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  • 1
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Print ISSN: 1065-514X
    Electronic ISSN: 1563-5171
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 2
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: 3D integration can greatly benefit future many-cores by enabling low-latency three-dimensional Network-on-Chip (3D-NoC) topologies. However, due to high cost, low yield, and frequent failures of Through-Silicon Via (TSV), 3D-NoCs are most likely to include only a few vertical connections, resulting in incomplete topologies that pose new challenges in terms of deadlock-free routing and TSV assignment. The routers of such networks require a way to locate the nodes that have vertical connections, commonly known as elevators, and select one of them in order to be able to reach other layers when necessary. In this paper, several alternative TSV selection strategies requiring a constant amount of configurable bits per router are introduced. Each proposed solution consists of a configuration algorithm, which provides each router with the necessary information to locate the elevators, and a routing algorithm, which uses this information at runtime to route packets to an elevator. Our algorithms are compared by simulation to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each solution under various scenarios, and hardware synthesis results demonstrate the scalability of the proposed approach and its suitability for cost-oriented designs.
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  • 3
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper proposes a novel bus encoding method on MBUS in order to reduce the power consumption of system-on-chips (SoCs). The main contribution is to lower the bus activity by an average 64.55% and thus decrease the IO power consumption through reconfiguring the MBUS transmission. This method is effective because field-programmable gate array (FPGA) IOs are most likely to have very large capacitance associated with them and consequently dissipate a lot of dynamic power. Experimental result shows an average 70.96% total power reduction compared with the original MBUS implementation.
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  • 4
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Multilevel Cell Spin-Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (MLC STT-RAM) is a promising nonvolatile memory technology to build registers for its natural immunity to electromagnetic radiation in rad-hard space environment. Unlike traditional SRAM-based registers, MLC STT-RAM exhibits unbalanced write state transitions due to the fact that the magnetization directions of hard and soft domains cannot be flipped independently. This feature leads to nonuniform costs of write states in terms of latency and energy. However, current SRAM-targeting register allocations do not have a clear understanding of the impact of the different write state-transition costs. As a result, those approaches heuristically select variables to be spilled without considering the spilling priority imposed by MLC STT-RAM. Aiming to address this limitation, this paper proposes a state-transition-aware spilling cost minimization (SSCM) policy, to save power when MLC STT-RAM is employed in register design. Specifically, the spilling cost model is first constructed according to the linear combination of different state-transition frequencies. Directed by the proposed cost model, the compiler picks up spilling candidates to achieve lower power and higher performance. Experimental results show that the proposed SSCM technique can save energy by 19.4% and improve the lifetime by 23.2% of MLC STT-RAM-based register design.
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  • 5
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Oscillation-based testing (OBT) has been proven to be a simple, yet effective VLSI test for numerous circuit types. This paper investigates, for the first time, the application of OBT verification for second generation current conveyors (CCIIs). The OBT is formed by connecting the CCII into a simple Wien bridge oscillator and monitoring both the amplitude and frequency of oscillation. The fault detection rate, taking into account both the open and short circuit fault simulation analyses, indicates 96.34% fault coverage using a combination of amplitude and frequency output sensing in all technology corners. The only nondetected faults are short circuits between and , which can be detected using other techniques such as IDDQ testing. This method is found to be sensitive to resistor and capacitor process variation in the Wien bridge oscillator, but mitigating test steps are proposed.
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  • 6
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A classic second-order coupled-capacitor Chebyshev bandpass filter using resonator of tunable active capacitor and inductor is presented. The low cost and small size of CMOS active components make the bandpass filter (BPF) attractive in fully integrated CMOS applications. The tunable active capacitor is designed to compensate active inductor’s resistance for resistive match in the resonator. In many design cases, more than 95% resistive loss is cancelled. Meanwhile, adjusting design parameter of the active component provides BPF tunability in center frequency, pass band, and pass band gain. Designed in 1.8 V 180 nanometer CMOS process, the BPF has a tuning frequency range of 758–864 MHz, a controllable pass band of 7.1–65.9 MHz, a quality factor of 12–107, a pass band gain of 6.5–18.1 dB, and a stopband rejection of 38–50 dB.
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  • 7
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A novel peak-statistical algorithm and judgment logic (PSJ) for multifrequency signal application of Autogain Control Loop (AGC) in hearing aid SoC is proposed in this paper. Under a condition of multifrequency signal, it tracks the amplitude change and makes statistical data of them. Finally, the judgment is decided and the circuit gain is controlled precisely. The AGC circuit is implemented with 0.13 μm 1P8M CMOS mixed-signal technology. Meanwhile, the low-power circuit topology and noise-optimizing technique are adopted to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of our circuit. Under 1 V voltage supply, the peak SNR achieves 69.2 dB and total harmonic distortion (THD) is 65.3 dB with 89 μW power consumption.
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  • 8
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper proposes FuMicro, a fused microarchitecture integrating both in-order superscalar and Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) in a single core. A processor with FuMicro microarchitecture can work under alternative in-order superscalar and VLIW mode, using the same pipeline and the same Instruction Set Architecture (ISA). Small modification to the compiler is made to expand the register file in VLIW mode. The decision of mode switch is made by software, and this does not need extra hardware. VLIW code can be exploited in the form of library function and the users will be exposed under only superscalar mode; by this means, we can provide the users with a convenient development environment. FuMicro could serve as a universal microarchitecture for it can be applied to different ISAs. In this paper, we focus on the implementation of FuMicro with ARM ISA. This architecture is evaluated on gem5, which is a cycle accurate microarchitecture simulation platform. By adopting FuMicro microarchitecture, the performance can be improved on an average of 10%, with the best performance improvement being 47.3%, compared with that under pure in-order superscalar mode. The result shows that FuMicro microarchitecture can improve Instruction Level Parallelism (ILP) significantly, making it promising to expand digital signal processing capability on a General Purpose Processor.
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  • 9
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This work reports an effective design of cache system for Chip Multiprocessors (CMPs). It introduces built-in logic for verification of cache coherence in CMPs realizing directory based protocol. It is developed around the cellular automata (CA) machine, invented by John von Neumann in the 1950s. A special class of CA referred to as single length cycle 2-attractor cellular automata (TACA) has been planted to detect the inconsistencies in cache line states of processors’ private caches. The TACA module captures coherence status of the CMPs’ cache system and memorizes any inconsistent recording of the cache line states during the processors’ reference to a memory block. Theory has been developed to empower a TACA to analyse the cache state updates and then to settle to an attractor state indicating quick decision on a faulty recording of cache line status. The introduction of segmentation of the CMPs’ processor pool ensures a better efficiency, in determining the inconsistencies, by reducing the number of computation steps in the verification logic. The hardware requirement for the verification logic points to the fact that the overhead of proposed coherence verification module is much lesser than that of the conventional verification units and is insignificant with respect to the cost involved in CMPs’ cache system.
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  • 10
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A low complexity all-digital background calibration technique based on statistics is proposed. The basic idea of the statistics calibration technique is that the output average energy of each channel of TIADC will be consistent ideally, since each channel samples the same input signal, and therefore the energy deviation directly reflects the mismatch errors of channels. In this work, the offset mismatch and gain mismatch are calibrated by an adaptive statistics calibration algorithm based on LMS iteration; the timing mismatch is estimated by performing the correlation calculation of the outputs of subchannels and corrected by an improved fractional delay filter based on Farrow structure. Applied to a four-channel 12-bit 400 MHz TIADC, simulation results show that, with calibration, the SNDR raises from 22.5 dB to 71.8 dB and ENOB rises from 3.4 bits to 11.6 bits for a 164.6 MHz sinusoidal input. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed schemes are more feasible to implement and consume less hardware resources.
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  • 11
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Adult stem cells are a promising cell source for cartilage regeneration. They resided in a special microenvironment known as the stem-cell niche, characterized by the presence of low oxygen concentration. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) imitates hypoxia in vitro by stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha (HIF-1α), which is the master regulator in the cellular adaptive response to hypoxia. In this study, the influence of CoCl2 on the chondrogenic potential of human MSCs, isolated from dental pulp, umbilical cord, and adipose tissue, was investigated. Cells were treated with concentrations of CoCl2 ranging from 50 to 400 μM. Cell viability, HIF-1α protein synthesis, and the expression of the chondrogenic markers were analyzed. The results showed that the CoCl2 supplementation had no effect on cell viability, while the upregulation of chondrogenic markers such as SOX9, COL2A1, VCAN, and ACAN was dependent on the cellular source. This study shows that hypoxia, induced by CoCl2 treatment, can differently influence the behavior of MSCs, isolated from different sources, in their chondrogenic potential. These findings should be taken into consideration in the treatment of cartilage repair and regeneration based on stem cell therapies.
