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  • 1
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The production potential of the excited neutrinos at the FCC-based electron-hadron colliders, namely, the with  TeV, the with  TeV, and the with  TeV, has been analyzed. The branching ratios of the excited neutrinos have been calculated for the different decay channels and shown that the dominant channel is . We have calculated the production cross sections with the process of and the decay widths of the excited neutrinos with the process of . The signals and corresponding backgrounds are studied in detail to obtain accessible mass limits. It is shown that the discovery limits obtained on the mass of the excited neutrino are  GeV for  , GeV for   ( GeV for ), and GeV for   ( GeV for  ), for the center-of-mass energies of ,, and  TeV, respectively.
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  • 2
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We show that if the non-Gaussian part of the cumulants of a random matrix model obeys some scaling bounds in the size of the matrix, then Wigner’s semicircle law holds. This result is derived using the replica technique and an analogue of the renormalisation group equation for the replica effective action.
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  • 3
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: As a fundamental component in material and energy circulation, precipitation with high resolution and accuracy is of great significance for hydrological, meteorological, and ecological studies. Since satellite measured precipitation is often too coarse for practical applications, it is essential to develop spatial downscaling algorithms. In this study, we investigated two downscaling algorithms based on the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR), respectively. They were employed to downscale annual and monthly precipitation obtained from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission in Hengduan Mountains, Southwestern China, from 10 km × 10 km to 1 km × 1 km. Ground observations were then used to validate the accuracy of downscaled precipitation. The results showed that GWR performed much better than MLR to regress precipitation on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM); coefficients of GWR models showed strong spatial nonstationarity, but the spatial mean standardized coefficients were very similar to standardized coefficients of MLR in terms of intra-annual patterns: generally NDVI was positively related to precipitation when monthly precipitation was under 166 mm; DEM was negatively related to precipitation, especially in wet months like July and August; contribution of DEM to precipitation was greater than that of NDVI; residuals’ correction was indispensable for the MLR-based algorithm but should be removed from the GWR-based algorithm; the GWR-based algorithm rather than the MLR-based algorithm produced more accurate precipitation than original GPM precipitation. These results indicated that GWR is a promising method in satellite precipitation downscaling researches and needed to be further studied.
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    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 4
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In order to improve the measurement of precipitation microphysical characteristics sensor (PMCS), the sampling process of raindrops by PMCS based on a particle-by-particle Monte-Carlo model was simulated to discuss the effect of different bin sizes on DSD measurement, and the optimum sampling bin sizes for PMCS were proposed based on the simulation results. The simulation results of five sampling schemes of bin sizes in four rain-rate categories show that the raw capture DSD has a significant fluctuation variation influenced by the capture probability, whereas the appropriate sampling bin size and width can reduce the impact of variation of raindrop number on DSD shape. A field measurement of a PMCS, an OTT PARSIVEL disdrometer, and a tipping bucket rain Gauge shows that the rain-rate and rainfall accumulations have good consistencies between PMCS, OTT, and Gauge; the DSD obtained by PMCS and OTT has a good agreement; the probability of ,, and Λ shows that there is a good agreement between the Gamma parameters of PMCS and OTT; the fitted and Z-R relationship measured by PMCS is close to that measured by OTT, which validates the performance of PMCS on rain-rate, rainfall accumulation, and DSD related parameters.
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  • 5
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Ice nuclei are very important factors as they significantly affect the development and evolvement of convective clouds such as hail clouds. In this study, numerical simulations of hail processes in the Zhejiang Province were conducted using a mesoscale numerical model (WRF v3.4). The effects of six ice nuclei parameterization schemes on the macroscopic and microscopic structures of hail clouds were compared. The effect of the ice nuclei concentration on ground hailfall is stronger than that on ground rainfall. There were significant spatiotemporal, intensity, and distribution differences in hailfall. Changes in the ice nuclei concentration caused different changes in hydrometeors and directly affected the ice crystals, and, hence, the spatiotemporal distribution of other hydrometeors and the thermodynamic structure of clouds. An increased ice nuclei concentration raises the initial concentration of ice crystals with higher mixing ratio. In the developing and early maturation stages of hail cloud, a larger number of ice crystals competed for water vapor with increasing ice nuclei concentration. This effect prevents ice crystals from maturing into snow particles and inhibits the formation and growth of hail embryos. During later maturation stages, updraft in the cloud intensified and more supercooled water was transported above the 0°C level, benefitting the production and growth of hail particles. An increased ice nuclei concentration therefore favors the formation of hail.
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  • 6
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Targeting seedable clouds with silver iodide in complex terrain adds considerable uncertainty in weather modification studies. This study explores the geographic and temporal distribution of silver iodide associated with an active cloud seeding program in central Idaho snowpack using trace chemistry. Over 4,000 snow samples were analyzed for the presence of a cloud seeding silver iodide (AgI) signature over two winter seasons. The results indicate the following. At sites within 70 km of AgI sources, silver enrichments were detected at 88% of cases involving seeding efforts from ground generators, but none from aircraft seeded cases. Real-time snow collection methods were replicable within 0.41 ppt and confirmed seeding signatures for the entire duration of a seeded storm (). Sites sampled beyond 70 km of AgI sources () lacked detectable seeding signatures in snow. The results of this study demonstrate some of the strengths and limitations of chemical tracers to evaluate cloud seeding operations and provide observational data that can inform numerical simulations of these processes. The results also indicate that this chemical approach can be used to help constrain the spatiotemporal distribution of silver from cloud seeding efforts.
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  • 7
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Irrigation water is limited and scarce in many areas of the world, including Comarca Lagunera, Mexico. Thus better estimations of irrigation water requirements are essential to conserve water. The general objective was to estimate crop water demands or crop evapotranspiration () at different scales using satellite remote sensing-based vegetation index. The study was carried out in northern Mexico (Comarca Lagunera) during four growing seasons. Six, eleven, three, and seven clear Landsat images were acquired for 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively, for the analysis. The results showed that was low at initial and early development stages, while was high during mid-season and harvest stages. These results are not new but give us confidence in the rest of our results. Daily maps helped to explain the variability of crop water use during the growing season. Based on the results we can conclude that maps developed from remotely sensed multispectral vegetation indices are a useful tool for quantifying crop water consumption at regional and field scales. Using maps at the field scale, farmers can supply appropriate amounts of irrigation water corresponding to each growth stage, leading to water conservation.
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  • 8
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: After a tropical cyclone (TC) making landfall, the numerical model output sea level pressure (SLP) presents many small-scale perturbations which significantly influence the positioning of the TC center. To fix the problem, Barnes filter with weighting parameters and is used to remove these perturbations. A case study of TC Fung-Wong which landed China in 2008 shows that Barnes filter not only cleanly removes these perturbations, but also well preserves the TC signals. Meanwhile, the centers (track) obtained from SLP processed with Barnes filter are much closer to the observations than that from SLP without Barnes filter. Based on the distance difference (DD) between the TC center determined by SLP with/without Barnes filter and observation, statistics analysis of 12 TCs which landed China during 2005–2015 shows that in most cases (about 85%) the DDs are small (between −30 km and 30 km), while in a few cases (about 15%) the DDs are large (greater than 30 km even 70 km). This further verifies that the TC centers identified from SLP with Barnes filter are more accurate compared to that directly obtained from model output SLP. Moreover, the TC track identified with Barnes filter is much smoother than that without Barnes filter.
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  • 9
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was computed for October to December (OND) and January to March (JFM) summer subseasons for Free State Province, South Africa, to assess the influence of altitude on drought severity and frequency. The observed spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the SPI variability revealed that factors governing drought interannual variability varied markedly within the region for the two subseasons. Strong correlations between and 0.93 across the clusters in both subseasons were observed. Significant shift in average SPI, towards the high during the OND subseason, was detected for the far western low-lying and central regions of the province around the 1990s. An ANOVA test revealed a significant relationship between drought severity and altitude during the OND subseason only. The impact of altitude is partly manifested in the strong relationship between meridional winds and SPI extremes. When the winds are largely northerly, Free State lies predominantly in the windward side of the Drakensberg Mountains but lies in the rain shadow when the winds are mostly southerly. The relationship between ENSO and SPI indicates stronger correlations for the early summer subseason than for the late summer subseason while overall presenting a diminishing intensity with height over the province.
