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  • 1
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This research focuses on the application of the spatial system of finite element modeling for the vehicle-bridge interaction on reinforced concrete US Girder Bridge in order to obtain the effect of surface roughness. Single vehicle and multiple vehicles on reinforced concrete T beam bridge were studied with variable surface roughness profiles. The effects of six different surface roughness profiles (very good, good, measured, average, poor, and very poor) were investigated for vehicle-bridge interaction. The values of the Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF) were obtained for single and multiple vehicles on T Beam Bridge for different surface roughness profiles, along with the distances between the axles of heavy vehicle. It was observed that when the bridge has very good, good, measured, and average surface roughness, the DAF values for the single vehicle over the bridge were observed to be within acceptable limits specified by AASHTO. However, for the bridge with multiple vehicles only very good and measured surface roughness profiles showed a DAF and vehicle axle distances within the acceptable limits. From the current studies, it was observed that the spatial system showed reliable responses for predicting the behavior of the bridge under variable road surface roughness conditions and was reliable in vehicle axle detection, and therefore, it has a potential to be use for realistic simulations.
    Print ISSN: 1687-6261
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-627X
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper describes the electricity generation characteristics of a new energy-harvesting system with piezoelectric elements. The proposed system is composed of a rigid cylinder and thin plates at both ends. The piezoelectric elements are installed at the centers of both plates, and one side of each plate is subjected to a harmonic point force. In this system, vibration energy is converted into electrical energy via electromechanical coupling between the plate vibration and piezoelectric effect. In addition, the plate vibration excited by the point force induces a self-sustained vibration at the other plate via mechanical-acoustic coupling between the plate vibrations and an internal sound field into the cylindrical enclosure. Therefore, the electricity generation characteristics should be considered as an electromechanical-acoustic coupling problem. The characteristics are estimated theoretically and experimentally from the electric power in the electricity generation, the mechanical power supplied to the plate, and the electricity generation efficiency that is derived from the ratio of both power. In particular, the electricity generation efficiency is one of the most appropriate factors to evaluate a performance of electricity generation systems. Thus, the effect of mechanical-acoustic coupling is principally evaluated by examining the electricity generation efficiency.
    Print ISSN: 1687-6261
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-627X
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Gene expression, signal transduction, protein/chemical interactions, biomedical literature cooccurrences, and other concepts are often captured in biological network representations where nodes represent a certain bioentity and edges the connections between them. While many tools to manipulate, visualize, and interactively explore such networks already exist, only few of them can scale up and follow today’s indisputable information growth. In this review, we shortly list a catalog of available network visualization tools and, from a user-experience point of view, we identify four candidate tools suitable for larger-scale network analysis, visualization, and exploration. We comment on their strengths and their weaknesses and empirically discuss their scalability, user friendliness, and postvisualization capabilities.
    Print ISSN: 1687-8027
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-8035
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 4
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper presented the issues of true representation and a reliable measure for analyzing the DNA base calling is provided. The method implemented dealt with the data set quality in analyzing DNA sequencing, it is investigating solution of the problem of using Neurofuzzy techniques for predicting the confidence value for each base in DNA base calling regarding collecting the data for each base in DNA, and the simulation model of designing the ANFIS contains three subsystems and main system; obtain the three features from the subsystems and in the main system and use the three features to predict the confidence value for each base. This is achieving effective results with high performance in employment.
    Print ISSN: 1687-8027
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    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 5
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Keeping the flying formation of spacecraft is a key problem which needs to be solved in deep space exploration missions. In this paper, the nonlinear dynamic model of formation flying is established and a series of transformations are carried out on this model equation. By using SDRE (State-Dependent Riccati Equation) algorithm, the optimal control of flying formation is realized. Compared with the traditional control method based on the average orbit elements and LQR (Linear Quadratic Regulator) control method, the SDRE control method has higher control precision and is more suitable for the advantages of continuous control in practical engineering. Finally, the parameter values of the sun-earth libration point L2 are substituted in the equation and simulation is performed. The simulation curves of SDRE controller are compared with LQR controller. The results show that the SDRE controllers time cost is less than the LQR controllers and the former’s fuel consumption is less than the latter’s in the system transition process.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7969
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7977
    Topics: Physics
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  • 6
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: VZLUSAT-1 nanosatellite (scheduled launch in spring 2017 from India) is a CubeSat mission which, besides other instrumentation, contains X-ray desk to perform efficiency tests of the X-ray optics. In this article the analysis of potential observational candidates for VZLUSAT-1 X-ray board is presented together with the suggestion of observational modes, laboratory measurements, and estimations of exposure settings.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7969
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7977
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The spatially conformally flat approximation (CFA) is a viable method to deduce initial conditions for the subsequent evolution of binary neutron stars employing the full Einstein equations. Here we analyze the viability of the CFA for the general relativistic hydrodynamic initial conditions of binary neutron stars. We illustrate the stability of the conformally flat condition on the hydrodynamics by numerically evolving ~100 quasicircular orbits. We illustrate the use of this approximation for orbiting neutron stars in the quasicircular orbit approximation to demonstrate the equation of state dependence of these initial conditions and how they might affect the emergent gravitational wave frequency as the stars approach the innermost stable circular orbit.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7977
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Results of the combined use of the classical force field and the recent quantum chemical PM7 method for docking are presented. Initially the gridless docking of a flexible low molecular weight ligand into the rigid target protein is performed with the energy function calculated in the MMFF94 force field with implicit water solvent in the PCM model. Among several hundred thousand local minima, which are found in the docking procedure, about eight thousand lowest energy minima are chosen and then energies of these minima are recalculated with the recent quantum chemical semiempirical PM7 method. This procedure is applied to 16 test complexes with different proteins and ligands. For almost all test complexes such energy recalculation results in the global energy minimum configuration corresponding to the ligand pose near the native ligand position in the crystalized protein-ligand complex. A significant improvement of the ligand positioning accuracy comparing with MMFF94 energy calculations is demonstrated.
    Print ISSN: 1687-8027
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-8035
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 9
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The transition density function plays an important role in understanding and explaining the dynamics of the stochastic process. In this paper, we incorporate an ergodic process displaying fast moving fluctuation into constant volatility models to express volatility clustering over time. We obtain an analytic approximation of the transition density function under our stochastic process model. Using perturbation theory based on Lie–Trotter operator splitting method, we compute the leading-order term and the first-order correction term and then present the left and right skew scenarios through numerical study.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9120
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9139
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 10
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In this work, we fabricated system In(O,OH)S/i-ZnO/n+-ZnO to be used as potential optical window in thin films solar cells. i-ZnO/n+-ZnO thin films were synthesized by reactive evaporation (RE) method and In(O,OH)S thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method; all thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates. Thin films were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and spectral transmittance measurements. Structural results indicated that both thin films were polycrystalline; furthermore, morphological results indicated that both thin films coated uniformly soda lime glass substrate; besides, optical characterization indicated that system had more than 80% of visible radiation transmittance.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7985
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7993
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 11
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The ability of gum exudates of Azadirachta indica (GAI) to inhibit corrosion on mild steel in 1 mol L−1 HCl has been studied using mass loss, polarization, and impedence measurements. The effect of temperature (303–323 K) and immersion time of 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 hours on corrosion behavior of mild steel was examined. Gum exudates decrease the corrosion rate up to a concentration of 80 ppm and at 323 K temperature. GAI adsorb chemically onto the surface of the mild steel while it obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Polarization studies show GAI as mixed mode inhibitor. Surface studies ascertain that a shielding layer was formed on the mild steel surface.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7993
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 12
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A homologous series of liquid crystal bearing with heterocyclic thiophene Schiff base ester with alkanoyloxy chain (CH3(CH2)nCOO–, where , 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16) was successfully synthesized through the modification of some reported methods. The structural information of these compounds was isolated and characterized through some spectroscopic techniques, such as FTIR, 1H, and 13C NMR and elemental analysis. Textural observation was carried out using a polarizing optical microscope (POM) over heating and cooling cycles. It was found that all synthesized compounds (3a–g) exhibited an enantiotropic nematic phase upon the heating and cooling cycle with high thermal stability. Moreover, a characteristic bar transition texture was observed for compounds 3f and 3g which have shown transition of nematic-to-smectic C phase. This has been further confirmed by obtaining relative phase transition temperature using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 13
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We apply density functional theory at PBE/6-311G(d) level as well as nonorthogonal tight-binding model to study the Stone-Wales transformation in C36 fullerene embedded inside the (14,0) zigzag carbon nanotube. We optimize geometries of two different isomers with the and the symmetries and the transition state dividing them. The mechanism of Stone-Wales transformation from to symmetry for the encapsulated C36 is calculated to be the same as for the isolated one. It is found that the outer carbon wall significantly stabilizes the isomer. However, carbon nanotube reduces the activation barrier of Stone-Wales rearrangement by 0.4 eV compared with the corresponding value for the isolated C36.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 14
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A polymeric thin film modified electrode, that is, poly(niacinamide) modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE), was developed for the electrochemical determination of catechol (CC) by using cyclic voltammetric technique. Compared to bare carbon paste electrode (BCPE), the poly(niacinamide) MCPE shows good electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of catechol in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) of physiological pH 7.4. All experimental parameters were optimized. Poly(niacinamide) modified carbon paste electrode gave a linear response between concentration of CC and its anodic peak current in the range within 20.6–229.0 μM. The limit of detection (3S/M) and limit of quantification (10S/M) were 1.497 μM and 4.99 μM, respectively. From the study of scan rate variation, the electrode process was found to be adsorption-controlled. The involvement of protons and electrons in the oxidation of CC was found to be equal. The probable electropolymerisation mechanism of niacinamide was proposed. Finally, this method can be used in development of a sensor for sensitive determination of CC.