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9678
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 12
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: In this paper, a new adaptive sliding mode control method is presented for the longitudinal model of a generic hypersonic vehicle subject to uncertainties and external disturbance. Firstly, an oriented-control model with mismatched uncertainties is built for a generic hypersonic vehicle. Secondly, the back-stepping technique is introduced to design a sliding mode controller with an adaptive law to adapt to the disturbance and uncertainty. Thirdly, a set of nonlinear disturbance observers are designed to estimate the lumped disturbance and compensate the sliding mode controller, and the stability of the proposed controller is analyzed by utilizing Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, simulation results show that the effectiveness of the proposed controller is validated by the nonlinear model and the proposed method exhibits promising robustness to mismatched uncertainties.
    Print ISSN: 1687-5966
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-5974
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 13
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper is devoted to introduce a novel method of the operational matrix of integration for Legendre wavelets in order to predict the thermal behavior of stratospheric balloons on float at high altitude in the stratosphere. Radiative and convective heat transfer models are also developed to calculate absorption and emission heat of the balloon film and lifting gas within the balloon. Thermal equilibrium equations (TEE) for the balloon system at daytime and nighttime are shown to predict the thermal behavior of stratospheric balloons. The properties of Legendre wavelets are used to reduce the TEE to a nonlinear system of algebraic equations which is solved by using a suitable numerical method. The approximations of the thermal behavior of the balloon film and lifting gas within the balloon are derived. The diurnal variations of the film and lifting gas temperature at float conditions are investigated, and the efficiency of the proposed method is also confirmed.
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    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 14
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Aircraft and spacecraft navigation precision is dependent on the measurement system for position and attitude determination. Rotation of an aircraft can be determined measuring two vectors in two different reference systems. Velocity vector can be determined in the inertial reference frame from a GNSS-based sensor and by integrating the acceleration measurements in the body reference frame. Estimating gravity vector in both reference frames, and combining with velocity vector, determines rotation of the body. A new approach for gravity vector estimations is presented and employed in an attitude determination algorithm. Nonlinear simulations demonstrate that using directly the positioning and velocity outputs of GNSS sensors and strap-down accelerometers, aircraft attitude determination is precise, especially in ballistic projectiles, to substitute precise attitude determination devices, usually expensive and forced to bear high solicitations as for instance G forces.
    Print ISSN: 1687-5966
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    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 15
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Sounding rockets are currently deployed for the purpose of providing experimental data of the upper atmosphere, as well as for microgravity experiments. This work provides a methodology in order to design, model, and evaluate the performance of new sounding rockets. A general configuration composed of a rocket with four canards and four tail wings is sized and optimized, assuming different payload masses and microgravity durations. The aerodynamic forces are modeled with high fidelity using the interpolation of available data. Three different guidance algorithms are used for the trajectory integration: constant attitude, near radial, and sun-pointing. The sun-pointing guidance is used to obtain the best microgravity performance while maintaining a specified attitude with respect to the sun, allowing for experiments which are temperature sensitive. Near radial guidance has instead the main purpose of reaching high altitudes, thus maximizing the microgravity duration. The results prove that the methodology at hand is straightforward to implement and capable of providing satisfactory performance in term of microgravity duration.
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    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 16
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A cyclic cohesive zone model is applied to characterize the fatigue crack growth behavior of a IN718 superalloy which is frequently used in aerospace components. In order to improve the limitation of fracture mechanics-based models, besides the predictions of the moderate fatigue crack growth rates at the Paris’ regime and the high fatigue crack growth rates at the high stress intensity factor levels, the present work is also aimed at simulating the material damage uniformly and examining the influence of the cohesive model parameters on fatigue crack growth systematically. The gradual loss of the stress-bearing ability of the material is considered through the degradation of a novel cohesive envelope. The experimental data of cracked specimens are used to validate the simulation result. Based on the reasonable estimation for the model parameters, the fatigue crack growth from moderate to high levels can be reproduced under the small-scale yielding condition, which is in fair agreement with the experimental results.
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  • 17
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A novel 3-D unsteady model of in-flight electrothermal deicing process is presented in this paper to simulate the conjugate mass and heat transfer phenomena of water film runback, phase change, and solid heat conduction. Mathematical models of water film runback and phase change are established and solved by means of a loosely coupled method. At the current time step, solid heat conduction, water film runback, and phase change are iteratively solved until the heat boundary condition reaches convergence, then the temperature distribution and ice shape at the moment are obtained, and the calculation of the next time step begins subsequently. A deicing process is numerically simulated using the present model following an icing tunnel experiment, and the results match well with those in the literatures, which validate the present model. Then, an in-flight deicing process is numerically studied to analyze the effect of heating sequence.
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    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 18
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This study proposes deployable units driven by elastic hinges and a double-layer hoop deployable antenna composed of these units. A rational modeling method based on the energy equivalence principle is presented to develop an equivalent model of the double-layer hoop antenna in accordance with the structural characteristics of the antenna. The equivalent beam models of the rods with elastic hinges are proposed. The relationship of geometrical and material parameters is established considering the strain energy and the kinetic energy of the periodic unit, which are the same as those of the equivalent beam in the same displacement field. The equivalent model of the antenna is obtained by assembling several equivalent beam models in the circumferential direction. The precision of the equivalent model of the antenna is acceptable as found by comparing the modal analysis results obtained through equivalent model calculation, finite element simulation, and modal test.
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  • 19
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: In this research, modal tests and analyses are performed for a simplified and scaled first-stage model of a space launch vehicle using liquid propellant. This study aims to establish finite element modeling techniques for computational modal analyses by considering the liquid propellant and flange joints of launch vehicles. The modal tests measure the natural frequencies and mode shapes in the first and second lateral bending modes. As the liquid filling ratio increases, the measured frequencies decrease. In addition, as the number of flange joints increases, the measured natural frequencies increase. Computational modal analyses using the finite element method are conducted. The liquid is modeled by the virtual mass method, and the flange joints are modeled using one-dimensional spring elements along with the node-to-node connection. Comparison of the modal test results and predicted natural frequencies shows good or moderate agreement. The correlation between the modal tests and analyses establishes finite element modeling techniques for modeling the liquid propellant and flange joints of space launch vehicles.
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  • 20
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We present various performance trades for multiantenna global navigation satellite system (GNSS) multisensor attitude estimation systems. In particular, attitude estimation performance sensitivity to various error sources and system configurations is assessed. This study is motivated by the need for system designers, scientists, and engineers of airborne astronomical and remote sensing platforms to better determine which system configuration is most suitable for their specific application. In order to assess performance trade-offs, the attitude estimation performance of various approaches is tested using a simulation that is based on a stratospheric balloon platform. For GNSS errors, attention is focused on multipath, receiver measurement noise, and carrier-phase breaks. For the remaining attitude sensors, different performance grades of sensors are assessed. Through a Monte Carlo simulation, it is shown that, under typical conditions, sub-0.1-degree attitude accuracy is available when using multiple antenna GNSS data only, but that this accuracy can degrade to degree level in some environments warranting the inclusion of additional attitude sensors to maintain the desired level of accuracy. Further, we show that integrating inertial sensors is more valuable whenever accurate pitch and roll estimates are critical.
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  • 21
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the chief foreign exchange earning oil crops in Ethiopia. However, its productivity remains low due to lack of appropriate agronomic practices. The aim of this research was to study the effect of organic mulches on sesame productivity and in situ moisture conservation. This experiment was carried out in Humera Agricultural Research Center, Western Tigray, during 2015 growing season. The experimental design was Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. There were four types of organic mulches; rice straw, sorghum straw, sesame straw, and Sudan grass were compared with control. Sesame, variety Setit-1 was used in the experiment. The organic mulching rate of application was 10 ton ha−1 and this was applied evenly to the soil immediately after germination. Soil water content, phonological characteristics yield, and yield components of sesame were collected. The analyzed results indicated that organic mulching had significant effect on soil moisture content at 0–0.2 m, 0.21–0.4 m, and 0.41–0.6 m in every two-week interval after sowing and grain yield of sesame. Sesame straw conserved highest soil moisture content as compared with respective mulch material. The highest yield (664 kg ha−1) was recorded with Sudan grass while the lowest grain yield (190 kg ha−1) was recorded with no mulch.
