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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 1317-1334 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Fayol's ideas on both British management thought and practice. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents a schematic which seeks to illustrate the links between the various strands of scientific management theory, especially that of Fayol, in Britain between the 1920s and the 1960s/1970s and, for the same period, the links between the theory and practice of scientific management. The links indicated in the schematic are assessed first through an examination of the development of British management thought, in particular the exemplification of Fayol's ideas by Lyndall Fownes Urwick and the British neoclassical school. Using archival evidence from a small number of engineering companies, the impact on practice of the ideas of Fayol and other aspects of scientific management is then examined. Findings - The paper concludes that, while Fayol's theoretical influence has stood the test of time, his impact on practice was much more limited. Originality/value - By focusing on the historical impact on practice of management theory, this paper not only provides a basis for future research by business and management historians, but also throws light on the relevance for practice of theory, an issue of relevance for all theoreticians and management practitioners.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 1396-1409 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to reacquaint researchers and practitioners with Barnard's contributions to understanding of the moral conditions that underlie the authenticity of organizational leadership. Design/methodology/approach - The paper identifies Barnard's insights on leadership and uses them as inputs to theorizing about authentic leadership. Findings - As an outcome of theorizing, the paper identifies the conditions that are likely to lead to inauthentic, pseudo-authentic or authentic leader behavior. Research limitations/implications - Examining authentic leadership from a historical perspective can open promising avenues for future research. Practical implications - Leadership development programs should incorporate concepts of responsibility and conflicts of responsibility in order to provide executives with the knowledge base required for ethical decision making. Originality/value - By placing contemporary discussion of authentic leadership in its proper historical context, scholars can draw on a wealth of existing theory to advance the study of authentic leadership.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 450-460 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to trace Douglas McGregor's Theory Y thinking back from pre-industrial revolution philosophers up through McGregor and his contemporaries and to explore how Theory Y evolved after its introduction. Design/methodology/approach - This is a review article relying on literature reviews and synthesizing concepts and ideas from related sources. Findings - This article examines the emergence of Theory Y as one of the hallmark relationship management principles of the last half of the 20th century. McGregor stands in a unique place in management history. He has one foot in the early human relations movement, and another foot in the movement of scholars who advocated a heightened awareness of management's responsibility for the human side of employer-employee relations. McGregor serves as a true facilitator for growth and advancement in the field of management, in general, and human relations, in particular. Originality/value - This paper holds value to management scholars and practitioners in its utility as a means of tracing the evolution of one of the most important management concepts of the last half of the 20th century. While it may lack in originality (a flaw in many historical reviews) it certainly addresses important issues and provides a path for understanding the development of a key management concept (Theory Y).
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 265-277 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Interchangeable parts were a critical development in the advancement of industry and manufacturing. This paper traces its development, the factors that contributed to it, and answers the question of why did this innovation occur at the Springfield Armory. Design/methodology/approach - This is an illustrative case study. Findings - The fortunate combination of location, key people, government policy, and arms demand combined to enable the development of interchangeable parts at the Springfield Armory. Led by its Superintendent, Roswell Lee, Springfield became the epicenter for the development of this concept as skilled gunmakers captured arms making knowledge unfettered by patent protection. Lee promoted this free interchange of ideas through sharing designs and equipment, his hiring practices, and his willingness to experiment with new tools and technologies. This created a critical mass of factors that led to this important innovation occurring at the Springfield Armory. Research limitations/implications - The critical drivers of innovative activity seen at Springfield merit further investigation and research, individually and collectively to see if these findings can be used to inform policies that promote innovation. Originality/value - This case study identifies factors that contributed to the development of interchangeable parts at a particular location at a particular point in time. The value of this is to identity the important interplay of factors that can spur the innovative process and lead to important technological innovation.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 331-348 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Synthesis of the customer lifetime value and the shareholder value (SHV) approach in order to develop an integrated, marketing-based method for corporate valuation. Design/methodology/approach - Discusses the limitations and assumptions of existing methods to estimate customer value components and examines the limitations of the SHV concept. By linking the customer equity (CE) and the SHV approach, a formal model to calculate corporate value is developed. The discounted cash flow method is used for modelling the profit streams. Findings - Provides formulas for the estimation of both the individual lifetime value of a customer and CE. Provides a comprehensive model to estimate corporate value based on customer-related cash flows and traditional financial metrics. Introduces typical cases, in which the use of a customer-based valuation seems beneficial. Illustrates how our approach can be applied by using a simple case study on M&A in the telecommunication industry. Gives suggestions on how to obtain the necessary data, partially even from publicly available sources. Research limitations/implications - Advancement of the quantitative techniques for modelling the customer value components would allow for relaxing some restrictive assumptions. The explicit modelling of the future growth of the customer base (the acquisition rate) would increase the applicability of the model. Additionally, taking into account heterogeneity within the customer cohorts is a task for future research. Finally, our model needs to be applied more extensively using real data for the input variables. Practical implications - A CE-based valuation approach can guide marketing investments and helps to avoid misallocation of resources. Based on an example in the field of M&A, we demonstrate the usefulness of the approach for obtaining a realistic indicator of firm value. It helps to assess whether an acquisition is economically sensible. We provide evidence for the superiority of a customer-based approach over traditional financial methods. Originality/value - While the traditional SHV method considers cash flows at a highly aggregated level, our approach employs disaggregated cash flows on the level of individual customers. Thereby we do incorporate the lifetime values of future customers by considering different cohorts. We do capture customer defection by incorporating retention rates. Our model enables a more detailed and valid estimation of corporate value by accounting for the single customer activities that drive marketing actions. This enables a better forecasting of the free cash flow. Incorporating customer-related drivers into financial valuation models makes easier to assess the return on marketing investments.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 397-412 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The study aims at clarifying whether locus of control may act as a bias in organisational decision-making or not. Design/methodology/approach - Altogether 44 managers working at Skanska (a Swedish multinational construction company) participated in the study. They were asked to complete a booklet including a locus of control test and a couple of decision tasks. The latter were based on case scenarios reflecting strategic issues relevant for consultative/participative decision-making. Findings - The results revealed that managers with low external locus of control used group consultative decision-making more frequently than those with high locus of control. There was also a tendency showing that high externals more frequently used participative decision-making than low externals. This was in line with the general trend, indicating that managers on the whole predominantly used participative decision-making. Originality/value - The results of the present study are valuable for HRM practice, especially with regard to the selection of individuals to management teams.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 433-449 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper reconsiders the criticisms of the most influential theory of the rise of the large corporations, and to see how these criticisms can be met without entirely abandoning the basic elements of the theory. Design/methodology/approach - This problem is approached by first analyzing the weaknesses inherent in Chandler's theory as presented in The Visible Hand, and then by reworking elements of the theory by relying on data generated by other historical accounts. Findings - The author found that the theory could be salvaged by reordering the evolution of managerial practices based on a variety of historical studies, many not considered by Chandler, but even some of his own earlier work. Given these changes in historical order, vital managerial reforms can be placed sufficiently early that organizational techniques existed to solve the problems and exploit the opportunities that Chandler identifies as creating the pressures necessary to generate the large industrial corporation, thus responding to one class of criticism. My approach can also incorporate other factors that critics see as missing in Chandler's account. Originality/value - What is new in this paper is that it reconciles Chandler's analysis with those of his critics by re-examining and correcting some of his assumptions. The result is a theory of corporate evolution that is less global but more realistic. Economic and business historians as well as sociologists of organizations will find this reassessment valuable.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 589-602 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Unfamiliar with the Chinese culture and ways of doing business, foreign architects/engineers/contractors (AEC) firms will encounter differences with the local parties. With reference to the characteristics of Chinese culture on disputes, this paper studies the problem areas of dispute and of resolving disputes in international construction projects in China. The objectives are to: examine the fundamentals of Chinese culture and ways of doing business; examine the characteristics of international projects and investigate any differences in the dispute problems arising from China International Projects; identify the most popular dispute resolution mechanism(s) for international projects in China; and recommend possible ways to reduce and resolve disputes of these projects. Design/methodology/approach - After literature review, a questionnaire was designed for face-to-face interviews with 40 practitioners to collect their opinions. Findings - The results show that the problem areas giving rise to disputes are mainly related to contractual matters. To reflect the characteristics of international projects in China, cultural and legal matters are also found to be the sources of problem. Arbitration is the most popular method, after negotiation, for resolving disputes in international construction projects in China. Research limitations/implications - The number of interviewees in this study could be improved and further study could include experts in Mainland China. Originality/value - There is not much literature on dispute resolution management for international construction projects in China, with particular reference to cultural differences. This paper offers an invaluable reference for those foreign AEC firms interested in joining international projects in China.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 661-669 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The aim of this paper is to promote the use of dynamic capabilities as a strategic tool of the highest order in terms of firm management. Design/methodology/approach - The content of the article is developed from a table that offers some insights into the relationship between the three theoretical perspectives analyzed in the paper: resource-based view, knowledge-based view and dynamic-capabilities view. Findings - The paper describes the evolution that can be discerned in the process of developing competitive advantage, from a resource-based view to a dynamic-capabilities framework. Originality/value - The objective of the article was not to bring to light any new revelations in this field of investigation, but is intended as a theoretical reflection on the implications of dynamic capabilities for firms and managers.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 516-522 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - More and more foreign companies, including multinational companies, open business in China. The staff management under the local culture of China is one of the critical points affecting the success of foreign invested companies in China. This paper aims to illustrate the effective methods of staff management for foreign invested companies in China. Design/methodology/approach - For this purpose, a survey on concrete practices of staff management was conducted among three multinational company affiliates in China, whose parent companies are located in the USA, Japan, and Europe, respectively, by the in-depth interviews with the high-level executives of the affiliates. Findings - It was found that although the staff management experiences of the surveyed affiliates show differences in operation, the affiliates have a common sense on how to balance culture difference, how to effectively communicate with staff, and how to appraise the performance. The active and passive factors of these experiences were further analysed from the needs level under current Chinese economic situation and from the invisible impacts on human behaviour of Chinese culture. Research limitations/implications - This study surveyed only three multinational company affiliates in China and therefore, the understanding obtained is limited in scope. The comprehensive knowledge of the subject depends on more case studies. Practical implications - The analysis reveals that the active factors and localization, especially localization of the management team, are very important to the staff management of foreign invested companies in China. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the research on effective methods for staff management in multinational companies.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 551-567 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To provide a structured and integrated framework of corporate strategy in order to help practitioners and researchers identify critical issues related to the Chinese construction industry and analyze its dynamics from a holistic viewpoint. Design/methodology/approach - A brief review of the major themes of strategy mostly developed by western researchers is first presented. This is then supplemented by a review of the pertinent characteristics of the construction industry in general, and those related to China's context in specific, which affect management decision-making. Two case studies are used to illustrate the concepts implied by the proposed framework. Findings - The cases of Guangsha and the Shanghai Construction Group demonstrate that there is no hard and fast rule in developing a coherent strategy. This is even truer considering the fact that China's circumstances are still evolving. Practical implications - The critical elements identified in the proposed framework serve as a good starting point for individual firms to further develop a more detailed execution plan. Originality/value - This paper bridges a management gap that exists between mainstream management researchers, who have few precedence of studying the construction industry, and traditional construction management researchers, who tend to focus on project-level issues rather than corporate-level issues.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 649-660 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to offer insights into a tool that one of the authors has developed to help map, and thus visualise, stakeholder power and influence within the performing organisation. Design/methodology/approach - The concept described in this paper has been tested at several large international gatherings to well over 200 active professional project managers. The feedback to date has been very positive. This positive feedback led to testing of these ideas through research being conducted during 2004/2005 by one of the authors who is a candidate for the doctor of project management (DPM) at RMIT. Findings - The research is centred around this tool, the stakeholder circle, as a means to provide a useful and effective way to visualise stakeholder power and influence that may have pivotal impact on a project's success or failure. The stakeholder-circle tool is developed for each project through a methodology that identifies and prioritises key project stakeholders and then develops an engagement strategy to build and maintain robust relationships with those key stakeholders. An example of the tool is presented. Originality/value - Future papers will provide case study examples currently under way of the use of this tool. The implication for this tool's use is that project managers can clearly visualise and map stakeholder influence patterns that have significant impact on stakeholder outcome expectations.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 691-705 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - There has been much interest in evidence-informed decision making in education - identifying effective ways of increasing the use of research evidence to provide a basis for management decision making, in both the private and public sectors. However, in education, although there has been much speculation and discussion, there has been a paucity of recent empirical research evidence that provides insights into the characteristics, practice and mechanisms of successful research utilisation strategies. This study aimed to explore how research evidence was successfully disseminated and how the barriers to research use by head teachers (principals) were successfully addressed. The study was qualitative and exploratory in nature and aimed to identify examples of projects led by, and supported by, local education authorities (LEAs), that aimed to help education practitioners to access, engage with, and use the findings from published research and research carried out by themselves, and shared with others. Design/methodology/approach - This paper presents and discusses the findings from an empirical study conducted in eight local authorities in England and Wales. Findings - The research evidence suggests that to improve research use among managers in education, strategies should focus on facilitating communication networks, partnerships and links between researchers and practitioners, with the key long-term objective of developing a culture that supports and values the contribution that research can make to management decision making in education. Originality/value - Managers in local education authorities (LEAs) can help to build networks, develop partnerships between professionals locally, nationally and internationally, and also act as change agents in the dissemination and adoption of new ideas. However, the research focused on illustrative examples of research use - and further research is needed to evaluate the impact of using research for decision making in education.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 670-690 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose of this paper - The purpose of this investigation is to help establish: whether or not strong relationships between suppliers and customers improve performance; and if prescriptive frameworks on outsourcing radical innovations are dependent on industry clockspeed. Design/methodology/approach - A survey of UK-based manufacturers, followed by a statistical analysis. Findings - Long-term supplier links seem not to play a role in the development of radical innovations. Moreover, industry clockspeed has no significant bearing on the success or failure of any outsourcing strategy for radically new technologies. Research limitations/implications - Literature about outsourcing in the face of radical innovation can be more confidently applied to industries of all clockspeeds. Practical implications - Prescriptions for fast clockspeed industries should be applied more broadly: all industries should maintain a high degree of vertical integration in the early days of a radical innovation. Originality/value - Prior papers had explored whether or not a company should outsource radical innovations, but none had determined if this is equally true for slow industries and fast ones. Therein lies the original contribution of this paper.
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  • 15
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    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 837-850 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Aims to explain the effect of firm size on company innovation inside one industry context: the wood products industry. Design/methodology/approach - The strategic issues under study (innovation, corporate strategy) are typically managed by the firm's top executives. Also important is the fact that the response rates of questionnaires targeting this group are generally very low. Consistently, the data for the project were obtained from 43 in-person interviews with top executives of wood products companies of different sizes in two countries, i.e. the USA and Chile. Findings - Finds that firm size does impact the innovation type pursued by companies, at least in the wood products industry. Indeed, large companies of this study clearly outrun smaller companies in process innovation. However, our analysis also shows that small companies level the field with larger companies when considering all three innovation types (process, product, business systems). Practical implications - The capital enjoyed by large companies allows them to excel in process innovation. This article suggests that managers of small companies should compete in a different arena from large companies and emphasize product and business systems innovation, as they can do very well in these areas even with limited resources. Originality/value - There is very little research about innovation in the wood products industry. This article contributes to the knowledge in this area, also providing new insights about the validity of Schumpeter's assertions regarding the role of company size in innovation.
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  • 16
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    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 896-905 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The aim of this paper is to compare the railway and internet revolutions. What do they have in common and what is different between them, considering the 150-year time difference in their occurrence? As time passes, can internet developers learn something from the railway industry? Findings - The two industries have a lot of common. Both railways and the internet represent national infrastructures that cannot be managed just based on business management principles. As both are concerned with traffic, either that of physical goods or of messages, the two industries also seem to have a lot in technical terms when one takes a sufficiently abstract point of view. The main message is that in the long term, the railway revolution vanished and the industry turned into a low profit/interest field. The internet might follow the same path. Research limitations/implications - The paper in its current form is based on a literature review only. Its quality could be improved with a detailed empirical study. Other similar infrastructure-type industries could also be involved. Practical implications - There are several things that could be improved in the management of the internet, but they are large-scale issues needing co-operation between the many stakeholders in the internet. Examples are those of avoiding the digital divide and catering for critical "last mile" connections, as well as managing the diversity of different standards. Originality/value - As far as the author knows this is the first paper of its kind comparing these two industries. The message is that more cross-industrial studies need to be performed. Also, the message of the paper - that the internet might turn into a low-interest business in the long run - has not been discussed sufficiently.
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  • 17
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    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 906-924 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand better the formation of an industry and the movement toward agglomeration by examining the development of the furniture manufacturing industry of Western North Carolina and Virginia. Design/methodology/approach - In this general review, the initiation and growth of the furniture industry is traced, applying the theory of agglomeration and noting isomorphic tendencies and the primacy of the search for legitimacy among constituents. Findings - The paper finds first of all, the pioneering efforts of Thomas Wrenn in High Point brought the industry to the region. An initial wave of furniture manufacturers followed closely behind Wrenn as the industry gained legitimacy and status in North Carolina. Important elements in building the industry included the establishment of the Southern Furniture Manufacturers Association and the Southern Furniture Market in High Point. A second wave of furniture producers arrived on the scene after the First World War. This group benefited from cooperative actions of the survivors of the first wave and brought the Western North Carolina and Virginia area to the forefront of the furniture manufacturing industry in the USA. Finally, the paper comments on the current state of the industry in relation to the threat of foreign competition. Originality/value - The furniture industry is not alone in the need to understand the impact of globalization. Practitioners and researchers alike should be aware of the costs to stakeholder groups, such as employees and local communities.
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  • 18
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    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 1064-1070 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explain thought leadership and show how it compares with its positional counterpart. Design/methodology/approach - The objective is achieved through a conceptual comparison of thought leadership with conventional positional leadership to show that the latter contains managerial elements or overtones that are lacking in thought leadership which is simply the championing of new directions. Findings - Thought leadership is the championing of new ideas rather than anything to do with managing people or helping a group achieve a goal. It can be directed upwards and ends once senior managers accept the proposed ideas. Such leadership cannot be defined in terms of enabling or managing a team to achieve a task, because those who show upwards leadership normally do not manage their superiors. Practical implications - Regardless of how important it is for knowledge workers to be self-managing, my claim is that thought leadership must be cultivated as the key form of distributed leadership in any organization that depends on continuous improvement and constant innovation to prosper. The practical implication is that managers need to move beyond simply empowering employees to manage themselves and start fostering bottom up leadership conceived as championing new ideas. Originality/value - Highlights a type of leadership that is widely distributed throughout all organizations that compete on the basis of innovation or wherever all employees need to be initiating process improvements. Thought leadership is very different from what is commonly conceived as distributed leadership, such as "shared leadership" or "leaderful" behavior both of which are based on the usual mixture of management and leadership ideas whereby the person in charge of a group, formally or otherwise, both initiates new directions and manages their implementation.
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  • 19
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 1086-1092 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The author has the objective of demonstrating how decision-making conversations that are not guided by a process can lead to misunderstandings, wasted time, and a lack of results. These undisciplined exchanges will be contrasted with communications between and among people who use a common language and follow an agreed-on, step-by-step approach to the decision at hand. Design/methodology approach - The author uses a partially hypothetical example of a leader who failed to involve her team in a major decision as a starting point for discussion of who should be involved in decisions, why, how, and when. Findings - Decision making happens through conversations that people have, either one-on-one, with teams, or in cross-functional groups. Unfortunately, many decision-making conversations end up as free-for-alls, with people talking at cross-purposes, sharing information haphazardly, and covering the same ground over and over without coming to any conclusions. Decision makers are far more successful when they are focused and equipped with a process to guide them through their conversations than if they let these conversations just "happen". Two of the most important roles leaders can play are those of role model and coach, to individuals and groups, to ensure that their decision-making conversations proceed in a rational, organized manner. Originality/value - Practical ideas will be offered to help leaders transform their organization's decision-making conversations from undisciplined exchanges to results-oriented encounters.