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  • 10
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This study uses downscaled rainfall datasets from 16 coupled climate models at high resolution of 25 km from 1987 to 2001. The multimodel superensemble scheme is widely tested for rainfall forecast over mid-latitude, subtropical, and, especially, various regions of the monsoonal belt. A well-known statistical estimation theoretic approach, namely, Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE), is examined on 16 member models. The results are compared with superensemble methodology based on various skill scores. Results show that BLUE is providing promising forecasts. As far as comparative studies are concerned BLUE and superensemble schemes compete and show their importance from normal years to extreme rainfall years. BLUE methodology is capable of predicting draughts very well compared with other multimodel schemes. One basic advantage of BLUE is computationally less expensive than superensemble scheme. These statistical schemes like downscaling, BLUE, and superensemble can improve rainfall forecasts further, if a dense rain gauge data is provided.
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  • 11
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A month-long field observation campaign was conducted, which covered approximately 100 km2 of the Gobi Desert area on the southeast bank of Bosten Lake during the summer of 2016. The purpose of the study was to examine the physical characteristics of the low atmosphere over land-lake nonuniform underlying surfaces in the Gobi Desert of northwestern China. The results of the statistical analysis showed that, during the observational period, the average daytime surface horizontal thermal gradient reached up to −0.2°C/km from the lakeshore to southern Gobi Desert area. The near-surface wind field of the 7 km horizontal extent from the lakeshore was dominated by onshore breezes with average peak wind speeds above 5 m/s. In the atmospheric near-surface layer, an isohumidity layer at a height between 10 and 50 m a.g.l. was observed from 11:00 to 18:00 LST. Also, a case study for the atmospheric boundary layer and local circulation analyses was conducted. The onshore breezes were found to play a major role in the vertical structure of the local atmospheric boundary layer. The numerical simulation results indicated that there was an alternating day-night local circulation in the Bosten Lake area.
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  • 12
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We propose to apply Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM), a high order and conservative interpolation, for the parameters estimation in a PM2.5 transport adjoint model. Numerical experiments are taken to show the accuracy of PPM in space and its ability to increase the well-posedness of the inverse problem. Based on the obtained results, the PPM provides better interpolation quality by employing much fewer independent points. Meanwhile, this method is still well-behaved in the case of insufficient observations. In twin experiments, two prescribed parameters, including the initial condition (IC) and the source and sink (SS), are successfully estimated by the PPM with lower interpolation errors than the Cressman interpolation. In practical experiments, simulation results show good agreement with the observations of the period when the 21th APEC summit took place.
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  • 13
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The performance of six satellite-based and three newly released reanalysis rainfall estimates are evaluated at daily time scale and spatial grid size of 0.25 degrees during the period of 2000 to 2013 over the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, with the view of improving the reliability of precipitation estimates of the wet (June to September) and secondary rainy (March to May) seasons. The study evaluated both adjusted and unadjusted satellite-based products of TMPA, CMORPH, PERSIANN, and ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis as well as Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) estimates. Among the six satellite-based rainfall products, adjusted CMORPH exhibits the best accuracy of the wet season rainfall estimate. In the secondary rainy season, unadjusted CMORPH and 3B42V7 are nearly equivalent in terms of bias, POD, and CSI error metrics. All error metric statistics show that MSWEP outperform both unadjusted and gauge adjusted ERA-Interim estimates. The magnitude of error metrics is linearly increasing with increasing percentile threshold values of gauge rainfall categories. Overall, all precipitation datasets need further improvement in terms of detection during the occurrence of high rainfall intensity. MSWEP detects higher percentiles values better than satellite estimate in the wet and poor in the secondary rainy seasons.
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  • 14
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM) as well as its levels in air samples collected from selected sites within cities of Dhahran, Khobar, and Dammam, in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, are investigated. Concentration levels of the 10 microns’ PM (i.e., PM10) are determined using the gravimetric technique. Morphological and chemical characteristics of the PM collected from the sampling cities are studied using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Moreover, levels and types of hazardous materials related to these samples are assessed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Results revealed that the average concentration levels of PM10 were approximately 177, 380, and 126 μg/m3 in Dhahran, Khobar, and Dammam, respectively. The structure of PM collected in Dhahran was mainly platy and rod-like shaped with a size between 2 and 6 μm, while PM collected in Khobar was mostly irregular in form, with a size range between 2 and 8 μm, and Dammam’s PM was rounded and between 1 and 3 μm in size. Both EDX and XRF results indicate relatively high weight % of C, O, Si, F, and Ca with lower weight % of Na, Mg, and K at the 3 cities. Finally, the study shows that Ba and Zn were the main trace metals associated with the collected PM in the 3 cities.
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  • 15
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Gene expression, signal transduction, protein/chemical interactions, biomedical literature cooccurrences, and other concepts are often captured in biological network representations where nodes represent a certain bioentity and edges the connections between them. While many tools to manipulate, visualize, and interactively explore such networks already exist, only few of them can scale up and follow today’s indisputable information growth. In this review, we shortly list a catalog of available network visualization tools and, from a user-experience point of view, we identify four candidate tools suitable for larger-scale network analysis, visualization, and exploration. We comment on their strengths and their weaknesses and empirically discuss their scalability, user friendliness, and postvisualization capabilities.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-8035
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 16
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Soldiers and supporting engineers are frequently exposed to high low-frequency (
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-627X
    Topics: Physics
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  • 17
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In this study, the vibration and acoustic interactions between the structure and the cavity inside the freezer cabinet were investigated. Thus, a set of numerical and experimental analyses were performed. In the numerical analysis, the acoustic characteristics of the freezer cavity were solved, and the mixed finite element method was then implemented to analyse the coupled behaviour of the cavity with the air duct using the Acoustic Fluid-Structure Interaction (AFSI) technique. In the experimental analyses, an acoustic modal analysis of the freezer cavity and a structural modal analysis of the air duct were performed for the validation process. A good agreement was obtained among the results. Thus, the accuracy of the numerical model was confirmed. The validated models were used for optimizing the design. To solve the noise generation mechanism inside the freezer cabinet, the noise primarily generated by the freezer fan unit was measured under normal working conditions of the refrigerator, and the resonance frequencies were obtained. This information was compared with the normal modes of the air duct, and the overlapping frequencies were identified. To reduce the interaction between the source and the structure, a few design modifications were applied to the air duct. Thus, the structural-borne noise radiating from the air duct into the freezer cavity was reduced.
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  • 18
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The Kaybob compressor failure of 1971 was an excellent historic example of rotordynamic instability and the design factors that affect this phenomenon. In the case of Kaybob, the use of poorly designed bearings produced unstable whirling in both the low and high pressure compressors. This required over five months of vibration troubleshooting and redesign along with over 100 million modern U.S. dollars in total costs and lost revenue. In this paper, the history of the Kaybob compressor failure is discussed in detail including a discussion of the ineffective bearing designs that were considered. Modern bearing and rotordynamic analysis tools are then employed to study both designs that were considered along with new designs for the bearings that could have ultimately restored stability to the machine. These designs include four-pad, load-between-pad bearings and squeeze film dampers with a central groove. Simple relationships based on the physics of the system are also used to show how the bearings could be tuned to produce optimum bearing stiffness and damping of the rotor vibration, producing insights which can inform the designers as they perform more comprehensive analyses of these systems.
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  • 19
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Two Malaysian very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) strains UPM0081 and UPM190 (also known as UPMB00/81 and UPM04/190, respectively) isolated from local IBD outbreaks were serially passaged 12 times (EP12) in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryonated eggs (CEE) by chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) route. The EP12 isolate was further adapted and serially propagated in BGM-70 cell line up to 20 passages (P20). Characteristic cytopathic effects (CPEs) were subtly observed at P1 in both isolates 72 hours postinoculation (pi). The CPE became prominent at P5 with cell rounding, cytoplasmic vacuoles, granulation, and detachment from flask starting from day 3 pi, up to 7 days pi with titers of 109.50 TCID50/mL and  TCID50/mL for UPM0081 and UPM190, respectively. The CPE became subtle at P17 and disappeared by P18 and P19 for UPM0081 and UPM190, respectively. However, the presence of IBDV was confirmed by immunoperoxidase, immunofluorescence, and RT-PCR techniques. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two isolates were of the vvIBDV. It appears that a single mutation of UPM190 and UPM0081 IBDV isolates at D279N could facilitate vvIBDV strain adaptability in CEE and BGM-70 cultures.