    Print ISSN: 1687-8159
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-8167
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 22
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of types and rates of biochar on growth, yield, and yield component of garden pea at Bule wereda, Southern Ethiopia. The treatments consist of two types of biochar (corncobs and Lantana camara) and four rates of biochar (0, 6, 12, and 18 t ha−1). The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0–30 cm and germination parameter and phonology of garden pea were recorded. The result showed that soil bulk density, porosity, pH, and exchangeable acidity were significantly () affected by biochar application. The result also showed that maximum germination percentage of garden pea seeds (95.23%) was recorded at 18 t ha−1 of Lantana biochar. The shoot length was significantly () affected at 15 days and 30 days of biochar application. Moreover, fresh shoot weight and dry root biomass, number of seeds per pod, and grain yield of garden pea were significantly affected (). Of the substrate and application rate applied, Lantana camara 12 t ha−1 and Lantana camara 18 t ha−1 significantly increased yield of garden pea. Thus, further studies on effect of different biochars and their specific role are suggested to increase crop production.
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    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 23
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Despite the fact that maize productivity is relatively better than other major cereal crops, its current productivity is still far below its potential productivity. N rate and time of application are among the major abiotic factors limiting the productivity of the crop. Because of such gaps, the experiment was conducted at Bako Agricultural Research Center in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons to determine optimum N rate and time of application. Four levels of N rates (46, 69, 92, and 115 N kg ha−1) and four levels (, , , and ) of different time of N application were arranged in factorial combinations. Moreover, previously recommended N and the control were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. In 2013, the highest significant biomass yield (21.2 tha−1) was obtained at 115 N kg ha−1 and followed by 69 N kg ha−1 at and and 92 N kg ha−1 at . In contrast, the highest grain yield in 2013 was obtained at 92 N kg ha−1 at followed by 115 N kg ha−1 at either or and 69 N kg ha−1 at either or application time. Interestingly, a significant yield increase by 37% was obtained when 92 N kg ha−1 at the time of was applied compared to previous recommended 110 N kg ha−1 rate and time of application. In 2014, however, the highest yield was recorded when 92 N kg ha−1 at was used. Application of 46 N kg ha−1 at showed statistically similar yield performance when compared with previous N recommendation. The lowest yield was recorded from the control plot in both years. In 2013, the maximum net profit and acceptable marginal rate of return (MMR) were obtained when 92 N kg ha−1 at was used for maize production during erratic and heavy rainfall distribution, particularly at a time of N application. However, the maximum net benefit (30743 ETB ha−1) and acceptable MRR could be obtained when 92 N kg ha−1 at was used if the rainfall amount and distribution are relatively uniform. In conclusion, application of 92 N kg ha−1 at (10–15 DAP and 35–40 DAP) is the best N rate and time of application in good rainy seasons and hence recommended for the end users. However, in the case of erratic and heavy rainy seasons, application of 92 N kg ha−1 at three times application regimes (1/3 N at 10–15 days after planting (DAP), 1/3 N at 35–40 DAP and 55–60 DAP) should be used to get maximum profit and acceptable MRR.
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    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 24
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Little work has been done to characterize and quantify the residue traits affecting decomposition of winter and spring canola (Brassica napus L.) residue in dryland farming systems of the Pacific Northwest United States. Traditional methods of characterizing residue fiber and nutrients are time-consuming and expensive and require large quantities of chemical reagents. The goal of this research was to determine whether near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could accurately predict neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) of canola stems, litter, and roots and decomposition of canola stems. Canola residue varied in decomposition, fiber, and nutrients by year, location, and type. NIRS predictions were successful for NDF and ADF in 2011 (standard error of prediction ; ) and NDF, ADF, and N in 2012 (; ). Other predictions for residue fiber and nutrient characteristics were considered moderately successful. Prediction of canola residue decomposition with NIRS was useful for screening purposes. Near-infrared spectroscopy shows promise for rapidly and reproducibly predicting some canola residue fiber and nutrient traits and may be useful for estimating residue decomposition potential in dryland conservation cropping systems.
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    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 25
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Impacts of biochar application in combination with organic fertilizer, such as compost, are not fully understood. In this study, we tested the effects of biochar amendment, compost addition, and their combination on lettuce plants grown in a soil poor in nutrients; soil microbiological, chemical, and physical characteristics were analyzed, together with plant growth and physiology. An initial screening was also done to evaluate the effect of biochar and compost toxicity, using cress plants and earthworms. Results showed that compost amendment had clear and positive effects on plant growth and yield and on soil chemical characteristics. However, we demonstrated that also the biochar alone stimulated lettuce leaves number and total biomass, improving soil total nitrogen and phosphorus contents, as well as total carbon, and enhancing related microbial communities. Nevertheless, combining biochar and compost, no positive synergic and summative effects were observed. Our results thus demonstrate that in a soil poor in nutrients the biochar alone could be effectively used to enhance soil fertility and plant growth and biomass yield. However, we can speculate that the combination of compost and biochar may enhance and sustain soil biophysical and chemical characteristics and improve crop productivity over time.
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  • 26
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A semistructured questionnaire based on the commodity system assessment methodology (CSAM) was used to determine postharvest losses in vegetable amaranths (VA). Fifty producers and retailers were randomly selected from five and four major VA producing areas and markets, respectively, and interviewed. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistical analyses. The survey revealed that absence of laws, regulation, incentives, and inadequate technical information affected the production of VA. The utmost preproduction challenge was poor quality seeds with poor seed yield (35%), low viability (19%), and nontrueness (46%). It was noted that some cultural practices including planting pattern and density, irrigation, and fertiliser use had effects on postharvest losses. Some postharvest practices used were cleaning with water, trimming, sorting, and grading. Usually the produce was transported to marketing centers by cars and motor cycle trailers. Generally poor temperature management after harvest was a big challenge for the postharvest handling of VA. The potential of vegetable amaranths as a commodity in the study area can be enhanced by providing the necessary institutional support, incentives, and use of good management practices along the value chain. An interdisciplinary approach and quantification of losses along the chain are recommended for any future study.
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    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 27
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Rigidoporus microporus, Ganoderma philippii, and Phellinus noxius are root rot rubber diseases and these fungi should be kept under control with environmentally safe compounds from the plant sources. Thus, an antifungal compound isolated from Catharanthus roseus was screened for its effectiveness in controlling the growth of these fungi. The antifungal compound isolated from C. roseus extract was determined through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Each C. roseus of the DCM extracts was marked as CRD1, CRD2, CRD3, CRD4, CRD5, CRD6, and CRD7, respectively. TLC results showed that all of the C. roseus extracts peaked with red colour at Rf = 0.61 at 366 nm wavelength, except for CRD7. The CRD4 extract was found to be the most effective against R. microporus and G. philippii with inhibition zones of 3.5 and 1.9 mm, respectively, compared to that of other extracts. These extracts, however, were not effective against P. noxius. The CRD4 extract contained ursolic acid that was detected by NMR analysis and the compound could be developed as a biocontrol agent for controlling R. microporus and G. philippii. Moreover, little or no research has been done to study the effectiveness of C. roseus in controlling these fungi.
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  • 28
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the conditions for the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of polysaccharides from the flowers of Dendrobium devonianum. The optimal conditions for the maximum yields of DDFPs are as follows: an extraction temperature of 63.13°C, an extraction time of 53.10 min, and a water-to-raw material ratio of 22.11 mL/g. Furthermore, three fractions (DDFPs30, DDFPs50, and DDFPs70) were prepared from Dendrobium devonianum flowers polysaccharides (DDFPs) by the stepwise ethanol precipitation method. The DDFPs50 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to the other fractions. The molecular weight, polydispersity, and conformation of these fractions were also characterized. In particular, the monosaccharide composition analysis of the DDFPs indicates that mannose and glucose are the primary components, similar to those of the D. officinale plant. This study provides a rapid extraction technology and essential information for the production of DDFPs, which could be potentially used as healthcare food.
