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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper is concerned with the theoretical and practical engineering development issues, necessary for the design, build and test of an afterburner thrust augmentation system for a model aircraft gas turbine engine. Design/methodology/approach - Research into key combustion parameters including, flame holder diameter, flame holder edge velocity, burner velocity and equivalence ratio were undertaken. This information was used as the basis for the design and fabrication of the afterburner combustion system. The after burner system had been designed to fit a Wren MW54 model gas turbine engine, that included FADEC control for the mother engine. Substantial testing of the afterburner system was undertaken. Findings - Changes in "dry" and "wet" jet efflux temperature while the engine is accelerating from idle to full power are found. The increase in temperature between the dry and wet case are not markedly different, demonstrating the poor quality of the afterburner flame: the testing of the afterburner system resulted in limited flame substantiation being achieved. Research limitations/implications - Further research is required and is currently being undertaken, into the computational modelling of fuel atomisation issues and further engineering of the fuel injection system. Practical implications - This afterburner design may eventually be adopted by Wren Turbines for economic production. Originality/value - Provides further information on the engineering and efficiency problems associated with very small-scale gas turbine engines.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To establish a method for the calculations in the field of rotor aerodynamics.Design/methodology/approach - The calculations of the lift-drag characteristics of OAF and NACA63A312 airfoils at low speed are made using Jameson/TVD mixed scheme. By means of finite volume approach for numerical discretization and Runge-Kutta time-stepping advance, Euler/Navier-Stokes equations are solved. Furthermore, a model based on circular tiny segment momentum theory and blade element theory is established to study the thrust and power of ducted tail rotor.Findings - The results of the calculation demonstrate the feasibility of the established method for analyzing ducted tail rotor aerodynamic characteristics.Research limitations/implications - Although the global thrust and power of ducted tail-rotor could be obtained using current method, the exact flow filed (such as shroud pressure field and the flow over fan blade) calculations still rely on the complex three-dimensional CFD technique that should be studied in future.Practical implications - A very useful method for the preliminary design of the ducted tail rotor.Originality/value - By comparing the calculated results with those of relevant experiment, it is proved that the method developed here is suitable for the calculations in the field of rotor aerodynamics.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - Firms in the aerospace industry face considerable pressure to improve co-ordination in their supply chains. The major question of the present study is what supply chain co-ordination strategies are dominant in the Dutch aerospace industry given the market environment of this industry? Design/methodology/approach - Because information is the key ingredient for coordinating the supply chain in a given problem situation, an information processing point of view is adopted. In the empirical research, supply chain co-ordination strategies are investigated for six Dutch-based aerospace firms with different products and technologies. Findings - It is concluded that in terms of the framework of Galbraith, co-ordination strategies increasing the capacity to process information dominate supply chain management in the Dutch aerospace industry. The information-processing capacity is increased by investing in lateral relations, long-term planning and information systems between companies involved in the same supply chain. Originality/value - Information is provided on Dutch aerospace firms' supply chain strategies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - Nowadays, many micro-satellites rely on three-axis stabilization using at least three reaction wheels (RWs) for attitude control. Typically, RWs are mounted separately within the satellite and leads to long wires from each RW to the associated electronics. Placement and other constraints may also arise during integration. Furthermore, the large number of mounting holes required for mounting the RWs directly on the structural panels may weaken the integrity of the structure. This paper highlights a need for a special housing to be designed for mounting three to four RWs as a group at one location for simple and easy three-axis stabilization of typical micro-satellites. Design/methodology/approach - Details about the development of the design methodology for such housing are discussed. The basic idea is to place the RWs onto the proposed housing, which will be then mounted on to one of the honeycomb panels used for the satellite structure. Requirements analysis, design, validation, and manufacturing process are covered. Findings - The outcome is a dimensionally optimized housing structure for four RWs with a frequency safety factor of three. Originality/value - In summary, the designed product satisfied all requirements. In addition, the exercise set out a planned procedure for designing similar housings for other satellite components.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper gives the background to the measurement of metal cutting temperatures and a review of the practicality of the various methods of measuring cutting temperature while machining metals. Design/methodology/approach - The review was compiled after a literature search, visits to other research establishments and discussions with other researchers in the machining/temperature measurement field. Findings - Information about several methods of measuring cutting temperature during a machining process is given along with the limitations of the use of each method. Practical implications - All the temperature measurement methods discussed have their limitations and these are described for each method listed. Originality/value - The paper provides a review of all the cutting temperature measurement methods discovered in recent work. This will be a reference document of interest to others working in this field.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To compare the conventional reaction wheel and battery systems with the combined energy and attitude control system. The system mass, volume and power requirements are revealed corresponding to the small satellite missions. Design/methodology/approach - All the relevant system parametric equations are established. The system mass, volume and power are estimated accordingly for the conventional and the combined systems. Then, both systems are compared with respect to the typical small satellite missions. Findings - The combined system outperforms the conventional system in most small satellite missions. However, there are some small satellite missions where the conventional systems are better in terms of the mass and volume budgets. Research limitations/implications - This research work is exclusively for small satellites in the LEO orbits. Practical implications - A reasonable information for sizing the combined energy and attitude control system is established. The system mass, volume and power budgets can be extracted from this research work. Originality/value - The results provide an instant answer regarding the feasibility of the combined energy and attitude control system for small satellites.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To make easier the estimation of maintenance cost of airframes, using commercial software and considering reliability's conditions. Design/methodology/approach - It was possible to propose a new method using commercial reliability software. Stress load is included as a random variable in reliability analysis. An example is done. The results are compared with other works. Findings - It is easier and faster to apply than the methodology proposed by other authors. Originality/value - This paper suggests an easy way of evaluating the economic life of aircraft structures. The calculated optimal stress distribution function can be used with commercial reliability software to estimate the crack size population.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - A stall model to predict the performance of a blade row operating under rotating stall conditions, is proposed. Design/methodology/approach - The experiments were carried out on an isolated rotor row of an axial flow compressor of a radius ratio of 0.66 hub/tip. Wall static pressure tappings were used for measurement of blade row pressure rise. The mass flow rate through the machine was determined from the pressure drop at the intake. Detailed flow measurements were made using a hot wire "V" probe and transducers. An online data acquisition system was used in which data sampling was phase-locked with respect to stall cell trailing edge. Findings - Measurements indicate that a pressure depression occurs in the stalled region. The assumption of uniform static pressure at the exit of a stalled blade row is not supported by the present work. The assumption of uniform static pressure at the exit of a stalled row together with the assumption that flow in unstalled regions operates at fixed point on the unstalled characteristic leads to the conclusion that total-to-static pressure rise during stalled operation is independent of blockage. This view is not supported by the experiments carried out on an isolated rotor. Research limitations/implications - Additional experimental studies for axial compressors having different rotor and blade geometries and rotor speeds, are required. Practical implications - The results can be used in the design and operation of axial compressor rotors. Originality/value - A new stall model is presented in which the behavior during stalled operation with large blockage is different from that during, low blockage.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To give a closed-form solution of the relative pose determination problem based on monocular vision during final approach phase of spacecraft Rendzvous and Docking. Design/methodology/approach - Based on the assumption of scaled orthographic projection, the model of perspective projection is simplified by representing the relative attitude using unit quaternion. Then a closed-form solution is derived. Subsequently, this study correct the approximate solution to compensate the error caused by the assumption of scaled orthographic projection. Findings - Extensive simulation studies were conducted for the validation of the proposed algorithm using Matlab™. When there are no relative attitudes between RVD spacecrafts, target distance for camera=2-20?m. The simulation results show that the largest relative error of corrected relative position parameters is about 0.12 percent. When distance between RVD spacecrafts exceeds 5?m, the largest error of corrected relative attitude parameters are less than 0.3°. When the distance between spacecrafts are constant, the relative attitude parameters are changed, respectively, the simulition results show the largest relative error of relative position is 1 percent, and largest error of estimated relative attitude is 1.2°, when a relative attitude angle reaches 20°. Originality/value - The proposed algorithm avoids the multiple results problem in determining the relative position and attitude parameters and the closed-form solution is simple and effective, is more suitable for on-board implementation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to present an approach to detect and isolate the aircraft sensor and control surface/actuator failures affecting the mean of the Kalman filter innovation sequence. Design/methodology/approach - The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is developed for nonlinear flight dynamic estimation of an F-16 fighter and the effects of the sensor and control surface/actuator failures in the innovation sequence of the designed EKF are investigated. A robust Kalman filter (RKF) is very useful to isolate the control surface/actuator failures and sensor failures. The technique for control surface detection and identification is applied to an unstable multi-input multi-output model of a nonlinear AFTI/F-16 fighter. The fighter is stabilized by means of a linear quadratic optimal controller. The control gain brings all the eigenvalues that are outside the unit circle, inside the unit circle. It also keeps the mechanical limits on the deflections of control surfaces. The fighter has nine state variables and six control inputs. Findings - In the simulations, the longitudinal and lateral dynamics of an F-16 aircraft dynamic model are considered, and the sensor and control surface/actuator failures are detected and isolated. Research limitations/implications - A real-time detection of sensor and control surface/actuator failures affecting the mean of the innovation process applied to the linearized F-16 fighter flight dynamic is examined and an effective approach to isolate the sensor and control surface/actuator failures is proposed. The nonlinear F-16 model is linearized. Failures affecting the covariance of the innovation sequence is not considered in the paper. Originality/value - An approach has been proposed to detect and isolate the aircraft sensor and control surface/actuator failures occurred in the aircraft control system. An extended Kalman filter has been developed for the nonlinear flight dynamic estimation of an F-16 fighter. Failures in the sensors and control surfaces/actuators affect the characteristics of the innovation sequence of the EKF. The failures that affect the mean of the innovation sequence have been considered. When the EKF is used, the decision statistics changes regardless the fault is in the sensors or in the control surfaces/actuators, while a RKF is used, it is easy to distinguish the sensor and control surface/actuator faults.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - This work experimentally and numerically investigates the aerodynamic heating of the charring-ablating materials. Design/methodology/approach - The experimental model is a stainless steel cone with an attached charring ablator, in which supersonic hot flow impinges. The initial numerical simulation is based on physical and mathematical models, including one-dimensional, unsteady energy transport and mass conservation equations, coupled with calculations of aerodynamic heating, thermal degradation, heat transfer of the ablating surface and the ablation model. The problem is solved by an efficient numerical method. Findings - The numerical calculations involve the time history of the temperature distribution inside the charring material and the backup structure. The results are consistent with the experimental data. Originality/value - This study proposes an effective method to correlate one's own ablation rate equation, by a method of trial and error to find the correlation constants, and the corresponding time histories of the ablation rate or temperature that are closest to one's own experimental data. Then the correlation of the surface ablation rate can be applied with confidence in the numerical calculation of other cases.