    Print ISSN: 1687-8639
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    Topics: Medicine
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  • 20
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Dengue virus is a growing public health threat that affects hundreds of million peoples every year and leave huge economic and social damage. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and the incidence of the disease is increasing, among other causes, due to the geographical expansion of the vector’s range and the lack of effectiveness in public health interventions in most prevalent countries. So far, no highly effective vaccine or antiviral has been developed for this virus. Here we employed phage display technology to identify peptides able to block the DENV2. A random peptide library presented in M13 phages was screened with recombinant dengue envelope and its fragment domain III. After four rounds of panning, several binding peptides were identified, synthesized, and tested against the virus. Three peptides were able to block the infectivity of the virus while not being toxic to the target cells. Blind docking simulations were done to investigate the possible mode of binding, showing that all peptides appear to bind domain III of the protein and may be mostly stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. These results are relevant to the development of novel therapeutics against this important virus.
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  • 21
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A correspondence between the theory of high- superconductivity and antiferromagnetism, put forward by Zhang and collaborators, and a theory of gravity arising from symmetry breaking of a gauge field is presented. A physical correspondence between the order parameters of the unified SC/AF theory and the generators of the gravitational gauge connection is conjectured. A preliminary identification of regions of geometry, in solutions of Einstein’s equations describing charged-rotating black holes embedded in de Sitter space-time, with SC and AF phases is carried out.
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  • 22
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
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  • 23
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We consider a cosmological setup with inflaton in the presence of a redshift dependent Lorentz-violating time-like background to address the inflationary regime and other phases of the Universe. We also show that the regime of dark energy at large distances (low redshifts) is essentially dominated by the presence of the Lorentz-violating background.
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  • 24
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: High accuracy, high spatial resolution precipitation data is important for understanding basin-scale hydrology and the spatiotemporal distributions of regional precipitation. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable statistical downscaling algorithm to produce high quality, high spatial resolution precipitation products from Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) 3B43 data over the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin using an optimal subset regression (OSR) model combined with multiple topographical factors, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and observational data from rain gauge stations. After downscaling, the bias between TRMM 3B43 and rain gauge data decreased considerably from 0.397 to 0.109, the root-mean-square error decreased from 235.16 to 124.60 mm, and the increased from 0.54 to 0.61, indicating significant improvement in the spatial resolution and accuracy of the TRMM 3B43 data. Moreover, the spatial patterns of both precipitation rates of change and their corresponding value statistics were consistent between the downscaled results and the original TRMM 3B43 during the 2001–2014 period, which verifies that the downscaling method performed well in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin. Its high performance in downscaling precipitation was also proven by comparing with other models. All of these findings indicate that the proposed approach greatly improved the quality and spatial resolution of TRMM 3B43 rainfall products in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, for which rain gauge data is limited. The potential of the post-real-time Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG) downscaled precipitation product was also demonstrated in this study.
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  • 25
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Although realistic representation of the convective boundary layer (CBL) in the desert region in Northwest China is important for weather forecasts and climate simulations, evaluations of the performance of various planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes in simulating the CBL in the region are rare. In this study, the performance of a scale-aware PBL scheme newly implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in simulating the CBL in the Taklimakan desert is evaluated based on a comparison with both the WRF-LES simulations and observations, with the focus on scale dependencies of the simulations compared to the conventional PBL scheme. A series of simulations are performed with a scale-aware PBL scheme (Shin-Hong) and the conventional PBL scheme (YSU) for a deep CBL observed at Tazhong station in the central Taklimakan on 1 July 2016. The CBL was over 5000 m deep with wider and deeper rolls than in a shallow boundary layer. The results showed that the vertical structure simulated with the Shin-Hong scheme was closer to that in both the WRF-LES (large-eddy-simulation) and observations than that simulated with the YSU. The simulation with the scale-aware scheme reproduced cellular rolls similar to those in the WRF-LES, while the conventional PBL scheme struggled to trigger intense convective cells rather than cellular rolls. The results strongly suggest that the scale-aware nonlocal PBL scheme can be used to adequately reproduce the scale and evolution of the observed rolls in the deep CBL in Taklimakan desert at subkilometer resolutions.
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  • 26
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A model was developed for simulating the effects of airborne silver iodide (AgI) glaciogenic cloud seeding using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model with a modified Morrison cloud microphysics scheme. This model was used to hindcast the weather conditions and effects of seeding for three airborne seeding experiments conducted in 2016. The spatial patterns of the simulated precipitation and liquid water path (LWP) qualitatively agreed with the observations. Considering the observed wind fields during the seeding, the simulated spatiotemporal distributions of the seeding materials, AgI, and snowfall enhancements were found to be reasonable. In the enhanced snowfall cases, the process by which cloud water and vapor were converted into ice particles after seeding was also reasonable. It was also noted that the AgI residence time (〉1 hr) above the optimum AgI concentration (105 m−3) and high LWP (〉100 g m−2) were important factors for snowfall enhancements. In the first experiment, timing of the simulated snowfall enhancement agreed with the observations, which supports the notion that the seeding of AgI resulted in enhanced snowfall in the experiment. The model developed in this study will be useful for verifying the effects of cloud seeding on precipitation.
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  • 27
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Based on the precipitation  δ18O values from the datasets of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Reanalysis data, and previous researches, we explored the temporal and spatial variations of precipitation  δ18O in a typical monsoon climate zone, the Pearl River basin (PRB), and adjacent regions. The results showed that the temporal variations of precipitation  δ18O for stations should be correlated with water vapor sources, the distance of water vapor transport, the changes in location, and intensity of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) rather than “amount effect.” Meanwhile, local meteorological and geographical factors showed close correlations with mean weighted precipitation  δ18O values, suggesting that “altitude effect” and local meteorological conditions were significant for the spatial variations of precipitation  δ18O. Moreover, we established linear regression models for estimating the mean weighted precipitation  δ18O values, which could better estimate variations in precipitation  δ18O than the Bowen and Wilkinson model in the PRB and adjacent regions.
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  • 28
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In this work, we fabricated system In(O,OH)S/i-ZnO/n+-ZnO to be used as potential optical window in thin films solar cells. i-ZnO/n+-ZnO thin films were synthesized by reactive evaporation (RE) method and In(O,OH)S thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method; all thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates. Thin films were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and spectral transmittance measurements. Structural results indicated that both thin films were polycrystalline; furthermore, morphological results indicated that both thin films coated uniformly soda lime glass substrate; besides, optical characterization indicated that system had more than 80% of visible radiation transmittance.
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  • 29
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In this work, we synthesized In2S3 powder through chemical bath deposition method (CBD) in acid medium; we used thioacetamide as sulphide source and InCl3 as indium ion source. X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflection, and Raman spectroscopy measurements were used for In2S3 powder physicochemical characterization. Optical analysis indicated that In2S3 was active in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum; it had a band gap of 2.47 eV; the diffraction patterns and Raman spectroscopy suggested that powder had polycrystalline structure. Furthermore, we also studied the adsorption process of methylene blue (MB) on In2S3 powder; adsorption studies indicated that the Langmuir model describes experimental data. Finally, photocatalytic degradation of MB was studied under visible irradiation in aqueous solution; besides, pseudo-first-order model was used to obtain kinetic information about photocatalytic degradation; results indicated that the powder catalyst reduces 26% concentration of MB under visible irradiation.
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  • 30
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: (E)-N-Aryl-2-ethene-sulfonamide and its derivatives are potent anticancer agents; these compounds inhibit cancer cells proliferation. A study of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) has been applied on 40 compounds based on (E)-N-Aryl-2-ethene-sulfonamide, in order to predict their anticancer biological activity. The principal components analysis is used for minimizing the base matrix and the multiple linear regression (MLR) and multiple nonlinear regression have been used to design the relationships between the molecular descriptor and anticancer properties of the sulfonamide derivatives. The validation of the models MLR and MNLR has been done by dividing the dataset into training and test set, the external validation of multiple correlation coefficients was RpIC50 = 0.81 for MLR and RpIC50 = 0.91 for MNLR. The artificial neural network (ANN) showed a correlation coefficient close to 0.96, which concluded that this latter model is more effective and much better than the other models. This obtained model (ANN) has been confirmed by two methods of LOO cross-validation and scrambling (or Y-randomization). The high correlation between experimental and predicted activity values was observed, indicating the validation and the good quality of the derived QSAR model.
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  • 31
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Lawsonia inermis also known as henna was studied as a corrosion inhibitor for aluminum alloy in seawater. The inhibitor has been characterized by optical study via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR proves the existence of hydroxyl and carbonyl functional groups in Lawsonia inermis. Aluminum alloy 5083 immersed in seawater in the absence and presence of Lawsonia inermis was tested using electrochemistry method, namely, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP). EIS and PP measurements suggest that the addition of Lawsonia inermis has caused the adsorption of inhibitor on the aluminum surface. The adsorption behavior of the inhibitor follow Langmuir adsorption model where the value of free energy of adsorption, , is less than 40 kJ/mol indicates that it is a physical adsorption. Finally, it was inferred that Lawsonia inermis has a real potential to act as a corrosion inhibitor for aluminum alloy in seawater.