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  • 20
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 1018-1031 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this article is to provide a pragmatic example of multi-stage leadership education model. Leadership education that is multidisciplinary, global, and ethics oriented is a remedy for many of the leadership challenges we are currently facing in the business world. Design/methodology/approach - This article discusses whether we can teach leadership, and if so, what essential skills should be taught in business schools. It also examines the shortcomings of current leadership education curriculum and recommends some major changes that need to be made. This article provides a descriptive overview and historical examination of these issues and techniques. Findings - A major finding can be drawn from this paper is that the present leadership education curriculum in business schools is not adequate in many regards and more work needs to be done. Research limitations/implications - Business schools need to focus on revitalizing the leadership education curriculum to come up with a program that prepares students with practical and dynamic skills that enables them to be the future business leaders. A long-term approach to leadership education rather than a short-term effort is suggested. Originality/value - By incorporating multidisciplinary, global-oriented and ethical leadership education, we believe that this article on leadership education can effectively address the major challenges of the new millennium.
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  • 21
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 1049-1053 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Has the objective of examining why the focus given to leadership should be severely curtailed in research and teaching, and replaced by concepts that are better defined, understood and whose positive contributions are clearly and consistently attainable. Education and research should firmly alter its focus to concentrate on empowerment, a concept that has been consistently tied to important organizational outcomes. Greater benefit can be attained by refining and advancing our understanding of empowerment (while instructing students/practitioners with our current knowledge), than by continuing to devote massive resources to the morass that is leadership. Design/methodology approach - These concepts are supported by prior studies and theoretical development rather than empirical evidence. Findings - Finds that we are infinitely better off teaching people what we know about using and encouraging empowerment than what we do not know about leadership, as traditionally defined. Moreover, in the twenty-first century with flatter hierarchies and less variance in knowledge, power and resources, perhaps "leadership" should be defined by one's ability to respond to empowered situations with self-leadership, as opposed to the traditional characterizations, which were derived from and are rooted in a more hierarchical view of work and organization. Originality/value - This paper calls for a radical shift in our thinking about leadership research and teaching. Its value and originality to leadership scholars should be high.
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  • 22
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 1161-1185 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to link empirically the value of intellectual capital and intellectual property to firm performance. Design/methodology/approach - Survey data from managers in the (German) pharmaceutical industry is used to conduct a regression analysis focusing on the correlation between human, structural and relational capital, intellectual property and firm performance. Findings - The results of the study show that including intellectual property in models linking intellectual capital to firm performance enhances the statistical validity of such models and their relevance for management. Practical implications - Intellectual capital is an important source of an organization's economic wealth and is therefore to be taken into serious consideration when formulating the firm's strategy. This strategy formulation process can be enhanced by fully integrating intellectual property and intellectual capital into management models, as shown in this paper. Originality/value - This empirical paper builds on and extends the Bontis research on the relationship between intellectual capital and firm performance. Contrary to Bontis the authors include intellectual property into the intellectual capital framework and focus on the role of intellectual property in the relationship between intellectual capital and firm performance.
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    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 1147-1160 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a practical method to be used in team decision making when allocating resources. Design/methodology/approach - The paper proposes the following hypothesis: the selected team consensus strategy from among all available strategies must have minimum sum of squares of monetary regrets. A general algebraic representation of the above hypothesis is developed. Findings - This hypothesis can be interpreted as a Nash equilibrium involving mixed strategies when the entire problem is viewed in game theoretic framework. The paper provides an explanation in quantitative terms of the reasoning process pursued by five business college department chairs faced with three strategies, in an actual consensus decision making to illustrate the above hypothesis. By making observations of the behavior of decision makers in the selection of a budget allocation formula, the paper shows that the hypothesis holds true for the specific reasoning process pursued by the chairs in arriving at the consensus solution. However, the chairs' consensus solution is found to be a local solution vis-à-vis the global optimal solution found by solving the game theoretic model. Research limitations/implications - The authors plan to conduct further empirical testing of the hypothesis using allocation strategies found in diverse decision-making environments involving diverse decision makers such as business executives, government officers, education administrators, and others. Practical implications - If this hypothesis can be validated to be true, decision makers should propose for consideration only those rational strategies that have minimal or low variance in monetary regrets since these are the strategies that would most likely be selected in team decision making. Originality/value - Team decision making involving resource allocation abounds in all organizations, at all levels and in diverse applications. The practical procedure proposed in this paper, based on analytical foundation of game theory, provides decision makers a viable tool for allocating resources that results in consensus of all rational parties involved.
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    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 1203-1224 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To test the ability of situational variables, manageable pre-decline resources, and specific firm responses to decline to classify performance outcomes (turnaround vs non-turnaround) in declining firms. Design/methodology/approach - Using a longitudinal methodology and a multi-firm sample, the paper studies the relative role of situational factors concerning the environment and a firm's decline, along with various internal resources and strategies that can enable a firm to recover from decline. Findings - The results indicate that contextual factors such as the urgency and severity of decline, firm productivity and the availability of slack resources, and firm retrenchment can determine the ability of sample firms to turnaround. Overall, factors under the control of managers contribute more to successful turnarounds than situational characteristics. Research limitations/implications - This study does not identify the exact cause of firm decline. The authors believe this is beyond the scope of this multi-firm study. Originality/value - This study contributes to the existing research by theoretically explicating and empirically testing the influences of multiple situational and organizational factors on turnaround outcomes. While several studies have investigated conceptually unique sets of actions applied by managers attempting to turn around declining firms, this paper integrate these actions as they can often impact each other and the eventual turnaround. The authors believe their research design affords a more holistic view to the turnaround process. In order to direct executives efforts, the findings are summarized into some practical applications.
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    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 1114-1128 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a three-dimensional framework to facilitate future definitions of intellectual capital (IC). The concept of IC is often ill-defined and there is a multitude of different definitions for the construct of IC. The lack of a common platform for dialogue has negative implications for research and practice in the field as it has hinders cross-disciplinary learning. This paper aims to presents a flexible framework in order to make important differences explicit and therefore, if adopted, facilitates the creation of a cohesive body of knowledge. Design/methodology/approach - The paper utilises a systematic review process. This methodology was initially developed in the medical science to produce a replicable, scientific, and transparent analysis of evidence in the literature and has recently been broad into management science. A total of 938 papers were analysed to extract findings. The summary of the review protocol can be found in the Appendix. Findings - Analysing the literature allowed the necessary components of a definition together with a list of possible sub-components to be extracted. Definitions of IC need to be explicit about the: component parts of the construct; role IC will take in an organisation; and disciplinary perspective taken for the discussion. Research limitations/implications - This paper presents the necessary components of a definition of IC. If widely used, it would be able to facilitate cross-disciplinary understanding and hopefully inter-disciplinary research. It is seen as a starting point and open for future extension and development. A systematic review aims to limit bias and random error, however, it is limited by its scope on the basis of the defined research question and therefore delimited by factors outlined in the research protocol. Practical implications - The major implication for practitioners is the understanding that IC can mean very different things for different people. Insights outlined in this paper will enable anyone to understand better the important construct of IC from different perspectives, which in turn should facilitate dialogue and avoid many unnecessary misunderstandings. Originality/value - The paper is a first attempt to present a framework to facilitate future definitions of IC. If used, discussed, and extended in the future, it could present an important corner stone for better cross-disciplinary dialogue and the establishment of a research field of IC.
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    Management decision 43 (2005), S. 1232-1248 
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The paper examines the importance and pervasiveness of formal organizations in contemporary society. Design/methodology/approach - An examination of the historical, classic, and modern theorists' perspectives was undertaken to determine the relevancy of the theories in dealing with the changing social, technological and cultural values of today's organization and society. Findings - Understanding the importance and pervasiveness of formal organizations in contemporary society would enable individuals to influence better factors associated with changing values. Practical implications - The findings suggest that an intrinsic understanding of the various dimensions, which help, create and shape an organization, can be influenced at both the micro and macro levels. Originality/value - This paper presents an overview of the literature which both enhances personal knowledge and understanding at the theoretical and practical levels so as to enable individuals to gain insight on the inherent factors that may be influenced to advance organizational goals and objectives.
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  • 27
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    Leadership & organization development journal 26 (2005), S. 6-22 
    ISSN: 0143-7739
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Aims to explore the relationship between employee perceptions of servant leadership and leader trust, as well as organizational trust. Design/methodology.approach - Uses Laub's Organizational Leadership Assessment along with Nyhan and Marlowe's Organizational Trust Inventory. Findings - Perceptions of servant leadership correlated positively with both leader trust and organizational trust. The study also found that organizations perceived as servant-led exhibited higher levels of both leader trust and organizational trust than organizations perceived as non-servant-led. Originality/value - The findings lend support to Greenleaf's view that servant leadership is an antecedent of leader and organizational trust, and to aspects of other servant leadership models.
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    Leadership & organization development journal 26 (2005), S. 51-61 
    ISSN: 0143-7739
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Aims to apply organizational systems perspectives to discuss the three types of organizational development (OD) and management control systems (MCS): normative, coercive and remunerative-instrumental (utilitarian) that affect the operating performance of teams. Design/methodology/approach - The paper examines the effect that managerial power relations, cultural process and structural change intervention of these three types of control systems have on the formation (size, composition, and strategies), and operational activities (functions and assignment of tasks) of teams. The paper uses library archives research to study OD, MCS and teams. It has applied an organizational systems perspective that examines the effects of OD and MCS on teams' management. Findings - Recent new directions in management control systems and OD process and structural intervention strategies have transformed management accounting control systems as the new administrative control innovations mechanisms for managing teams' performance and activities in industrial organizations. Accordingly, the traditional mechanistic control approach has been substituted or replaced by organic-based processes and structures of team-based control systems. Practical implications - In organizations, the management of teams is multi-dimensional, involving the simultaneous use of normative, remunerative and coercive control mechanisms. The paper advances the views that the effectiveness of team management in organizations is contingent upon several structural and process factors including the mix of these three types of compliance systems and the form of organizational setting, i.e. manufacturing or professional organizations. Originality/value - In the management control literature, the management of teams has centered on normative or remunerative or coercive control systems. This paper shows that OD's cultural process and structural intervention strategies provide new directions to address these three types of management control system for teams in industrial organizations.