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  • 29
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and vacuum precooling on quality and antioxidant properties of blackberries (Rubus spp.) were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), and path analysis. Results showed that the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced by both 1-MCP treatment and vacuum precooling. PCA could discriminate 1-MCP treated fruit and the vacuum precooled fruit and showed that the radical-scavenging activities in vacuum precooled fruit were higher than those in 1-MCP treated fruit. The scores of PCA showed that H2O2 content was the most important variables of blackberry fruit. PLSR results showed that peroxidase (POD) activity negatively correlated with H2O2 content. The results of path coefficient analysis indicated that glutathione (GSH) also had an indirect effect on H2O2 content.
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  • 30
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A simple cloud point preconcentration method was developed and validated for the determination of gallic acid, bergenin, quercitrin, and embelin in Ardisia japonica by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using ultrasonic assisted micellar extraction. Nonionic surfactant Genapol X-080 was selected as the extraction solvent. The effects of various experimental conditions such as the type and concentration of surfactant and salt, temperature, and solution pH on the extraction of these components were studied to optimize the conditions of Ardisia japonica. The solution was incubated in a thermostatic water bath at 60°C for 10 min, and 35% NaH2PO4 (w/v) was added to the solution to promote the phase separation and increase the preconcentration factor. The intraday and interday precision (RSD) were both below 5.0% and the limits of detection (LOD) for the analytes were between 10 and 20 ng·mL−1. The proposed method provides a simple, efficient, and organic solvent-free method to analyze gallic acid, bergenin, quercitrin, and embelin for the quality control of Ardisia japonica.
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  • 31
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
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  • 32
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Tomato hot pot sauce (THPS) at different storage temperatures (0, 25, and 37°C) and with two kinds of packaging for 120 days was investigated in this study. High performance liquid chromatography was employed for detecting lycopene and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The changes of lycopene and HMF during storage were regressed with kinetic equation of both zero-order and first-order models, and the latter fitted better. The kinetic equation constant ( value) of lycopene or HMF at 37°C was higher than that at 25°C. The value of lycopene of PET/PE (P1) packaged THPS was 1.60 times of that of PET/Al/EAA/PE (P2) packaged at 37°C, while it was 2.12 times at 25°C. The value of HMF of P1 packaged THPS was 1.69 times of that of P2 packaged at 37°C, while it was 1.01 times at 25°C. Significant correlations between color index of ,, and and lycopene or HMF were found at storage temperature. Browning color was attributed to both Maillard reaction and degradation of lycopene. In conclusion, lower storage temperature and stronger oxygen barrier property of package could maintain color stability and extend shelf life.
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  • 33
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This study reports an analytical method for the determination of nitroimidazole and quinolones in honey using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A modified QuEChERS methodology was used to extract the analytes and determine veterinary drugs in honey by LC-MS/MS. The linear regression was excellent at the concentration levels of 1–100 ng/mL in the solution standard curve and the matrix standard curve. The recovery rates of nitroimidazole and quinolones were 4.4% to 59.1% and 9.8% to 46.2% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 5.2% and the recovery rates of nitroimidazole and quinolones by the matrix standard curve ranged from 82.0% to 117.8% and 79% to 115.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 6.3% in acacia and jujube honey. The acacia and jujube honeys have stronger matrix inhibition effect to nitroimidazole and quinolones residue; the matrix inhibition effect of jujube honey is stronger than acacia honey. The matrix standard curve can calibrate matrix effect effectively. In this study, the detection method of antibiotics in honey can be applied to the actual sample. The results demonstrated that the modified QuEChERS method combined with LC-MS/MS is a rapid, high, sensitive method for the analysis of nitroimidazoles and quinolones residues in honey.
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  • 34
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in some microclimates of Iberian Peninsula. Gastronomically this species is very relevant, due to not only the traditional consumption by the rural populations but also its commercial value in gourmet markets. Mineral characterisation of edible mushrooms is extremely important for certification and commercialization processes. In this study, we evaluate the inorganic composition of Amanita ponderosa fruiting bodies (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) and their respective soil substrates from 24 different sampling sites of the southwest Iberian Peninsula (e.g., Alentejo, Andalusia, and Extremadura). Mineral composition revealed high content in macroelements, namely, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Mushrooms showed presence of important trace elements and low contents of heavy metals within the limits of RDI. Bioconcentration was observed for some macro- and microelements, such as K, Cu, Zn, Mg, P, Ag, and Cd. A. ponderosa fruiting bodies showed different inorganic profiles according to their location and results pointed out that it is possible to generate an explanatory model of segmentation, performed with data based on the inorganic composition of mushrooms and soil mineral content, showing the possibility of relating these two types of data.
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  • 35
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Analytical chemistry is a set of procedures and techniques used to identify and quantify the composition of a sample of material. It is also focused on improvements in experimental design and the creation of new measurement tools. Analytical chemistry has broad applications to forensics, medicine, science, and engineering. The objective of this study is to develop a new method of sucrose dosage using a spectrophotometry method in a pure and impure system (presence of glucose and fructose). The work performed shows the reliability of this method. A model linking sucrose solution absorbance and mass percentage of glucose and fructose has been developed using experimental design. The results obtained show that all the investigated factors (sucrose concentration, mass percentage of glucose, and mass percentage of fructose) have a positive effect on the absorbance. The effect of the interaction between glucose and fructose on the absorbance is very significant.
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  • 36
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was prepared using octadecyl trichlorosilane (OTS) in distilled solution on the copper surface. The effect of inhibitor concentration on the rate of inhibition efficiency and corrosion rate in corrosion medium on copper by using polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) was studied. The results showed that OTS SAMs exhibit the better corrosion resistance; the corrosion potential of copper OTS SAMs protection increased by about 1.02 V, while the corrosion current density decreased to 0.59 A/cm2. The corrosion rate is minimized and flattened and can reach 9.2% while the inhibition efficiency reached 95.4%, when the corrosion inhibitor has concentration of 40 ppm.
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  • 37
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The utility of a handheld visible-short wave near infrared spectrophotometer utilising an interactance optical geometry was assessed in context of the noninvasive determination of intact tomato dry matter content, as an index of final ripe soluble solids content, and colouration, as an index of maturation to guide a decision to harvest. Partial least squares regression model robustness was demonstrated through the use of populations of different harvest dates or growing conditions for calibration and prediction. Dry matter predictions of independent populations of fruit achieved ranging from 0.86 to 0.92 and bias from −0.14 to 0.03%. For a CIE colour model, prediction ranged from 0.85 to 0.96 and bias from −1.18 to −0.08. Updating the calibration model with new samples to extend range in the attribute of interest and in sample matrix is key to better prediction performance. The handheld spectrometry system is recommended for practical implementation in tomato cultivation.
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  • 38
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: In the field of applied researches in heritage science, the use of multivariate approach is still quite limited and often chemometric results obtained are often underinterpreted. Within this scenario, the present paper is aimed at disseminating the use of suitable multivariate methodologies and proposes a procedural workflow applied on a representative group of case studies, of considerable importance for conservation purposes, as a sort of guideline on the processing and on the interpretation of this FTIR data. Initially, principal component analysis (PCA) is performed and the score values are converted into chemical maps. Successively, the brushing approach is applied, demonstrating its usefulness for a deep understanding of the relationships between the multivariate map and PC score space, as well as for the identification of the spectral bands mainly involved in the definition of each area localised within the score maps.
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  • 39
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper reviews the current research on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques, including the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), voltammetry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ICP-mass spectrometry (MS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Approximately 96 research papers on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical instruments published in international journals since 2015 were reviewed. All analytical parameters, including the limits of detection, linearity range, quality assurance and control, applicability, and interfering ions, evaluated in the reviewed articles were tabulated. In this review, we found a lack of information in speciation studies of mercury in recent years. Another important conclusion from this review was that there were few studies regarding the concentration of mercury in the atmosphere.