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  • 32
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The ability of gum exudates of Azadirachta indica (GAI) to inhibit corrosion on mild steel in 1 mol L−1 HCl has been studied using mass loss, polarization, and impedence measurements. The effect of temperature (303–323 K) and immersion time of 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 hours on corrosion behavior of mild steel was examined. Gum exudates decrease the corrosion rate up to a concentration of 80 ppm and at 323 K temperature. GAI adsorb chemically onto the surface of the mild steel while it obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Polarization studies show GAI as mixed mode inhibitor. Surface studies ascertain that a shielding layer was formed on the mild steel surface.
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  • 33
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A homologous series of liquid crystal bearing with heterocyclic thiophene Schiff base ester with alkanoyloxy chain (CH3(CH2)nCOO–, where , 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16) was successfully synthesized through the modification of some reported methods. The structural information of these compounds was isolated and characterized through some spectroscopic techniques, such as FTIR, 1H, and 13C NMR and elemental analysis. Textural observation was carried out using a polarizing optical microscope (POM) over heating and cooling cycles. It was found that all synthesized compounds (3a–g) exhibited an enantiotropic nematic phase upon the heating and cooling cycle with high thermal stability. Moreover, a characteristic bar transition texture was observed for compounds 3f and 3g which have shown transition of nematic-to-smectic C phase. This has been further confirmed by obtaining relative phase transition temperature using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
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  • 34
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Print ISSN: 1687-7667
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    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 35
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The area of Nylon represents a sensible and vulnerable environment where water erosion is the cause of many soil losses contributing to the production and movement of sediments from the upstream to the lowest depths. The high level of rainfall in this town, soil texture (sand-clay-silt), and the anarchic occupation of the area play a part in the important deterioration of the bare ground on the upstream of the catchment area. This causes with time an instability of structures and living places which can lead to their progressive disappearance. In order to assess the quantities of displaced sediments, the studies on the quantification of soil moved annually by water erosion are carried out. A direct method is used consisting in using a minisimulator of rain (NEME) in order to understand the phenomena involved and assess the quantity of sediments which can be moved. It helps in assessing erosion caused by the rain and extrapolating results over the catchment area of the chosen field of study. USLE relation has permit to make an extrapolation of the quantity of soil affected, and the result shows that the average potential of loss of soil is 153.57 t/ha/annum.
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  • 36
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Anthropogenic activities have greatly increased heavy metal pollution worldwide. Due to inadequate waste management, mining is one of the chief causes. One particularly affected area in Mexico is the “La Zacatecana” Lagoon, in the municipality of Guadalupe, Zacatecas. From colonial times until the mid-nineteenth century, about 20 million tons of mine tailings were deposited at this site. Here, we catalogue the heavy metal content and their distribution in soils and sediments of La Zacatecana. The mobility of lead in soils was also assayed by sequential extraction. Concentrations of the different metals analysed were as follows: Pb 〉 Cr 〉 As 〉 Ni 〉 Hg 〉 Cd. Site VIII accumulated the highest amount of Pb (3070 mg·kg−1) sevenfold more than the limit established by the Mexican standards for agricultural soils (i.e., 400 mg·kg−1). On the other hand, the contents of Cd, Cr, and Ni were within the levels accepted by the above normativity, set at 37, 280, and 1600 mg·kg−1, respectively. Concentrations of Hg and Pb were highest in the north-northwest zone of the lagoon and decreased towards the southeast. Except for Site VIII where 30% of the Pb was in an interchangeable form or bound to carbonates, most Pb in La Zacatecana soils was present in an unavailable form, associated with Fe-Mn oxides.
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  • 37
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Recycling of spent Lead-Acid Batteries (LABs) and disposal of process slag potentially contaminate soil with Pb and Sb. Total and available concentrations of Pb and Sb in three soil treatments and parts of Phragmites australis were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Soil with nonrecycled slag (NR) had higher total metal concentrations than that with recycled slag (RS). Low available fractions of Pb and Sb were found in the soil treatments before planting P. australis. After 16 weeks of growth of P. australis, the available fractions of Pb had no statistical difference from initial values () while available Sb fractions were significantly lower when compared with their initial values (). Metal transfer factors showed that P. australis poorly accumulate Pb and Sb in roots and very poorly translocate them to leaves after growing for 8 and 16 weeks. It may be a poor phytoextractor of Pb and Sb in metal-contaminated soil at least for the 16 weeks of its initial growth. However, the plant established itself on the metalliferous site where all vegetation had been destroyed. This could be useful for potential ecological restoration. The long-term phytoextraction potential of P. australis in such environments as LABs may need further investigation.
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  • 38
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Humification is considered to be a global process that is implemented in soils and organic sediments and also in natural water and air. The term “suspended soils” has become increasingly common in recent years. Suspended soils are defined as the part of the organic matter that has not undergone the full decomposition process and has not turned into the humus of terrestrial soils. Suspended soils were shown to contain higher total nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents than the forest soil, but the moisture content in suspended soils was significantly lower. Our study of the structural composition of humic substances in suspended soils was conducted with an aim of evaluating the humification rates and structural composition of humic acids in the suspended soil in tropical forests of South Vietnam. Soil samples from three selected areas were investigated: the soil under phorophytes (mineral soil presented by samples of topsoil of the typical dry savanna landscape) and two soils from epiphytous formations. Samples were collected from savanna-type sparse communities, located on oligotrophous plains in Phú Quốc Island (South Vietnam) in 2015. General properties of the soil and the elemental composition of suspended soils were determined, and the humic substance chemical composition was evaluated using solid state 13C-NMR. Data obtained showed that the pH of the soils under phorophytes was higher than in the suspended soils; basal respiration did not tend to change indices between soils under phorophytes and suspended soils, but the suspended soil was less enriched by nitrogen than the soil under phorophytes. This can be related to the total amount of organic matter exposed to humification in various soils and to the presence of an essential portion of mineral particles in the soil under phorophytes. Data on elemental composition of the humic acids (HAs) indicated that one method of humification is implemented in all three soils that were investigated. The humic acids of the phorophyte soil showed the same content of aromatic fraction as the suspended soil. The most comparable soil type in terms of humic substance composition is Cambisols from humid forests of subboreal and subtropical zones. The humification process implemented in suspended soils showed the absence of mineral compounds or mineral fine earth, which indicated that humification in conditions of pure organic substrates can result in formation of deep humified organic matter, as shown by humic acids with an essential aromatic fraction content.
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  • 39
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Our objective is to study interaction between physical and chemical properties of soils and their earthworm community characteristics in different areas irrigated by wastewaters and well waters. The fields have different topography and agricultural practices conditions and are located in two regions of Batna department (Eastern Algeria). Both regions are characterized by a semiarid climate with cold winters and Calcisol soils. Nine fields were subject of this study. Three of these fields are located in Ouled Si Slimane region whose irrigation is effectuated by natural waters of Kochbi effluent. The other six fields are located at edges of Wed El Gourzi, effluent from Batna city, and partially treated through water treatment station. The best rates of water saturation and infiltration as well as abundance of earthworms were recorded at sites characterized by irrigation with wastewaters downstream of El Gourzi effluent. PCA characterizes two major groups: a group of hydrodynamic infiltration parameters and structural index stability of soil, explained by fields irrigated with wastewaters downstream of El Gourzi effluent. This group includes chemical characteristics: pH and electric conductivity. The second group is the characteristics of earthworms and includes organic matter content, active limestone levels, and Shannon Biodiversity Index.