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    Leadership & organization development journal 26 (2005), S. 106-119 
    ISSN: 0143-7739
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Aims to explain how application of organizational development (OD) can facilitate compliance with regulations imposed by an external government agency on university operations. Design/methodology/approach - A total of 2,000 students and 150 staff were directly affected by the regulation, with the remaining university population potentially affected. The strategy utilized project management and change agent processes where analysis of the problem, design and implementation of interventions, and evaluation of intervention effect were carried out through a project working party with highly centralized leadership by senior management. There was regular progressive and summative evaluation of project goal attainment. Findings - Use of project management, change agents and centralized senior project leadership provided the practical means to support successful OD. OD worked well within the devolved, multi-campus, multidisciplinary and organizationally complex environment of the university. OD proved to be an effective and efficient approach for large-scale change in technical organizational sub-systems, in particular structure and technology. By the end of the 18-month intervention, no staff incidents had been reported, and of 2,000 students directly affected, only seven incidents had been identified and these were ultimately resolved by the project management group. Practical implications - OD can be used effectively and efficiently to facilitate mandated change in multi-site, multidisciplinary, large organizations. This case study demonstrated that project management, centralized leadership and the use of change agents were practical, efficient and effective within the OD framework. Originality/value - This is the first study to describe and evaluate the use of OD to facilitate mandated change in universities in response to regulation.
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    Leadership & organization development journal 26 (2005), S. 172-185 
    ISSN: 0143-7739
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper applies organizational development (OD) process-cultural and structural change strategies to synthesize Etzioni's three approaches to power and compliance: normative, coercive and remunerative to study the management control systems of teams in organizations. Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses library-archives research. Findings - OD's process and structural differences have affected team members' commitment and operating performance in these three control systems. Advances in information technology have introduced new forms of normative: surveillance control. Research limitations/implications - If MCS are viewed as adaptive systems, the design and implementation of MCS center on identifying those contingent OD process and structural conditions that support team management in these three control systems. Originality/value - The management control literature has not applied Etzioni's basis of power and compliance typologies to study the administrative control of teams. This paper fills this research gap by synthesizing and integrating the OD and MCS literature.
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    Leadership & organization development journal 26 (2005), S. 197-214 
    ISSN: 0143-7739
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper examines the relationship between credibility, the dimensions of power and a number of knowledge acquisition attributes. Design/methodology/approach - The study involves a questionnaire-based survey of employees from a number of organisations operating in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A total of 130 useable questionnaires were received from employees who are engaged in self-managing activities from seven companies. These were subjected to a series of correlational and regression analyses. Findings - There are three major findings in this research. First, the relationship between expert power and the knowledge acquisition attributes of personal traits, control and negotiation is positive and significant. Second, the constructs of coercive and referent power are likely to have a negative influence on employees' knowledge acquisition and knowledge sharing. Finally, the findings have clearly shown that the management dimension of credibility has a positive and significant impact on the knowledge acquisition attributes of control and negotiation. Practical implications - The study shows that the real challenge for organisations in the UAE is to provide a working environment that encourages and fosters expert power and credibility and, by extension knowledge acquisition and knowledge sharing. Originality/value - There is a paucity of research in this area and this paper makes a contribution towards filling this gap.
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    Leadership & organization development journal 26 (2005), S. 35-50 
    ISSN: 0143-7739
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Western researchers have concluded that generational groups of workers have different work characteristics and prefer different leadership styles. This paper investigates whether Western research applies equally to generational groups in Taiwan's workplaces, specifically in the higher education sector and manufacturing industry. Design/methodology/approach - A total of 20 higher education institutions and 148 manufacturing SMEs in machinery manufacturing in Taipei were identified. After operational definitions for constructs were defined, a questionnaire was developed and administered. After data had been processed through editing, coding and tabulation, a statistical technique was selected where research expectation tests could be conducted. In order to test construct validity, factor analysis was also performed. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to test for any significant differences between the variables under investigation. Findings - The research shows that generational groups in manufacturing industry have different work characteristics and require different leadership styles, while there were no differences in work characteristics and preferred leadership style for generational groups in the education sector. Originality/value - The results of this research provide some direction for leaders and researchers. Leaders should recognise the different work characteristics between generational groups and apply leadership styles that will positively contribute to employee motivation.
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    Leadership & organization development journal 26 (2005), S. 62-75 
    ISSN: 0143-7739
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Aims to present a conceptual framework for understanding how leaders develop. Design/methodology/approach - The arguments are derived from the assumption that leadership, like many other human manifestations, is a function of a given potential, relevant motivation, and ongoing developmental processes. It is argued that three developmental psychological principles are essential for leaders' development, i.e. experiential learning, vicarious learning, and the suitability of certain developmental aspects to relevant critical periods. Findings - These developmental principles, along with Schon's modalities of learning and reflections ("follow me", "joint investigation" and "hall of mirrors"), serve as a conceptual framework for discussing main implications and practices related to developing leaders. Originality/value - Leaders' development is a process that occurs continuously in an organization. Many organizations attempt to confine it artificially to courses and supplementary training. This limits the range of developmental possibilities, since leadership experiences and vicarious learning take place all the time over a broad range throughout the organization.
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    Leadership & organization development journal 26 (2005), S. 128-140 
    ISSN: 0143-7739
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To extend understanding of the influence of contextual factors on: power and influence; creativity and innovation; and leadership behaviour. Design/methodology/approach - The review has been compiled following a search of seven electronic databases from 1999 to 2004. The author also uses her experience as a physiotherapy manager within a children's hospital NHS Trust to reflect on some of the theories in the workplace. Findings - While the literature is contradictory in places, some trends do emerge. Bureaucratic organizations can inhibit an empowering environment, as can those that are poor at disseminating information or communicating a vision. Hierarchical structures, high staff turnover and lack of resources are likely to stifle creativity and innovation. Organic structures tend to facilitate a more transformational leadership style, whereas bureaucratic structures encourage a more transactional style. The quality of leader-member exchange is thought to be related to work group size, work group cohesiveness and organizational climate. Research limitations/implications - Care is needed in applying these findings to the National Health Service as theory that is developed in one organisation or culture may not be transferable to another. The author suggests that an empirical investigation should be undertaken in different National Health Service units. Originality/value - This paper explores an aspect of leadership that is often neglected. Organizations that wish to nurture and develop their leaders and managers will need to be mindful of the environmental context within which this takes place.
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    Leadership & organization development journal 26 (2005), S. 263-279 
    ISSN: 0143-7739
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Leaders are challenged with the efficient and effective management of their own and their employees' disputes. These are often managed inadequately using "fight", "flight", or management intervention. This paper aims to present the findings of a study into an effective alternative, "one-to-one dispute resolution". The method involves two employees resolving their dispute through face-to-face communication and without direct intervention by management. Design/methodology/approach - Using the Critical Incident Technique, incidents of one-to-one dispute resolution (n =249) were reported by 88 employees. The contents were analysed, and skill-related findings were validated using a questionnaire (n =106). Findings - The findings are presented in a descriptive model of the skilful process of one-to-one dispute resolution. The model is built on eight skill-sets that were central to the dispute resolution process. Research limitations/implications - How and when to effectively coach employees in the use of one-to-one dispute resolution, and the resulting personal and organisational outcomes, need to be examined. In addition, research into the practical application of the model, and in specific organisational contexts, is required. Practical implications - The study highlights the potential for more employees (including both the leaders and the led) to effectively "face" their own disputes without using "fight" or "flight". It challenges those leaders, who often act as third-party interveners, instead to coach their employees in the one-to-one resolution of disputes, while modelling the method themselves. Originality/value - Employees are offered a research-based model of dispute resolution that differs from problematic models in the dispute resolution literature and skills-training programs. A workable alternative to the methods of fight, flight and intervention is provided.
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    Leadership & organization development journal 26 (2005), S. 289-309 
    ISSN: 0143-7739
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This study seeks to survey managers of an Australian government-owned enterprise undergoing organisational change as a result of public sector reform, specifically, National Competition Policy and Corporatisation. The purpose of the study is to examine the extent/type of organisational change and leadership style adopted to implement this change. Design/methodology/approach - To understand the effect of reforms, the researcher explored the extent of change and leadership style through the use of an intra-organisational survey in a government-owned Electricity Supply Corporation in Queensland, Australia. The instrument also included qualitative components to enable the researcher to qualify the statistical results. Findings - Within the public sector, there is an uneasy tension between the need for a revolution of outdated bureaucracies in order to enhance flexibility and innovation, on the one hand, and the desire to maintain the standards and procedures that are necessary for quality civic service for a broad range of stakeholders, on the other. The results of this study indicate that there was significant organisational change and, according to responses, a change of leadership style indicative of this dilemma. Research limitations/implications - The implications suggest the consideration of embedded factors while determining the processes and directions of change. Furthermore, it is necessary to choose a leadership style that is indicative of the type of change to be implemented. Additionally, greater participation by organisational members can increase the success of organisational change. The limitations of the study include the measurement of organisational change and leadership style. This instrument was originally used in structured interviews; however, measures were taken to validate the instrument in its altered setting. Further, the study is confined to a single electricity organisation. Fertile fields for future research projects could include a larger quantitative study conducted with multiple states or nation-wide electricity distribution companies. Originality/value - The study provides empirical evidence of the extent of change as a result of public sector reform. In doing so the study utilises organisational change and leadership style models within a public sector environment.