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To devise a new technique to synthesise optimal feedback control law for non-linear dynamic systems through fuzzy logic. Design/methodology/approach - The proposed methodology utilizes the open-loop optimal control solutions (OCSs) of the non-linear systems for the training of the fuzzy system in the process of developing closed-loop fuzzy logic guidance (FLG). This is achieved through defining a set of non-dimensionalised variables related to the system states. Findings - FLG is capable of generating closed-loop control law for the non-linear problem investigated. Since the proposed fuzzy structure is independent of the system equations, the approach is potentially applicable to other non-linear system. Introduction of the non-dimensional variables in place of the regular states has effectively increased the fuzzy training performance and greatly reduced the number of fuzzy rule bases required to produce accurate solutions for other untrained scenarios. Originality/value - There exist many complex non-linear problems in guidance and control of aerospace vehicles. Determination of optimal control laws for such systems is usually a difficult task even in an open-loop form and in a noise-free off-line environment. On the other hand, closed-loop OCSs are highly desirable for their robust characteristics in actual operating environments, so are more suitable for online applications, but can seldom be realized for complex non-linear systems. Even though a few researchers have worked in the area of non-linear optimal control and application of fuzzy logic on such systems, non-have dealt with closed-loop optimal fuzzy controllers. This research proposes a new strategy for the determination of optimal feedback control laws for non-linear systems, which can be utilized in many spacecraft mission applications.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper aims to present an observer application for a squirrel cage induction motor, which is a complex non-linear system with parameter variations. Design/methodology/approach - Proposes a non-linear observer with a great profit to follow up in real time the flux and rotor resistance of a squirrel cage induction motor. Findings - The robustness of induction motors encourages their use in the industry. But, to assure a reliable working and to detect probable breakdowns, it is necessary to control some important parameters in real time. The Park model of induction motors is non-linear. The results of the different simulations are presented in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Originality/value - Provides information on an effective industrial application.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper discusses research on machining and repairing of turbomachinery components which are generally complex geometries and made up of difficult to machine materials (nickel super alloys or titanium alloys). Design/methodology/approach - The approaches, methods and methodologies used for machining and repairing of blades are reviewed as well as the comparisons between them are made. Findings - Particularly, the most recent blade machining and repair techniques using high flexible machine tools and industrial robots, are mentioned. Practical implications - The limitation of the approaches, methods and methodologies are given and supported by real practical application examples. Originality/value - This paper presents a state of the art review of research in machining and repairing of turbomachinery components, which have been mainly done in the last decade. The paper act as a reference, gathering the works about turbomachinery components from a manufacturing point of view.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - Combining the characteristic of satellite "minisize nucleus" non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) method is used. We select corresponding Tersoff potential energy function to build model and, respectively, simulate thermal conductivities of silicon nanometer thin film. Design/methodology/approach - NEMD method is used, and the corresponding Tersoff potential energy function is used to build model. Findings - The thermal conductivities of silicon nanometer thin film are markedly below the corresponding thermal conductivities of their crystals under identical temperature. The thermal conductivities are rising with the increase of thickness of thin film; what's more, the conductivities have a linear approximation with thickness of the thin film. Research limitations/implications - It is difficult to do physics experiment. Practical implications - The findings have some theory guidance to analyze satellite thermal control. Originality/value - The calculation results of thermal conductivities specify distinct size effect. The normal direction thick film thermal conductivity of silicon crystal declines with the increasing temperature. The thermal conductivities are rising with the increase of thickness of thin film; what's more, the conductivities have a linear approximation with thickness of the thin film.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To provide an effective numerical method for analysis and design of aerodynamic characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles basing on commercial package VSAERO. Design/methodology/approach - Calculation was made by VSAERO package, which is based on a classical panel method enhanced on boundary layer method. Paper explains how to use efficiently VSAERO package, which utilizes advanced CAD techniques, in modern designing of unmanned aircraft. Findings - During aerodynamic analysis of unmanned aircraft the computing cycle is repeated many times until the required accuracy is obtained and when the best performance of an aircraft is achieved. Design process depends on the number of iterations. If the preliminary configuration (the so-called starting design point) is well selected and the aerodynamic analysis is completed in a relatively short time, then the overall design time will be shortened. Research limitations/implications - The panel method is very useful tool in spite of different limitations. For example, the Reynolds number has to be sufficiently high, angles of attack and sideslip have to be small enough. Computational process is relatively fast and the accuracy depends on the geometry representation. The boundary layer included into the computational model improves the accuracy of aerodynamic calculations. This methodology is limited to subsonic and low transonic speeds. Practical implications - A very useful source of computational information and patterns to follow, especially for engineering students and engineers dealing with aerodynamic of unmanned aviation. Surface panel geometry can be transferred from UNIGRAPHICS via IGES files or can be generated from scratch using SPING or PEP software. Originality/value - This paper offers a practical help for designers planning to develop a new unmanned platform. VSAERO package appeared to be a very useful tool for aerodynamic calculation in the full cycle design activity. This software utilizes the panel method enhanced on a boundary layer model for determination of the fundamental aerodynamic characteristic of an arbitrary aircraft. Presented paper shows a very efficient way how to compute the aerodynamics necessary for design of a new MALE class UAV.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0002-2667
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Purpose - To investigate the effects of delamination on free vibration characteristics of graphite-epoxy composite pretwisted cylindrical shallow shells of various stacking sequences considering length of delamination as a parameter. Design/methodology/approach - A multipoint constraint algorithm which leads to unsymmetric elastic stiffness matrix is incorporated into an eight noded isoparametric plate bending finite element to satisfy the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. The study is focused upon long, intermediate and short cylindrical shells as defined by Aas-Jakobsen's parameters and considers symmetric and unsymmetric composite laminates. Findings - The non-dimensional fundamental natural frequencies are obtained for angle ply (45/-45/45, 45/-45) and cross ply (0/90/0, 0/90) configurations corresponding to different crack lengths and twist angles. The study implies the importance of the symmetric laminate as well as the long shell. Research limitations/implications - The standard eigenvalue computations using QR iteration algorithm for the present analyses take enormous time and hence, an efficient eigen-solver needs to be employed. Practical implications - New vibration modes are exhibited by the delaminated composite structures. The existence of invisible interlaminar cracking can be identified with the help of prior knowledge of natural frequencies for a delaminated composite pretwisted shell which can be idealized as a turbine blade with low aspect ratio. Originality/value - This paper presents a numerical approach for natural frequency determination of composite pretwisted shallow shells having delamination without taking care of the effect of dynamic contact between delaminated layers. The non-dimensional frequencies obtained could serve as reference solutions for future investigators.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 31 (2005), S. 30-33 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Purpose - Focuses on, and provides a background of, the REACH Regulation, a new system of registration, evaluation and authorisation for chemicals. Design/methodology/application - In October 2003 The European Commission presented to the European parliament and the Council of the European Union (EU), a proposal for a Regulation that will radically reform Europe's existing chemical policy. The so-called REACH Regulation will introduce a new system of Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation for Chemicals introduced on the EU market in volumes over 1?tonne per manufacturer per year. It will also establish a central Chemicals Agency to oversee the efficient operation of the new regulatory system. The implications of the draft Regulation on Europe's chemical manufacturers, importers, formulators and those sectors that either use or process chemicals, such as the electronics industry, will be manifold. Findings - Despite a number of concessions granted to the chemical industry following an internet consultation, there remain serious doubts over the workability of the system, as well as concerns over substantial product losses and fears over the competitiveness of Europe's chemical industry. Originality/value - This paper sets out to provide a background to the proposed reforms and an outline of the main components of the REACH system as well as a summary of some of the likely key impacts on the PCB industry.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 31 (2005), S. 4-9 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Purpose - To review the concept of digital imaging for PCB manufacturing, with a specific focus on ink-jet printing technologies. Design/methodology/approach - This paper has been written to provide a review of digital imaging in the PCB industry. The application of ink-jet printing in PCB manufacturing and the basic technology behind ink-jet printing is described. Findings - Ink-jet printing in PCB manufacturing is a new technology, whose benefits and liabilities are still being determined. Although the concept of digital imaging fits a need in the industry for better control over registration, there are still many issues to be addressed for the technology to become widely adopted. Originality/value - The value of the paper lies in educating the industry in the concepts of ink-jet printing and the potential benefits it can deliver towards yield improvement and reduced costs in an ever-more demanding and price sensitive market.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 31 (2005), S. 10-16 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Purpose - Routing efficiency provides an estimate of the compactness of a specific PCB layout in comparison with the theoretical minimum size for the circuit design. This work describes a methodology for estimating the routing efficiency of existing PCB layouts from scanned images of either a manufactured PCB or the relevant PCB artwork. Measuring and maximising routing efficiency offers a powerful tool in the drive to minimise the size and cost of a PCB, as it provides a quantitative measure of the need to include costly features such as multiple signal layers and blind (or partial) vias. Design/methodology/approach - The methodology was proven as a manual method, before implementation as a software tool. This work describes the image processing techniques used to recognise traces and vias and describes how this information is processed to derive substrate utilisation statistics. Findings - An initial survey suggests that trace routing efficiency has declined through time, indicating that many layouts are larger than necessary, or use more signal layers than are required by routing constraints alone. Research limitations/implications - This work finds that digital logic circuits follow a more coherent trend than analogue or mixed technology circuits. The results are therefore much more applicable in the digital domain. Practical implications - As the methodology is implemented using images of PCB layouts, it offers the potential to investigate the performance of routing capability for current and legacy applications where CAD data are not available. Originality/value - Where CAD drawings exist, routing efficiency can easily be calculated from the data. However, the methodology for estimating routing efficiency retrospectively from circuit images is believed to be unique, and sidesteps the problems of gaining access to this information.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 31 (2005), S. 17-20 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Purpose - To review a newly developed PCB fabrication process based on a parallel lamination technique. Design/methodology/approach - This paper has been written to introduce the SAVIA process, a new parallel lamination technique for PCB fabrication. The basic concept of the SAVIA process has been described along with the individual process steps and the reliability issues. The advantages of SAVIA process have been also discussed in both economical and technological aspects. Findings - It was found that the parallel lamination technique, a key process for SAVIA, was not only highly flexible and reliable but also a cost-effective fabrication method for high performance PCB. With the SAVIA process, manufacturing lead-times can be substantially reduced due to the nature of the parallel processing. It was also confirmed that a highly reliable metal alloy interconnection was created between the core and the adhesive layers during the lamination process. The formed metal alloy contacts showed excellent electrical and physical characteristics. The between layers was precise. Originality/value - The value of this paper is to introduce a novel PCB fabrication process based on a parallel lamination technique that is superior to conventional build-up processes from both technological and economical viewpoints. By applying a parallel lamination technique, it is expected that fabrication costs can be lowered due to reductions in manufacturing lead-time.