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  • 40
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The measurement of soil pH using a field portable test kit represents a fast and inexpensive method to assess pH. Field based pH methods have been used extensively for agricultural advisory services and soil survey and now for citizen soil science projects. In the absence of laboratory measurements, there is a practical need to model the laboratory pH as a function of the field pH to increase the density of data for soil research studies and Digital Soil Mapping. The accuracy and uncertainty in pH field measurements were investigated for soil samples from regional Victoria in Australia using both linear and sigmoidal models. For samples in water and CaCl2 at 1 : 5 dilutions, sigmoidal models provided improved accuracy over the full range of field pH values in comparison to linear models (i.e., pH 〈 5 or pH 〉 9). The uncertainty in the field results was quantified by the 95% confidence interval (CI) and 95% prediction interval (PI) for the models, with 95% CI 〈 0.25 pH units and 95% PI = pH units, respectively. It was found that the Pearson criterion for robust regression analysis can be considered as an alternative to the orthodox least-squares modelling approach because it is more effective in addressing outliers in legacy data.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Pasture degradation can cause changes in diazotrophic bacterial communities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the culturable and total diazotrophic bacterial community, associated with regions of the rhizosphere and roots of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. pastures in different stages of degradation. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil were collected from slightly, partially, and highly degraded pastures. McCrady’s table was used to obtain the Most Probable Number (MPN) of bacteria per gram of sample, in order to determine population density and calculate the Shannon-Weaver diversity index. The diversity of total diazotrophic bacterial community was determined by the technique of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of the nifH gene, while the diversity of the culturable diazotrophic bacteria was determined by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (BOX-PCR) technique. The increase in the degradation stage of the B. decumbens Stapf. pasture did not reduce the population density of the cultivated diazotrophic bacterial community, suggesting that the degradation at any degree of severity was highly harmful to the bacteria. The structure of the total diazotrophic bacterial community associated with B. decumbens Stapf. was altered by the pasture degradation stage, suggesting a high adaptive capacity of the bacteria to altered environments.
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  • 42
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Uncontrolled application of pesticides can contaminate soil and may kill other nontarget organisms. This study aims to determine the usage pattern of pesticides by farmers in Wanasari Subdistrict and study the soil quality degradation potential. This study was a quantitative and qualitative research. Sources of data were collected from observation, questionnaire, and in-depth interview methods. The respondents were shallot farmers who planted shallot during 2013–2016 (). In-depth interview was done with three respondents from the local agricultural extension center (BPP). This study found that there were some different types of insecticides and fungicides that were used in every planting season. The farmers applied pesticides in large amount once every three or four days. They mixed minimally three insecticides and fungicides types about 30–40 ml for each type. Organophosphate residues that were found in soil samples were methidathion residue about 0.014 mg/kg, malathion residue ranging around 0.1370–0.3630 mg/kg, and chlorpyrifos residue in the range of 0.0110–0.0630 mg/kg. The excessive application of pesticides showed the land degradation potential. Soil quality laboratory testing is recommended to ensure the agricultural land condition. Routine assessment of soil quality and pesticide usage control is recommended to keep sustainable ecosystem.
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  • 43
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper presents the improvement of the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of soil by mixing different percentages of nanolime and 5% lime with soil. The UCS of treated soil increased significantly over curing time with increasing percentage of nanolime. The optimum results were reached at only 0.5% nanolime admixtures which were much higher than 5% lime admixture. This may be due to higher ability of nanolime to flocculate and agglomerate the soil particles compared with the lime. In addition, the lime could fill only the micropores while nanolime could fill the micro- and nanopores as well. The strength gain is inversely proportional to the remolded moisture content and curing period. However, when the content of nanolime used is larger than 0.5%, nanolime particles are not uniformly dispersed. Therefore, a weak area in the form of voids is created, consequently the homogeneous hydrated microstructure cannot be formed, and finally the strength will decrease.
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  • 44
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Integrated crop-livestock systems can have subtle effects on soil quality over time, particularly in semiarid regions where soil responses to management occur slowly. We tested if analyzing temporal trajectories of soils could detect trends in soil quality data which were not detected using traditional statistical and index approaches. Principal component and cluster analyses were used to assess the evolution in ten soil properties at three sampling times within two production systems (annually cropped, perennial grass). Principal component 1 explained 33% of the total variance of the complete dataset and corresponded to gradients in extractable N, available P, and C : N ratio. Principal component 2 explained 25.4% of the variability and corresponded to gradients of soil pH, soil organic C, and total N. While previous analyses found no differences in Soil Quality Index (SQI) scores between production systems, annually cropped treatments and perennial grasslands were clearly distinguished by cluster analysis. Cluster analysis also identified greater dispersion between plots over time, suggesting an evolution in soil condition in response to management. Accordingly, multivariate statistical techniques serve as a valuable tool for analyzing data where responses to management are subtle or anticipated to occur slowly.
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  • 45
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A leaching experiment of calcareous saline-sodic soil was conducted in Jordan Valley and aimed to reduce the soil salinity ≤ 4.0 dS m−1. The quantification of salt removal from the effective root zone was done using three treatment scenarios. Treatment A contained soil amended with gypsum leaching with fresh water (EC = 1.1 dS m−1). Treatments B and C contained nonamended soil, but B was leached with fresh water only while treatment C’s soil was washed with saline agricultural drainage water (EC = 8 dS m−1) at the start of the experiment and continued with fresh water to reach the desired soil salinity. All treatments were able to reduce the soil salinity to the desired level at the end of the experiment; however, there were clear differences in the salt removal efficiencies among the treatments which were attributed to the presence of direct source of calcium ion. The soil amended with gypsum caused a substantial decline in soil salinity and drainage water’s electrical conductivity and drained the water twice as fast as the nonamended soil. It was found that utilizing agricultural drainage water and gypsum as a soil amendment for calcareous saline-sodic soil reclamation can beneficially contribute to sustainable agricultural management in the Jordan Valley.
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  • 46
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Data of the physical and chemical properties of soils from three vineyards located in Vale dos Vinhedos, Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil, were processed. Soil mapping was performed by means of four profiles and the digital elevation model in detailed scale. Then, superficial soils (0–20 cm) were sampled according to a grid pattern. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), kriging, and unsupervised classification methods were applied on physical and chemical data of superficial soils sampled according to grid pattern. This study aimed to compare both methods, the conventional soil mapping and the map produced with superficial soil sampling, about their potential for definition of the management zones, as an approach for precision agriculture. Maps elaborated by conventional soil mapping overlapped partially with the maps derived from superficial sampling, probably due to the specific methodological differences of each case. Anyway, both methods are complementary because of the focus on vertical variability and horizontal variability, respectively. In that sense, slope appears as significant edaphic parameter, due to its control on water circulation in the profile of soil.
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  • 47
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Degradation and destruction of mangrove forests in many regions have resulted in the alteration of carbon cycling. Objectives of this study were established to answer the question regarding how much soil organic carbon (SOC) is stored in wetland soils in part of the upper northeastern Gulf of Thailand and to what extent SOC is related to organic matter (OM). A total of 29 soil samples were collected in October 2015. Soil physiochemical analyses followed the standard protocol. Spatial distributions were estimated by a kriging method. Linear regression and coefficient were used to determine the suitable conversion factor for mangrove soils. The results showed that surface soil (0–5 cm) contained higher SOC content as compared to subsurface soil (5–10 cm). Considering a depth of 10 cm, this area had a high potential to sequester carbon with a mean ± standard deviation of %. The spatial variability of OM and SOC revealed that organic matter and carbon decreased with the distance from upstream areas toward the gulf. Based on the assumption that OM is 50% SOC, the conversion factor of 2 is recommended for more accuracy rather than the conventional factor of 1.724.
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  • 48
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: In Morocco, conservation agriculture, particularly no tillage systems, has become an alternative strategy to mitigate land degradation caused by conventional tillage in semiarid to arid regions. This paper is based on behaviour to tillage treatments of two Vertisols in Morocco. After 11 years of testing, soil organic matter content results showed a significant difference () only at soil surface (0–10 cm) in favour of no tillage and a variation of 30% at this depth. The results obtained after 32 years of testing showed a significant soil profile difference (), up to 40 cm under no tillage compared to conventional tillage, and a variation of 54% at 5–10 cm. For total nitrogen, there was no significant effect between no tillage and conventional tillage at the soil surface after 11 years unlike the result obtained after 32 years. There are no significant differences in bulk density between tillage treatments at soil surface for both sites. The measurement of soil structural stability showed a significant effect () for all three tests and for both sites. This means that no tillage helped Vertisols to resist different climatic constraints, preserving environmental soil quality.
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  • 49
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Knowledge of the kinds and properties of soils is critical for making decisions with respect to crop production and other land use types. A field survey and soil morphological description and laboratory analysis were carried out to describe, characterize, and classify the soils of Abobo area, western Ethiopia. Seven representative pedons (A-1 to A-7) were opened and described across the study area. The results revealed variation in morphological, physical, and chemical properties of the soils. The soils are clay loam to clayey in texture with bulk density values ranging from 1.12 to 1.32 g cm−3 and basic infiltration rate varying from slow to moderate (0.4 to 3.3 cm hr−1). They were moderately acidic to neutral in pH (5.5 to 7.1) and had very low to medium organic carbon (OC) (0.27 to 2.98%). Four soil types, Haplic Cambisols, Vertic Luvisols, Mollic Leptosols, and Mollic Vertisols, were identified in the area based on World Reference Base. Generally, the properties of the soils differed along the transect indicating their variation in productive potential and management requirements for specific agricultural use.