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    Journal of economic studies 32 (2005), S. 60-80 
    ISSN: 0144-3585
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Although economic theory generally does not support government intervention in international trade, casual observation shows that many developing countries adopt certain trade policies to promote their exports. The objective of this paper is to answer the question that whether developing countries can benefit from export promotion. Design/methodology/approach - This paper considers a developing country which has to import new technology from the world market to improve its productivity. If it has certain economic rigidities, the country is short of foreign exchange and domestic firms cannot import an adequate amount of new technology. Even if there is no rigidity, domestic firms may not have sufficient incentive to invest in new technology. Therefore, the government can step in to subsidize exports. Through an analytical model, this paper investigates in what conditions the measures of export promotion can stimulate production and employment, and improve efficiency and social welfare. Findings - This paper analyzes two effects of export promotion: raising the incentive of capital investment and reducing capital goods shortage caused by foreign exchange constraint. These effects might be the economic rationale for developing country governments to promote exports. It is found that export promotion can definitely raise employment and productivity, but whether these measures can stimulate the supply to the domestic market and improve domestic welfare depends on the sufficient and necessary condition given in the paper. Originality/value - Establishes an analytical model to investigate in what conditions the measures of export promotion such as export subsidies and domestic currency devaluation can stimulate production and employment, and can improve efficiency and social welfare.
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    Journal of economic studies 32 (2005), S. 158-168 
    ISSN: 0144-3585
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper aims to estimate a disaggregated import demand model for Fiji using relative prices, total consumption, investment expenditure and export expenditure variables for the period 1970 to 2000. Design/methodology/approach - The recently developed bounds testing approach to cointegration to test for a long run relationship is used, while the autoregressive distributed lag model is used to estimate short run and long run elasticities. These methodologies are shown to perform well in small sample sizes, particularly given that the bounds F-test critical values for small sample sizes generated by Narayan in 2004 and 2005 are used. Findings - Amongst the key results it is found: a long run cointegration relationship among the variables when import demand is the dependent variable; and import demand to be inelastic and statistically significant at the 1 per cent level with respect to all the explanatory variables in both the long-run and the short-run. Originality/value - The disaggregated import demand model estimated here provides a complete picture of the determinants of Fiji's imports. This model can be used by Fijian policy makers to draw pertinent policies and forecast import demand for Fiji.
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    Journal of economic studies 32 (2005), S. 169-178 
    ISSN: 0144-3585
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The paper aims to study the relevance of the German historical school and American Institutionalism for contemporary research in social sciences. The subject scope of the paper is to trace how concepts, ideas, and frameworks trickle from the historical school into later research programs. Design/methodology/approach - The methodology of the paper is a textual analysis of articles and books that either relates the relationship between the historical school and the institutionalism or make explicit or implicit references to the most important concepts and methodologies in these schools. Findings - The paper has two main findings. The first is that Commons was heavily influenced by Weber's ideal-types when he wrote his most important book Institutional Economics. The second is that concepts and methodologies used by the historical school and American institutionalism are used in nearly all areas of the social sciences. But the researchers seldom make explicit references to these schools. Research limitations/implications - A limitation of the present paper is that it draws too a very limited extent directly on the publications of the German historical school. Future research could try and reconstruct how the American instutionalists came to the conclusions they did on the historical school. It is possible that differences in political opinions and competition between two schools with partly similar messages prompted writers like Veblen and Commons to exaggerate differences of opinion. Originality/value - One important contribution of the paper is the discussion of the influences the historical school had on leading institutionalists. Another important contribution is the exploration of present and future research projects that could benefit from revisiting the theories and methodologies of the historical school and institutionalism. By making more explicit the references to these schools, new insights can be gained on how to develop research methodologies and understanding the limits and potentials of pursuing a research approach.
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    Journal of economic studies 32 (2005), S. 33-46 
    ISSN: 0144-3585
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper examines the monetary thought of Arthur Kitson (1861-1937) as expressed in his published works and in recently discovered answers he submitted in 1922 to a questionnaire from Thomas Edison, the US inventor. Design/methodology/approach - Both original source material from the Edison Archive and published sources are used to examine the subject. Findings - It is found that Kitson's monetary thought is more orthodox than has previously been claimed by, among others, John Maynard Keynes, and more recently in the economics literature. It is also found that Kitson was the only person to support, without qualification, Edison's plan to reform the US monetary system. Originality/value - This paper casts a new light on Kitson's monetary thought, showing the influence of Irving Fisher on Kitson. The paper also presents Edison's questionnaire and Kitson's contributory thoughts on a fiat monetary standard that the questionnaire stimulated.
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    Journal of economic studies 32 (2005), S. 406-419 
    ISSN: 0144-3585
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This study undertakes empirical analysis of the factors that have influenced economic growth in China's provinces during the process of institutional transformation, and to examine whether the disparities in economic growth between provinces have been expanding or diminishing. Design/methodology/approach - Pooled cross-section (provinces) and time-series data are employed, with the error components method also being used for the empirical testing. Findings - Empirical test results using the error components model have shown that during the period from 1988 to 1998, there was a tendency towards divergence of the economic growth rates achieved by China's provinces, with the variables relating to the employed population, changes in property rights and foreign direct investment (FDI), all having a positive impact on economic growth. Research limitations/implications - With China's huge size and the idiosyncrasies of its constituents, it is difficult to quantify the data collected when measuring the geographical, social, institutional and economic ingredients of the provinces. Practical implications - Whether or not the process of institutional transformation in China succeeds in building a truly efficient system will depend on innovation, a process within which the accumulation and transmission of knowledge plays a very important role. Originality/value - The establishment of the empirical model in this study is based on convergence testing using the endogenous growth model, and takes into consideration the impact which China's institutional transformation has had on economic growth in individual provinces.
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    Journal of economic studies 32 (2005), S. 455-467 
    ISSN: 0144-3585
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To avoid aggregation bias by using trade data at bilateral level so that we can determine how sensitive are Britain's inpayments and outpayments to the value of the British pound. Design/methodology/approach - The method is based on the bounds testing approach to cointegration and error-correction modeling. Findings - The main finding is that while UK inpayments are not sensitive to the exchange rate, her outpayments are. Research limitations/implications - Future research must concentrate on disaggregating data further, perhaps at commodity level. Practical implications - The results could be used to identify Britain's trading partners against which Britain can devalue the pound and improve her trade balance. Originality/value - No study has attempted to test the impact of real depreciation of the pound on Britain's payments and receipts with her major trading partners.
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    Journal of economic studies 32 (2005), S. 88-113 
    ISSN: 0144-3585
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Aims to consider whether the expansion of post-compulsory education has led to greater benefits for members of one socio-economic group than another. Design/methodology/approach - Uses a multinomial logit model of the choice of first destination, using the Youth Cohort Survey data for England and Wales, from 1985 to 1992. Findings - Whilst prior attainment has the strongest influence on selecting academic further education, participation rates into post-compulsory education have also increased for young people of average ability. Interaction effects clearly show that for even the most able, the socio-economic status of parents is an important influence on the choice of destination. The greatest benefit from the increased provision of post-compulsory education after conditioning for ability has been to young people from high socio-economic groups. Originality/value - Provides analysis, following investigation, of the main transmission mechanisms that determine choice at age 16.
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  • 44
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    [S.l.] : Emerald
    Journal of economic studies 32 (2005), S. 185-255 
    ISSN: 0144-3585
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this article is to study how the German historical schools are treated in the histories of economic thought as the background for an exploration of some historiographical issues in the history of economic thought. Design/methodology/approach - The study describes the contributions of the members of the German historical schools from a variety of different viewpoints and attitudes toward the history of economic thought. Findings - One conclusion is that several of the things most of the economists of the German historical schools desired are now part of mainstream economics. These include an enlarged scope of economics, changes in the role of the state in economic life, attention to the relationships of law and economics and recognition of the importance of history. Another conclusion is that several historiographical and methodological problems important for the history of economic thought need further study. Originality/value - The study helps to explain and understand some historiographical aspects of the history of economic thought. It examines practices, principles, theories, methodology and forms of presentation of scholarly historical research on one subject in the history of economic thought.
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  • 45
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    [S.l.] : Emerald
    Journal of economic studies 32 (2005), S. 524-539 
    ISSN: 0144-3585
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To test the Miller Price Optimism Model using a new proxy for heterogenous expectations and to examine if high differential stocks behave like glamour stocks and low differential stocks behave like value stocks. Design/methodology/approach - Whisper/analyst forecast differentials were measured for a sample of stocks, combined into portfolios and held for one month. If the Miller model was supported, high differential stocks were expected to have lower portfolio returns than low differential stocks due to the greater divergence between optimistic whisper forecasts and rational analysts consensus forecasts. Findings - High differential quintiles had significantly lower future returns than low differential quintiles supporting the Miller model. High differential stocks resembled glamour stocks while low differential stocks behaved like value stocks. Research limitations/implications - These results pertain to the ultra-short time horizon of two months prior to the earnings announcement. Future research should replicate this study for a longer 3-12 month time horizon. Practical implications - Ultra short-term investors should hold glamour stocks and long term investors should hold value stocks. Rising volatility suggests that investors should define the time horizon for holding assets. Originality/value - It is one of only two studies that directly uses earnings forecasts as a proxy for heterogenous expectations. It adds to the sparse literature on whisper forecasts. It may be used by academicians studying price optimism effects and institutional investors following stock returns during earnings announcements.