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 31 (2005), S. 26-31 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Purpose - To present the outcome from one case study in the EU project grEEEn (Cost Management System for greening Electrical and Electronic Equipment). The study addressed the material shift in printed wiring boards (PWBs), from the traditional FR4 material containing halogenated flame retardants to halogen-free FR4 materials. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents by way of introduction the grEEEn method. From the product, process and scenario modelling the results from the analysis of cost, environmental profile and legal compliance are presented and discussed. Findings - It was found that the shift to the halogen-free material leads to a slight increase in environmental burden. However, the shift to a halogen-free material could mean that toxic substances are eliminated or reduced resulting in an overall improvement of the environmental performance. The shift causes an increase in cost ranging between nearly zero and 10 ? per PWB panel. Originality/value - The paper presents results from the first study on the shift from FR4 material containing halogenated flame retardants to halogen-free FR4 materials and comprises an analysis of the economic, environmental and legislative implications.
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  • 23
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    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 31 (2005), S. 21-25 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Purpose - To present the initial results from a project recently undertaken by Rohm and Haas Electronic Materials Europe Ltd, in collaboration with a number of European partners, to develop individual elements of the traditional PCB manufacturing process towards a sustainable and zero-discharge alternative. Design/methodology/approach - This paper presents initial results from work aimed at enabling PCB manufacturing to become more sustainable. Novel processes evaluated include special electroplating techniques, advanced oxidation methods to remove organic contaminants, and new ion exchange systems. Work has been carried out to develop these processes into viable demonstrators and the results of progress to date are reported. Descriptions of how these individual technologies may be combined to provide an integrated approach to a more sustainable PCB manufacturing methodology are also given. Findings - Initial results indicate that a more sustainable PCB manufacturing process may be achieved by combining the use of organic and metal capture resins with advanced oxidation and electrochemical recovery technologies. Originality/value - The value of the paper lies in its provision of information from a project that is integrating available treatment technologies in a novel approach that will take the PCB manufacturing process closer to a zero effluent discharge situation.
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Circuit world 31 (2005), S. 40-44 
    ISSN: 0305-6120
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Purpose - To give an overview of the issues encountered, and changes that need to be made in the various types of soldering process when converting them from conventional to lead-free assembly. Design/methodology/approach - This paper has been written to provide a review of the lead-free reflow, wave and hand soldering processes. Problem areas highlighted and methods for adjusting and optimising each type of soldering process for compatibility with lead-free solders are described. Findings - The move to lead-free soldering in electronics assembly can lead to a number of issues that affect process performance, yields and reliability. Problems that are sometimes encountered with conventional lead-bearing solders can exacerbated when moving to lead-free. Many of the issues are associated with the higher melting points of the recommended lead-free solders. Fortunately, these issues are now well known and, with care and attention to process optimisation, they can largely be avoided. Originality/value - The value of the paper lies in its ability to provide information on the types of problems and issues encountered when moving to lead-free solders and the advice it gives on how to avoid them. It also describes how to convert the various lead-free soldering processes used in PCB assembly using a range of measures that can minimise defects, avoid common problems and optimise yields. Sources of additional assistance are also identified.
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The aim of this paper is to provide a critical evaluation of the potential of new institutional economics (NIE) in third world development. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reviews various theories under NIE from both conceptual and empirical perspectives. It then reviews the various definitions of institutions and show that institutions are essential to overcome problems of information and uncertainty. Findings - The review finds that weak institutions can undermine development and hence governments in developing countries should strengthen their institutions to provide greater scope for efficient functioning of markets. Where the market does not work owing to high transactions costs, traditional institutions of collective action and group decision making can work and hence need to be recognised. Research limitations/implications - The major implications of the paper is that in developing countries, a clear understanding of various institutions such as user groups, inter-linked credit markets, rotational irrigation etc. is needed before they are replaced or modified by other institutions. The main limitations of NIE are that there can be capture by elites of various institutional innovations in rural areas, and that it does not explicitly consider income distribution and uncertainty which are glossed over and hence remain areas for future research. Originality/value - This paper critically reviews the various institutional environments that developing countries face in addressing development issues.
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  • 26
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    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Highly-skilled knowledge workers make location decisions in response to many determinants. This paper seeks to focus on life-time earnings and the desire to pursue a personal research program - a life-long pursuit of interesting puzzles. Design/methodology/approach - A conceptual discussion and approach are taken. Findings - The paper argues that access to personally interesting research problems and institutional support structures which allow them to be pursued should be considered alongside pure earnings factors in understanding why researchers and scientists move internationally - and why they may stay put when the economic incentives to move appear high. A nation's innovation policies can be important for influencing such workers' decisions and the impact of these policies shaped by migration flows. This little-researched connection is explored in the final, policy-oriented section. Originality/value - Provides insights on why, in a world of intensifying competition for scarce knowledge workers, countries can ill afford negative net migration of highly-skilled workers.
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  • 27
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    Bingley : Emerald
    International journal of social economics 32 (2005), S. 1035-1050 
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of natural resources accounting in sustainable development. Natural resource accounting is important because the welfare of a nation measured in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) has several weaknesses. Design/methodology/approach - This paper achieves this objective by identifying the present status, the constraints and the challenges for the economics and accounting professions. Findings - The main weakness of GDP as a measure of development is that it does not take into account damages to environmental resources. However, the improvement of the concept to include environmental resource use is made difficult because of the difficulties of measuring environmental damage. The challenge to the economics and accounting profession is to ensure interdisciplinary collaboration, development of a framework to explicitly include the environment, development of credible valuation procedures for the environment, and inclusion of the various ethical positions advanced by various groups on the value of the environment. Practical implications - Some headway has been made on these issues during the last decade but a major challenge still lies ahead in further improving these approaches so that sustainable development becomes an achievable goal. Originality/value - This paper brings together diverse views and fusing them together providing a future path for research in environmental accounting to achieve sustainable development.
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  • 28
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    Bingley : Emerald
    International journal of social economics 32 (2005), S. 1051-1062 
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To review one of the earliest Chinese debates on socialism, highlighting the consequent changes in outlook by Sun Yat-sen and Liang Qichao; and to demonstrate the influence of Western economic writers especially Richard T. Ely, Henry George, and German Bismarckian socialists. Design/methodology/approach - Textual analysis of original Chinese-language materials with extensive direct quotations (in translation). Findings - Sun initially gave primary attention to land policy, using a (somewhat inconsistent) combination of George's "single tax" and a very different idea of land nationalization. As a result of the debate, however, Sun gave more attention to economic growth, capital formation, and import restriction. Liang initially favored Bismarckian socialism, but moved during the debate to increasing skepticism about a major economic role for government, recognizing the need for entrepreneurship and capital formation. Originality/value - Existing literature fails to perceive the radical shifts in viewpoint which developed for both Sun and Liang. This is particularly important for Sun, whose later ideas had a major influence on Chinese economic policy after 1927.
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  • 29
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    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Aims to analyse the labour market outcome when there are two unions in the industry, representing heterogeneous workers - imperfect substitutes in production. Design/methodology/approach - Competition between union policies are viewed in terms of both employment and wage strategies. Results for substitutes and complements are inspected. Attention is given to the strategic behaviour of the unions, towards one another and/or the employer side. Cooperation is modelled using the Nash-maximand approach. Findings - Gathers some notes and enlargements to the standard collective bargaining problem in which unions maximise utility. Extends the framework to model union competition behaviour for jobs and/or employment that reproduces the standard market product analysis of imperfect competition. Focuses on heterogeneous labour. Research limitations/implications - The analysis concentrates on the case of union duopoly, but can easily be enlarged to the n-union setting - which is left for further investigation. Originality/value - A simple analytical example with Stone-Geary union utility functions and a linear labour demand system is forwarded.