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  • 15
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We present explicit formula for the general Randić connectivity, general sum-connectivity, Hyper-Zagreb and Harmonic Indices, and Harmonic polynomial of some simple connected molecular graphs.
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  • 16
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The energy-momentum of a new four-dimensional, charged, spherically symmetric, and nonsingular black hole solution constructed in the context of general relativity coupled to a theory of nonlinear electrodynamics is investigated, whereby the nonlinear mass function is inspired by the probability density function of the continuous logistic distribution. The energy and momentum distributions are calculated by use of the Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, Weinberg, and Møller energy-momentum complexes. In all these prescriptions, it is found that the energy distribution depends on the mass and the charge of the black hole, an additional parameter coming from the gravitational background considered, and the radial coordinate . Further, the Landau-Lifshitz and Weinberg prescriptions yield the same result for the energy, while, in all the aforesaid prescriptions, all the momenta vanish. We also focus on the study of the limiting behavior of the energy for different values of the radial coordinate, the parameter , and the charge . Finally, it is pointed out that, for and , all the energy-momentum complexes yield the same expression for the energy distribution as in the case of the Schwarzschild black hole solution.
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    Topics: Physics
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  • 17
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We first briefly revisit the original Hamilton-Jacobi method and show that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the action of tunneling of a fermionic particle from a charged black hole can be written in the same form of that for a scalar particle. On the other hand, various theories of quantum gravity suggest the existence of a minimal length scale, incorporating of which into quantum mechanics implies a modification of the uncertainty principle. In the scenario incorporating the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) into a quantum field theory (QFT) in a covariant way, we derive the deformed model-independent KG/Dirac and Hamilton-Jacobi equations using the methods of effective field theory. For this Lorentz invariant GUP modified QFT, we find that the effect of GUP on the Hamilton-Jacobi equations is simply to “renormalize” the mass of the emitted particles, from to . Therefore, in this scenario, the Hawking temperature of a black hole does not receive any corrections from the GUP effect.
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  • 18
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Applying generalized maximum principle and weak maximum principle, we obtain several uniqueness results for spacelike hypersurfaces immersed in a weighted generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW) space-time under suitable geometric assumptions. Furthermore, we also study the special case when the ambient space is static and provide some results by using Bochner’s formula.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9120
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9139
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 19
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A generalized super-NLS-mKdV hierarchy is proposed related to Lie superalgebra ; the resulting supersoliton hierarchy is put into super bi-Hamiltonian form with the aid of supertrace identity. Then, the super-NLS-mKdV hierarchy with self-consistent sources is set up. Finally, the infinitely many conservation laws of integrable super-NLS-mKdV hierarchy are presented.
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  • 20
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The paper shows that the regularity up to the boundary of a weak solution of the Navier–Stokes equation with generalized Navier’s slip boundary conditions follows from certain rate of integrability of at least one of the functions , (the positive part of ), and , where are the eigenvalues of the rate of deformation tensor . A regularity criterion in terms of the principal invariants of tensor is also formulated.
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  • 21
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We construct metric connection associated with a first-order differential equation by means of the generator set of a Pfaffian system on a submanifold of an appropriate first-order jet bundle. We firstly show that the inviscid and viscous Burgers’ equations describe surfaces attached to an ODE of the form with certain Gaussian curvatures. In the case of PDEs, we show that the scalar curvature of a three-dimensional manifold encoding a system of first-order PDEs is determined in terms of the integrability condition and the Gaussian curvatures of the surfaces corresponding to the integral curves of the vector fields which are annihilated by the contact form. We see that an integral manifold of any PDE defines intrinsically flat and totally geodesic submanifold.
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  • 22
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We apply our model of quantum gravity to a Kerr-AdS space-time of dimension , , where all rotational parameters are equal, resulting in a wave equation in a quantum space-time which has a sequence of solutions that can be expressed as a product of stationary and temporal eigenfunctions. The stationary eigenfunctions can be interpreted as radiation and the temporal ones as gravitational waves. The event horizon corresponds in the quantum model to a Cauchy hypersurface that can be crossed by causal curves in both directions such that the information paradox does not occur. We also prove that the Kerr-AdS space-time can be maximally extended by replacing in a generalized Boyer-Lindquist coordinate system the variable by such that the extended space-time has a timelike curvature singularity in .
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  • 23
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We describe a mathematical link between aspects of information theory, called pairwise comparisons, and discretized gauge theories. The link is made by the notion of holonomy along the edges of a simplex. This correspondence leads to open questions in both fields.
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  • 24
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Monkey B virus (Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1; BV) occurs naturally in macaques of the genus Macaca, which includes rhesus and long-tailed (cynomolgus) monkeys that are widely used in biomedical research. BV is closely related to the human herpes simplex viruses (HSV), and BV infections in its natural macaque host are quite similar to HSV infections in humans. Zoonotic BV is extremely rare, having been diagnosed in only a handful of North American facilities with the last documented case occurring in 1998. However, BV is notorious for its neurovirulence since zoonotic infections are serious, usually involving the central nervous system, and are frequently fatal. Little is known about factors underlying the extreme neurovirulence of BV in humans. Here we review what is actually known about the molecular biology of BV and viral factors affecting its neurovirulence. Based on what is known about related herpesviruses, areas for future research that may elucidate mechanisms underlying the neurovirulence of this intriguing virus are also reviewed.
    Print ISSN: 1687-8639
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-8647
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 25
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Two Malaysian very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) strains UPM0081 and UPM190 (also known as UPMB00/81 and UPM04/190, respectively) isolated from local IBD outbreaks were serially passaged 12 times (EP12) in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryonated eggs (CEE) by chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) route. The EP12 isolate was further adapted and serially propagated in BGM-70 cell line up to 20 passages (P20). Characteristic cytopathic effects (CPEs) were subtly observed at P1 in both isolates 72 hours postinoculation (pi). The CPE became prominent at P5 with cell rounding, cytoplasmic vacuoles, granulation, and detachment from flask starting from day 3 pi, up to 7 days pi with titers of 109.50 TCID50/mL and  TCID50/mL for UPM0081 and UPM190, respectively. The CPE became subtle at P17 and disappeared by P18 and P19 for UPM0081 and UPM190, respectively. However, the presence of IBDV was confirmed by immunoperoxidase, immunofluorescence, and RT-PCR techniques. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two isolates were of the vvIBDV. It appears that a single mutation of UPM190 and UPM0081 IBDV isolates at D279N could facilitate vvIBDV strain adaptability in CEE and BGM-70 cultures.