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  • 46
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    [S.l.] : Emerald
    Journal of economic studies 32 (2005), S. 540-573 
    ISSN: 0144-3585
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to reassess the relative impact of labour market regulation on economic performance. Inflexible labour markets combined with high welfare costs are often thought to be the main cause of low growth in Europe. Design/methodology/approach - This paper compares the impact of labour market regulation to that of macroeconomic policies (such as fiscal policy, monetary policy, macroeconomic cost management) and to that of investment into future growth (such as research, education and the diffusion of technology). We develop for this purpose a highly stylised model explaining economic growth; we suggest a synthetic measure of performance and use data for the US and Europe for the empirical test. Findings - The main result is that regulation impacts on growth, the impact of regulatory change is, however, less easy to demonstrate. The impact of macro economic policy can be demonstrated first by the more growth oriented monetary and fiscal policy in the US and the success of some European countries in bringing private and public costs in line with productivity and tax revenues. However, boosting investment into future growth by encouraging research, education and technology diffusion seems to be the most important determinant of performance. Research limitations/implications - As to the limits of this paper, we have to acknowledge that our analysis refers to a short time period, a small number of countries and uses a highly stylised model. Practical implications - If the results can be replicated for larger data sets and by more elaborated technical methods, the findings have an important policy implication: country strategies relying only on deregulation, without complementary macroeconomic policy and without strategy to boost "growth drivers" are suboptimal. This questions the policy advice given by some economists and economic think tanks, which call for deregulation as main policy strategy and then expect market forces to boost growth quickly and without specific policy measures. Originality/value - The attempt to assess the relative impact of the three policy areas is specific to this paper; most other papers focus on one policy area only.
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  • 47
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    Bradford : Emerald
    Collection building 24 (2005), S. 12-19 
    ISSN: 0160-4953
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - This annotated list represents a selection of outstanding poetry titles published in the USA in 2003 and the early part of 2004. Design/methodology/approach - The authors selected the titles in this list from the 2,100 titles received for the 2004 Poetry Publications Showcase at Poets House in New York City, held in April 2004. Findings - The authors selected titles for this list that would be both accessible and challenging to library users. Originality/value - This list can be used as a guide to collection development for contemporary poetry.
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  • 48
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    Bradford : Emerald
    Collection building 24 (2005), S. 29-34 
    ISSN: 0160-4953
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To review the history behind and steps taken to inventory and build search/edit modules for a database containing the Iowa State University Library's extensive collection of American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards. Design/methodology/approach - Iowa State University built a database inventory of the ANSI collection of standards through the use of Microsoft Excel and Oracle production software. The collection was inventoried and input into an Excel database, then converted into a web-based search engine using Oracle software. Edit modules were developed to allow for adding to the database, and updating and correcting existing records. Findings - With the addition of this search engine and edit module, the task of keeping records up to date and keeping patrons informed as to the availability of standards within the ISU collection has been greatly improved. Practical implications - The implications for this form of database suggest it could be introduced into other major research libraries with large collections of uncatalogued literature utilizing similar software and expertise. This was a local concern that could have a broad impact on the way ANSI standards are inventoried and searched in libraries. Originality/value - The library that possesses a large collection of work under a single call number that is not inventoried and is looking for solutions for improved patron access will find this information valuable.
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  • 49
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    Bradford : Emerald
    Collection building 24 (2005), S. 61-64 
    ISSN: 0160-4953
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - Limited physical and financial resources and changing customer behaviors compelled the University of Arizona Science-Engineering Library to pursue more flexible collection management options, such as removing print copies of journals as the library purchased the electronic backfiles. The purpose of this paper is to describe a process used at the library to compare electronic journals to their print counterparts. Design/methodology/approach - The library's approach was to study the electronic content provided through Elsevier's ScienceDirect for completeness and quality of text and images. This was to ensure that the removal of print would minimally impact library customers while reclaiming building space that could be better utilized to meet changing customer needs. Findings - The process uncovered the reality that the electronic backfiles were not always adequate substitutes for print copies. In response, it was necessary to open a dialogue with the publisher to share the library's findings that resulted in improved electronic backfiles. Originality/value - This paper weighs the advantages and disadvantages of taking a transformational approach to collection management.
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  • 50
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    Bradford : Emerald
    Collection building 24 (2005), S. 4-8 
    ISSN: 0160-4953
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To address the need for dialogue between librarians, teachers and scholars in research institutions, as the information environment becomes increasingly complex. Design/methodology/approach - A discussion of the impact of technology, budgets and collection storage practices on library users and their research patterns; examination of the methodologies for assessing that impact and continuing to meet user needs in a changing environment. Findings - Despite trends toward shared collections and a library of access rather than ownership, it is still necessary to develop careful knowledge of one's patrons and to shape one's collections and services to meet local needs. Practical implications - Libraries must aggressively use focus groups, surveys and above all the personal relationship between faculty and library subject specialists to shape the development and management of their collections and the services they offer. These methods must shape not only one's title-by-title selection but one's larger, policy decisions and the overall configuration of one's collections. Originality/value - A broad assessment of the relationship between the new information landscape and the manner in which librarians and users communicate.
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  • 51
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    Bradford : Emerald
    Collection building 24 (2005), S. 35-43 
    ISSN: 0160-4953
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To identify the necessary components in the formulation of collection development policies. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is based on both research about collection development policies and data compiled as a result of a survey of 16 centers of higher and technical education in Cuba. Findings - Although the directors of university libraries and managers of collection development were aware of the process of collection development, few have collection development policies, and few have carried out user studies. Originality/value - A model for a collection development policy for the system of university libraries is proposed.
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  • 52
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    Bradford : Emerald
    Collection building 24 (2005), S. 65-69 
    ISSN: 0160-4953
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - Aims to compare and contrast different collection policies and shows a practical application of web-based documentation. Design/methodology/approach - The article is a case study and general review that discusses how significant numbers of libraries today are posting collection policies on the web, how these policies may differ in form and practice from those of the past, and how the Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University developed and applied one such policy of its own. It also discusses examples of relevant literature and other collection policy web sites. Findings - Its implications point to the value of developing sets of narrative collection policy statements focusing on specific academic disciplines and of beginning the policy-making process with an assessment of the academic profile of the university that the library supports. Originality/value - General discussion of collection policies has been absent from the literature for some time and the article should be valuable to those libraries without collection policies or those with older printed policies languishing in file cabinets.
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  • 53
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    Bradford : Emerald
    Collection building 24 (2005), S. 83-86 
    ISSN: 0160-4953
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - This article proposes describing the restructuring of collection development at the University of California Riverside University Libraries. Design/methodology/approach - This paper is based on the library's experience in changing to fund accounting. Findings - The author describes the new system that has created more accountability for the materials budget. Practical implications - As a result of the new system, faculty members are more aware of the budgeted amount for monographic purchases in their own area and whom they can contact with concerns or purchasing requests. Originality/value - This article provides a model for restructuring collection development that other libraries can adapt.
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  • 54
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    Bradford : Emerald
    Collection building 24 (2005), S. 92-95 
    ISSN: 0160-4953
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - Proposes encouraging librarians to be more informed about the value of collection evaluations. Design/methodology/approach - Three examples of collection evaluation methods (user-centered evaluation, physical assessment, and specific subject support) are explored. Findings - Many strategies are available for evaluating collections, regardless of the kind of library or size of the collection. Evaluation allows librarians a more thorough knowledge of what already exists, what may be needed, and whether collection development goals are being achieved. Practical implications - Methods of meaningful collection evaluation are shared so that librarians may create an evaluation that will provide useful information to them in their library setting. Implications for successful future collection management, financial resource management, and effective format selection are discussed. Originality/value - Discussion that includes the "assessment of specific subject support" and "assessing and building specific subject collections" encourages librarians to recognize their major and minor collections, creatively assess those collection areas, and involve techniques or individuals who might guide them to specific subject materials.
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  • 55
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    Bradford : Emerald
    Collection building 24 (2005), S. 127-132 
    ISSN: 0160-4953
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - Service learning has become an important teaching methodology in many American schools, colleges, and universities. Libraries will thus want to add resources to their collections in this subject area to support faculty and student research. This article aims to briefly define the concept of service learning and to describe selected resources in the area. Design/methodology/approach - The annotated bibliography is divided into three sections: organizations and their web sites, Periodicals, and Books. Findings - Service learning, once an experimental teaching and learning approach, has become well established as a pedagogy. In designing a successful service learning experience, teachers and faculty must identify real community needs, must structure the experience in such a way that students can grow and learn from it and, on completion of the experience, must assess its outcomes. Originality/value - This paper synthesizes the literature on service learning and provides a guide for librarians who want to add materials in this area to their collection.
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  • 56
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    Bradford : Emerald
    Equal opportunities international 24 (2005), S. 57-64 
    ISSN: 0261-0159
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Sociology
    Notes: Cultural diversity has become a major issue in the United States. Issues of cultural diversity are more focused, especially in the classroom setting. There are several techniques that may be applied to teaching to accommodate students of diverse backgrounds. Teachers must first be aware of stereo types, ethnocentrism, and prejudice. They should apply managementtechniques to the physical space as well as students' behaviour. Multiple intelligence theory, active learning, technology and multicultural education are among some of the techniques that may be applied to teaching in the classroom. In addition to teaching modifications, teachers must include the parents in the classroom activities. Teachers should be familiar with the obstacles they may face when implementing the techniques. These methods also have future implications in the higher education setting. Professors may utilise these techniques in their lectures. Students who have had these practices integrated into their learning will also be better prepared for higher education and for the workforce.
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  • 57
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Structural survey 23 (2005), S. 42-54 
    ISSN: 0263-080X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
    Notes: Purpose - Construction labour productivity is of great interest to practitioners and researchers because it affects project cost and time overrun. This paper evaluates and ranks the importance, frequency and severity of project delay factors that affect the construction labour productivity for Malaysian residential projects. Design/methodology/approach - A total of 100 respondents consisting of 70 contractors, 11 developers and 19 consultants participated in this study. The respondents were asked to indicate how important each item of a list of 50 project related factors was to construction labour productivity. The data were then subjected to the calculation of importat indices which enabled the factors to be ranked. Findings - The five most important factors identified by them were: material shortage at site; non-payment to suppliers causing the stoppage of material delivery to site; change order by consultants; late issuance of construction drawing by consultants; and incapability of contractors' site management to organise site activities. On the other hand, the five most frequent factors were: material shortage at project site; non-payment to suppliers causing the stoppage of material delivery to site; late issuance of progress payment by the client to main contractor; lack of foreign and local workers in the market; and coordination problem between the main contractor and subcontractor. Originality/value - The inferences drawn from this study could be used by the project managers to take account of these factors at an early stage, hence minimising the time and cost overrun.