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  • 30
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    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To provide and assess trends on the status of women in Bangladesh in terms of key macro level indicators namely, women's labour force participation, educational attainments and earnings vis-à-vis men. Design/methodology/approach - The trends in women's workforce participation, educational attainments and earnings compared with those of men are evaluated on the basis of descriptive statistics. Correlation and regression techniques are used to examine the relationship between women's education and workforce participation, and to predict the equalisation of female-male educational attainment. Findings - The study finds evidence of growing commercialisation of women's work in Bangladesh. Although most women in the workforce are self-employed or employed in low-skill jobs, their participation in high skill and entrepreneurial jobs as well as policy-making bodies is on the rise. While gender wage differentials have been considerably reduced in many industries, in general, women tend to be paid less than men. There have been remarkable improvements in women's educational attainments. Further, female education is found to be positively correlated with their workforce participation. Overall, the findings indicate an improvement in women's status in Bangladesh. Research limitations/implications - The suggested relationship between women's education and employment needs to be further investigated using rigorous econometric techniques in order to distinguish between productivity-enhancing effects of education and other determinants of increased female employment (FEMPL). Practical implications - The research should be a useful reference to international and domestic policy-makers as well as members of the academia and future researchers on the issue. Originality/value - This study represents the first of its kind in the Bangladesh context. It provides valuable information about, and an independent assessment of, women's status in Bangladesh at the national level.
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  • 31
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    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - John Paul II's views on economic systems have been construed differently by some commentators who have been seeking approval for their own views rather than searching for the meaning that he himself intends to convey. John Paul is labeled by many as favoring capitalism, and by others as supporting socialism. A few have been scrutinizing his statements in hopes of finding support for a "third-way." In this paper, John Paul is quoted at length to represent his views more accurately. Design/methodology/approach - This paper originated in a collection of essays on the theme of John Paul II's vision of the social economy that was published by the International Journal of Social Economics in fall 1998. This author is indebted to the contributors to that collection for many insights into John Paul's vision. Eight topics are covered: consumption, distribution, capital investment, work as such, leisure, labor, development, and market economy versus command economy. This paper uses many more direct quotes than is customary in scholarly work, but there is no other way to proceed and remain faithful to John Paul's vision of the social economy. Findings - John Paul's writings on economic affairs are significant for what they teach about the premises employed in economics. His own philosophy of the human person reinforces the four premises of personalist economics more so than the premises of the mainstream and challenges the mainstream at its foundations in the philosophy of individualism. Research limitations/implications - John Paul speaks to a wide range of issues and questions central to economics and economic affairs. It would be presumptuous to represent this paper as a thorough examination of everything that John Paul has said, written, and means in this regard. Practical implications - This paper attempts to highlight some of the key arguments that John Paul II has set forth on eight centrally important economic topics, comparing and contrasting his pronouncements with the views of mainstream economists on the same topics. Originality/value - This paper draws on the insights of 20 professional colleagues specialized in range of subdisciplines in economics, holding faculty positions at major universities in the USA, Italy, and Canada, and with a strong interest in understanding the social economy. The concluding section states John Paul's vision of the social economy in terms of 13 most important arguments.
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  • 32
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    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - For competitive intelligence (CI) to evolve into a successful business discipline in a company, a culture of competitiveness should prevail. The extent to which CI is practiced in South Africa and the CI culture that exists in South Africa have remained a mystery until the late 1990s. It is the aim of this paper to assess the development of the CI culture since the late 1990s in South Africa and to make recommendations to enhance this culture. Design/methodology/approach - For the empirical evidence, the results of two previous research projects were used. Questionnaires were used in these projects. The questions covered all areas of the intelligence cycle: planning and focus, collection, analysis, communication, process and structure, awareness and culture and attitudes towards CI. Data of the sample population to perform a sample selection was gathered from three sources, namely Reed Inc., the Kompass Southern African and the membership lists of the respective Export Councils. In both the projects, the respondents had to answer the questions on a five-point Likert scale, where 1 equals either never or disagree and 5 equals always or strongly agree. Findings - The results of observations and research projects show a sustained level of awareness of CI and a CI culture within South African companies since 1999. However, research into the CI practices of South African companies (both descriptive and empirical) and specifically into the CI practices of South African exporters has shown certain areas in which local companies lag behind other countries. In particular, in terms of the extent and depth of education, training and consulting services, South Africa is far behind most developed countries. With better training and education opportunities available, in particular in terms of strategic and competitive analysis and the management of CI, these weak areas of the discipline are sure to improve with time. Research limitations/implications - The research was built around the six key areas that, collectively, from the intelligence model as identified by Calof and Breakspear in 1999, i.e. planning and focus, collection, analysis, communication, process and structure, and organisational awareness and culture. Some of the key findings were that South African companies showed a general lack of appropriate processes and structures for CI; that there was little evidence that systems in companies assist the CI activities; that few companies could claim that CI was embedded in the whole company; little information sharing took place and people in the company in general did not know the focus of the intelligence activity. Originality/value - The paper provides recommendations on ways to enhance and foster a competitive or CI culture in South Africa. Various ways to enhance a competitive or CI culture in countries and companies are proposed including CI awareness and training sessions for industry, company managers recognising the value of CI as a tool to enhance competitiveness and appropriate CI related training programmes.
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  • 33
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    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Food safety is an important means for controlling food-borne diseases. While there are various procedures for food safety, HACCP-based procedure has been considered as an efficient method for food-safety. In Australia the introduction of HACCP-based food-safety measures has been recommended in particular for meat and meat products to replace the traditional organoleptic meat inspection procedure. Aims to estimate the costs and benefits. Design/methodology/approach - Employing tools of social cost benefit analysis, this paper estimates the worth of the HACCP-based food-safety program. The analysis was carried out assuming five alternative scenarios with 3, 5, and 7 per cent interest rates. Findings - The results of this study show that the HACCP-based food-safety programs are expected to generate net benefit to the society if the effectiveness ranged between 20 and 90 per cent. However, at the 10 per cent level of effectiveness, net benefit turns into net social loss. Originality/value - Provides details of the costs and benefits of the HACCP-based food-safety programs in Australia.
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  • 34
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    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper aims to discuss aspects of successful and unsuccessful development experiences in southeast and southwest corners of Asia. Design/methodology/approach - It provides historical background to practices, strategies and policies adopted by policymakers in both of these regions. It identifies factors that a successful development cannot do without. Findings - The paper concludes that geopolitics can inspire and exploit religion and ethnicity to impede LDCs' development. Originality/value - Examines the process of development from a practical standpoint in two different areas in Asia: first, Malaysia, Taiwan and South Korea, and, second, Iraq, to identify factors that development cannot be successful without.
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  • 35
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    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The object of this paper is to demonstrate that the promotion of altruistic behavior can in fact be regarded as an instrument of public policy. Design/methodology/approach - This objective is achieved by adapting the standard theory of consumer behavior in microeconomics to the context of an individual who is exposed to the pursuit of altruistic and self-fulfilling egoistical goals. Findings - The conceptualization permits the distinction between types of welfare benefits that emerge from the pursuit of these different goals and demonstrate the presence of a welfare benefit transformation frontier. The framework permits the evaluation of policy instruments such as tax incentives and legislations to promote altruistic behavior. Originality/value - The paper combines concepts in behavioral economics with those in standard microeconomics to demonstrate policy measures that are usually not considered within policy circles.
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  • 36
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    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper draws upon the work of Georgescu-Roegen to outline some theoretical alternatives to standard welfare theory, and to examine the policy implications of discarding the Walrasian core of neoclassical economics. Design/methodology/approach - Current work in behavioral economics and game theory shows that economic behavior depends on social context, a point understood by social economists for a hundred years or more. This work is related to Georgescu's contributions to utility theory and bioeconomics. Findings - Neoclassical welfare economics continues to dominate economic theory and policy even though its theoretical foundations, economic man and perfect competition, have been discredited by mainstream theorists. Economic processes take place in specific social contexts and also coevolve with the biophysical universe. Practical implications - Although modern economics is incorporating many of Georgescu's insights about human preferences it has yet to come to grips with the fact that human economic activity is shaped by its biophysical context. It is believed this should be a major focus of future economic research. Originality/value - Provides further insights into welfare theory and bioeconomics.
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  • 37
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    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this research paper is a theoretical understanding of the most general trends of Russian economic development during the country's pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet time frames. Design/methodology/approach - The objectives are designed in such a way as to include a historical aspect in the research. An attempt is made to grasp (rather cursorily) a logical internal progression in all stages of the Russian development for the last 150 years. In this, the paper shows no need for so-called great historical personalities to explain the great historical events. Findings - In the course of the work, it was found that Russia had experienced alternatively five different socioeconomic systems of: late mixed feudalism which was on its way to democratic mixed capitalism (the 1850s-October 1917); state feudalism which was pregnant with authoritarian mixed capitalism (1918-1921); authoritarian mixed capitalism in whose womb there was ripening totalitarian state capitalism (1921-1928); totalitarian state capitalism which was carrying within itself the seeds of authoritarian state capitalism (1928-1990); finally, authoritarian state capitalism which was moving toward authoritarian mixed capitalism (1991-present). Originality/value - The original value of the paper is in its fresh approach to the great events that have been taking place in Russia since the 1850s. The events have been analyzed not as they should be according or despite some theory but as they were and are. The paper, therefore, will be valuable to those who are interested in the socioeconomic development of Russia and who would like, one way or another, to attempt to predict the country's nearest future.