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    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 50
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Water demand increases as population increases leading to overexploitation of water resource. Consequently, there is need for improved water resources management complemented with rain water harvesting within the catchments. This study sought to assess land suitability for surface runoff harvesting using geospatial techniques. Land use/land cover maps of the area were derived from Landsat image. Land use and soils data were used in generating curve number map of the catchment. Lineaments greatly affect the storage depending on whether runoff is for surface storage or ground water recharge purposes. As a result, ArcGIS was used in delineating the lineaments from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the catchment. Further, using weighted overlay the catchment was grouped into categories of restricted, not suitable, moderately suitable, suitable, or highly suitable. The study found that forest, agriculture, and built-up areas occupied about 39.42%, 36.32%, and 1.35% of catchment area, respectively. A large part of catchment was found to have curve number range of 82–89. About 50% of the catchment was found to fall within suitable and highly suitable categories. This implied that a great potential exists for rain water harvesting within the catchment.
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    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 51
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Soil stabilization, using a variety of stabilizers, is a common method used by engineers and designers to enhance the properties of soil. The use of nanomaterials for soil stabilization is one of the most active research areas that also encompass a number of disciplines, including civil engineering and construction materials. Soils improved by nanomaterials could provide a novel, smart, and eco- and environment-friendly construction material for sustainability. In this case, carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) have become candidates for numerous applications in civil engineering. The main objective of this paper is to explore improvements in the physical properties of UKM residual soil using small amounts (0.05, 0.075, 0.1, and 0.2%) of nanocarbons, that is, carbon nanotube (multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs)) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). The parameters investigated in this study include Atterberg’s limits, optimum water content, maximum dry density, specific gravity, pH, and hydraulic conductivity. Nanocarbons increased the pH values from 3.93 to 4.16. Furthermore, the hydraulic conductivity values of the stabilized fine-grained soil samples containing MWCNTs decreased from  m/s to  m/s and, in the reinforcement sample by CNFs, the hydraulic conductivity value decreased to  m/s. Small amount of nanocarbons (MWCNTs and CNFs) decreased the optimum moisture content, increased maximum dry density, reduced the plasticity index, and also had a significant effect on its hydraulic conductivity.
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  • 52
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate and quantify trace metal concentrations in Commelina africana L. and psammitic sandflats from an intertidal coastal ecosystem in Niger Delta, Nigeria, and to evaluate their spatial distribution, degree of contamination, and source apportionment. The environmental risks associated with soil contamination were elaborately assessed using potential ecological risk index, sediment quality guidelines, and enrichment relative to background levels. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in sandflat soil samples are , , , , and  mg/kg, respectively. Metal levels indicate strong variability with sampling sites. The order of trace metal concentrations in the Commelina africana L. samples is . The concentrations varied with the sample locations; and the levels of Pb (0.05 to 0.08 mg/kg) at all locations are found to be significantly below permissible level of 0.3 mg/kg. Potential sources of metal loadings may be associated with localised or diffused anthropogenic activities. The average carcinogenic risks are below threshold values, and the sandflat soils are not considered to pose significant health effects to children and adult males and females. However, the carcinogenicity and noncarcinogenicity risks ranking decrease following the order . Comparatively, the hazard quotient and hazard index indicate that the psammitic sandflats might pose a health risk to children in future.
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  • 53
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This study aimed to clarify the magnitude of lead release from lead-sorbed animal manure compost (AMC) in rhizosphere soil compared with nonplanted soil of shooting range. The presence of buckwheat caused reduction in rhizosphere soil pH and enhancement in the level of water-soluble organic carbon compared with those of nonplanted soil. In addition, the presence of buckwheat altered the lead phases and increased the relative amount of the soluble exchangeable fraction, resulting in increase in the CaCl2-soluble lead level. In contrast, the presence of Guinea grass did not change the lead bioavailability or phases compared with nonplanted soil. Lead release tests in solution showed that between solution pH 5 and solution pH 7 the amount of lead released from the compost was higher in the rhizosphere soil of buckwheat than in nonplanted soil, whereas there was no significant difference between the rhizosphere soil of Guinea grass and nonplanted soil. These results suggest that the increase in the quantity of exchangeable lead resulting from the rhizosphere effect induces lead immobilized by the AMC to be remobilized. Therefore, AMC should be applied to soils that contain plants that are unable to alter the lead phases in the shooting range soil. Efforts should be particularly made to ensure that lead cannot be transformed to the exchangeable phase.
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  • 54
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Air pollutant emissions are problematic hazards in China, especially in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. In this paper, we use fishbone method to set up the influential factor set of PM2.5 qualitatively. Then we use Spearman rank correlation test and panel data regression model to analyze the data of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 2012 to 2015 quantitatively. The results show that population density, energy consumption per unit area, concrete production per unit area, industrial proportion, transportation volume per unit area, new construction areas per unit area, road construction length per unit area, and coal consumption proportion are all positively correlated with PM2.5. The proportion of electricity consumption is negatively correlated with PM2.5. Among them, population density, industrial proportion, transportation volume, energy consumption per unit area, and the proportion of electricity consumption have a pivotal influence on PM2.5. At last, we give some suggestions to solve the hazard of PM2.5 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.
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  • 55
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A class of boundary value problems of Caputo fractional -difference equation is introduced. Green’s function and its properties for this problem are deduced. By applying these properties and the Leggett-Williams fixed-point theorem, existence criteria of three positive solutions are obtained. At last, some examples are given to illustrate the validity of our main results.
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  • 56
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: How to maximize customer satisfaction is an important research topic in the service quality evaluation. This paper proposes an evaluation method of comprehensive product quality for customer satisfaction based on the intuitionistic fuzzy number. In this method, we design a questionnaire and investigate the customer’s language evaluation information of product quality evaluation, including product expectations and product perception at first. And then, the product quality evaluation model is obtained by Delphi method; that is, the first-level evaluation indexes and the second-level evaluation indexes are obtained and the weight vector of each evaluation index is determined. Next, language evaluation information translates into corresponding fuzzy numbers using intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Therefore, the results of the product quality evaluation of the production system are obtained using the weighted mean method. Finally, an example is used to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
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  • 57
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Based on generalized Riccati transformation and some inequalities, some oscillation results are established for a class of nonlinear fractional difference equations with damping term. An example is given to illustrate the validity of the established results.
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  • 58
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: As we all know, there are a great number of optimization problems in the world. One of the relatively complicated and high-level problems is the vehicle routing problem (VRP). Dynamic vehicle routing problem (DVRP) is a major variant of VRP, and it is closer to real logistic scene. In DVRP, the customers’ demands appear with time, and the unserved customers’ points must be updated and rearranged while carrying out the programming paths. Owing to the complexity and significance of the problem, DVRP applications have grabbed the attention of researchers in the past two decades. In this paper, we have two main contributions to solving DVRP. Firstly, DVRP is solved with enhanced Ant Colony Optimization (E-ACO), which is the traditional Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) fusing improved K-means and crossover operation. K-means can divide the region with the most reasonable distance, while ACO using crossover is applied to extend search space and avoid falling into local optimum prematurely. Secondly, several new evaluation benchmarks are proposed, which can objectively and comprehensively estimate the proposed method. In the experiment, the results for different scale problems are compared to those of previously published papers. Experimental results show that the algorithm is feasible and efficient.
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  • 59
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Predicting terrorist attacks by group networks is an important but difficult issue in intelligence and security informatics. Effective prediction of the behavior not only facilitates the understanding of the dynamics of organizational behaviors but also supports homeland security’s missions in prevention, preparedness, and response to terrorist acts. There are certain dynamic characteristics of terrorist groups, such as periodic features and correlations between the behavior and the network. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive framework that combines social network analysis, wavelet transform, and the pattern recognition approach to investigate the dynamics and eventually predict the attack behavior of terrorist group. Our ideas rely on social network analysis to model the terrorist group and extract relevant features for group behaviors. Next, based on wavelet transform, the group networks (features) are predicted and mutually checked from two aspects. Finally, based on the predicted network, the behavior of the group is recognized based on the correlation between the network and behavior. The Al-Qaeda data are investigated with the proposed framework to show the strength of our approaches. The results show that the proposed framework is highly accurate and is of practical value in predicting the behavior of terrorist groups.
