and practical solution. A suggested way out of this, is to provide a self-tuning controller that can automatically adjust even for zero speed operation, or to automatically disconnect the estimator and take the most updated value as long as the operating speed is below a predetermined value. Originality/value - This paper presented a new inverse rotor time constant estimator for an IRFOC induction motor application and in conjunction rotor flux was estimated without voltage phase sensors.
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  • 59
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    Compel 24 (2005), S. 1470-1491 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Purpose - To study the magnetic shielding and the losses of non-linear, hysteretic multilayered shields by using fast to evaluate analytical expressions. Design/methodology/approach - In order to evaluate the shield in the frequency domain, the non-linear shield is divided into a sufficient number of piecewise linear sublayers. Each sublayer has a permeability that is constant (space independent) and complex (to model hysteresis). This expression for the permeability is found from the Preisach model by a Fourier transform. Once H is known in the entire shield, analytical expressions calculate the eddy current losses and hysteresis losses in the material. The validity of the analytical expressions is verified by numerical experiments. Findings - In the Rayleigh region, the shielding factor of perfectly linear material is better than the one of non-linear metal sheets, but also the eddy current losses are higher. The results of the optimization show that steel is only a useful shielding material at low frequencies. Research limitations/implications - The analytical method is valid for infinitely long shields and for weak imposed fields in the Rayleigh region. Practical implications - As the analytical expressions can be evaluated very fast (in comparison with slow finite elements models), many magnetic shields can be compared in parametric studies. Originality/value - Analytical expressions exist for the shielding factor and the losses of linear materials. In this paper, the method is extended for non-linear hysteretic materials. The effects of several parameters (material parameters, incident fields parameters) on the shielding and the losses are shown.
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  • 60
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    Compel 24 (2005), S. 1142-1151 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Purpose - Analysis of harmonics propagation in power systems requires information about models of non-linear loads which are the main source of harmonics. The purpose of the paper is to present a method of parameter determination of non-linear loads. Design/methodology/approach - A method of parameter determination of a model has been described in the article. This method has been developed assuming that mathematical description of a non-linear load is known. In order to obtain a harmonic representation of this model for one-phase loads the theory of harmonic balance method has been used. Findings - Parameters of the current or voltage controlled sources can be expressed as a function of any number of voltage or current harmonics. In the case under consideration the network input current is a function of input voltage and its derivatives. Thus, contrary non-linear element with inertialess characteristics, the first harmonic of the current depends not only on amplitude but also on frequency of the voltage across terminals of one-ports. Originality/value - The method presented in the paper enables relatively simple determination of frequency parameters of non-linear models of one-port networks.
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    Compel 24 (2005), S. 1152-1163 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Purpose - To determine the electrical field E1(t) in spherical and cylindrical gas voids existing in an insulator by considering surface conductivity of gas voids having an electrical permittivity of ?1 and conductivity of ?1 for DC and AC situations. Design/methodology/approach - Analytical expressions satisfying Laplace equation for inside and outside of the cylindrical and spherical gas voids in an insulator located in an external electrical field having a definite time dependent character, have been derived by considering the surface conductivity of the gas void. The coefficients included by these analytical expressions have been determined by utilizing the continuity equation of the current on the surface of the voids. Findings - It has been demonstrated that the electrical field remains uniform in spherical and cylindrical gas voids when the surface conductivity of gas void has been considered. It has been determined that the contact charging process of different shaped particles has an exponential characteristic, and some expressions have been derived to determine the time constants of this process for practical purposes. Practical implications - The results have been applied to the problems about contact charging of semi-spherical and semi-cylindrical insulated particles located at a charged surface and problems about the calculation of onset discharging voltage of ionization process in dielectric including gas voids. Originality/value - For spherical and cylindrical gas voids, the onset discharging voltage corresponding to the ionization process occurring in gas voids has increased by increasing the surface conductivity of the void. For the limit value of the surface conductivity, the voids in the insulator behaves like metal particles distributed into the insulator, for this reason, at the outside of the void, especially in the regions where the voids are close to the electrodes and each other, the electrical field will be non-uniform and will increase. This situation will cause the ignition of the partial discharge and destroy to the insulator.