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  • 38
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 496-509 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - This paper reports on the findings of the HEFCE-funded outcomes project which aimed to investigate strategic planning in UK academic libraries. Design/methodology/approach - The research consisted of a literature and documentation review, followed by interviews with academic library directors and senior institutional managers. There was also a survey of all UK HE libraries. Findings - The key issues which need to be addressed by academic libraries in terms of strategic planning are: the involvement of library staff; communication of library aims and plans externally; level of active involvement in institutional and departmental planning; evaluation and target setting; and involvement in more "difficult" institutional aims such as income generation and widening participation. Research limitation/implications - The response to the various activities of this research project indicate the lack of interest in outcomes assessment within the academic library sector. There is little rigorous evidence in this area to inform library professionals. Practical implications - The lack of interest in outcomes assessment with the sector is worrying; there is a general view of libraries as essential part of higher education and do not need to demonstrate how they contribute to institutional aims. This may leave libraries in a vulnerable position. Originality/value - The paper reports on an issue which should be of great concern to the academic library sector, especially in the light of the proposal to axe professional posts at the University of Wales, Bangor library.
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  • 39
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 541-555 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To guide students' thinking about joining professional associations. Design/methodology/approach - A few representative professional organizations are explored. Aspects such as organizational structure, history, culture, professional focus, and size are discussed. Findings - Many more professional associations exist and encourage student participation than most students are aware of when they enter the profession. Practical implications - Students can compare professional associations to find those most suited to their professional interests. These may not be the most local or well known national organizations. Originality/value - This is an attempt to help students recognize that professional organizations exist regardless of their niche interest, and despite the larger and more general associations that may be given local emphasis.
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  • 40
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 532-540 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - This paper reports a study into the current status of, and future prospects for, community informatics (CI) services in libraries in Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach - It is based on a questionnaire survey of academic and public libraries, and community centres, in the major cities of Pakistan, backed up by interviews with librarians and community leaders. Findings - It is found that while most libraries provide community information services, these are of traditional kind, and there are very few examples of information and communication technologies-based CI. There is enthusiasm for developing such services among librarians, and high regard for library services in the community. Essential factors are funding for provision of equipment and training, and awareness raising in the community. Research limitations/implications - The study was limited to a sample of libraries in large cities. Practical implications - Proposals for development of a government-sponsored CI initiative are presented. Originality/value - This is the only study to date which investigates the role of libraries for CI provision in Pakistan, and one of very few which studies this topic in a developing country.
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  • 41
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 58-66 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this study was to examine the ethical perspectives of library and information science professionals prior to their entry into the profession. Design/methodology/approach - The population consisted of 46 graduate students enrolled in a library and information science program during summer 2003. Three scenarios related to general, legal, and health ethical issues were used. Participants were randomly assigned to a scenario. First, they read the scenario and provided initial reactions. Second, they read the professional code of ethics related to the scenario. Finally, they re-read the scenario and provided reactions based on the professional code of ethics. Findings - The initial reactions of participants to the scenarios were similar to their reactions after reading and applying the assigned code of ethics. For example, participants initially reported that the library director should permit staff to attend the American Library Association conference in Toronto even with the SARS issue (85 percent), After reading the Health Sciences Code of Ethics, they selected promoting access to health information and working without prejudice to support their positions. Originality/value - The findings of this study illustrate the influence of codes of ethics on students' ethical perspectives. Investigating the professional ethics of future library and information science graduate students is of value to students and faculty.
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  • 42
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 67-79 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To provide a comparative review of the teaching of Readers' Advisory Services in schools of library and information science in selected schools in the USA, Canada and Europe. Design/methodology/approach - After reviewing the literature, schools are selected based on their known activity in providing readers' advisory service courses or on their national ranking (in the case of US schools) to provide a snapshot of current level of readers' advisory instruction. Findings - Instruction in readers' advisory services is a very small part of the total curriculum in schools examined. Librarians who wish to gain more insight to readers' advisory services must depend on continuing education opportunities, such as workshops and conference programs, not on courses in the curriculum of schools of library and information science. Originality/value - This paper raises questions as to the relationship between library and information science curricula and the needs of practicing librarians to provide services to leisure readers. It finds that, despite an increased interest in providing readers' advisory services in libraries, library education is not responding to that need and continuing education and training programs are essential to providing librarians who are well prepared to serve leisure readers. For schools which are contemplating adding coursework in these areas, the case studies detail courses as they are offered at other institutions.
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  • 43
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    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 128-140 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To investigate the special services for immigrants which are offered by Swedish libraries on their different levels (regional, local and school) and how these services conduct themselves to the development of the harmonic multicultural society. Design/methodology/approach - The methods used in this research were interviews with librarians, the study of documents, followed by a comparative analysis. The guiding theory was a three-phase model mentioned by Gillis Herlitz, according to which a newcomer goes through stages in an adaptation period. Phase 1 is described as a positive "honeymoon" phase, while phase 2 is a critical period of negative emotions, dominated by disappointment, which then ideally should be resolved in phase 3, where the individual reaches a balancing stage of cultural integration and successful adaptation. Findings - The performances of public libraries on different levels seem to operate in a way that corresponds to the different phases in this model. The approach of the local libraries is more individual and psychological. Their services correspond to those immigrants, who find themselves in the "disappointment" phase, whereas the activities of the regional libraries are more informative and suitable for the "balancing" phase. The school libraries have the educational features and do not depend on the phase of immigrants' adaptation. Research limitations/implications - The Public Library of Borås, The Library of Komvux (The Municipal Adult Education Library) and The Hässlehus Library (the library in the district occupied mainly by immigrants) were chosen for this study. Practical implications - To help immigrants overcome their difficulties of adaptation period in the new country. Originality/value - This paper demonstrates how the libraries can act as a lifeline for immigrants.
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  • 44
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    New library world 106 (2005), S. 141-163 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - This paper aims to provide a review of recent trends in the open access (OA) movement, as well as to discuss the significance of those trends for information access in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach - An analysis of the recent literature was carried out, focusing on the benefits of a greater information access in developing countries. The paper also brings together the diverse experiences from the authors on OA publishing and archiving with institutions in a number of developing countries. Findings - Knowledge workers in developing countries are now getting access to scholarly and scientific publications and electronic resources at a level that is unmatched historically. This is highly significant, if developing countries are to meet the millennium development goals. The OA movement and the growing number of Open Archive Initiative-compliant institutional repositories promise to provide even greater access to resources and publications that were previously inaccessible. These low cost technology and interoperability standards are providing great opportunities for libraries and publishers in developing countries to disseminate local research and to bridge the south-north knowledge gap. Originality/value - This paper therefore provides recommendations for knowledge workers on how to actively participate in and contribute to the global knowledge commons. The results and recommendations contained in the paper should be of interest to authors, policy makers, funding agencies and information professionals in both developing and developed countries.
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  • 45
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 430-440 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To provide an overview of the construction and features of an art image database for high-resolution images. Design/methodology/approach - A description of technical information, standards and tools used for creating an art image database using open-source software products ZOPE, PLONE, and DIGILIB. Findings - Provides information about the considerations for and implementation of the digitalisation process and the set-up of the information infrastructure. Recognises that the effort for the digitalisation project was higher than estimated. Research limitations/implications - The focus is on specific issues of art image databases and the application of open-source software products. Practical implications - A source of information for applied standards and software as well as digitalisation processes. Originality/value - The paper presents practical information for institutions planning to set up an image database.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 46
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 416-429 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - Research was carried out at the University of Parma with the purpose to investigate the organisation of e-journal titles from a user viewpoint, in order to find out what influence the approach adopted by the library may have on the use of e-journals and what characteristics the organisation of e-journals should have to enable an easy discovery of resources. Design/methodology/approach - The case study involved students, faculty members and library staff in classics and medieval studies. Research methodology comprised a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach: a focus group, observations, interviews, and a questionnaire. Findings - The group of users appeared still reluctant to use e-journals, the main barriers to use being lack of awareness and limited number of relevant resources. Users were favourable to being provided with multiple points of access to e-journals. Their preference appeared to be based on the familiarity of the method and similarity to the organisation of their physical library. The organisation of e-journals adopted at Parma had the potential to meet the users' expectations, but its actual implementation seemed to require more effective promotion and user-centred design. Originality/value - This paper may prove useful to humanities librarians engaged in providing user effective organisation of e-journals and in encouraging researchers and students to use electronic journals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 47
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 464-466 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To introduce a successful online community information network created and managed by libraries. Design/methodology/approach - Historical and operational overview by director of organization that sponsors the information network. Findings - The 10-year old online network provides a resource that puts the library in the center of their community, and in a position of leadership. Originality/value - Using the power of the computer, information from all communities is available to everyone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 48
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to develop alternative paths to the transition process as a result of alternative models of transition. Design/methodology/approach - A political economy methodology to the transition process results in alternative transition models. As a result five alternative models of transition come into being. Findings - Transition models can be distinguished on the basis of economic analysis, speed and the political structure. Each model recommended a set of economic policies to facilitate the transition process. The adoption of gradualist processes of transition - except in the case of shock therapy - requires a sequence by which the reforms should be introduced. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the transition literature by developing a set of economic policies combined with a sequence path for each transition model.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 49
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To evaluate the relevance of the source country idiosyncratic factors in determining the firm's foreign direct investment (FDI) propensity and consequently the country's outward FDI position. Design/methodology/approach - A sample containing all countries with positive outward FDI flows for the whole period between 1976 and 1999 is selected. The sample consists of 25 countries and is divided in three groups, namely advanced countries, middle-income countries and developing countries. An econometric model is estimated for each country group aiming to determine the variables affecting outward FDI position. Findings - Market structure differentiation and openness are the only variables affecting outward FDI in all country groups. Marginal efficiency of capital is the significant variable in advanced and middle-income countries. All other variables, namely technology, human capital and exchange rate affect outward FDI position of advanced countries. Research limitations/implications - The list of FDI explanatory variables is not an exhaustive one. Changes of country income indicating changes of economic development may be explicitly introduced among others as an explanatory variable in a model, with outward FDI changes as the dependent variable in order to identify any relation between the two. Practical implications - A very useful source of information for policy makers. Originality/value - The validity of the model is tested over each country income group aiming at capturing variations in the statistical significance of the FDI explanatory variables between countries that have passed certain economic development thresholds.