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  • 40
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: To establish the most convenient and effective method to dry tangerine peels, different methods (sun drying, hot-air drying, freeze drying, vacuum drying, and medium- and short-wave infrared drying) were exploited. Our results indicated that medium- and short-wave infrared drying was the best method to preserve nutraceutical components; for example, vitamin C was raised to 6.77 mg/g (D.W.) from 3.39 mg/g (sun drying). Moreover, the drying time can be shortened above 96% compared with sun drying. Importantly, the efficiency of DPPH radical scavenging was enhanced from 26.66% to 55.92%. These findings would provide a reliable and time-saving methodology to produce high-quality dried tangerine peels.
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  • 41
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The sensorial properties of Colombian coffee are renowned worldwide, which is reflected in its market value. This raises the threat of fraud by adulteration using coffee grains from other countries, thus creating a demand for robust and cost-effective methods for the determination of geographical origin of coffee samples. Spectroscopic techniques such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), near infrared (NIR), and mid-infrared (mIR) have arisen as strong candidates for the task. Although a body of work exists that reports on their individual performances, a faithful comparison has not been established yet. We evaluated the performance of 1H-NMR, Attenuated Total Reflectance mIR (ATR-mIR), and NIR applied to fraud detection in Colombian coffee. For each technique, we built classification models for discrimination by species (C. arabica versus C. canephora (or robusta)) and by origin (Colombia versus other C. arabica) using a common set of coffee samples. All techniques successfully discriminated samples by species, as expected. Regarding origin determination, ATR-mIR and 1H-NMR showed comparable capacity to discriminate Colombian coffee samples, while NIR fell short by comparison. In conclusion, ATR-mIR, a less common technique in the field of coffee adulteration and fraud detection, emerges as a strong candidate, faster and with lower cost compared to 1H-NMR and more discriminating compared to NIR.
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  • 42
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Jute mallow is a traditional leaf vegetable that is an important part of daily diet for the majority of people in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Here we employed quantitative and qualitative phenotypic traits to assess the morphological diversity of 90 accessions using univariate and multivariate analyses. Field experiments were conducted for two seasons to identify accessions suitable for leaf yield. The accessions were significantly variable in all traits. Highest variability among accessions was found in harvest index, biomass yield, and weight of 1000 seeds. The traits that significantly correlated with biomass yield include plant height (), petiole length (), primary branches (), and number of leaves per plant (). Principal component analysis showed that the first five PCs with eigenvalues ≥1 explained 72.9% of the total variability in the accessions. Pods per plant, primary branches, secondary branches, and number of leaves per plant accounted for highest variability in PC1. Cluster analysis grouped the accessions into five major clusters mainly based on their origin. Thus, the collection displayed high variation in morphological traits, particularly those related to leaf yield. These accessions are therefore useful in breeding for the improvement of the crop and germplasm management.
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  • 43
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The implementation of innovative and efficient irrigation techniques is among the greatest challenges facing agriculture. In this regard, a linear programming model is presented in order to optimize water use. The idea behind this model is to assess the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of precipitation to determine the amount of irrigation water required to optimize water use. To achieve this idea, the “knapsack” problem decisional form was used, and the combination of the linear programming and the above-mentioned form proved satisfactory. Field experiments were conducted in Algeria. Based on calculated budgets a model using linear programming was developed. A comparison between the model results and the field findings suggests that the model could reduce water consumption by 28.5%.
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  • 44
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Groundnut, the most important grain legume in Ghana, is largely cultivated under rainfed conditions within the Guinea savanna zone of the country. The pods and haulms are important sources of income for smallholder farmers in the region. There is an emerging market for groundnut haulms as livestock feed in Ghana. A population of 30 groundnut genotypes were evaluated for yield (pod and haulm) and its components as well as good haulm nutritive value. High significant differences were observed among the genotypes for all agronomic traits. Average pod yield ranged from 1.6 to 5.7 t/ha with SAMNUT 23 and ICGV-IS 13081 being the most productive. Eight out of the 30 genotypes produced haulm yields above 8 t/ha. There was no significant difference among genotypes for in vitro gas production, digestible organic matter, ash, neutral detergent fibre, and metabolizable energy. However, crude protein, crude fibre, and acid detergent fibre were significantly different. Crude protein content was highest (12.53%) in GAF 1723 and lowest (8.00%) in ICGV-IS 08837. Genotypes GAF 1723, ICGV 00064, and ICGV-IS 13998 combined good pod/haulm yield with high haulm nutritive quality. Their utilization will improve farmers’ income and livelihoods in the Guinea savanna of Ghana.
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  • 45
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The emergence of genome manipulation methods promises a real revolution in biotechnology and genetic engineering. Targeted editing of the genomes of living organisms not only permits investigations into the understanding of the fundamental basis of biological systems but also allows addressing a wide range of goals towards improving productivity and quality of crops. This includes the creation of plants with valuable compositional properties and with traits that confer resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. During the past few years, several novel genome editing systems have been developed; these include zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9). These exciting new methods, briefly reviewed herein, have proved themselves as effective and reliable tools for the genetic improvement of plants.
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  • 46
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Twenty cassava genotypes were arranged in a randomised complete block design with three replications and assessed for growth and yield stability using the additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis. Highly significant () effects of genotype, environment, and genotype environment interaction were observed for all traits studied. The AMMI analysis of variance indicated that genotype accounted for 51% of the total sum of squares for height at first branching followed by environment (33%) and interaction (15%). For fresh root yield, environment effects accounted for 37% of the total sum of squares, whilst genotype and interaction accounted for 32% and 29%, respectively. Genotypic variances for harvest index (HI), plant height, storage root yield, and dry matter content contributed a greater proportion of the phenotypic variance indicating stronger genetic control. This suggests better chance of progress in the genetic improvement of these traits. Genotype MM96/1751 combined high yield with stability according to the yield stability index ranking across environments. On the other hand genotypes UCC 2001/449 and 96/1708 though high yielding were unstable according to AMMI stability value scores. However they can be tested further in more environments to ascertain their specific adaptability for release to farmers for cultivation to boost cassava production and ensure food security.
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  • 47
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This research was conducted from July to October 2015, using Randomized Block Design with two treatment factors and three replications for each treatment. The first factor was rice varieties (V): V1 = IR 64; V2 = Inpara 5. The second factor was fertilizer (N): N0: without submergence, all N fertilizer was given during planting; N1: all N fertilizer dose was given during planting; and N2: 1/2 dose of N fertilizer was given during planting; the rest was given at 42 days after planting. The submergence was during 7–14 days after planting; N3 = the entire dose of N fertilizer that was given during planting, N4 = 1/2 the dose of N fertilizer that was given during planting, and the rest was given at 42 days after planting. The submergence was during 7–14 and 28–35 days after planting. The results showed that the management of nitrogen fertilizer application had effect on rice growth and production which experienced dirty water submergence stress; the application of 1/2 dose of N fertilizer given during planting had the best effect on rice growth and production; the longer the submergence period for rice variety, the higher the effect on rice growth and production.
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  • 48
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We report a laboratory scale combined absorption and adsorption chemical process to remove contaminants from anaerobically produced biogas using cafeteria (food), vegetable, fruit, and cattle manure wastes. Iron oxide (Fe2O3), zero valent iron (), and iron chloride (FeCl2) react with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to deposit colloidal sulfur. Silica gel, sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), and calcium oxide (CaO) reduce the water vapour (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). It is possible to upgrade methane (CH4) above 95% in biogas using chemical or physical absorption or adsorption process. The removal efficiency of CO2, H2S, and H2O depends on the mass of removing agent and system pH. The results showed that Ca(OH)2 solutions are capable of reducing CO2 below 6%. The H2S concentration was reduced to 89%, 90%, 86%, 85%, and 96% for treating with 10 g of FeCl2, (with pH), Fe2O3, , and activated carbon, respectively. The H2O concentration was reduced to 0.2%, 0.7%, 0.2%, 0.2%, and 0.3% for treating raw biogas with 10 g of silica gel and Na2SO4 for runs R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5, respectively. Thus, given the successful contaminant elimination, the combined absorption and adsorption process is a feasible system for biogas purification.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 49
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Impinging jets are often used in industry to dry, cool, or heat items. In this work, a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics model is created to model an impingement jet dryer with a total of 9 pairs of nozzles that dries sheets of metal. Different methods to model the evaporation rate are studied, as well as the influence of recirculating the outlet air. For the studied conditions, the simulations show that the difference in evaporation rate between single- and two-component treatment of moist air is only around 5%, hence indicating that drying can be predicted with a simplified model where vapor is included as a nonreacting scalar. Furthermore, the humidity of the inlet air, as determined from the degree of recirculating outlet air, has a strong effect on the water evaporation rate. Results show that the metal sheet is dry at the exit if 85% of the air is recirculated, while approximately only 60% of the water has evaporated at a recirculation of 92,5%.