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  • 62
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    Compel 24 (2005), S. 1164-1179 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Purpose - To analyze the operating performance of a fuzzy logic control (FLC) based solar energy conversion modular system controlled by a digital signal processor (DSP) microcontroller. Design/methodology/approach - A range of published works relevant to the solar energy conversion modular systems are evaluated and their limitations are indicated in the first section of the paper. The circuit diagram of the panel-boost converter system is described in the second section. In the third section, a neural network model is suggested for the photovoltaic panel and the model is created in the MATLAB/SIMULINK and then combined with other blocks existing in the system. The design of the FLC method is described in section 4. The simulation and experimental results corresponding to the control of the duty-cycle of the converter to set the operating point of the solar panel at the maximum power point (MPP) are given in sections 5 and 6, respectively. Section 7, summarizes the results and conclusions of the study. Findings - The paper suggests a simple dc-dc boost converter controlled by FLC method. The proposed converter model can be used to obtain maximum power from a photovoltaic panel. Research limitations/implications - In preparing this paper, the resources books existing in the library of our university and the resources relative to the solar energy conversion and FLC published in English language and reachable through the internet were researched. Practical implications - The paper suggests a neural network model for a solar panel, which can be used in the simulation of the solar energy panel-boost converter system. The solar energy panel-boost converter system proposed in this study can be used by the researchers who are working in the solar energy conversion area. Originality/value - The suggestion of a neural network model for a solar panel and creation of this model in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment provides researchers to simulate and to analyze the performance of the solar energy panel-boost converter system using the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation program. In addition, since the control approach proposed in this paper does not require the information on temperature and solar irradiance that affect the maximum output power, can effectively find the MPP of the solar panel.
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  • 63
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    Compel 24 (2005), S. 1200-1212 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Purpose - To provide a time domain formulation for reconstruction of transient currents flowing in massive parallel conductors from magnetic data collected in the dielectric space surrounding the conductors. Design/methodology/approach - A boundary integral equation (BIE) formulation involving Mitzner's and Rytov's high order surface impedance boundary conditions (SIBCs) is used. Input data of the inverse problem are the magnetic fields at given locations near the conductors. In order to validate the inversion algorithm, the magnetic field data are computed solving the direct problem with FEM for given current waveforms. Findings - The improvement in reconstruction accuracy of the new time domain BIE formulation employing high order SIBCs has been demonstrated numerically in a simple test case. The range of validity of the technique has been extended to current pulses of longer duration and the computational burden has shown to increase only by a factor of 4. Research limitations/implications - The proposed formulation can be compared with other possible formulations, both in the time and in the frequency domain. Practical implications - Based on this formulation a new current sensing technique is proposed for realization of low cost current sensors based on magnetic sensor arrays. Originality/value - The inverse problem addressed in the paper has been solved for the first time.
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  • 64
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    Compel 24 (2005), S. 606-619 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Purpose - To establish a statistical formulation of robust design optimization and to develop a fast optimization algorithm for the solution of the statistical design problem. Design/methodology/approach - Existing formulations and methods for statistical robust design are reviewed and compared. A consistent problem formulation in terms of statistical parameters of the involved variables is introduced. A novel algorithm for statistical optimization is developed. It is based on the unscented transformation, a fast method for the propagation of random variables through nonlinear functions. The prediction performance of the unscented transformation is demonstrated and compared with other methods by means of an analytical test function. The validity of the proposed approach is shown through the design of the superconducting magnetic energy storage device of the TEAM workshop problem 22. Findings - Provides a consistent formulation of statistical robust design optimization and an efficient and accurate method for the solution of practical problems. Originality/value - The proposed approach can be applied to all kinds of design problems and allows to account for the inevitable effects of tolerances and parameter variations occuring in practical realizations of designed devices.
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  • 65
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    Compel 24 (2005), S. 707-719 
    ISSN: 0332-1649
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Purpose - Developing an efficient second-order integration method of transient analysis of nonlinear dynamic circuits which overcomes the main drawback of the trapezoidal rule. Design/methodology/approach - Dynamic circuits including transistors and operational amplifiers are considered. A new family of two-step, second-order numerical integration algorithms has been developed using a polynomial approximation. Findings - The algorithms have been worked out which are implicit, A-stable and they depend on a parameter which is allowed to be changed during the computation process according to a proposed strategy. Also the variable step-size formula has been derived enabling us to eliminate a restarting procedure. The method has been implemented and tested using several representative circuits. It has been compared, both theoretically and via numerical examples, with the alternative well known algorithms: the trapezoidal rule and the backward differentiation formula of order two. Research limitation/implications - The algorithms developed in the paper are two-step and second-order, consequently the step size cannot be too large and the algorithms are not L-stable. Originality/value - A new family of two-step implicit integration algorithms is developed. It can be useful for the analysis and design of electronic circuits.