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  • 50
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    ISSN: 0306-8293
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Aims to assess the potential for a broad "green" technoeconomic paradigm (TEP) to effectively achieve and sustain higher levels of welfare from economic and environmental sources in manylower income countries (LIC). A green TEP comprises a new socioeconomic system based upon a set of inter-related technologies that increase human welfare, but focus upon saving material, energy and other environmental resources. TEPs have pervasive social and economic effects that include substantial productivity, trade competitiveness, and environmental quality advantages. The desirability of such economic change must incorporate the general approach of social economics and alternative notions of well-being. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is largely discursive in nature and provides a systematic identification of the LIC conditions that are likely to promote, and benefit from, the pervasive adoption of material- and energy-saving technologies. Some results of an exploratory cross-country study of the empirical link between technology capability and the human development index (HDI) are utilized in the discussion. Findings - The paper concludes that a green TEP may well provide a viable alternative development approach in the LICs. The main advantages are derived from related resource efficiency gains and reductions in the socioeconomic metabolism, and the benefits of a relative production factor shift toward labor (and away from materials, energy, and environment-intensive capital). The potential for LICs is also facilitated by the positive spillovers and decreasing cost of green TEP-related knowledge and technology diffusion in the expanding, decentralizing global communication network. The higher income nations would need to play a significant role in this process. Originality/value - Ecological modernisation and material and energy-saving technologies are widely viewed as essential for achieving long-term economic and social well-being improvements in the twenty-first century and beyond. Discussion of this promising approach typically assumes that this transformation is only viable in the technological and economic context of the higher income nations. However, this paper provides a detailed case for the strategic encouragement and adoption of a green TEP for sustainable economic development and environmental conditions in LICs.
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  • 51
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 519-531 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To provide reliable data for the development of efficient information literacy education in a department of a higher educational institute in Thessaloniki, Greece. It requires in-depth understanding of the current situation as well as future expectations. Design/methodology/approach - Two research objectives were set. One was to record the use of resources by students and their perceptions, as well as the expectations of faculty regarding information literacy skills. The other was to examine the preferences of students and faculty regarding information literacy education. Two surveys were conducted among both students (cluster sampling) and faculty (census) by the utilization of relative structured questionnaire. Findings - The project reveals that the percentage of students who use the e-resources of the library is relatively low, and that the few students who attended the bibliographic instruction seminar use the e-resources more for the completion of their assignments. Also faculty were found to do very little in class to motivate students to use library sources for completing long research papers. With reference to students' and faculty's preferences concerning future information literacy education, it was indicated that the greatest percentage prefer instruction at user's request, and a course integrated into the curriculum. Focusing on a course integrated in the curriculum, it is suggested that it is provided at the first or second semester of their studies, to be developed on the basis of librarian/faculty cooperation and supported by demonstration of resources and/or hands-on workshops. Research limitations/implications - Further research is needed to fill the gaps left in understanding faculty attitudes toward information literacy. Also duplicating this survey in other departments of Technological Educational Institution could provide a picture of the kind of information literacy education a Greek institution should apply. Practical implications - This research implies the need for developing a course integrated into the curriculum tailored to the interests of the students, designed to develop critical thinking skills. It is suggested that this course should be provided at an appropriate time that would allow students to acknowledge its relevance to course content. A multimedia product is suggested as a handbook to this course. Originality/value - This research tries to fill a gap in the published literature which does not offer any surveys in Greek academic institutions about perceptions and practices of faculty and students regarding information literacy programs.
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  • 52
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 7-15 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To provide theoretical and practical perspectives on the "library as space" debate as well as an update of an earlier (2002) New Library World article on one university library's attempt to re-position itself through physical change. Design/methodology/approach - The first part examines the need to fashion academic libraries as desirable destinations for students in the face of the 24/7 availability of both library and non-library electronic sources of information. The second part provides an account of some of the latest initiatives undertaken by the library at Saint Mary's University, an urban, primarily undergraduate university of 8,000 students on Canada's east coast. Findings - The critical importance of providing a comfortable and stimulating environment for students and the rewards for doing so are confirmed, with reference to various Canadian and US schools. Some of the almost-universal characteristics of today's students are identified within the context of the changing nature of academic research and communication. Practical implications - It offers advice and insights to libraries striving to strengthen their place within the academic life and social environment of the university. It also provides arguments for and encouragement to those attempting to implement innovative changes to either library space or library policies. Originality/value - Brings together many of the ideas and experiences of disparate academic libraries facing similar challenges.
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  • 53
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 16-28 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To provide an overview of branding activity in the UK public library service. Design/methodology/approach - A review of branding literature was undertaken. The primary research was conducted over a four-week period and consisted of a questionnaire survey distributed to heads of services in order to gain data regarding branding of the service. Findings - The research indicated that heads of service do give consideration to branding in their marketing plans. Branding properly planned and developed may be one way in which the public library service can raise its image and allow employees to take ownership of the service. Research limitations/implications - Owing to the time element involved in the gathering of data responses were not as high as previously anticipated. Practical implications - A good insight into the application of branding in the UK public library sector which would interest practitioners and academics alike. Originality/value - Contributes to the domain of knowledge which is weak in the area of branding in libraries.
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  • 54
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 29-42 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To develop a method of systematically analyzing reference and instruction programmes at academic libraries so managers of such services can identify potential areas of change and make more confident recommendations. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reviews the library literature and then introduces a template for programme analysis. A case study is used to help illustrate the need for programme analysis, and also to clarify the template. Findings - The reference and instruction literature on assessment and new service models indicates that academic librarians are struggling to update programming in order to meet the needs of current library patrons. There is no how-to manual for managers of reference and instruction departments to analyze their services comprehensively and to decide what changes to make. This paper introduces a template that academic librarians could use to systematically analyze their reference and instruction programming with regard to the history of the programmes, internal and external environmental factors that affect the provision of service, and how the current service model compares with others. Practical implications - The use of this template will allow academic librarians at any size library to investigate the historical and environmental factors that affect their services, so they can more confidently identify potential areas of change and make documented and supported recommendations to library administration. Originality/value - This paper fulfils a gap in the literature and offers a guide to programme analysis for managers of reference and instruction departments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 55
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 80-82 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To introduce statistics and issues raised in national study of American reading habits. Design/methodology/approach - Highlights from the National Endowment of the Arts reading survey, which was conducted in 2002 and published in 2004, are presented. These are presented alongside personal views on the current trends. Findings - A downturn in literary reading, as noted in the survey, is countered when compared with library circulation statistics over the same period. A major consideration is that many people now listen to their books, instead of reading them. Originality/value - The paper questions the popular blame of the internet for the downward trend in literary reading.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 56
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 116-127 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - The position of electronic resources librarian emerged as a specialty to deal with the management of digital resources, but little has been written about the librarians now working in this specialty. This article aims to review the history of gender inequity in libraries, outline salary issues in libraries, and attempt to define what an electronic resources librarian is, with systems librarians being used for comparison. Design/methodology/approach - Electronic resources librarians were surveyed for gender, salary, and other demographic information in an attempt to determine whether gender equity or gender stratification is occurring within their specialty. Findings - The majority of respondents work in the USA, but 20 percent worked around the world. Results appear to indicate that males are not being favored over females for employment in this library specialty. Experience and geographic location were found to be the only significant factors affecting salary. Research limitations/implications - Further data need to be gathered from a greater number of electronic resources librarians in order to determine the validity of these results. Originality/value - Electronic resources management appears to substantially blur the line between public and technical services. This blurring could be an interesting aspect to examine more closely to see if the computerization of library resources is changing the definition of what librarians do as well as that of what libraries are.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 57
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 187-189 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To outline the different learning and working styles between generations in our current digital environment. Design/methodology/approach - Connects common theories of popular author and library industry study. These are presented alongside personal views on the current trends. Findings - As native speakers of digital language, young people think and process information in an entirely different way from previous generations. Experts suggest that they may have remapped their brains. Originality/value - The article stresses the importance of gaining a better understanding of the learning styles and tastes of young people. Libraries should consider tapping into this resource for future development, since these people are the future support base for libraries.