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  • 50
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: As an unconventional energy, coalbed methane (CBM) mainly exists in coal bed with adsorption, whose productivity is different from conventional gas reservoir. This paper explains the wellbore pressure drop, surface pipeline network simulation, and reservoir calculation model of CBM. A coupled surface/wellbore/reservoir calculation architecture was presented, to coordinate the gas production in each calculation period until the balance of surface/wellbore/reservoir. This coupled calculation method was applied to a CBM field for predicting production. The daily gas production increased year by year at the first time and then decreased gradually after several years, while the daily water production was reduced all the time with the successive decline of the formation pressure. The production of gas and water in each well is almost the same when the structure is a star. When system structure is a dendritic surface system, the daily gas production ranked highest at the well which is the nearest to the surface system collection point and lowest at the well which is the farthest to the surface system collection point. This coupled calculation method could be used to predict the water production, gas production, and formation pressure of a CBM field during a period of time.
    Print ISSN: 1687-806X
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 51
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The paper analyzes the impact of the sensor reading errors on parameters that affect the production costs of a leading US industrial gas supply company. For this purpose, a systematic methodology is applied first to determine the relationship between the system output and input parameters and second to identify the assigned input sensors whose readings need to be improved in a prioritized manner based on the strength of those input-output relationships. The two main criteria used to prioritize these sensors are the decrease in production costs and the decrease in production costs’ volatility obtained when the selected sensor’s precision is improved. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, we first apply it to a simplified version of the real supply network model where the results can be readily validated with the simulated data. Next, we apply and test the proposed approach in the real supply network model with historical data.
    Print ISSN: 1687-806X
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 52
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a severe health problem worldwide, reaching epidemic levels. High susceptibility to infections of T2DM patients indicates dysregulated immune responses to pathogens. However, innate immune responses, including monocyte functions, in T2DM are poorly investigated. Therefore, in this study we aimed to assess lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced immune responses of circulating monocytes from T2DM patients. The results showed that monocytes from T2DM were hyporesponsive to LPS challenge as reflected by significantly suppressed secretion of TNFα () and expression of CD11b () and TLR4 () compared to those in monocytes from healthy subjects. Furthermore, LPS-induced IL-10 levels were similar in diabetic and healthy supernatants, while expression levels of CD163 were found to be downregulated on monocytes from T2DM () suggesting impaired ability of monocytes to switch their phenotype to anti-inflammatory. Taken together, our results suggest compromised function of monocytes in T2DM, which may explain, at least partly, high incidence of infection in these patients.
    Electronic ISSN: 2042-0099
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 53
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Various parts of the turmeric plant have been used as medicinal treatment for various conditions from ulcers and arthritis to cardiovascular disease and neuroinflammation. The rhizome’s curcumin extract is the most studied active constituent, which exhibits an expansive polypharmacology with influence on many key inflammatory markers. Despite the expansive reports of curcucmin’s therapeutic value, clinical reliability and research repeatability with curcumin treatment are still poor. The pharmacology must be better understood and reliably mapped if curcumin is to be accepted and used in modern medical applications. Although the polypharmacology of this extract has been considered, in mainstream medicine, to be a drawback, a perspective change reveals a comprehensive and even synergistic shaping of the NF-kB pathway, including transactivation. Much of the inconsistent research data and unreliable clinical outcomes may be due to a lack of standardization which also pervades research standard samples. The possibility of other well-known curcumin by-products contributing in the polypharmacology is also discussed. A new flowchart of crosstalk in transduction pathways that lead to shaping of nuclear NF-kB transactivation is generated and a new calibration or standardization protocol for the extract is proposed which could lead to more consistent data extraction and improved reliability in therapy.
    Electronic ISSN: 2042-0099
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 54
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. Interactions between alcohol, infection, and surgery and their effect on differentiation and functionality of T helper cells are not yet completely understood. We hypothesized that alcohol and surgery disturb differentiation of T helper cells and contribute to an impaired immune response. Methods. Mice were treated with alcohol for two weeks. Saline treatment served as control. Clinical performance and weight were assessed. On day 14, a median laparotomy was performed and animals were challenged with Klebsiella pneumoniae intranasally. Bacterial load was determined in lungs and blood. T helper cell subpopulations and the released cytokines were assessed in lungs, spleens, and plasma. Key transcription factors of T cell differentiation were evaluated. Results. Alcohol significantly impaired clinical appearance and body weight of animals with postsurgical infection . Bacterial load was significantly higher after alcohol treatment . T helper cell subsets and released cytokine levels were significantly altered in lung, but not in spleen. Expression of transcription factors of T helper cell lineage commitment did not translate into different counts of T helper cells. Conclusions. Alcohol and surgery lead to significant cellular and functional modulations of T helper cells during postsurgical infection. These effects may contribute to an impaired immune response after surgery.
    Electronic ISSN: 2042-0099
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Wound healing is a complex event that develops in three overlapping phases: inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling. These phases are distinct in function and histological characteristics. However, they depend on the interaction of cytokines, growth factors, chemokines, and chemical mediators from cells to perform regulatory events. In this article, we will review the pathway in the skin healing cascade, relating the major chemical inflammatory mediators, cellular and molecular, as well as demonstrating the local and systemic factors that interfere in healing and disorders associated with tissue repair deficiency. Finally, we will discuss the current therapeutic interventions in the wounds treatment, and the alternative therapies used as promising results in the development of new products with healing potential.
    Electronic ISSN: 2042-0099
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 56
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory diseases involving all or part of the gastrointestinal tract. The stress-activated serine-threonine protein kinase D1 (PKD1) protein has previously been implicated in intestinal immune regulation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of human PKD1 in relation to intestinal inflammation, using a co-culture model of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages. An inflammatory response was induced in the macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), upregulating the expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin- (IL-) 1β, and IL-6 besides increasing the secretion of TNF-α protein. The effect of administering PKD1 to Caco-2 was evaluated in relation to both amelioration of inflammation and the ability to suppress inflammation initiation. Administration of PKD1 (10–100 ng/ml) following induction of inflammation induced downregulation of TNF-α expression in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, PKD1 administered for 3 h prior to LPS stimulation reduced the subsequent inflammatory response through downregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. These results demonstrate a potential role of PKD1 in the intercellular communication between intestinal epithelial and immune cells, proposing a protective effect of PKD1 on the induction of an inflammatory response in macrophages, an important aspect during the pathogenesis of IBD.
    Electronic ISSN: 2042-0099
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  • 57
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: By cyclic voltammetry at high scan rates, the electrochemical properties of RuO2 in acidic and alkaline solutions were investigated in detail. Thirteen current peaks can be distinguished in sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide. With respect to the pH sensitivity of RuO2 electrodes, we considered charge calculations, peak currents, and apparent diffusion coefficients. The nature of the Ru(II) oxidation was clarified by Ru(I)−Ru(III) species.
    Print ISSN: 2090-3529
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 58
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The structure of carbon material comprising the anode is the key to the performance of a lithium ion capacitor. In addition to determining the capacity, the structure of the carbon material also determines the diffusion rate of the lithium ion into the anode which in turn controls power density which is vital in high rate applications. This paper covers details of systematic investigation of the performance of a structurally novel carbon, called Randomly Oriented High Graphene (ROHG) carbon, and graphite in a high rate application device, that is, lithium ion capacitor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that ROHG is less resistive and has faster lithium ion diffusion rates (393.7 × 10−3 S·s(1/2)) compared to graphite (338.1 × 10−3 S·s(1/2)). The impedance spectroscopy data is supported by the cell data showing that the ROHG carbon based device has energy density of 22.8 Wh/l with a power density of 4349.3 W/l, whereas baseline graphite based device has energy density of 5 Wh/l and power density of 4243.3 W/l. This data clearly shows advantage of the randomly oriented graphene platelet structure of ROHG in lithium ion capacitor performance.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 59
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The voltammetric response of platinum metal oxides is discussed with respect to novel pH sensors combining both miniaturization and stability. For practical applications in solutions of any kind, for example, in tap water and in domestic sewage, various interferences must be considered, such as chloride and reducing agents. This work clarifies the voltammetric behavior of RuO2 electrodes in solutions of different pH values and ionic strengths.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 60
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The purpose of this paper is to define the hyperideal expansion. Hyperideal expansion is associated with prime hyperideals and primary hyperideals. Then, we define some of their properties. Prime and primary hyperideals’ numerous results can be extended into expansions.