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    Topics: Medicine
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  • 26
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Dengue virus is a growing public health threat that affects hundreds of million peoples every year and leave huge economic and social damage. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and the incidence of the disease is increasing, among other causes, due to the geographical expansion of the vector’s range and the lack of effectiveness in public health interventions in most prevalent countries. So far, no highly effective vaccine or antiviral has been developed for this virus. Here we employed phage display technology to identify peptides able to block the DENV2. A random peptide library presented in M13 phages was screened with recombinant dengue envelope and its fragment domain III. After four rounds of panning, several binding peptides were identified, synthesized, and tested against the virus. Three peptides were able to block the infectivity of the virus while not being toxic to the target cells. Blind docking simulations were done to investigate the possible mode of binding, showing that all peptides appear to bind domain III of the protein and may be mostly stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. These results are relevant to the development of novel therapeutics against this important virus.
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  • 27
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We study the modified Friedmann equation in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with quantum effect. Our modified results mainly stem from the new entropy-area relation and the novel idea of Padmanabhan, who considers the cosmic space to be emerging as the cosmic time progresses, so that the expansion rate of the universe is determined by the difference of degrees of freedom between the holographic surface and the bulk inside. We also discuss the possibility of having bounce cosmological solution from the modified Friedmann equation in spatially flat geometry.
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  • 28
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The exact solutions of the -dimensional Dirac equation on the torus and the new extension and generalization of the trigonometric Pöschl-Teller potential families in terms of the torus parameters are obtained. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics techniques are used to get the extended potentials when the inner and outer radii of the torus are both equal and inequal. In addition, using the aspects of the Lie algebraic approaches, the algebra is also applied to the system where we have arrived at the spectrum solutions of the extended potentials using the Casimir operator that matches with the results of the exact solutions.
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  • 29
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Recently, a complex network based method of visibility graph has been applied to confirm the scale-freeness and presence of fractal properties in the process of multiplicity fluctuation. Analysis of data obtained from experiments on hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions results in values of Power of Scale-Freeness of Visibility Graph (PSVG) parameter extracted from the visibility graphs. Here, the relativistic nucleus-nucleus interaction data have been analysed to detect azimuthal anisotropy by extending the visibility graph method and extracting the average clustering coefficient, one of the important topological parameters, from the graph. Azimuthal-distributions corresponding to different pseudorapidity regions around the central pseudorapidity value are analysed utilising the parameter. Here we attempt to correlate the conventional physical significance of this coefficient with respect to complex network systems, with some basic notions of particle production phenomenology, like clustering and correlation. Earlier methods for detecting anisotropy in azimuthal distribution were mostly based on the analysis of statistical fluctuation. In this work, we have attempted to find deterministic information on the anisotropy in azimuthal distribution by means of precise determination of topological parameter from a complex network perspective.
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  • 30
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The aim of this paper is to study static spherically symmetric noncommutative wormhole solutions along with Lorentzian distribution. Here, and are torsion scalar and teleparallel equivalent Gauss-Bonnet term, respectively. We take a particular redshift function and two models. We analyze the behavior of shape function and also examine null as well as weak energy conditions graphically. It is concluded that there exist realistic wormhole solutions for both models. We also studied the stability of these wormhole solutions through equilibrium condition and found them stable.
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  • 31
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: High accuracy, high spatial resolution precipitation data is important for understanding basin-scale hydrology and the spatiotemporal distributions of regional precipitation. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable statistical downscaling algorithm to produce high quality, high spatial resolution precipitation products from Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) 3B43 data over the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin using an optimal subset regression (OSR) model combined with multiple topographical factors, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and observational data from rain gauge stations. After downscaling, the bias between TRMM 3B43 and rain gauge data decreased considerably from 0.397 to 0.109, the root-mean-square error decreased from 235.16 to 124.60 mm, and the increased from 0.54 to 0.61, indicating significant improvement in the spatial resolution and accuracy of the TRMM 3B43 data. Moreover, the spatial patterns of both precipitation rates of change and their corresponding value statistics were consistent between the downscaled results and the original TRMM 3B43 during the 2001–2014 period, which verifies that the downscaling method performed well in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin. Its high performance in downscaling precipitation was also proven by comparing with other models. All of these findings indicate that the proposed approach greatly improved the quality and spatial resolution of TRMM 3B43 rainfall products in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, for which rain gauge data is limited. The potential of the post-real-time Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG) downscaled precipitation product was also demonstrated in this study.
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  • 32
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: As a fundamental component in material and energy circulation, precipitation with high resolution and accuracy is of great significance for hydrological, meteorological, and ecological studies. Since satellite measured precipitation is often too coarse for practical applications, it is essential to develop spatial downscaling algorithms. In this study, we investigated two downscaling algorithms based on the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR), respectively. They were employed to downscale annual and monthly precipitation obtained from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission in Hengduan Mountains, Southwestern China, from 10 km × 10 km to 1 km × 1 km. Ground observations were then used to validate the accuracy of downscaled precipitation. The results showed that GWR performed much better than MLR to regress precipitation on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM); coefficients of GWR models showed strong spatial nonstationarity, but the spatial mean standardized coefficients were very similar to standardized coefficients of MLR in terms of intra-annual patterns: generally NDVI was positively related to precipitation when monthly precipitation was under 166 mm; DEM was negatively related to precipitation, especially in wet months like July and August; contribution of DEM to precipitation was greater than that of NDVI; residuals’ correction was indispensable for the MLR-based algorithm but should be removed from the GWR-based algorithm; the GWR-based algorithm rather than the MLR-based algorithm produced more accurate precipitation than original GPM precipitation. These results indicated that GWR is a promising method in satellite precipitation downscaling researches and needed to be further studied.
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  • 33
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Although realistic representation of the convective boundary layer (CBL) in the desert region in Northwest China is important for weather forecasts and climate simulations, evaluations of the performance of various planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes in simulating the CBL in the region are rare. In this study, the performance of a scale-aware PBL scheme newly implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in simulating the CBL in the Taklimakan desert is evaluated based on a comparison with both the WRF-LES simulations and observations, with the focus on scale dependencies of the simulations compared to the conventional PBL scheme. A series of simulations are performed with a scale-aware PBL scheme (Shin-Hong) and the conventional PBL scheme (YSU) for a deep CBL observed at Tazhong station in the central Taklimakan on 1 July 2016. The CBL was over 5000 m deep with wider and deeper rolls than in a shallow boundary layer. The results showed that the vertical structure simulated with the Shin-Hong scheme was closer to that in both the WRF-LES (large-eddy-simulation) and observations than that simulated with the YSU. The simulation with the scale-aware scheme reproduced cellular rolls similar to those in the WRF-LES, while the conventional PBL scheme struggled to trigger intense convective cells rather than cellular rolls. The results strongly suggest that the scale-aware nonlocal PBL scheme can be used to adequately reproduce the scale and evolution of the observed rolls in the deep CBL in Taklimakan desert at subkilometer resolutions.
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  • 34
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A model was developed for simulating the effects of airborne silver iodide (AgI) glaciogenic cloud seeding using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model with a modified Morrison cloud microphysics scheme. This model was used to hindcast the weather conditions and effects of seeding for three airborne seeding experiments conducted in 2016. The spatial patterns of the simulated precipitation and liquid water path (LWP) qualitatively agreed with the observations. Considering the observed wind fields during the seeding, the simulated spatiotemporal distributions of the seeding materials, AgI, and snowfall enhancements were found to be reasonable. In the enhanced snowfall cases, the process by which cloud water and vapor were converted into ice particles after seeding was also reasonable. It was also noted that the AgI residence time (〉1 hr) above the optimum AgI concentration (105 m−3) and high LWP (〉100 g m−2) were important factors for snowfall enhancements. In the first experiment, timing of the simulated snowfall enhancement agreed with the observations, which supports the notion that the seeding of AgI resulted in enhanced snowfall in the experiment. The model developed in this study will be useful for verifying the effects of cloud seeding on precipitation.