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  • 66
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    Kybernetes 34 (2005), S. 192-221 
    ISSN: 0368-492X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Purpose - To develop a theory of concepts that solves the combination problem, i.e. to deliver a description of the combination of concepts. We also investigate the so-called "pet fish problem" in concept research. Design/methodology/approach - The set of contexts and properties of a concept are embedded in the complex Hilbert space of quantum mechanics. States are unit vectors or density operators and context and properties are orthogonal projections. Findings - The way calculations are done in Hilbert space makes it possible to model how context influences the state of a concept. Moreover, a solution to the combination problem is proposed. Using the tensor product, a natural product in Hilbert space mathematics, a procedure for describing combined concepts is elaborated. This procedure also provides a solution to the pet-fish problem, and it allows the modeling of an arbitrary number of combined concepts. By way of example, a model for a simple sentence containing a subject, a predicate and an object, is presented. Originality/value - The combination problem is considered to be one of the crucial unsolved problems in concept research. Also the pet-fish problem has not been solved by earlier attempts of modeling.
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    Kybernetes 34 (2005), S. 241-260 
    ISSN: 0368-492X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Purpose - The main purpose of this paper is to consider knowledge production as a social self-organization process, to clarify ethical implications of such an approach, and to relate it to the thinking of Heinz von Foerster. Design/methodology/approach - The method employed is the one of dialectical constructions, i.e. existing contradicting approaches on knowledge research are identified and classified and a constructive synthesis of these approaches is made. Findings - Since Heinz von Foerster's pioneering work, information-generating systems are considered to be self-organizing systems. We see knowledge as only a particular kind of information: it is the manifestation of information in the social realm. Thus, the creation of social information is due to the self-organization of social systems. Heinz von Foerster has given us some indications of how knowledge and self-organization could be applied to society. In this paper, we try to sketch a position of our own while taking into consideration Heinz von Foerster's relevant ideas. Practical implications - The research results in this paper imply that a knowledge-based society can only survive if it is designed in a participatory and socially and ecologically sustainable way. Hence a practical implication is that participation and co-operation need to be advanced in order to guarantee human development. Originality/value - The innovative aspect of the paper is that it suggests that all social self-organizing systems are knowledge-producing systems and that considering knowledge as a co-operative process implies responsibility for solving the global social problems. It combines knowledge research and systems thinking based on ideas on self-organization by Heinz von Foerster in order to describe social systems.
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    Kybernetes 34 (2005), S. 319-320 
    ISSN: 0368-492X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Purpose - To preface Part II of the special issue focusing on the work of Heinz von Foerster. Design/methodology/approach - Outlines the contribution made by Heinz von Foerster. Findings - Highlights his role as the founder of second order cybernetics. Originality/value - Provides an outline of the importance of Heinz von Foerster's contribution to cybernetics.
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    Kybernetes 34 (2005), S. 393-399 
    ISSN: 0368-492X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Purpose - To write about Heinz von Foerster: to interpret him, to describe his real thoughts, to be "a foersterist". Design/methodology/approach - Considers that Heinz von Foerster, who used admiration and a not knowing approach as an epistemological basis, like most outstanding, emblematic figures in the history of mankind, liked to be called someone without disciplines, without "-ist-s". It is the author's preference to call him a "withoutist". The withoutist conveys knowledge from her/his epistemological position of self reference in an a priori manner. Findings - To use a metaphor: she/he is so sharp that he does not wound his/her counterpart by conveying information, since there are no subject-object borders to pierce through. He tries to learn learning, understand understanding. The term "withoutist" has a paradoxical meaning: being classified a withoutist means at the same time not to be classifiable. Originality/value - Understanding a withoutist means not to understand him/her, but understand ourselves: it is a second-order understanding. It shows up the never-ending self referential process of construction and knowledge, observer and observed. The ethical position of the withoutist is the a priori acceptance of her/his counterparts opinion, his/her being right.
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    Kybernetes 34 (2005), S. 400-408 
    ISSN: 0368-492X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Purpose - This paper has the purpose of discussing the phenomenon of two competing positions, which appear in philosophy and psychology in a similar way, and the emerging possibilities when both are seen as complementary. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is to first point out the difficulty, which arises when both positions perceive each other as mutually exclusive and yet claim to fully describe reality. Then Ludwig Wittgenstein's attempt to end the conflict by drawing a line between what can be expressed in language and what is inexpressible is introduced. Finally it is shown how Heinz von Foerster tried to dissolve the argument between both positions by introducing the concept of "in principle undecidable questions". From here the position of "and" is developed. The implications of this position as a possible way of ending (i.e. "and"-ing) the argument are explored and then related to psychotherapy. Findings - The findings show how the position of "and" increases possibilities in psychotherapy and poses new challenges at the same time. Originality/value - The position of "and" with its consequences is a new perspective in psychotherapy which can be useful to practitioners and researchers as well.