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  • 60
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper investigates the valuation of vulnerable European options considering the market prices of common systematic jump risks under regime-switching jump-diffusion models. The way of regime-switching Esscher transform is adopted to identify an equivalent martingale measure for pricing vulnerable European options. Explicit analytical pricing formulae for vulnerable European options are derived by risk-neutral pricing theory. For comparison, the other two cases are also considered separately. The first case considers all jump risks as unsystematic risks while the second one assumes all jumps risks to be systematic risks. Numerical examples for the valuation of vulnerable European options are provided to illustrate our results and indicate the influence of the market prices of jump risks on the valuation of vulnerable European options.
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  • 61
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper deals with pullback dynamics for the weakly damped Schrödinger equation with time-dependent forcing. An increasing, bounded, and pullback absorbing set is obtained if the forcing and its time-derivative are backward uniformly integrable. Also, we obtain the forward absorption, which is only used to deduce the backward compact-decay decomposition according to high and low frequencies. Based on a new existence theorem of a backward compact pullback attractor, we show that the nonautonomous Schrödinger equation has a pullback attractor which is compact in the past. The method of energy, high-low frequency decomposition, Sobolev embedding, and interpolation are quite involved in calculating a priori pullback or forward bound.
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  • 62
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
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  • 63
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We propose an exchange economy evolutionary model with discrete time, in which there are two utility-maximizing groups of agents which differ in the preference structure. Assuming an evolutionary mechanism based on the relative utility values realized by the two kinds of agents, we analytically and numerically investigate the existence of equilibria, their stability, and possible phenomena of coexistence between groups, mainly in terms of the heterogeneity degree in the preference structure. We find that our system has two trivial equilibria, at which just one of the two groups is present, and possibly a nontrivial equilibrium, characterized by the coexistence of the two groups of agents. Such nontrivial equilibrium may be stable, attracting all trajectories, or unstable. In the latter case, interesting, periodic, or chaotic, dynamics arise. We prove that the nontrivial equilibrium emerges via a transcritical bifurcation and loses stability via a flip bifurcation, after which the coexistence between groups is oscillatory in nature, presenting a regular or irregular behavior. In order to better investigate the role of the heterogeneity degree parameter, we perform a bifurcation analysis considering different scenarios, characterized by a balanced or unbalanced endowment distribution of the two goods.
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  • 64
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper is devoted to a new numerical approach for the possibility of -periodic Lipschitz shadowing of a class of stochastic differential equations. The existence of -periodic Lipschitz shadowing orbits and expression of shadowing distance are established. The numerical implementation approaches to the shadowing distance by the random Romberg algorithm are presented, and the convergence of this method is also proved to be mean-square. This ensures the feasibility of the numerical method. The practical use of these theorems and the associated algorithms is demonstrated in the numerical computations of the -periodic Lipschitz shadowing orbits of the stochastic logistic equation.
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  • 65
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We study a diffusive prey-predator system with a group defense for prey. Under Neumann boundary condition, we analyze local and stability of nonnegative constant steady states and the existence and nonexistence of nonconstant steady states. These results also exhibit the critical role of the system parameters leading to the formation of spatiotemporal patterns.
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  • 66
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Short-time traffic speed forecasting is a significant issue for developing Intelligent Transportation Systems applications, and accurate speed forecasting results are necessary inputs for Intelligent Traffic Security Information System (ITSIS) and advanced traffic management systems (ATMS). This paper presents a hybrid model for travel speed based on temporal and spatial characteristics analysis and data fusion. This proposed methodology predicts speed by dividing the data into three parts: a periodic trend estimated by Fourier series, a residual part modeled by the ARIMA model, and the possible events affected by upstream or downstream traffic conditions. The aim of this study is to improve the accuracy of the prediction by modeling time and space variation of speed, and the forecast results could simultaneously reflect the periodic variation of traffic speed and emergencies. This information could provide decision-makers with a basis for developing traffic management measures. To achieve the research objective, one year of speed data was collected in Twin Cities Metro, Minnesota. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can be used to explore the periodic characteristics of speed data and show abilities in increasing the accuracy of travel speed prediction.
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  • 67
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We consider a hybrid fractional sum-difference initial value problem and a hybrid fractional sequential sum-difference initial value problem. The existence results of these two problems are proved by using the hybrid fixed point theorem for three operators in a Banach algebra and the generalized Krasnoselskii’s fixed point theorem, respectively.
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  • 68
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: How to effectively configure the resources to maximize customer satisfaction is an important research topic in the service quality evaluation. This paper proposes a service quality evaluation under fuzzy environment method that takes customer satisfaction as the goal and considers enterprise resource constraints and customer fuzzy evaluation information at the same time. In this method, we first use expert Delphi method to get service elements and service items. Meanwhile, we design questionnaires to collect customer language fuzzy evaluation information and use FHAHP model to calculate the relative weight vector of the service items. Second, the customer is subdivided into market segmentation considering the customer total consumption and the service expectation value using the Logit model. Next, the customer satisfaction of the service schemes is calculated considering the customer’s expectation of the service schemes. Then, the maximum satisfaction of the customer group is calculated under the condition of enterprise resource constraint. Finally, an example is used to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
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  • 69
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A supply chain contract is established using a dynamic, Nash bargaining game which determines the optimal bargaining power allocation for the manufacturer, retailer, and society in an environment affected by moral hazard and irreversible investment. The results found that the manufacturer’s choice was to hold all bargaining power; however, due to the remaining information problem, the retailer still had a profit; in contrast, the retailer was only willing to give up bargaining power if the manufacturer’s profit was reserved. The optimal bargaining power allocation was found to be strongly related to the ability to convert and monitor technology, with the bargaining power gradually shifting to the manufacturer as the technology improved. A numerical simulation is given to examine the theoretical results.
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  • 70
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: An early warning on the highway will effectively reduce traffic accidents. Considering the influence of an abandoned object on driving behavior, a Visual-based Asymmetric Two-lane Cellular Automata model with Abandoned Object (V-ATCA-AO) and an Internet-of-Vehicles-based Asymmetric Two-lane Cellular Automata model with Abandoned Object (IoV-ATCA-AO) are proposed. Based on the two models, two types of traffic accidents caused by an abandoned object are analyzed: rear-end collision caused by the abandoned object ahead and collision of the vehicle with the abandoned object. Simulation results show the following: the accidents occur when the road density is smaller, while the accidents will not occur when the density is larger. The results are different from the rear-end collision rate curve without abandoned object in a single lane. Compared with the visual-based avoidance pattern in V-ATCA-AO, the Internet-of-Vehicles-based avoidance pattern in IoV-ATCA-AO can create an early warning for the abandoned object and tell the vehicle to make an earlier lane change and decelerate in advance, thereby significantly reducing the accident rate. Spatiotemporal characteristics in front of the abandoned object directly affect the accident rate: the less the “stability” of a traffic jam in front of the abandoned object, the higher the accident rate.
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  • 71
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A driving risk status prediction algorithm based on Markov chain is presented. Driving risk states are classified using clustering techniques based on feature variables describing the instantaneous risk levels within time windows, where instantaneous risk levels are determined in time-to-collision and time-headway two-dimension plane. Multinomial Logistic models with recursive feature variable estimation method are developed to improve the traditional state transition probability estimation, which also takes into account the comprehensive effects of driving behavior, traffic, and road environment factors on the evolution of driving risk status. The “100-car” natural driving data from Virginia Tech is employed for the training and validation of the prediction model. The results show that, under the 5% false positive rate, the prediction algorithm could have high prediction accuracy rate for future medium-to-high driving risks and could meet the timeliness requirement of collision avoidance warning. The algorithm could contribute to timely warning or auxiliary correction to drivers in the approaching-danger state.
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  • 72
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The paper examines the generalized rough fuzzy ideals of quantales. There are some intrinsic relations between fuzzy prime (primary) ideals of quantales and generalized rough fuzzy prime (primary) ideals of quantales. Homomorphic images of “generalized rough ideals, generalized rough prime (primary) ideals, and generalized rough fuzzy prime (primary) ideals” which are incited by quantale homomorphism are examined.
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  • 73
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Introduction. Despite recent advances in surgical techniques, pancreatic fistulas are common. We aimed to determine the role of C-reactive protein in the prediction of clinically relevant fistula development. Materials and Methods. Data from patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy between 2012 and 2015 is collected. Postoperative 1st, 3rd, and 5th day (POD1, POD3, and POD5) C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) development, other complications, length of hospital stay, and mortality were recorded. Results. Of 117 patients, 43 patients (36.8%) developed complications (including fistulas). Of the patients developing fistulas, 21 (17.9%) had POPF A, 2 (1.7%) had POPF B, and 7 (6.0%) had POPF C. POD5 CRP and POD3 CRP were shown to be significantly correlated with mortality and development of clinically relevant POPF ( and , resp.) and with mortality (), respectively. The development of clinically relevant POPFs (B and C) could be predicted with 90% sensitivity and 82.2% specificity by POD5 CRP cut-off level of 19 mg/dL and with 100% sensitivity and 63.6% specificity by the difference between POD5 and POD1 CRP cut-off level of 〉2.5 mg/dL. Conclusion. CRP levels can effectively predict the development of clinically relevant pancreatic fistulas.