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  • 35
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In order to improve the measurement of precipitation microphysical characteristics sensor (PMCS), the sampling process of raindrops by PMCS based on a particle-by-particle Monte-Carlo model was simulated to discuss the effect of different bin sizes on DSD measurement, and the optimum sampling bin sizes for PMCS were proposed based on the simulation results. The simulation results of five sampling schemes of bin sizes in four rain-rate categories show that the raw capture DSD has a significant fluctuation variation influenced by the capture probability, whereas the appropriate sampling bin size and width can reduce the impact of variation of raindrop number on DSD shape. A field measurement of a PMCS, an OTT PARSIVEL disdrometer, and a tipping bucket rain Gauge shows that the rain-rate and rainfall accumulations have good consistencies between PMCS, OTT, and Gauge; the DSD obtained by PMCS and OTT has a good agreement; the probability of ,, and Λ shows that there is a good agreement between the Gamma parameters of PMCS and OTT; the fitted and Z-R relationship measured by PMCS is close to that measured by OTT, which validates the performance of PMCS on rain-rate, rainfall accumulation, and DSD related parameters.
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  • 36
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Ice nuclei are very important factors as they significantly affect the development and evolvement of convective clouds such as hail clouds. In this study, numerical simulations of hail processes in the Zhejiang Province were conducted using a mesoscale numerical model (WRF v3.4). The effects of six ice nuclei parameterization schemes on the macroscopic and microscopic structures of hail clouds were compared. The effect of the ice nuclei concentration on ground hailfall is stronger than that on ground rainfall. There were significant spatiotemporal, intensity, and distribution differences in hailfall. Changes in the ice nuclei concentration caused different changes in hydrometeors and directly affected the ice crystals, and, hence, the spatiotemporal distribution of other hydrometeors and the thermodynamic structure of clouds. An increased ice nuclei concentration raises the initial concentration of ice crystals with higher mixing ratio. In the developing and early maturation stages of hail cloud, a larger number of ice crystals competed for water vapor with increasing ice nuclei concentration. This effect prevents ice crystals from maturing into snow particles and inhibits the formation and growth of hail embryos. During later maturation stages, updraft in the cloud intensified and more supercooled water was transported above the 0°C level, benefitting the production and growth of hail particles. An increased ice nuclei concentration therefore favors the formation of hail.
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  • 37
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Targeting seedable clouds with silver iodide in complex terrain adds considerable uncertainty in weather modification studies. This study explores the geographic and temporal distribution of silver iodide associated with an active cloud seeding program in central Idaho snowpack using trace chemistry. Over 4,000 snow samples were analyzed for the presence of a cloud seeding silver iodide (AgI) signature over two winter seasons. The results indicate the following. At sites within 70 km of AgI sources, silver enrichments were detected at 88% of cases involving seeding efforts from ground generators, but none from aircraft seeded cases. Real-time snow collection methods were replicable within 0.41 ppt and confirmed seeding signatures for the entire duration of a seeded storm (). Sites sampled beyond 70 km of AgI sources () lacked detectable seeding signatures in snow. The results of this study demonstrate some of the strengths and limitations of chemical tracers to evaluate cloud seeding operations and provide observational data that can inform numerical simulations of these processes. The results also indicate that this chemical approach can be used to help constrain the spatiotemporal distribution of silver from cloud seeding efforts.
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  • 38
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: After a tropical cyclone (TC) making landfall, the numerical model output sea level pressure (SLP) presents many small-scale perturbations which significantly influence the positioning of the TC center. To fix the problem, Barnes filter with weighting parameters and is used to remove these perturbations. A case study of TC Fung-Wong which landed China in 2008 shows that Barnes filter not only cleanly removes these perturbations, but also well preserves the TC signals. Meanwhile, the centers (track) obtained from SLP processed with Barnes filter are much closer to the observations than that from SLP without Barnes filter. Based on the distance difference (DD) between the TC center determined by SLP with/without Barnes filter and observation, statistics analysis of 12 TCs which landed China during 2005–2015 shows that in most cases (about 85%) the DDs are small (between −30 km and 30 km), while in a few cases (about 15%) the DDs are large (greater than 30 km even 70 km). This further verifies that the TC centers identified from SLP with Barnes filter are more accurate compared to that directly obtained from model output SLP. Moreover, the TC track identified with Barnes filter is much smoother than that without Barnes filter.
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  • 39
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Nearly continuous wind retrievals every three minutes for an unprecedented 90-minute period were constructed during multiple mesocyclone cycles in a tornadic high-precipitation supercell. Asymptotic contraction rate analysis revealed the relationship between the primary and secondary rear-flank gust fronts (RFGF and SRFGFs) and the rear-flank downdraft (RFD) and occlusion downdrafts. This is thought to be the first radar-based analysis where the relationship between the near-surface gust fronts and their parent downdrafts has been explored for sequential mesocyclones. Changes in the SRFGFs were associated with surges in the RFD. During part of the mesocyclone lifecycle, the SRFGF produced a band of low-level convergence and associated deep updraft along the southwestern side of the hook echo region that ingested the RFD outflow and limited both entrainment into the RFD and reinforcement of low-level convergence along the leading edge of the primary RFGF. The second mesocyclone intensified from stretching in an occlusion updraft rather than in the primary updraft. This low-level mesocyclone remained well separated from the updraft shear region vorticity that was associated with a more traditional midlevel mesocyclone. However, the third mesocyclone initiated in the vorticity-rich region of the primary updraft zone and was amplified by stretching in the primary updraft.
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  • 40
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Irrigation water is limited and scarce in many areas of the world, including Comarca Lagunera, Mexico. Thus better estimations of irrigation water requirements are essential to conserve water. The general objective was to estimate crop water demands or crop evapotranspiration () at different scales using satellite remote sensing-based vegetation index. The study was carried out in northern Mexico (Comarca Lagunera) during four growing seasons. Six, eleven, three, and seven clear Landsat images were acquired for 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively, for the analysis. The results showed that was low at initial and early development stages, while was high during mid-season and harvest stages. These results are not new but give us confidence in the rest of our results. Daily maps helped to explain the variability of crop water use during the growing season. Based on the results we can conclude that maps developed from remotely sensed multispectral vegetation indices are a useful tool for quantifying crop water consumption at regional and field scales. Using maps at the field scale, farmers can supply appropriate amounts of irrigation water corresponding to each growth stage, leading to water conservation.
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  • 41
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Increasing summertime air temperature deteriorates human health especially in cities where the warming tendency is exacerbated by urban heat island. Human-biometeorological studies shed light on the primary role of radiation conditions in the development of summertime heat stress. However, only a limited number of field investigations have been conducted up to now. Based on a 26-hour long complex radiation measurement, this study presents the evolved differences within a medium-sized rectangular square in Szeged, Hungary. Besides assessing the impact of woody vegetation and façade orientation on the radiation heat load, different modeling software programs (ENVI-met, SOLWEIG, and RayMan) are evaluated in reproducing mean radiant temperature (). Although daytime can reach an extreme level at exposed locations (65–75°C), mature shade trees can reduce it to 30–35°C. Nevertheless, shading from buildings adjacent to sidewalks plays also an important role in mitigating pedestrian heat stress. Sidewalks facing SE, S, and SW do not benefit from the shading effect of buildings; therefore, shading them by trees or artificial shading devices is of high importance. The measurement–model comparison revealed smaller or larger discrepancies that raise awareness of the careful adaptation of any modeling software and of the relevance of fine-resolution field measurements.
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  • 42
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We propose to apply Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM), a high order and conservative interpolation, for the parameters estimation in a PM2.5 transport adjoint model. Numerical experiments are taken to show the accuracy of PPM in space and its ability to increase the well-posedness of the inverse problem. Based on the obtained results, the PPM provides better interpolation quality by employing much fewer independent points. Meanwhile, this method is still well-behaved in the case of insufficient observations. In twin experiments, two prescribed parameters, including the initial condition (IC) and the source and sink (SS), are successfully estimated by the PPM with lower interpolation errors than the Cressman interpolation. In practical experiments, simulation results show good agreement with the observations of the period when the 21th APEC summit took place.
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  • 43
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This study uses downscaled rainfall datasets from 16 coupled climate models at high resolution of 25 km from 1987 to 2001. The multimodel superensemble scheme is widely tested for rainfall forecast over mid-latitude, subtropical, and, especially, various regions of the monsoonal belt. A well-known statistical estimation theoretic approach, namely, Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE), is examined on 16 member models. The results are compared with superensemble methodology based on various skill scores. Results show that BLUE is providing promising forecasts. As far as comparative studies are concerned BLUE and superensemble schemes compete and show their importance from normal years to extreme rainfall years. BLUE methodology is capable of predicting draughts very well compared with other multimodel schemes. One basic advantage of BLUE is computationally less expensive than superensemble scheme. These statistical schemes like downscaling, BLUE, and superensemble can improve rainfall forecasts further, if a dense rain gauge data is provided.