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    Kybernetes 34 (2005), S. 409-418 
    ISSN: 0368-492X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Purpose - To focus on the topic of ethics and responsibility, specifically on the ethical action of the social worker. Design/methodology/approach - Considers that while ethical questions are discussed in social discourse everywhere, social work in Germany seems to avoid a reformulation of deeply ethical premises. This is perhaps so, because ethics already are implicit in the actions of social work. Findings - The author believes that the implicit dealing with ethics on the part of the social worker is similar to the "implicit ethics" of Heinz von Foester, which "cannot be articulated", but are immanent in every action. Originality/value - A consideration of the ethical responsibilities of the social worker.
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    Kybernetes 34 (2005), S. 419-426 
    ISSN: 0368-492X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Purpose - The following contribution tries to answer the question of whether the management theory's interpretation of cybernetics has something to do with second-order cybernetics, or in other words: what the impact of von Foerster's ideas so far on the German speaking management theory is. Design/methodology/approach - Different methodological programs in business administration and management theory will be summarized to become aware of the fundamental difference between Foerster's ideas and their interpretation through the systemic approach in management theory. Findings - In the beginning of the 1970s and all through the 1980s systemic thinking became what some management thinkers wanted to be called a "new paradigm" that ever since has attracted numerous researchers and practitioners, especially in the German speaking regions. So it seemed only natural that, together with systems theory, cybernetics, too, was introduced to the management discipline. Can you seriously have cybernetics without second-order cybernetics? Of course you can. The question here is: how far did German speaking systemic management thinking dare to go in incorporating cybernetics into the theory of management of social systems? Originality/value - We will clearly see what Heinz von Foerster was pointing at when he talked about management being an autological concept where the manager has to take his being part of the system seriously. When making obvious different conceptual versions of cybernetics and demonstrating their corresponding attempts in transferring cybernetic thinking into the domain of social systems we might get an insight into new directions for researchers in management.
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    Kybernetes 34 (2005), S. 1084-1089 
    ISSN: 0368-492X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Purpose - To propose a new reducing transformation that allows the calculation of the absolute minimum of a function that depends on a large number of variables to be performed quickly. Design/methodology/approach - The methodology depends on the building of a-dense curve in a compact of Rn that allows the approximate at any point of this compact with a desired precision. This approach allows global optimization problems that depend on a large number of variables, be tackled quickly and precisely. Findings - It was found that this new method for densifying a space Rn (compact) by means of simple parametric curve (a space filling curve) could be used to deal with global optimization problems of some several hundreds or thousands of variables in some seconds or minutes. The technique is being based on the cosine function. Research limitations/implications - The results depend on the use of a computer system or "micro-calculator". Practical implications - This is an "economic" method and the technique which uses the cosine function allows the reduction of the calculation time and avoids calculus errors. It has the practical advantages that coupled with a transformation eliminating local minima, it permits the solution of global optimization problems of more than 1,000 variables in less than 1?min. Originality/value - The method is innovative and shown to be accurate and fast even with a function of a large number of variables.
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    Kybernetes 34 (2005), S. 834-856 
    ISSN: 0368-492X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Purpose - The goal is to find a systemic information assembling mechanism, which would describe not only a human being's way of organizing the accepted information but also the general information regularities of this process, applied to different information objects. Design/methodology/approach - Mathematical formalism of Informational Macrodynamics is employed for system modeling of the object's regularities and the main systemic mechanisms. The developed systemic assembling mechanism joins a chaotic oscillation of incoming information frequencies, initiating a chaotic resonance, into a cooperative attractor. A chain of sequentially built attractors generates a collective information dynamic network (IN), whose hierarchy models the multiple information contributions. An information structure of the IN node's attractors is memorized by the key-lock connections of resonance frequencies. Findings - The results indicate that formalized functions of the assembling cooperative information mechanisms represent a general attribute of a system. Practical implications - A wide area of applications includes behavior analysis, cognition, artificial intelligence, data organization and management, social systems, and education. Originality/value - The considered results bring together the formal systemic model of the regularities of collective macrodynamics and the mathematical evaluation of a complex individual's behavior in a collective environment.
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