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  • 58
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Structural survey 23 (2005), S. 101-110 
    ISSN: 0263-080X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
    Notes: Purpose - The conservation management plan (CMP) for a heritage building establishes the nature of the work required to conserve, maintain and enhance the cultural heritage significance of the property. A missing element from many CMPs has been a realistic consideration of the cost of the work at this early stage. The paper aims to show how cost planning of works in a heritage building's conservation environment can be achieved. Design/methodology/approach - A background to the structure and preparation of CMPs from the literature in Australia and the UK is presented. Experience gained from the costing and budgeting in the CMP for several heritage projects in Australia and the process, are both described, summarised and discussed. Findings - The CMP provides a comprehensive working management guide for owners and other stakeholders to follow when carrying out works to the heritage property and includes components such as current condition, legal responsibilities and statutory obligations, sequencing and timing of proposed actions. The addition of significant financial information such as maintenance programmes, funding sources, long and short term costs, financial resources of owner, technical constraints, current owners needs and requirements and conflict resolution provides the possibility of making the CMP a more valuable document to the funding agencies and the building's users. Practical implications - Heritage clients and users increasingly need to know their likely financial commitment before work commences. This early stage cost advice (indicative costs) integrated into CMPs can establish realistic budgets for decision making. Originality/value - The addition of the cost of the works as proposed in a CMP can support client and community groups in making requests for funding from the various government and private agencies with an interest in, or responsibility for, the future care and use of these properties.
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  • 59
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Structural survey 23 (2005), S. 138-151 
    ISSN: 0263-080X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
    Notes: Purpose - There have been very few cost-and-benefit evaluations of rehabilitation. This paper is a triangulation attempt to evaluate directly the cost-and-benefit of rehabilitation works without relying on price-proxy and econometric assumptions. Design/methodology/approach - Chau et al., in their paper, "Estimating the value enhancement effects of refurbishment" (Facilities, Vol. 21 No. 1/2, 2003) have produced an empirical test by regression on the elevation of property price-differential after rehabilitation. However, property price is merely a proxy on the improvements of building conditions, and its efficiency in reflecting building quality is subject to some institutional constraints. The estimation is also subject to the validity of econometric assumptions. This paper investigates the improvements directly under 18 assessment criteria of the quality of seven housing blocks in Hong Kong. Findings - The results show that rehabilitation brings benefits to owners, but that these only marginally outweigh the benefits of redevelopment. Research limitations/implications - The sample size is small, yet it opens up a new framework for future studies on building performance assessment of rehabilitation. Practical implications - The study serves as a benchmark for future assessment of rehabilitation works. Originality/value - The study represents an attempt to evaluate the costs and benefits of rehabilitation using a direct performance assessment approach.
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  • 60
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Structural survey 23 (2005), S. 172-179 
    ISSN: 0263-080X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
    Notes: Purpose - To summarise research undertaken by the BRE into the identification and condition assessment, of non-traditional housing. During the 1980s, defects were discovered in the design and construction of a number of house types designed and built before 1960 and these were subsequently designated as inherently defective under the Housing Defects legislation. Design/methodology/approach - The research involved several years of investigation during which many different types of pre-cast concrete, in situ-concrete, steel- and timber-framed housing systems were investigated. This research has culminated in the publication of a major new book and CDROM. Findings - Overall the majority of non-traditional dwellings have provided levels of performance not very different from many traditionally built dwellings of the same age. However, there are inherent defects with several systems. Some dwellings may be beyond economic repair. Practical implications - The surveyor needs to be aware of the system of non-traditional dwelling under inspection and to understand the likely defects and necessary remedial work. Originality/value - This research will inform surveyors and home inspectors of the identification of non-traditional dwellings, modes of failure of various systems, whether economic repair is possible and what remedial action should be proposed.
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  • 61
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Structural survey 23 (2005), S. 210-230 
    ISSN: 0263-080X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
    Notes: Purpose - Seeks to examine the bond strength of a large range of structural polypropylene fibres, as used in concrete, to determine the most effective fibre capable of transmitting load (N/mm2) between fibre and cement within the concrete matrix. Design/methodology/approach - Following fibre selection characterised by the highest bond strength, determined from a series of pull out tests, BS flexural tests were carried out using high bond strength fibres (40?mm?×?0.9?mm diameter used at 6?kg/m3) to determine whether or not structural polypropylene fibres had any effect on the ultimate flexural strength of fibre-reinforced concrete, when compared with the plain control sample. Fibre orientation, type of rupture failure mode and post-crack performance were examined. Findings - Even structural fibre dispersion was found to be best achieved with the use of monofilament polypropylene fibres (19?mm?×?22 micron used at 0.9?×?kg/m3) in addition to the 6?kg/m3 structural fibre dose. Structural polypropylene fibres were found not to provide additional flexural strength however, they did provide post-crack control, limiting the crack width with subsequent enhanced durability that in turn will provide lower life cycle costs. Practical implications - In addition to increased durability the use of fibre reinforcement negates the need to place steel reinforcement bars. Originality/value - Investigates the ambiguity in literature between claims made by different investigators regarding the effects of polypropylene fibres on compressive and flexural strengths.
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  • 62
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Marketing intelligence & planning 23 (2005), S. 136-154 
    ISSN: 0263-4503
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To convert the principle of customer relationship management (CRM) into practical guidelines for best practice in the implementation of a CRM programme in the real world. Design/methodology/approach - The findings of an extensive review of the literature provide the foundations for a general CRM paradigm, which is applied to a case study of a large European bank's specification, development and implementation of CRM over a five-year period. Data for the case study were collected in 1-2?h long depth interviews with executives of the bank and a consultancy firm collaborating in the design of the programme, and were analysed by a formal coding procedure. Findings - The design and implementation phases of CRM programme development are described in detail, the latter organised into 18 initiatives in five categories: testing, founding, building doing and ongoing. Research limitations/implications - Because of the stage of development of the bank's programme at the time of writing, it was not possible to report meaningfully on an obvious sixth phase: evaluation. The paper considers shortcomings of CRM implementation and proposes avenues for further research. Practical implications - A shortage of practically grounded templates for the design and implementation of CRM programmes has left marketing managers struggling to apply the widely advocated principle to their own situations. By adding empirical evidence to prescriptions for best practice, this paper begins the process of bridging that gap between theory and practice. Originality/value - The unique case study reported here will therefore be of definite interest and potential value to managers responsible for developing market intelligence into formal plans for a CRM strategy, beyond the specific context of financial services.
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  • 63
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Marketing intelligence & planning 23 (2005), S. 172-188 
    ISSN: 0263-4503
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The objectives of this research study were to measure the perception and satisfactions of consumers of the tourism product of Barbados, and to identify potential niche markets that could be used in the development of the destination's positioning strategy. Design/methodology/approach - Self-completion questionnaires were distributed to tourists visiting the island at the peak of the 2003 tourism season. The scales used were adapted from two authoritative sources. Data from 400 completed questionnaires were analysed quantitatively by a variety of statistical techniques, including factor analysis and multiple regression. Answers to open-ended questions were also used where necessary to explain top-of-mind attitudes to the tourism products consumed. Findings - Four possible niche markets are identified that can inform the development of the destination's repositioning strategy: recreational, sports, culture and eco-tourism. Research limitations/implications - The time frame of the study was two winter months in one year, and only actual visitors completed the questionnaire. The study did not assess their evaluation of the quality of the services provided and consumed. Practical implications/originality/value - The overall conclusions and discussion of the findings should provide a case-based framework for the practical planning and implementation of positioning strategies in the tourism context.
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  • 64
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Marketing intelligence & planning 23 (2005), S. 249-265 
    ISSN: 0263-4503
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper seeks to examines the effect of manufacturer market orientation on distributor dependence and satisfaction with the relationship, and to analyse how this dependence affects distributor satisfaction, with specific reference to the Spanish ceramic tile industry, Design/methodology/approach - Two parallel sets of individual interviews with a total of 222 manufacturers and distributors were conducted by a private research institute. They yielded 179 dyads of interaction. Market orientation, dependence and satisfaction were measured by five-point Likert scales. The data were used to test 11 hypotheses by structural equation modelling. Findings - Analysis of the findings suggests that all aspects of manufacturers' market orientation have a positive effect on distributors' satisfaction, except response implementation and the influence of distributor dependence. Contrary to expectations, dependence on the manufacturer adversely affects distributor satisfaction. The conclusion is that adoption of market orientation is justified in practice by increased dependence and satisfaction among distributors, in addition to other benefits discussed in the literature. Research limitations/implications - Although the study only focuses on one industry, and the dependence measurement scale has been limited to two items, in order to obtain an acceptable reliability level, the results are clear within those limitations and are transferable with appropriate caution to the general context. Originality/value - This study addresses a gap in the research into the effect of market orientation on distribution channel relationships, and provides useful planning information on the market orientation dimensions that influence dependence and satisfaction in the relationships between members at different levels in a channel.
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  • 65
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Marketing intelligence & planning 23 (2005), S. 296-312 
    ISSN: 0263-4503
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this article is to bring together established research in the field of consumer complaint responses: to contextualise this research into the area of complaints about advertising in Australia; and to empirically test the proposition that it is possible to construct a profile of complainants about advertising in Australia. Design/methodology/approach - Postcodes obtained from the Advertising Standards Board complaints database were entered into Pacific Micromarketing's MOSAIC software, which uses data at the postcode level to cluster individuals into homogeneous groups. Findings - Characteristics shared among consumers who engage in "amplified voicing" include above average income levels, above average disposable income levels, higher than average education levels, professional and associate professional occupations, middle- to late-middle-aged household heads and above average representation of working women. Their interests tend towards culture, technology, entertaining, sport, food and fashion. Research limitations/implications - Complainants seem to be unrepresentative of those most likely to be disadvantaged by "unacceptable" advertising. It is suggested that it now falls to advertising professionals and marketing academics to encourage greater involvement of all members of Australian society in the current complaints process and build wider understanding of practices that contravene the regulatory system. Originality/value - This study investigates the effects of advertising on consumers and hence on society in general, and examines the changing nature and structure of the advertising self-regulatory system in Australia. Though based on fieldwork in Australia, it provides an international perspective, and is potentially transferable to other societies.