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  • 44
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The performance of six satellite-based and three newly released reanalysis rainfall estimates are evaluated at daily time scale and spatial grid size of 0.25 degrees during the period of 2000 to 2013 over the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, with the view of improving the reliability of precipitation estimates of the wet (June to September) and secondary rainy (March to May) seasons. The study evaluated both adjusted and unadjusted satellite-based products of TMPA, CMORPH, PERSIANN, and ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis as well as Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) estimates. Among the six satellite-based rainfall products, adjusted CMORPH exhibits the best accuracy of the wet season rainfall estimate. In the secondary rainy season, unadjusted CMORPH and 3B42V7 are nearly equivalent in terms of bias, POD, and CSI error metrics. All error metric statistics show that MSWEP outperform both unadjusted and gauge adjusted ERA-Interim estimates. The magnitude of error metrics is linearly increasing with increasing percentile threshold values of gauge rainfall categories. Overall, all precipitation datasets need further improvement in terms of detection during the occurrence of high rainfall intensity. MSWEP detects higher percentiles values better than satellite estimate in the wet and poor in the secondary rainy seasons.
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  • 45
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The daily air temperature and precipitation records of four meteorological observation stations over China are used to investigate the differences of scaling property employing the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. The results show that the values in DFA-exponent for temperature are higher than those for precipitation compared by different orders DFA1–3. A 95% significance test is also applied to verify LRCs by resampling the temperature and precipitation records 10000 times in Beijing. The values of scaling exponent from original temperature and precipitation records are larger than the upper range value of the interval threshold after shuffling the data records, which implies there are positive LRCs. For temperature records, the value of scaling exponent calculated by FA is greater than those by DFA1–3 at all four stations. This indicates that the FA curve overestimates the scaling behavior due to the effect of trends. By contrast, the values of scaling exponent in precipitation are almost the same by using FA and DFA1–3 for all time scales, respectively. Furthermore, there are crossovers on short time scales in different orders DFA1–3 for the temperature records, while the slopes keep almost consistent on all time scales for the precipitation records.
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  • 46
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), also known for its significant antipyretic and analgesic properties. This chiral drug is commercialized in racemic form; however, only S-(+)-ibuprofen has clinical activities. In this paper the effect of temperature change (from 288.15 to 308.15 K) on the ibuprofen resolution was studied. A column ( mm) packed with tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) was used to obtain the thermodynamic parameters, such as enthalpy change (), entropy change (), variation enthalpy change (), variation entropy change (), and isoenantioselective temperature (). The mobile phase was a combination of hexane (99%), isopropyl alcohol (1%), and TFA (0.1%), as an additive. The conditions led to a selectivity of 1.20 and resolution of 4.55. The first peak, R-(−)-ibuprofen, presented an enthalpy change of 7.21 kJ/mol and entropy change of 42.88 kJ/K·mol; the last peak, S-(+)-ibuprofen, has an enthalpy change of 8.76 kJ/mol and 49.40 kJ/K·mol of entropy change.
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-3510
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 47
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The presented work describes the method development of simultaneous determination of camylofin dihydrochloride (CMF), diclofenac potassium (DCF), and Paracetamol (PCM) using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) and the method was further transferred to a new generation instrument, ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC-PDA). The detailed validation was carried out for the combination tablet formulation of CMF and DCF by UPLC-PDA. From the method development study, Acquity UPLC HSS C18 (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) was finally selected for validation. The satisfactory results were observed for peak shape, retention time, and resolution with a mobile phase of 20 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 3.0 with dilute orthophosphoric acid) : methanol (33 : 67 v/v). The isocratic elution of mobile phase was carried out at a flow rate of 0.250 mL/min and detection at 220 nm. Both drugs were efficiently separated out in less than 3.5 min with 1.1 and 3.2 min of retention time of the CMF and DCF with 11.87 of resolution. The linearity was obtained in the 20.0–80.0 μg/mL range of concentration with 0.9998 of correlation coefficients for the substances. The method was analyzed for specificity with detailed force degradation study, which is a simple, precise, and accurate method, as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines.
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  • 48
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and localized scleroderma (LoS) are two different diseases that may share some features. We evaluated the relationship between SSc and LoS in our case series of SSc patients. Methods. We analysed the clinical records of 330 SSc patients, in order to find the eventual occurrence of both the two diseases. Results. Eight (2.4%) female patients presented both the two diagnoses in their clinical histories. Six developed LoS prior to SSc; in 4/6 cases, the presence of autoantibodies was observed before SSc diagnosis. Overall, the median time interval between LoS and SSc diagnosis was 18 (range 0–156) months. Conclusions. LoS and SSc are two distinct clinical entities that may coexist. Moreover, as anecdotally reported in pediatric populations, we suggested the possible development of SSc in adult patients with LoS, particularly in presence of Raynaud’s phenomenon or antinuclear antibodies before the SSc onset.
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  • 49
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Several herbal remedies have been used as topical agents to cure burn wound, one of the most common injuries in worldwide. In this study, we investigated the potential use of Cleistocalyx operculatus essential oil to treat the burn wound. We identified a total of 13 bioactive compounds of essential oil, several of which exhibited the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Furthermore, the essential oil showed the antibacterial effect against S. aureus but not with P. aeruginosa. The supportive effect of essential oil on burn wound healing process also has been proven. Among three groups of mice, wound contraction rate of essential oil treated group (100%) was significantly higher than tamanu oil treated (79%) and control mice (71%) after 20 days ( versus  cm2, resp., ). Histological studies revealed that burn wounds treated with essential oil formed a complete epidermal structure, thick and neatly arranged fibers, and scattered immune cells in burn wound. On the contrary, saline treated burn wound formed uneven epidermal layer with necrotic ulcer, infiltration of immune cells, and existence of granulation tissue. This finding demonstrated Cleistocalyx operculatus essential oil as promising topical dermatological agent to treat burn wound.
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  • 50
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Fusarium spp. represent 9 to 44% of onychomycoses caused by fungi other than dermatophytes. This retrospective study describes 17 cases of Fusarium onychomycosis diagnosed at the Laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology of Le Dantec University Hospital in Dakar, Senegal, from 2014 to 2016. It included all patients received in the laboratory for suspicion of onychomycosis between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016. Diagnosis was based on mycological examination including direct examination and culture. Mycological analysis was considered positive when direct examination and culture were positive after at least one repeat. Seventeen Fusarium onychomycosis cases representing 12.9% of all onychomycoses reported were diagnosed. There were 5 cases on the fingernails and 12 on the toenails in 6 males and 11 females, and the mean age was 44 years (range: 26–64). Onychomycoses were diagnosed in immunocompetent patients except in a diabetic patient. The mean duration of lesions was 4.9 years (range: 1–15), and distal subungual onychomycosis was predominant. Almost all patients were from suburban areas of Dakar region. The most frequent species isolated belong to Fusarium solani complex. Because of the risk of disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients, realization of susceptibility tests is necessary to ensure better therapeutic management.
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  • 51
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Reticulated pigmentation is a unique pigmentary change caused by a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders. This pigmentation is characterized by a mottled appearance, with lesions that vary in size and pigmentary content. This review discusses the hereditary group of the reticulated pigmentation disorders, such as dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria, dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria, and reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura. The clinical presentation and histopathological features often overlap, making diagnosis difficult. However, each of these hereditary conditions possesses a unique genetic mutation, and genetic analysis is thus more useful in the diagnosis of these conditions. This article delivers an update regarding the clinical features, detailed histopathological description, and genetic information concerning hereditary reticulate pigmentary disorders and aims to provide useful background for use by clinical dermatologists and histopathologists when approaching this group of hereditary disorders.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Objective. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with self-medication in dermatology in Lomé, Togo. Methods. We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study from February to April 2016 in 2 dermatology departments in Lomé. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were carried out to identify possible factors associated with self-medication. Results. A total of 711 patients were included in the study. The mean age (±SD) of the patients was years and the sex ratio (male/female) was 0.6. The main dermatologic diseases recorded were immunoallergic dermatoses (39.7%) and infectious skin diseases (22.6%). Two-thirds (481/711; 66.7%) of the patients had practiced self-medication before consultation in dermatology units. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with self-medication were female sex (aOR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.01, 2.05), duration of dermatologic disease more than one year (aOR = 1.79; IC = 1.19, 2.68), adnexal dermatoses (aOR = 2.31; 95% IC = 1.03–5.21), keratinization disorders (aOR = 4.23; 95% CI = 1.36–13.13), and fungal skin infections (aOR = 5.43; 95% CI = 2.20, 13.38). Conclusion. Our study confirms that self-medication practice is very common among patients with dermatologic diseases in Lomé and has identified associated factors.