    Print ISSN: 0161-1712
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-0425
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 61
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Let be a graph and be a -total coloring. Let denote the sum of color on a vertex and colors assigned to edges incident to . If whenever , then is called a neighbor sum distinguishing total coloring. The smallest integer such that has a neighbor sum distinguishing -total coloring is denoted by . In 2014, Dong and Wang obtained the results about depending on the value of maximum average degree. A -assignment of is a list assignment of integers to vertices and edges with for each vertex and for each edge . A total--coloring is a total coloring of such that whenever and whenever . We state that has a neighbor sum distinguishing total--coloring if has a total--coloring such that for all . The smallest integer such that has a neighbor sum distinguishing total--coloring for every -assignment is denoted by . In this paper, we strengthen results by Dong and Wang by giving analogous results for .
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  • 62
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We introduce a quantity which is called Rényi’s-Tsalli’s entropy of order and discussed some of its major properties with Shannon and other entropies in the literature. Further, we give its application in coding theory and a coding theorem analogous to the ordinary coding theorem for a noiseless channel is proved. The theorem states that the proposed entropy is the lower bound of mean code word length.
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  • 63
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The Irwin-Hall distribution is the distribution of the sum of a finite number of independent identically distributed uniform random variables on the unit interval. Many applications arise since round-off errors have a transformed Irwin-Hall distribution and the distribution supplies spline approximations to normal distributions. We review some of the distribution’s history. The present derivation is very transparent, since it is geometric and explicitly uses the inclusion-exclusion principle. In certain special cases, the derivation can be extended to linear combinations of independent uniform random variables on other intervals of finite length. The derivation adds to the literature about methodologies for finding distributions of sums of random variables, especially distributions that have domains with boundaries so that the inclusion-exclusion principle might be employed.
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  • 64
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A sudden jump in the value of the state variable in a certain dynamical system can be studied through a catastrophe model. This paper presents an application of catastrophe model to solve psychological problems. Since we will have three psychological aspects or parameters, intelligence (I), emotion (E), and adversity (A), a Swallowtail catastrophe model is considered to be an appropriate one. Our methodology consists of three steps: solving the Swallowtail potential function, finding the critical points up to and including threefold degenerates, and fitting the model into our measured data. Using a polynomial curve fitting derived from the potential function of Swallowtail catastrophe model, relations among three parameters combinations are analyzed. Results show that there are catastrophe phenomena for each relation, meaning that a small change in one psychological aspect may cause a dramatic change in another aspect.
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  • 65
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A trapezoidal number, a sum of at least two consecutive positive integers, is a figurate number that can be represented by points rearranged in the plane as a trapezoid. Such numbers have been of interest and extensively studied. In this paper, a generalization of trapezoidal numbers has been introduced. For each positive integer , a positive integer is called an -trapezoidal number if can be written as an arithmetic series of at least terms with common difference . Properties of -trapezoidal numbers have been studied together with their trapezoidal representations. In the special case where , the characterization and enumeration of such numbers have been given as well as illustrative examples. Precisely, for a fixed -trapezoidal number , the ways and the number of ways to write as an arithmetic series with common difference have been determined. Some remarks on -trapezoidal numbers have been provided as well.
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  • 66
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Let be a graph of order and size . An edge-magic labeling of is a bijection such that is a constant for every edge . An edge-magic labeling of with is called a super edge-magic labeling. Furthermore, the edge-magic deficiency of a graph , , is defined as the smallest nonnegative integer such that has an edge-magic labeling. Similarly, the super edge-magic deficiency of a graph , , is either the smallest nonnegative integer such that has a super edge-magic labeling or if there exists no such integer . In this paper, we investigate the (super) edge-magic deficiency of chain graphs. Referring to these, we propose some open problems.
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  • 67
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Plague is a historic disease which is also known to be the most devastating disease that ever occurred in human history, caused by gram-negative bacteria known as Yersinia pestis. The disease is mostly affected by variations of weather conditions as it disturbs the normal behavior of main plague disease transmission agents, namely, human beings, rodents, fleas, and pathogens, in the environment. This in turn changes the way they interact with each other and ultimately leads to a periodic transmission of plague disease. In this paper, we formulate a periodic epidemic model system by incorporating seasonal transmission rate in order to study the effect of seasonal weather variation on the dynamics of plague disease. We compute the basic reproduction number of a proposed model. We then use numerical simulation to illustrate the effect of different weather dependent parameters on the basic reproduction number. We are able to deduce that infection rate, progression rates from primary forms of plague disease to more severe forms of plague disease, and the infectious flea abundance affect, to a large extent, the number of bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague infective agents. We recommend that it is more reasonable to consider these factors that have been shown to have a significant effect on for effective control strategies.
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  • 68
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Tungiasis is a permanent penetration of female sand flea “Tunga penetrans” into the epidermis of its host. It affects human beings and domestic and sylvatic animals. In this paper, we apply optimal control techniques to a Tungiasis controlled mathematical model to determine the optimal control strategy in order to minimize the number of infested humans, infested animals, and sand flea populations. In an attempt to reduce Tungiasis infestation in human population, the control strategies based on personal protection, personal treatment, educational campaign, environmental sanitation, and insecticidal treatments on the affected parts as well as on animal fur are considered. We prove the existence of optimal control problem, determine the necessary conditions for optimality, and then perform numerical simulations. The numerical results showed that the control strategy comprises all five control measures and that which involves the three control measures of insecticide control, insecticidal dusting on animal furs, and environmental hygiene has the significant impact on Tungiasis transmission. Therefore, fighting against Tungiasis infestation in endemic settings, multidimensional control process should be employed in order to achieve the maximum benefits.
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  • 69
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We apply new modified recursion schemes obtained by the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) to analytically solve specific types of two-point boundary value problems for nonlinear fractional order ordinary and partial differential equations. The new modified recursion schemes, which sometimes utilize the technique of Duan’s convergence parameter, are derived using the Duan-Rach modified ADM. The Duan-Rach modified ADM employs all of the given boundary conditions to compute the remaining unknown constants of integration, which are then embedded in the integral solution form before constructing recursion schemes for the solution components. New modified recursion schemes obtained by the method are generated in order to analytically solve nonlinear fractional order boundary value problems with a variety of two-point boundary conditions such as Robin and separated boundary conditions. Some numerical examples of such problems are demonstrated graphically. In addition, the maximal errors or the error remainder functions of each problem are calculated.
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  • 70
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Let be a graph and let be a subgraph of . Assume that has an -decomposition such that for all . An -supermagic decomposition of is a bijection such that is a constant for each in the decomposition and . If admits an -supermagic decomposition, then is called -supermagic decomposable. In this paper, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of -supermagic decomposition of the complete bipartite graph minus a one-factor.
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  • 71
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The asymptotic behavior of the effective mass of the so-called Nelson model in quantum field theory is considered, where is an ultraviolet cutoff parameter of the model. Let be the bare mass of the model. It is shown that for sufficiently small coupling constant of the model, can be expanded as . A physical folklore is that as . It is rigorously shown that ,   with some constants , , and .
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  • 72
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The notions of the Killing form and invariant form in Lie algebras are extended to the ones in Lie-Yamaguti superalgebras and some of their properties are investigated. These notions are also -graded generalizations of the ones in Lie-Yamaguti algebras.