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  • 74
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Objective. To investigate the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods. Data from 2051 participants who underwent 13C urea breath test and abdominal ultrasound examinations was collected. Participants were allocated to NAFLD risk group and NAFLD nonrisk group based on definite risk factors for NAFLD. The relationship between H. pylori infection and NAFLD was analyzed. Results. No significant difference was found between rates of H. pylori infection and NAFLD using the chi-square test () or regression analysis (). There was no significant difference between rates of H. pylori infection with and without NAFLD () in the NAFLD risk group or in the NAFLD nonrisk group (). There was no significant difference between rates of H. pylori infection in men () and in women () or in participants aged 18–40 years (), 41–65 years (), and ≥66 years () with and without NAFLD in the NAFLD risk group or between the same sex or age groups (, , , , and , resp.) in the NAFLD nonrisk group. Conclusions. H. pylori infection does not appear to increase the NAFLD prevalence rate or to be associated with, or a risk factor for, NAFLD.
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  • 75
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. Although immunomodulators are increasingly used in Crohn’s disease (CD), a significant number of gastroenterologists still use 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) in combination with azathioprine (AZA) or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP); there is limited evidence regarding the benefit of concomitant 5-ASA with AZA/6-MP compared with AZA/6-MP monotherapy for the treatment of CD. Study Design. A total of 106 patients who received AZA/6-MP for more than 3 months between January 1991 and May 2014 were identified retrospectively. Each patient was matched with 3 randomly selected controls who were treated with concomitant therapy during the same period. Results. The cumulative probabilities of steroid use at 5 and 10 years were 24.9% and 75.8% in the 5-ASA + AZA/6-MP group and 31.2% and 87.8% in the AZA/6-MP group, respectively (). The cumulative probabilities of anti-TNF use, resectional surgery, and disease-related hospitalization were comparable between the groups. The younger age and the use of lower doses of immunomodulators were associated with higher requirement of rescue therapy. Conclusions. This study did not demonstrate that the concomitant use of 5-ASA with AZA/6-MP showed the proof or effect in terms of steroid requirements, anti-TNF use, resectional surgery, or disease-related hospitalization compared with that of AZA/6-MP alone.
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. Endotoxin (LPS), the component of Gram-negative bacteria, is responsible for sepsis and neonatal mortality, but low concentrations of LPS produced tissue protection in experimental studies. The effects of LPS applied to the suckling rats on the pancreas of adult animals have not been previously explored. We present the impact of neonatal endotoxemia on the pancreatic exocrine function and on the acute pancreatitis which has been investigated in the adult animals. Endotoxemia was induced in suckling rats by intraperitoneal application of LPS from Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhi. In the adult rats, pretreated in the early period of life with LPS, histological manifestations of acute pancreatitis have been reduced. Pancreatic weight and plasma lipase activity were decreased, and SOD concentration was reversed and accompanied by a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation products (MDA + 4 HNE) in the pancreatic tissue. In the pancreatic acini, the significant increases in protein signals for toll-like receptor 4 and for heat shock protein 60 were found. Signal for the CCK1 receptor was reduced and pancreatic secretory responses to caerulein were diminished, whereas basal enzyme secretion was unaffected. These pioneer studies have shown that exposition of suckling rats to endotoxin has an impact on the pancreas in the adult organism.
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    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 77
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background/Aims. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious concern during hepatic vascular occlusion. The objectives of this study were to assess effects of three techniques for hepatic vascular occlusion on I/R injury and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Liver cirrhotic rats had undertaken Pringle maneuver (PR), hemihepatic vascular occlusion (HH), or hepatic blood inflow occlusion without hemihepatic artery control (WH). Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), and hemeoxygenase 1 (HMOX1) were assayed. Results. The histopathologic analysis displayed that liver harm was more prominent in the PR group, but similar in the HH and WH groups. The HH and WH groups responded to hepatic I/R inflammation similarly but better than the PR group. Mechanical studies suggested that TNF-α/NF-κB signaling and TLR4/TRIF transduction pathways were associated with the differential effects. In addition, the HH and WH groups had significantly higher levels of hepatic HMOX1 () than the PR group. Conclusions. HH and WH confer better preservation of liver function and protection than the Pringle maneuver in combating I/R injury. Upregulation of HMOX1 may lead to better protection and clinical outcomes after liver resection.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-630X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 78
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is a validated quality measure for screening colonoscopy, but there are little data for other indications. The distribution of adenomas is not well described for these indications. Aim. To describe ADR and the adenoma distribution in the proximal and distal colon based on colonoscopy indication. Methods. Outpatient colonoscopies are subdivided by indication. PDR and ADR for the entire colon and for proximal and distal colon. Data were compared using generalized estimating equations to adjust for clustering amongst endoscopists while controlling for patient age and gender. Results. 3436 colonoscopies were reviewed (51.2%: men ()). Indications are screening 49.2%, surveillance 29.3%, change in bowel habit 8.4%, bleeding 5.8%, colitides 3.0%, pain 2.8%, and miscellaneous 1.5%. Overall ADR was 37% proximal ADR 28%, and distal ADR 17%. PDR and ADR were significantly higher in surveillance than in screening (PDR: 69% versus 51%; ADR: 50% versus 33%; ). Adenomas were more often detected in the proximal than in the distal colon, for all indications. Conclusions. Prevalence of polyps and adenomas differs based on colonoscopy indication. Adenoma detection is highest in surveillance and more commonly detected in the proximal colon. For quality assurance, distinct ADR and PDR targets may need to be established for different colonoscopy indications.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-630X
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  • 79
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Capsule endoscopy has been the first-line examination for small bowel diseases, yet its diagnostic yield is restricted by unsatisfactory bowel preparation. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of different dosages of polyethylene glycol in patients undergoing capsule endoscopy, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials involving polyethylene glycol in preparation for capsule endoscopy. The methodological quality of the trials was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias assessment instrument. In this study, 12 RCTs involving 2072 patients were included in this review. Our review indicated that 4 L and 2 L polyethylene (PEG) before capsule endoscopy (CE) and 500 mL PEG after CE increase the small bowel image quality, whereas 1 L PEG did not improve the small bowel image quality. PEG accelerated the gastric emptying time. There was no significant difference between the PEG group and control group in small bowel transit time, completion rates, and diagnostic yield.
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  • 80
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Serum α-fetoprotein- (AFP-) elevated gastric cancer is a rare tumor that has a poor prognosis due to high incidence of liver metastasis. This study sought to investigate the optimal treatment modality. A total of 319 gastric cancer patients with liver metastasis (GCLM) whose serum AFP levels were tested before treatment were enrolled in this study. They were classified as the serum AFP ≥ 20 ng/ml group () and the AFP 
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  • 81
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Purpose. The change of serum platelet indices such as platelet distribution width (PDW) has been reported in a series of inflammatory reaction and clinical diseases. However, the relationship between PDW and the incidence of persistent organ failure (POF) in acute pancreatitis (AP) has not been elucidated so far. Materials and Methods. A total of 135 patients with AP admitted within 72 hours from symptom onset of AP at our center between December 2014 and January 2016 were included in this retrospective study. Demographic parameters on admission, organ failure assessment, laboratory data, and in-hospital mortality were compared between patients with and without POF. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized to evaluate the predictive value of serum PDW for POF. Results. 30 patients were diagnosed with POF. Compared to patients without POF, patients with POF showed a significantly higher value of serum PDW on admission (14.88 ± 2.24 versus 17.60 ± 1.96%, ). After multivariable analysis, high PDW level remained a risk factor for POF (odds ratio 39.42, 95% CI: 8.64–179.77; ). A PDW value of 16.45% predicted POF with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.870, a sensitivity with 0.867, and a specificity with 0.771, respectively. Conclusions. Our results indicate that serum PDW on admission could be a predictive factor in AP with POF and may serve as a potential prognostic factor.
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  • 82
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Early and accurate assessment of severity in acute pancreatitis (AP) is of great importance to provide effective disease management and prevent mortality. In this study, we aim to evaluate early indicators that predict the mortality of AP. We retrospectively analyzed 24-hour clinical characteristics and laboratory data in 166 AP patients recruited between January 2014 and November 2015 in Baotou Central Hospital. In total, 18 patients