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  • 53
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Ischaemic insult in the skin flaps is a major problem in reconstructive surgery particularly in patients with diabetes mellitus. Here, we sought to investigate the effectiveness of ischaemic preconditioning (IP) on diabetic skin flaps in rat animal model. Hundred Wistar rats (90 streptozotocin treated animals and 10 nondiabetic controls) were used. Diabetes mellitus was confirmed by measuring glucose level in blood, HbA1c, and ketonuria. We used blood vessel clamping, hind limb tourniquet, and NO donors (Spermine/NO complex) to induce short-term ischaemia of tissues that will be excised for skin flaps. Animals were followed for 5 days. Flaps were photographed at day 5 and percent of necrosis was determined using planimetry. Significant decrease in percent of necrotic tissue in all groups that received preconditioning was observed. Results show that ischaemic preconditioning suppresses flap necrosis in diabetic rats irrespective of direct or remote tissue IP and irrespective of chemically or physically induced preischaemia. Spermine/NO complex treatment 10 minutes after the flap ischaemia suppressed tissue necrosis. Treatment with NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME reversed effects of IP showing importance of NO for this process. We show that IP is a promising approach for suppression of tissue necrosis in diabetic flaps and potential of NO pathway as therapeutic target in diabetic flaps.
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  • 54
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. Prevalence and incidence of drug eruptions vary around the world and are influenced by some key factors including HIV infection. Objective. This study aimed to find the peculiarities of drug eruptions in people living with HIV (PLHIV) and on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study including ART-taking PLHIV, aged 15+ years, followed up between January 2010 and December 2014 at the day-care unit of the Yaoundé Central Hospital, and who presented with drug eruptions after ART initiation. Results. Of 6,829 ART-experiencing PLHIV, 41 presented with drug eruptions, giving a prevalence of 0.6%. The M/F sex ratio equaled 0.17. The mean age was 41.07 ± 11.36 years. Benign drug eruptions accounted for 83.3%. Milder forms were essentially maculopapular exanthema (36.6%), fixed pigmented erythema (7.3%), and urticaria (4.9%). Severe forms were represented by multiform erythema (4.9%), toxic epidermal necrolysis (2.4%), and drug hypersensitivity syndrome (2.4%). The Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Efavirenz ART-protocol was received by 48.8% of patients and 69% of patients were receiving Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Nevirapine, Efavirenz, Zidovudine, and Cotrimoxazole were suspected as the potential causes in 43.7%, 4.8%, 2.4%, and 26.8% of cases, respectively. Conclusion. Drug eruptions seem infrequent among ART-exposed HIV infected adult Cameroonians.
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  • 55
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Introduction. Skin fragility and recurrent wounds are hallmarks of hereditary epidermolysis bullosa (EB). Treatment options to accelerate wound healing are urgently needed. Oleogel-S10 contains a betulin-rich triterpene extract from birch bark. In this study, we tested the wound healing properties of topical Oleogel-S10 in patients with dystrophic EB. Methods. We conducted an open, blindly evaluated, controlled, prospective phase II pilot trial in patients with dystrophic EB (EudraCT number 2010-019945-24). Healing of wounds treated with and without topical Oleogel-S10 was compared. Primary efficacy variable was faster reepithelialization as determined by 2 blinded experts. The main secondary outcome variable of the study was percentage of wound epithelialization. Results. Twelve wound pairs of 10 patients with dystrophic EB were evaluated. In 5 of 12 cases, both blinded reviewers considered epithelialization of the intervention wounds as superior. In 3 cases, only one reviewer considered Oleogel-S10 as superior and the other one as equal to control. Measurements of wound size showed a trend towards accelerated wound healing with the intervention but without reaching statistical significance. Conclusion. Our results indicate a potential for faster reepithelialization of wounds in patients with dystrophic EB when treated with Oleogel-S10 but larger studies are needed to confirm significance.
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  • 56
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. We investigated the effects of loss of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on the healing process of cutaneous excisional injury by using iNOS-null (KO) mice. Population of granulation tissue-related cell types, that is, myofibroblasts and macrophages, growth factor expression, and reepithelialization were evaluated. Methods. KO and wild type (WT) mice of C57BL/6 background were used. Under general anesthesia two round full-thickness excision wounds of 5.0 mm in diameter were produced in dorsal skin. After specific intervals of healing, macroscopic observation, histology, immunohistochemistry, and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were employed to evaluate the healing process. Results. The loss of iNOS retards granulation tissue formation and reepithelialization in excision wound model in mice. Detailed analyses showed that myofibroblast appearance, macrophage infiltration, and mRNA expression of transforming growth factor b and of collagen 1α2 were all suppressed by lacking iNOS. Conclusions. iNOS is required in the process of cutaneous wound healing. Lacking iNOS retards macrophage invasion and its expression of fibrogenic components that might further impair fibrogenic behaviors of fibroblasts.
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  • 57
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Skin aging is a gradual process that leads to wrinkle formation, laxity, and overall changes in skin appearance. In recent years, the demands to noninvasive treatments for facial rejuvenation increased, along with a variety of technologies and devices, such as radiofrequency. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of a multipolar radiofrequency and pulsed electromagnetic field treatment for face and neck rejuvenation. Eleven patients with mild to moderate grades of photoaging underwent eight radiofrequency and pulsed electromagnetic field treatment sessions, once a week. Clinical photographs were taken before and a week after the end of the treatment, and improvement of facial skin parameters was evaluated by two different investigators. Significant improvement in skin laxity was observed in all eleven patients (100%). Improvement in facial contour was noted in 73% and 100% of patients when analyzed by investigators A and B, respectively. The score for overall improvement in skin condition was 3 ± 0.78 for investigator A and 3.6 ± 0.67 for investigator B. All patients were satisfied with the procedure and noted significant improvement in the skin. The combined multipolar radiofrequency and pulsed electromagnetic field device is effective and safe for treatment of aged skin in Brazilian patients.
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  • 58
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. Tretinoin has been shown to improve photoaged skin. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a 5% retinoic acid peel combined with microdermabrasion for facial photoaging. Materials and Methods. Forty-five patients, aged 35–70, affected by moderate-to-severe photodamage were enrolled in this trial. All patients received 3 sessions of full facial microdermabrasion and 3 sessions of either 5% retinoic acid peel or placebo after the microdermabrasion. Efficacy was measured using the Glogau scale. Patients were assessed at 2 weeks and 1, 2, and 6 months after treatment initiation. Results. The mean ± SD age of participants was years, and the majorities (73.3%) were female. Between 1 month and 2 months, participants reported slight but statistically significant improvements for all parameters (). In terms of adverse effects, there were statistically significant differences reported between the 5% retinoic acid peel groups and the control group (). The majority of adverse effects reported in the study were described as mild and transient. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that 5% retinoic acid peel cream combined with microdermabrasion was safe and effective in the treatment of photoaging in the Iranian population. This trial is registered with IRCT2015121112782N8.