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  • 66
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Marketing intelligence & planning 23 (2005), S. 372-381 
    ISSN: 0263-4503
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The aim of the paper is to show how intelligence emanating from customer profitability analysis (CPA) can help improve strategic marketing planning. Insights into the profitability of individual customers, as well as the distribution of profitability across the customer base, can lead to better decisions in the areas of managing costs and revenues, managing risks and strategic market positioning. Design/methodology/approach - The concept and process of CPA are first explained. The heart of the paper then discusses how the outcomes permit novel analyses related to costs and revenues, risk, and strategic positioning. Finally, the paper explains what is needed to make the shift from retrospective CPA to prospective CPA. Findings - CPA delivers two types of insights: the degree of profitability for each individual customer, and the distribution of profitability among customers within the customer base. Profitability data at the level of the individual customer support better decision making about service levels, marketing investments and pricing strategies. The profitability distribution curve yields information about the vulnerability of future cash flows from customers. Further, DPA data permit segmentation and targeting on the basis of profitability and the development of different value propositions for different profitability segments. Practical implications - Shareholder value is created through cash flows from customers. CPA uncovers where these cash flows are generated. Armed with customer profitability data, marketers can really develop and implement value-driven differentiated customer service strategies. Originality/value - While quite a number of published papers have discussed the technicalities of calculating customer profitability, this paper adds to the literature an overview of how the outcomes of such calculations can help planners make better decisions, to increase the magnitude of cash flows from customers and/or reduce the volatility and vulnerability of such cash flows.
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    Bingley : Emerald
    Marketing intelligence & planning 23 (2005), S. 77-88 
    ISSN: 0263-4503
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to: determine which criteria of the car insurance brokers' web sites are important or unimportant; establish how well those criteria are presented on the car insurance brokers' web sites; and find out whether the consumer's final decision to purchase the product is influenced by the web sites' characteristics, the price, etc. Design/methodology/approach - The evaluation method employed in this study is the extended web assessment method (EWAM), which is an evaluation tool specifically created for the assessment of electronic commerce applications. A double questionnaire survey has been undertaken to collect data from 28 finance advisers in an independent financial advisory firm in the UK. Findings - The preliminary findings suggest that the majority of the assessed web site criteria fall in the categories of "maintain strategy" and "no immediate improvement necessary" with certain web site features considered as "strategic overkill" or "improvement necessary". It is also found that the web sites are utilised as a tool for shopping around for quotes but the final purchase would be made by most consumers via the telephone. Research limitations/implications - It is important to mention that an empirical study with a sample of 28 insurance advisers in one financial advisory company can only reflect a limited picture of current practice in the UK car insurance brokers market. Therefore, the findings reported in this paper are tentative and preliminary. To test or confirm relevant findings reported here, further evaluation work with a larger number of assessors having different backgrounds may be necessary. Practical implications - While the majority of the assessed web site criteria fall in the "maintain strategy" and "no immediate improvement necessary" fields, efforts should be made by practitioners to improve site maps, site search, and insurers' details for quotes. Originality/value - This paper provides useful information for UK car insurance brokers and web sites developers.
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    Marketing intelligence & planning 23 (2005), S. 486-504 
    ISSN: 0263-4503
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To build a National Consumer Satisfaction Index for Turkey, drawing on models already in existence in Sweden, the USA, Norway and the European Union. In so doing, to remedy observed practical shortcomings of those indices. Design/methodology/approach - Structural equation modelling was applied to the general model, in the specific context of the mobile telephone market in Turkey, based on data collected by questionnaire from more than 1,500 subscribers. Findings - The purpose-designed new customer satisfaction index exhibits good fit and strong explanatory power. It is the most comprehensive so far developed, by virtue of adding two new factors to the model. Research limitations/implications - The new Turkish index was tested for validity and reliability only in the context of mobile telephony; it should ideally now be further tested in different sectors, periodically, to validate comparisons with other national variants. More latent variables and economic data should be incorporated to analyse the links among the index itself, loyalty and economic consequences. It is suggested that the partial least squares method could have been more appropriate than the maximum likelihood iteration procedure actually employed. Practical implications - Apart from its obvious role in assessing customer satisfaction in a domestic market, a customer satisfaction index can be extended to the level of comparing whole economies. This is of considerable significance for Turkey's ambitions to join the European Union. Originality/value - This article enhances and extends an established but relatively little known quantitative method for evaluating customer satisfaction, and thereby offers an important diagnostic tool to marketing planners
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    Marketing intelligence & planning 23 (2005), S. 189-199 
    ISSN: 0263-4503
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper introduces a new approach for autonomous internet-based environmental scanning, which combines concept of weak signals with "information foraging theory". Design/methodology/approach - Early detection and rapid action with respect to developments in the operating environment is a prerequisite for successful marketing planning. Accordingly, this paper proposes a three-stage process for overcoming practical obstacles to the detection and use of weak signals from the operating environment, in particular how to identify relevant and useful documents in harsh information environments such as the internet. Its functionality is demonstrated by means of a human-machine experiment. Findings - A framework based on information foraging theory is well suited to the task of determining the relevance of documents and facilitates the automation of information search processes. A prototype environmental scanning system of this type outperformed human experts in a typical scanning task. Research limitations/implications - Embedding the detection of weak signals in a formal process permits intelligence gatherers to step beyond anecdotal evidence, and complements the current literature on weak signal detection with formal and systematic procedural guidelines. Practical implications - The presented methodology facilitates both the selection and the structuring of information sources. This unburdens the managers and leaves time for important tasks such as the development of concrete marketing plans reacting to detected developments. Originality/value - The paper provides a comprehensive framework for web-based weak signal detection in business environments, and can be used as a starting point for the development of practicable environmental scanning systems.
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    Marketing intelligence & planning 23 (2005), S. 220-232 
    ISSN: 0263-4503
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To identify the factors that influence shoppers' satisfaction with their "primary" grocery store, and those that encourage them to continue patronising it despite being presented with a significant inducement to shop elsewhere. Design/methodology/approach - A structured questionnaire containing 31 variables relating to shopping behaviour and satisfaction was administered to 934 shoppers leaving a number of grocery stores in an Australian city during a two-week period. Results were used to construct two mathematical models predicting customer satisfaction and store loyalty, from which two research hypotheses were derived. Findings - The results of model estimation show that factors with a significant influence on store satisfaction have little in common with others that impel shoppers to remain loyal to one store. Indeed, there was no evidence in this study that shoppers' overall satisfaction was by itself a significant influence on continued patronage. Research limitations/implications - The questionnaire did not ask questions, judged to be intrusive, relating to respondents' income level, education background, employment status or household size - characteristics known to have a bearing on perception of risk associated with switching to an unfamiliar store and hence potentially to inhibit action. It would be instructive in future research to assess the extent to which demographic characteristics mediate perceptions of financial, psychological and social risk, and their influence on satisfaction and loyalty. Practical implications - Retailers often do not recognise that what influences customer satisfaction is not the same as what engenders store loyalty, and consequently do not allocate scarce resources systematically among tactics influencing one or the other. Unless they are vigilant to changing consumer behaviour patterns, they will not be able to isolate in their strategy the elements of the retail mix that could insulate their loyal customers from responding to competitors' special offers. Originality/value - This study introduces intelligence gatherers and strategic planners in the retail context to an important distinction between general satisfaction and specific loyalty.
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    Marketing intelligence & planning 23 (2005), S. 281-295 
    ISSN: 0263-4503
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The puropse of this article is to identify consumers who experience difficulty in making their buying decisions, especially in the face of variety of choice, proliferation of brand choice, small inter-brand differences, brand counterfeiting, marketing communication overload and so on. Design/methodology/approach - A questionnaire administered to 264 consumers in north Germany used a scale developed by the authors at the University of Hanover in 2002 to measure three types of difficulty in marketplace decision making. Those relate to similarity among product-service offerings available, information overload, and marketing communications that lack clarity. Data collected were analysed by ANOVA and hierarchical cluster analysis. Findings - ANOVA suggested that high levels of marketplace decision difficulty were characteristic of older, less well-educated female consumers. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four distinct and meaningful consumer types, in terms of "marketplace decision difficulty" or MPDD. Research limitations/implications - The present study was restricted to a single large city in one European country, and one of the test statistics was perhaps too rigorous for useful conclusions in the case of some variables, but the findings do contain clear managerial implications and future research developments are proposed. Practical implications - Marketing strategists should find it useful to understand the demographics of consumers who are likely to experience difficulty in making marketplace decisions - for instance, to segment audiences for their marketing communications, and to vary style and content accordingly. Originality/value - This study offers a practical market segmentation scheme, based on demographic influences on decision-making behaviour.
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    Marketing intelligence & planning 23 (2005), S. 350-358 
    ISSN: 0263-4503
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To determine the impact of price on consumer decision making in online environments. Design/methodology/approach - Uses a conjoint experiment to investigate the trade-offs customers make when choosing and to establish their relative weights in online and offline situations. Findings - Finds that customers expect prices to be lower in an online environment than in a traditional sales channel. Research limitations/implications - Despite acknowledged limitations of experimental design and student samples, the findings have both theoretical and practical implications. Practical implications - Marketing planners can use the intelligence gained from conjoint studies such as this to improve the design and implementation of online retail experiences. Originality/value - Compares online and offline shopping environments with specific regard to the importance of price in each in the consumer decision-making processes, a hitherto overlooked issue in marketing research.
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