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  • 58
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 244-252 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - This conceptual paper aims to discuss a few concerns in the title categories of literacy, aliteracy, and lifelong learning and illuminates the scholarly concern about a global population increase of people who either are unable to read or are uninterested in reading. Design/methodology/approach - The juxtaposition of discussion about the three title categories and conclusions excerpted from the literature about these categories shows the predicament of the person today who is ill-prepared in basic literacy. The predicament includes the individual's lack of ability to read, write, or reason; but also their limited capacity for successfully engaging technology or future lifelong learning. A discussion of marginalized populations relates how marginalized groups are unable to participate fully in their societies. Regardless of economic, gender, religious, or other reasons for group marginalization, members of these groups often suffer from illiteracy as well. Findings - It is concluded that librarians who encourage development of reading and writing can make significant contributions to the profession, local cultures, and the global community. Originality/value - This paper focuses on the immediate and long-term problem of illiteracy. It is intended to motivate librarians across the globe by providing information about the effects of illiteracy on individuals or marginalized groups.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 59
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 284-285 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To introduce the growing trend of closings of public libraries in the USA due to funding shortages. Design/methodology/approach - Body of knowledge compiled by author from current news and professional sources and personal historical files. Findings - While public libraries are being heavily used, they still face funding challenges due to tax resistance, the economic down-turn, and competition for their services. Originality/value - The column stresses the importance of public library administrators to track and respond to public support.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 60
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 343-351 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this case study is to explore the construction pattern and issues involved with the development of the National Science and Technology Library (NSTL) in China. Design/methodology/approach - This study was conducted through an analytical evaluation of the historical development of scientific and technological information sharing among libraries and information centers and issues around construction of the NSTL. Findings - Since the establishment of its network service system at the end of 2000, the NSTL has made rapid progress in constructing a sci-tech information resource sharing system and offering web-based information services to the patrons of scientific and technical communities all over China. Originality/value - This paper is the first exploration that brings to the forefront the foundational background of the NSTL, the characteristics of its organizational structure, the functions of its service, and the tentative plan to increase its accessibility and usability. Symptomatic of the function of the NSTL constructing pattern will hopefully shed light not only to the reformation of the Chinese sci-tech information management system, but also to the development of scientific digital libraries in the world.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 61
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 395-415 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - This paper addresses the coverage of issues related to crisis and societal change in the scholarly literature in relation to libraries, information services, and access to information and the leadership role of librarians and libraries in addressing such issues. Design/methodology/approach - The paper provides an overview and analysis of the general issue of change in the literature review, as well as a discussion of war and terrorism, civil and natural disasters, social movements, medical and healthcare crises and needs, and large-scale economic and technological shifts. The research results address the extent to which these major economic, political, technological and social changes have been addressed in four quarterly, peer-reviewed library and information science journals over the past six years and the extent to which the focus of the published research and discussion has shifted over the past six years. Findings - Research based on analysis of the journal literature reflects the documentation of practices and research results in library and information science. The research results indicate increased focus on war and terrorism and large-scale economic and technological change, as related to information services, in the literature, during and after 2001, but less focus on information access, despite the impact of war and terrorism on library collections and resulting legal and policy decisions related to access to information. Research limitations/implications - As a result of the limited focus on research and discussion of leadership in the peer-reviewed journals included in the research study and the fact that the articles that addressed the role of libraries and librarians in addressing various aspects of crisis and change did not also identify the roles as those of leadership, there is the need for research and publication to document the examples of library leadership that may be taking place, but which are not reflected in the research literature. Practical implications - The efforts undertaken to influence the policy-making and legislative processes, to provide access to information, and to design and provide information resources and services have not been articulated in the literature as leadership roles, in particular. Thus, the analysis of the literature appears to indicate further opportunities for leadership at the local, national and international levels, consistent with the numerous examples reflected in the literature. Originality/value - In general, there is limited focus on research and discussion of leadership in the scholarly journals in library and information science. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the major economic, political, technological and social changes internationally, over the past six years, and addresses the extent to which the efforts of librarians and libraries to address these issues have been documented in the research literature.
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  • 62
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    New library world 106 (2005), S. 450-453 
    ISSN: 0307-4803
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Information Science and Librarianship
    Notes: Purpose - To define the elements of a gift books policy. Design/methodology/approach - Research based on a review of library gift policies. Findings - Provides libraries with general guidelines as to what should be included in a gift book policy. Originality/value - Provides assistance to libraries to find a way to explain to prospective donors how the library handles donations and gifts.
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  • 63
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 1184-1198 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To increase understanding of the role of reputation in the corporate social performance (CSP) and financial performance (FP) relationship, including contingencies. Design/methodology/approach - Stakeholder theory is drawn on to present a model of reputation's role in the contingent CSP-FP relationship. Findings - CSP is affected by stakeholders' resource allocation to the organisation. This allocation is based on stakeholders' assessment of the organisation's reputation relative to stakeholders' particular expectations, which may be instrumentally and/or normatively framed. Reputation, therefore, plays a key role in the CSP-FP relationship. Additionally, the authors propose that the equivocal results of previous research into the CSP-FP relationship may be partly explained by organisational and market contingencies. Specifically, the authors contend that strategic fit, competitive intensity and reputation management capability moderate the CSP-FP relationship. Research limitations/implications - Empirical measurement issues and future research directions are discussed. Originality/value - This paper increases the understanding of the role of reputation in the CSP-FP relationship. Owing to its rich pedigree in research in corporate branding and reputation, marketing is uniquely positioned to contribute toward the better understanding of this issue.
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  • 64
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 1199-1215 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper seeks to examine whether the stakeholder strategy matrix provides useful guidance for managers in dealing with stakeholders. The matrix suggests that strategies for dealing with stakeholders can be determined based on stakeholder ability to cooperate and threaten organisational outcomes. Design/methodology/approach - The study uses a hypothetical scenario looking at the development of a new environmentally friendly product, where eight stakeholder groups and their influencing abilities are manipulated. Marketers reviewed one version of the scenario and were then asked the applicability of 13 strategies for each stakeholder group described. Mixed design analysis is then undertaken to examine the direct effects and interactions between the four combinations of influencing abilities, the stakeholder group examined or how the strategy suggested impacted on managers' views. Findings - The research found that there was an interaction effect suggesting that some strategies were more applicable to stakeholders with certain sets of influencing abilities, as the stakeholder strategy matrix suggested. The specific stakeholder group examined also appeared to impact on managers' views, which is inconsistent with the theory. Research limitations/implications - The limitations are that the research focused on managers' perceptions of the applicability of strategies, rather than the actual success of strategies examined. Research into the effectiveness of actual behaviours would possibly require more in-depth examination of case studies. Practical implications - The research suggests that the stakeholder strategy matrix may provide some guidance as to how managers deal with stakeholders. However, it also suggests that managers may be implicitly applying influencing abilities to groups irrespective of their "true" influencing ability. In this case managers are in fact ignoring valuable information when deciding how to interact with stakeholders and therefore possibly using less effective strategies to interact with stakeholders. Originality/value - The research is unique as it looks at determining whether different types of strategies for dealing with stakeholders are perceived to be more or less effective. This therefore seeks to make stakeholder theory more strategic and applicable in a broader set of contexts. As such the paper would be of interest to managers seeking to understand better how to deal with stakeholders and to theorists seeking to understand better how stakeholder theory impacts on organisational outcomes.
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  • 65
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 998-1012 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Aims to illustrate the extent to which the concept of sustainable management can be grounded in a new appreciation of customer satisfaction, to set out the concept of sustainable management based on business ethical considerations on corporate social responsibility, and to distinguish it from similar concepts. Its rationale lies in the figure of the generalised customer. Design/methodology/approach - The generalised customer stems from a combination of stakeholder theory and sociological role theory. The stakeholder theory discusses the different stakeholder roles from an organisational perspective, whereas the sociological role theory views essentially the same roles and relationships from the individual's perspective. Focus lies in the personal preferences and attitudes accompanying the different roles one person plays in society - as a consumer, father, or member of Amnesty International. Findings - A first attempt to put these roles and relationships in a sustainability context - providing an impression of all possible needs, wants, and expectations a company can expect from its customers. This notion alters marketing's view of the customer and brings about a new understanding of customer satisfaction. Practical implications - Customer satisfaction must be seen in a more holistic, multidimensional perspective in future. Companies succeeding in taking this step towards sustainable management will raise their profile among customers, differentiate themselves from the competition, and achieve legitimacy vis-à-vis society. Originality/value - The combination of two, often opposing, theoretical genres related to consumer behaviour and the examination of the phenomenon "the customer" from both perspectives, offering a new species of customers in addition to homo economicus.
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  • 66
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 1060-1077 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The paper aims to explore a major issue in international marketing: how to build a global brand in a way that makes a strong local connection. Design/methodology/approach - Using qualitative research methods on a single case, the Brisbane Goodwill Games, the processes used in the staging of this major sport event are analyzed. In particular, the stakeholder relations employed by the marketing department of the Goodwill Games Organization are investigated and a process model is developed that explains how a global brand can be built locally. Findings - A major outcome of the paper is a revision to the four-step Freeman process to make it more proactive; and three major principles for effective stakeholder management are articulated. The findings demonstrate that stakeholder analysis and management can be used to build more effective event brands. Stakeholder theory is also proposed as an appropriate and possibly stronger method of building inter-organizational linkages than alternatives such as network theory. Originality/value - Previous literature has generally dealt with the global brand issue in terms of the standardization versus adaptation debate, and the extent to which the marketing mix should be adapted to meet local needs in foreign countries. This research provides a unique extension to this literature by demonstrating how the brand itself needs to be modified to meet local needs.
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  • 67
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    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 1049-1059 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To measure marketing performance in a holistic sense. Design/methodology/approach - To augment the prevailing customer relationship marketing paradigm, a holistic stakeholder relationship marketing paradigm is proposed in which holistic marketing performance is reflected in the delivery of long-term economic, social, and environmental value to customer, employee, supplier, community, and shareholder stakeholders of a business in order to enhance sustainable financial performance. Present stakeholder attitudes are measured in a stakeholder performance appraisal within a stakeholder relationship marketing model, as timely, early warning signals of future stakeholder behaviour and concomitant future business performance. Findings - Stakeholder performance appraisal results to date indicate that a holistic stakeholder relationship marketing orientation that incorporates triple bottom line philosophy significantly enhances business financial performance beyond that achieved by a customer relationship marketing orientation. Research limitations/implications - The stakeholder performance appraisal has been applied to only 33 businesses to date providing scope for wider application of this measurement system to demonstrate its practical usefulness in measuring holistic marketing performance and future financial performance. Practical implications - The stakeholder performance appraisal provides a perceptual overview of holistic marketing performance and concomitant business financial performance from stakeholders in terms of quantitative ratings of economic, social and environmental performance, and qualitative strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. These data enable a business to plan stakeholder relationship marketing strategies to enhance performance and to predict future financial performance. Originality/value - The stakeholder relationship marketing model and the stakeholder performance appraisal are new, unique, managerially useful additions to existing stakeholder models and metrics.