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  • 59
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Objective. Mechanism of action of cosmetic products is not often studied. The aim of this study is to determine the histological, immunohistochemical, and clinical changes of a new cosmetic formulation. Methods. Prospective, single-blind, patient-controlled, randomized study in 10 volunteers with mild to moderate skin photoaging on the back of their hands. The product was applied on one hand and a standard cream on the other hand, twice a day for three months. Standardized photographs were taken on basal (T0) and final visit (T1) and skin biopsies were performed. Changes on histological and immunohistochemical markers were studied. Subjective clinical changes were determined. Results. After treatment, a 26.3% improvement on epidermal thickness was detected and a significant increase on collagens I and III, elastin, and fibronectin fibers was achieved (). As the expression of MMPs remained stable, this improvement of dermal matrix was attributed to the stimulation of their synthesis. A significant clinical improvement on the treated hand was obtained, compared to control hand. Conclusion. This new cosmetic product with combination of three registered technologies (IFC-CAF, WGC, and RetinSphere), focused on regenerating dermal matrix and activating proliferation of skin cells, has shown to be efficient in the reversion of skin photoaging.
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  • 60
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
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  • 61
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background and Aim. Contact dermatitis (CD) is the most prevalent occupational skin disease with a significant impact on quality of life. Patch testing is used for the identification of responsible allergens which may improve protective and preventive measures in the workplace. Herein, we aim to identify the demographic characteristics and occupation of patients with early diagnosis of occupational CD and compare patch test results. Materials and Methods. The study included 330 patients referred to our clinic between April 2009 and April 2011 and who were patch-tested with 28-allergen European Standard Test. Results. 126 (38%) patients were female and 204 (62%) were male with a mean age of 36.12 (±13.13) years. Positive allergic reactions were observed in 182 (55%) patients. Nickel sulphate (41/126) and potassium dichromate (39/204) were significantly the most common allergens in women and men, respectively (). Additionally, the most common occupation in women was household activities (83/126) and in men was manufacturing (80/204). Conclusion. The allergens to which people become sensitized differ according to their working environment and occupation. Classification of occupations is important for identification of sensitization risks and monitoring of changes in allergen distribution of different occupations.
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  • 62
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Melanocytic nevi, including dysplastic or atypical nevi (DN), can recur or persist following shave removal procedures, and recurrence may resemble melanoma, both clinically and histologically (pseudomelanoma). Recurrence may originate from proliferation of the remaining neoplastic melanocytes following incomplete removal. The present study determines the rate and etiology of this event. A cross-sectional analysis of 110 excision specimens showing histological recurrence was performed, and these specimens were compared to the slides of the original shave specimens showing mildly atypical DN. In the second portion of the study, a retrospective review of 167 cases with biopsy-proven mildly atypical DN which were followed up for at least two years was conducted to determine the rate of recurrence/persistence. When followed up for two years, DN, with positive shave margins, defined by extension or very close extension (≤0.2 mm) of the lesions to the lateral margins and into the deep margins through the hair follicles in the shave removal specimens, have a higher probability of recurrence than DN with negative (or clear) margins (odds ratio (OR) = 158; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 36.62–683; ). The overall rate of histologically confirmed recurrence/persistence was approximately 10%.
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  • 63
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. The pattern of skin morbidity in an area depends on climate, geography, socioeconomic status, nutrition, genetics, and habits of the community. Objective. The objective of the present study was to describe the morbidity profile of patients attending dermatology outpatient department in a tertiary care centre of Garhwal hills, North India. Methodology. This is a record based study carried out using the morbidity registers. Patient details, diagnosis, and treatment provided by physicians were documented in the morbidity register. ICD coding was done to categorize the patients. Results. The total number of new episodes of illnesses treated in the skin outpatient department during 2009–2014 was 47465. Adults (〉18 years) constituted about 80.9%. Among adults, about 59.9% were males. Overall the infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue were the most common (32.6%) followed by the disorders of skin appendages (19.8%), and dermatitis and eczema (18.8%). Of the total patients 16.9% were affected by dermatitis and 16.7% by acne. Psoriasis, urticaria, melasma, and vitiligo were present in 3.4%, 3.4%, 3.6%, and 3.3% patients, respectively. Conclusion. This knowledge will help in planning appropriate range services to meet the patients’ needs and help in training of health staff to meet these needs.
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  • 64
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We study an online multisource multisink queueing network control problem characterized with self-organizing network structure and self-organizing job routing. We decompose the self-organizing queueing network control problem into a series of interrelated Markov Decision Processes and construct a control decision model for them based on the coupled reinforcement learning (RL) architecture. To maximize the mean time averaged weighted throughput of the jobs through the network, we propose a reinforcement learning algorithm with time averaged reward to deal with the control decision model and obtain a control policy integrating the jobs routing selection strategy and the jobs sequencing strategy. Computational experiments verify the learning ability and the effectiveness of the proposed reinforcement learning algorithm applied in the investigated self-organizing network control problem.
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  • 65
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The first-order and second-order PDα-type iterative learning control (ILC) schemes are considered for a class of Caputo-type fractional-order nonlinear systems. Due to the imperfection of the -norm, the Lebesgue-p () norm is adopted to overcome the disadvantage. First, a generalization of the Gronwall integral inequality with singularity is established. Next, according to the reached generalized Gronwall integral inequality and the generalized Young inequality, the monotonic convergence of the first-order PDα-type ILC is investigated, while the convergence of the second-order PDα-type ILC is analyzed. The resultant condition shows that both the learning gains and the system dynamics affect the convergence. Finally, numerical simulations are exploited to verify the results.
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  • 66
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We propose an exchange economy evolutionary model with discrete time, in which there are two utility-maximizing groups of agents which differ in the preference structure. Assuming an evolutionary mechanism based on the relative utility values realized by the two kinds of agents, we analytically and numerically investigate the existence of equilibria, their stability, and possible phenomena of coexistence between groups, mainly in terms of the heterogeneity degree in the preference structure. We find that our system has two trivial equilibria, at which just one of the two groups is present, and possibly a nontrivial equilibrium, characterized by the coexistence of the two groups of agents. Such nontrivial equilibrium may be stable, attracting all trajectories, or unstable. In the latter case, interesting, periodic, or chaotic, dynamics arise. We prove that the nontrivial equilibrium emerges via a transcritical bifurcation and loses stability via a flip bifurcation, after which the coexistence between groups is oscillatory in nature, presenting a regular or irregular behavior. In order to better investigate the role of the heterogeneity degree parameter, we perform a bifurcation analysis considering different scenarios, characterized by a balanced or unbalanced endowment distribution of the two goods.
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  • 67
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: An early warning on the highway will effectively reduce traffic accidents. Considering the influence of an abandoned object on driving behavior, a Visual-based Asymmetric Two-lane Cellular Automata model with Abandoned Object (V-ATCA-AO) and an Internet-of-Vehicles-based Asymmetric Two-lane Cellular Automata model with Abandoned Object (IoV-ATCA-AO) are proposed. Based on the two models, two types of traffic accidents caused by an abandoned object are analyzed: rear-end collision caused by the abandoned object ahead and collision of the vehicle with the abandoned object. Simulation results show the following: the accidents occur when the road density is smaller, while the accidents will not occur when the density is larger. The results are different from the rear-end collision rate curve without abandoned object in a single lane. Compared with the visual-based avoidance pattern in V-ATCA-AO, the Internet-of-Vehicles-based avoidance pattern in IoV-ATCA-AO can create an early warning for the abandoned object and tell the vehicle to make an earlier lane change and decelerate in advance, thereby significantly reducing the accident rate. Spatiotemporal characteristics in front of the abandoned object directly affect the accident rate: the less the “stability” of a traffic jam in front of the abandoned object, the higher the accident rate.
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  • 68
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A driving risk status prediction algorithm based on Markov chain is presented. Driving risk states are classified using clustering techniques based on feature variables describing the instantaneous risk levels within time windows, where instantaneous risk levels are determined in time-to-collision and time-headway two-dimension plane. Multinomial Logistic models with recursive feature variable estimation method are developed to improve the traditional state transition probability estimation, which also takes into account the comprehensive effects of driving behavior, traffic, and road environment factors on the evolution of driving risk status. The “100-car” natural driving data from Virginia Tech is employed for the training and validation of the prediction model. The results show that, under the 5% false positive rate, the prediction algorithm could have high prediction accuracy rate for future medium-to-high driving risks and could meet the timeliness requirement of collision avoidance warning. The algorithm could contribute to timely warning or auxiliary correction to drivers in the approaching-danger state.