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  • 68
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    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 1096-1117 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - In the stakeholder marketing literature, there have been calls by several researchers to expand the stakeholder domain to incorporate a broader array of stakeholders. In developing this argument in this paper the authors aim to explore a set of stakeholder relationships in an international retailing context, notably those which exist between retail firms and investment banks. Design/methodology/approach - Theoretical ideas are subject to empirical scrutiny from 34 in-depth interviews with investment banks and senior retail executives from two retail multinationals. Findings - Exploratory findings suggest that US investment banks' ideals were at odds with European retail firms - and both occupied "different thought worlds". It is concluded that the relationships between financial stakeholders and the retail firm cannot be explained simply by reference to stylised economic interactions, but must also be examined in the light of the cultural contexts and different forms of market system within which different firms emerge, operate and interact. Originality/value - New strategies such as internationalisation stretch resources and capabilities to a point where retailers invariably will be exposed to different stakeholder issues and stresses. Towards this end, this paper contends that the significant international re-orientation under way in retailing must be understood within the wider context of stakeholder theory. The paper argues that the full potential of applying stakeholder marketing theory to the internationalisation process of retailers has yet to be realised. From this exploratory research, five research propositions are put forward that might serve as a guide to future research in this area.
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  • 69
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    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 1078-1095 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To gain a better understanding of various network relationships in the software industry by classifying relationships by type and identifying distinctions with respect to the business potential of those relationships. Design/methodology/approach - On the basis of literature, the study presents a framework for the tasks of combining and exchanging knowledge-based resources in network relationships. In the empirical research setting, the relationships of nine Finnish software firms are first classified and placed in the framework, and then the organisational effectiveness of the relationships is measured. Findings - The findings reveal three relationship types, each leading to different effectiveness profiles. Research limitations/implications - It is recognised that this exploratory multiple-case study raises the concern of generalisability and, thus, a statistical research using more accurate quantitative methods could be useful in checking the validity of the findings. Further, the selected cases exclude non-networking companies, which is why future researchers may wish to consider whether the conclusions are valid across all firms and not just for those already in relationships. Practical implications - A very useful information for new software firms having and planning partnerships in the software industry. For a new venture with limited resources, in particular, the partnerships may offer valuable resources. The study advances the identification of those benefits. Originality/value - This study extends the understanding of management in strategic networks, particularly in the software industry, by classifying network relationships by type, describing the potential of these relationships, and indicating the capabilities needed for managing specific types of relationships.
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  • 70
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    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 1264-1290 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To develop a reliable and valid measuring scale for customer relationship management (CRM). Design/methodology/approach - A series of studies were conducted for the development and validation of multiple measures for the dimensions of CRM. Once the dimensions of CRM were identified, data from study 1 (n=150 business executives attending a part-time MBA program) were used to select items based on factor analysis. Then, confirmatory factor analyses was used on data obtained from a mail survey of Hong Kong financial firms in study 2 (n=215) to examine factor structure, as well as to provide evidence of dimensionality, scale reliability and validity. Finally, in study 3, data from 276 business executives attending a seminar on CRM were used to test the scale generalizability of CRM measures in various industries. Findings - A reliable and valid scale was developed to measure the four dimensions of CRM: key customer focus, CRM organization, knowledge management and technology-based CRM. Research limitations/implications - Since this study was conducted in Hong Kong only, the generalizability of the CRM scale has to be tested in other countries. In addition, cross-sectional data were used in this study. Future studies should collect time-series data for the testing of the causal relationship between CRM and business performance. Practical implications - The findings validate the long-held belief that CRM is a critical success factor for business performance. Firms wishing to improve their relationships with customers need constantly to monitor their behavioral and internal processes. The proposed scale in this study could be used as a diagnostic tool to identity areas where specific improvements are needed, and to pinpoint aspects of the firm's CRM that require work. Originality/value - This is the first study to provide a comprehensive, psychometrically sound, and operationally valid measure of a firm's CRM.
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  • 71
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    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 1291-1305 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to argue that greater awareness of the connections between the traditions and conventions of visual art and the production and consumption of images leads to enhanced ability to understand branding as a strategic signifying practice. Design/methodology/approach - Several prominent, successful artists served as case studies to illuminate the potential for insights into the interconnections between art, branding, and consumption by turning to art history and visual studies. Discusses the cross-fertilization of art and branding, focusing on three contribution areas: the interactions between art, brands and culture, the self-reflexivity of brands, and brand criticism. Findings - Successful artists can be thought of as brand managers, actively engaged in developing, nurturing and promoting themselves as recognizable "products" in the competitive cultural sphere. Originality/value - This paper places brands firmly within culture to look at the complex underpinnings of branding, linking perceptual and cognitive processes to larger social and cultural issues that contribute to how brands work and argues that art-centred analyses generate novel concepts and theories for marketing research.
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  • 72
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    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 1306-1326 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - The purpose of this research paper is to define a new construct, organisational change capability, which determines an organisation's effectiveness in implementing marketing strategy. Design/methodology/approach - A framework is constructed based on a dynamic concept of strategy, implying that strategy implementation is a process of effectively leading and managing incessant organisational change. The new construct is defined by analysis and synthesis of key sources in prior literature on leading and managing organisational change. Findings - The paper identifies organisational change capability as a distinctive new construct that integrates stages in leading and managing organisational change. The framework shows how the new construct relates to market orientation and learning orientation in jointly influencing the success of dynamic strategy outcomes. Research limitations/implications - The paper is conceptual, and requires empirical development. Practical implications - The paper helps an organisation to understand the nature of change capability, and its role in effectively implementing marketing strategy. Originality/value - The value of the paper lies in defining a new, distinctive construct that can be developed as an operational measure of an organisation's capability of effectively implementing marketing strategy.
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  • 73
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    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 129-149 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - To investigate empirically the impact of brand extensions on brand personality, using Aaker's scale to measure the latter. Design/methodology/approach - Experimental study manipulating extension fit (good/poor fit), controlling for brand familiarity and including a control group. Findings - No adverse impact on brand personality of core brand as a result of introducing extensions (irrespective of fit). Research limitations/implications - Cross-sectional study not capturing potential long-term effects of extensions with poor fit. Longitudinal research is needed, as are replications with different brands, types of extensions and consumer segments. Practical implications - Preliminary support for introducing extension for a quality brand without fear of adversely affecting its brand personality. Originality/value - First study explicitly investigating impact of brand extensions on brand personality.
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  • 74
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    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 110-128 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - This paper identifies key forces influencing the degree of managerial public relations (MPR), i.e. the practice of public relations (PR) as a strategic tool. Design/methodology/approach - Using survey data of nearly 300 PR consultants from English firms, the authors propose a conceptual framework of MPR and test it through structural equation modeling (SEM). Findings - Findings reveal that research expenditure and importance given to qualifications are key antecedents of MPR. Surprisingly, while the direct effect of the perceived quality of PR graduates on the practice of MPR is non-significant, the indirect effect through research expenditure is highly significant and negative. Research limitations/implications - Future research is encouraged to identify key drivers of MPR by investigating clients' perceptions on this topic. Such an approach would bring interesting guidelines for improving the agency-client relationship as well as consultancies' performance. Research is also encouraged to investigate not only MPR antecedents, but also MPR outcomes. Practical implications - From a practitioner perspective, a better comprehension of MPR might promote the understanding of PR as a strategic tool, the understanding of the client's problem from a strategic standpoint, the inclusion of research and evaluation in the PR process, and incursion in long-term policies. Originality/value - Following the principle of strategy-environment co-alignment, this paper shows that the practice of PR is a result of a strategic response by consultants to the interplay of internal and external forces over their consultancy firm.
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  • 75
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    Bradford : Emerald
    European journal of marketing 39 (2005), S. 150-174 
    ISSN: 0309-0566
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Purpose - Compared with the emphasis that service quality research has received in online marketing, much less work has been done on the role of price perception, service attribute-level performance and satisfaction that unfolds over time, and their effects on customer retention. This paper seeks to fill this gap in the literature. Design/methodology/approach - This paper builds propositions about the role of price and customer satisfaction at different stages on customers' intention to return. Research hypotheses are developed based on theory from the combined literatures of services, product pricing, and behavioral decision theory. Data from the e-retailing industry related to two specific periods of shopping experience (at checkout and after delivery) are used in the empirical tests. Structural equation modeling is employed to test the hypothesized relationships. Findings - The findings of this study indicate that after-delivery satisfaction has a much stronger influence on both overall customer satisfaction and intention to return than at-checkout satisfaction, and that price perception, when measured on a comparative basis, has a direct and positive effect on customer overall satisfaction and intention to return. Research limitations/implications - The data are only available from surveying customers who have made purchases. Future study can investigate how satisfaction with shopping convenience has impacted customer acquisition. Measures of actual return behavior, as opposed to behavioral intentions, will also enhance the validity of the study. Practical implications - This paper concludes that excellence pre-sales service is not necessarily an advantage that allows e-tailers to develop customer retention. In fact, e-tailers might command higher customer retention through providing good performance in after-delivery service and continuously generating favorable price perceptions among customers because both have a strong and positive influence on return intention. Originality/value - This research conceptualizes and explores different aspects of satisfaction that unfold over time, regarding customers' whole shopping experience with a particular e-retailer. It is a pioneer work that empirically investigates the relative contribution of at-checkout and after-delivery satisfaction in generating intention to return to an e-tailer.
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