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  • 69
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We study the existence and attractivity of solutions for fractional evolution equations with Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. We establish sufficient conditions for the global attractivity of mild solutions for the Cauchy problems in the case that semigroup is compact.
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  • 70
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper is devoted to a new numerical approach for the possibility of -periodic Lipschitz shadowing of a class of stochastic differential equations. The existence of -periodic Lipschitz shadowing orbits and expression of shadowing distance are established. The numerical implementation approaches to the shadowing distance by the random Romberg algorithm are presented, and the convergence of this method is also proved to be mean-square. This ensures the feasibility of the numerical method. The practical use of these theorems and the associated algorithms is demonstrated in the numerical computations of the -periodic Lipschitz shadowing orbits of the stochastic logistic equation.
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  • 71
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We study a diffusive prey-predator system with a group defense for prey. Under Neumann boundary condition, we analyze local and stability of nonnegative constant steady states and the existence and nonexistence of nonconstant steady states. These results also exhibit the critical role of the system parameters leading to the formation of spatiotemporal patterns.
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  • 72
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Distributed discrete-time coordinated tracking control problem is investigated for multiagent systems in the ideal case, where agents with a fixed graph combine with a leader-following group, aiming to expand the function of the traditional one in some scenes. The modified union switching topology is derived from a set of Markov chains to the edges by introducing a novel mapping. The issue on how to guarantee all the agents tracking the leader is solved through a PD-like consensus algorithm. The available sampling period and the feasible control gain are calculated in terms of the trigonometric function theory, and the mean-square bound of tracking errors is provided finally. Simulation example is presented to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results.
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  • 73
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been widely accepted as an effective, minimally invasive treatment for superficial esophageal cancers. However, esophageal stricture often occurs in patients with large mucosal defects after ESD. In this review, we discuss various approaches recently researched to prevent esophageal strictures after ESD. These approaches can be classified as pharmacological treatments, esophageal stent treatments, and tissue engineering approaches. Most of the preventive approaches still have their limitations and require further research. With the improvement of current therapies, ESD can be more widely utilized as a minimally invasive treatment with minimal complications.
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  • 74
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Aim. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection (ESTD) for resection of large superficial gastric lesions (SGLs). Methods. The clinicopathological records of patients performed with ESTD or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for SGLs between January 2012 and January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. 7 cases undergoing ESTD were enrolled to form the ESTD group. The cases were individually matched at a 1 : 1 ratio to other patients performed with ESD according to lesion location, ulcer or scar findings, resected specimen area, operation time and operators, and the matched cases constituting the ESD group. The treatment outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results. The mean specimen size was 46 mm. 10 lesions were located in the cardia and 4 lesions in the lesser curvature of the lower gastric body. En bloc resection was achieved for all lesions. The mean ESTD resection time was 69 minutes as against 87.7 minutes for the ESD (). The mean resection speed was faster for ESTD than for ESD (18.86 mm2/min versus 13.76 mm2/min, ). There were no significant differences regarding the safety and curability during the endoscopic follow-up (mean 27 months). Conclusions. ESTD is effective and safe for the removal of SGLs and appears to be an optimal option for patients with large SGLs at suitable sites.
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  • 75
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background/Aims. Delayed bleeding is one of the most serious complications following gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) under antithrombotic therapy. As a safety measure, for patients receiving antithrombotic therapy, we covered the ESD ulcer with autologous fibrin glue (prepared using autologous blood) alone or with polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheets. Methods. From July 2014 to November 2015, 20 patients with gastric neoplasms who were receiving antithrombotic therapy were enrolled in this study. After ESD, the ESD ulcers were covered with autologous fibrin glue alone or with PGA sheets. We prospectively evaluated the feasibility of this safety measure. Results. In total, 22 lesions in 20 patients were resected en bloc by ESD. The mean specimen size and tumor size were 31.5 ± 9.5 mm and 14.0 ± 8.8 mm, respectively. There were no cases of delayed bleeding or adverse events in this study. Attachment of autologous fibrin glue was observed in 81.8% (18/22) and 68.2% (15/22) of lesions at endoscopy performed 1 day and 7 days after ESD, respectively. Conclusion. No patient in this study had delayed bleeding or adverse events. This suggests that this measure may facilitate the safety of gastric ESD in patients receiving antithrombotic therapy. This trial is registered with UMIN000019386.
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  • 76
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is a common cause for acute bacterial gastroenteritis in children in China. There have been no reports of the prevalence of lactose intolerance or food allergies in children with nontyphoidal Salmonella infection. The aim of this study was to characterize nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis in a tertiary children’s hospital and evaluate clinical presentation, lactose intolerance, and food allergies in children with prolonged nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis. Methods. A retrospective case-series analysis was carried out in a tertiary children’s hospital in Guangzhou, China. We included all infants and children who were diagnosed with nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016. Patients’ clinical features, feeding patterns, laboratory tests, and treatment outcomes were reviewed. Results. A total of 142 infants and children were diagnosed with nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis. 52.1% of cases occurred in infants ≤ 12 months of age and the majority (89.4%) in children younger than 3 years old. The most common symptoms were diarrhea (100%), fever (62%), and vomiting (18.3%). Salmonella Typhimurium was the predominant serotype, accounting for 82.4%. 91.5% of patients were treated with antibiotics. Forty-one (28.9%) and 9 (6.3%) children improved with a lactose-free diet and hypoallergenic formula, respectively, when diarrhea persisted for more than a week. Conclusions. Salmonella Typhimurium was the predominant serotype. Most patients with nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis were younger than 3 years old. Lactose intolerance occurred frequently in children with nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis and dietary modification should be considered when diarrhea is persistent and prolonged.
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. Endotoxin (LPS), the component of Gram-negative bacteria, is responsible for sepsis and neonatal mortality, but low concentrations of LPS produced tissue protection in experimental studies. The effects of LPS applied to the suckling rats on the pancreas of adult animals have not been previously explored. We present the impact of neonatal endotoxemia on the pancreatic exocrine function and on the acute pancreatitis which has been investigated in the adult animals. Endotoxemia was induced in suckling rats by intraperitoneal application of LPS from Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhi. In the adult rats, pretreated in the early period of life with LPS, histological manifestations of acute pancreatitis have been reduced. Pancreatic weight and plasma lipase activity were decreased, and SOD concentration was reversed and accompanied by a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation products (MDA + 4 HNE) in the pancreatic tissue. In the pancreatic acini, the significant increases in protein signals for toll-like receptor 4 and for heat shock protein 60 were found. Signal for the CCK1 receptor was reduced and pancreatic secretory responses to caerulein were diminished, whereas basal enzyme secretion was unaffected. These pioneer studies have shown that exposition of suckling rats to endotoxin has an impact on the pancreas in the adult organism.
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  • 78
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background/Aims. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious concern during hepatic vascular occlusion. The objectives of this study were to assess effects of three techniques for hepatic vascular occlusion on I/R injury and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Liver cirrhotic rats had undertaken Pringle maneuver (PR), hemihepatic vascular occlusion (HH), or hepatic blood inflow occlusion without hemihepatic artery control (WH). Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), and hemeoxygenase 1 (HMOX1) were assayed. Results. The histopathologic analysis displayed that liver harm was more prominent in the PR group, but similar in the HH and WH groups. The HH and WH groups responded to hepatic I/R inflammation similarly but better than the PR group. Mechanical studies suggested that TNF-α/NF-κB signaling and TLR4/TRIF transduction pathways were associated with the differential effects. In addition, the HH and WH groups had significantly higher levels of hepatic HMOX1 () than the PR group. Conclusions. HH and WH confer better preservation of liver function and protection than the Pringle maneuver in combating I/R injury. Upregulation of HMOX1 may lead to better protection and clinical outcomes after liver resection.
    Print ISSN: 1687-6121
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-630X
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Hindawi
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Serum α-fetoprotein- (AFP-) elevated gastric cancer is a rare tumor that has a poor prognosis due to high incidence of liver metastasis. This study sought to investigate the optimal treatment modality. A total of 319 gastric cancer patients with liver metastasis (GCLM) whose serum AFP levels were tested before treatment were enrolled in this study. They were classified as the serum AFP ≥ 20 ng/ml group () and the AFP 
    Print ISSN: 1687-6121
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-630X
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Hindawi
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
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