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  • 73
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We analyze the dynamics of a fractional order modified Leslie-Gower model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response and additive Allee effect by means of local stability. In this respect, all possible equilibria and their existence conditions are determined and their stability properties are established. We also construct nonstandard numerical schemes based on Grünwald-Letnikov approximation. The constructed scheme is explicit and maintains the positivity of solutions. Using this scheme, we perform some numerical simulations to illustrate the dynamical behavior of the model. It is noticed that the nonstandard Grünwald-Letnikov scheme preserves the dynamical properties of the continuous model, while the classical scheme may fail to maintain those dynamical properties.
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  • 74
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: It is a well-established fact in regression analysis that multicollinearity and autocorrelated errors have adverse effects on the properties of the least squares estimator. Huang and Yang (2015) and Chandra and Tyagi (2016) studied the PCTP estimator and the class estimator, respectively, to deal with both problems simultaneously and compared their performances with the estimators obtained as their special cases. However, to the best of our knowledge, the performance of both estimators has not been compared so far. Hence, this paper is intended to compare the performance of these two estimators under mean squared error (MSE) matrix criterion. Further, a simulation study is conducted to evaluate superiority of the class estimator over the PCTP estimator by means of percentage relative efficiency. Furthermore, two numerical examples have been given to illustrate the performance of the estimators.
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  • 75
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Plane harmonic wave propagation along an interface between vacuum and a semi-infinite uniaxial anisotropic medium is considered. It is shown that there is a bulk wave within an anisotropic medium in this case. It is also proved for the first time that a reflected wave must propagate perpendicularly to an interface. Moreover, a reflected wave is absent in the case of ordinary wave propagation.
    Print ISSN: 1687-5826
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-5834
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 76
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Let be a full set of outcomes (symbols) and let positive , , be their probabilities . Let us treat as a stop symbol; it can occur in sequences of symbols (we call them words) only once, at the very end. The probability of a word is defined as the product of probabilities of its symbols. We consider the list of all possible words sorted in the nonincreasing order of their probabilities. Let be the probability of the th word in this list. We prove that if at least one of the ratios , , is irrational, then the limit exists and differs from zero; here is the root of the equation . The limit constant can be expressed (rather easily) in terms of the entropy of the distribution .
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  • 77
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Circularly polarized (CP) transparent microstrip reflectarray antenna is integrated with solar cell for small satellite applications at 10 GHz. The reflectarray unit cell consists of a perfect electric conductor (PEC) square patch printed on an optically transparent substrate with the PEC ground plane. A comparison between using transparent conducting polymers and using the PEC in unit-cell construction has been introduced. The waveguide simulator is used to calculate the required compensation phase of each unit cell in the reflectarray. The radiation characteristics of 13 × 13 CP transparent reflectarray antenna are investigated. A circularly polarized horn antenna is used to feed the reflectarray. The solar cell is incorporated with the transparent reflectarray on the same area. The solar-cell integration with the reflectarray reduces the maximum gain by about 0.5 dB due to the increase in the magnitude of the reflection coefficient. The results are calculated using the finite integral technique (FIT).
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  • 78
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This study investigated the prevalence of psychological distress among parents in Western Sydney households and examined its relationship with household financial, family and life stressors, and potential resilience factors. As part of a longer-term study, parents from Western Sydney, New South Wales (NSW), completed computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) in May 2011 (). Respondents were primary caregivers of at least one child (aged 4–16). Responses were weighted to reflect the Western Sydney population. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between parent experiences of stressor and resilience factors and reported psychological distress. Overall, 10.7% (95% CI: 7.8, 14.5) reported experiencing high/very high levels of psychological distress. Multivariate analysis indicated that financial hardship factors formed the strongest associations with psychological distress particularly housing and job security factors and, specifically, inability to meet mortgage/rent payments (, 95% CI: 1.74–15.25, ), poor self-rated health (, 95% CI: 1.88–10.64, ), adult job loss (, 95% CI: 1.33–10.66, ), and other family/life events (, 95% CI: 1.05–5.03, ). High personal resilience was common within this parent population and was a significant protective factor for high psychological distress (, 95% CI: 0.06–0.34, ). The findings support the development of targeted interventions to promote parent coping strategies in the context of household financial hardship.
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    Topics: Sociology
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  • 79
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
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  • 80
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Migration has become a cause of concern at the global, regional, and national levels. Like the case of many developing countries, Ethiopia has been facing increasing challenges related to rural out-migration. This study aimed to analyze factors that determine rural communities’ decision to migrate to internal and international destinations in Habru district of Northeast Ethiopia. Stratified sampling technique has been employed to select a total of 200 household heads in three agroecologies of the study area. Structured questionnaires have been used as a principal primary data collection method and logistic regression has been employed for analysis. The results of the study showed that intravillage conflict, absence of relief assistant, livestock ownership, farm land size, access to information, and household and individual characteristics including family size, sex, and age of the migrants are the dominant determinant factors for rural out-migration. Migration can have a positive outcome in improving livelihoods if comprehensive and holistic policies and strategies are in place. There is also a need to strengthen the link between rural development policy and the disadvantaged groups by designing and implementing different livelihood alternatives including reducing pressure on scarce resources particularly land, integrating health and education services, and creating nonfarm employment opportunities.
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  • 81
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Successful women empowerment relies on providing quality infrastructure facilities to avail maternal healthcare on the national level. In this regard, ensuring women’s access to quality midwifery services is an important consideration. The major intervention for safe maternity is to be enhanced to enable the presence of the skilled midwifery to ensure the quality emergency obstetric care. Therefore, the scope of practice of a midwife is very critical in the supervision of the orderly physiological processes of pregnancy, labor, birth, and the postpartum phase. The midwife as an autonomous practitioner is expected to be competent and accountable for her practice. In Bangladesh, the number of women having the baby at home by unskilled personnel is quite high. Therefore, the government strives to educate midwives and commits to reducing maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity. This study explores the contemporary situation of maternity health to provide a critical understanding of the growing importance of the role of midwifery in Bangladesh. With this, the paper examines the way maternity services in Bangladesh transformed from a social to a medical model over the twentieth century and infers how the social agenda was part of this process.
    Print ISSN: 2090-4029
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-4037
    Topics: Sociology
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 82
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    Unknown
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Globally, there is extant literature on patterns and dynamics of postpartum contraceptive use with hardly any evidence examining time-to-contraceptive use from resumption of sexual intercourse after birth among women in Uganda. Methods. The analysis was based on data from 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey on a sample of 2983 married women with a birth in the past three years preceding the survey and had resumed sexual intercourse. A time-to-contraceptive use was adopted in the analysis using life tables based on the Kaplan-Meier estimates, while the Log-Rank Chi-square tests assessed the variables to be included in regression analysis. Cox-Proportional Hazard regression was run to identify the predictors of time-to-contraceptive use among postpartum women in Uganda. Sampling weights were applied in the analysis to ensure representativeness. Results. The median time-to-contraceptive use was 19 months (range 0–24). Time to adoption of modern contraceptive use was significantly longer among women with no formal education, residing in northern region, who (, CI: 0.40–0.78) had delivered at home/traditional birth attendant (, CI: 0.60–0.93), had 1–3 antenatal care visits (, CI: 0.70–0.98), and were in poorest wealth quintile. Conclusions. Measures for enhancing modern contraceptive use during and after the postpartum period should focus on (i) addressing hindrances in accessing family planning, particularly among poor and noneducated women; (ii) integration of family planning service delivery into routine ANC through counseling; and (iii) promoting deliveries in health facilities.
    Print ISSN: 2090-4029
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-4037
    Topics: Sociology
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 83
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    Unknown
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper examines the education-fertility linkage in tribal society through a cross section study on the Misings, the second largest scheduled tribe of the state of Assam, India. Applying multiple regression analysis, the paper finds that while the education of both wife and husband has retarding effect on fertility, the number of live births born is significantly less when wives are more educated than husbands. The education of females has been found to have positive relation with fertility up to 5.3 years of schooling and negative relation thereafter so as to reach the replacement level of fertility at the graduate level of education. Thus, the critical years of education of the wives required to have a depressing impact on fertility is 5.3. The paper recommends policies for expansion of education with primary focus on inclusion and retention of the females in education.
    Print ISSN: 2090-4029
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-4037
    Topics: Sociology
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 84
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    Unknown
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The objective of this study is to investigate the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of coffee and tea mangrove (locally known in Indonesia) produced from the fruit of Rhizophora stylosa. Furthermore, three raw materials of coffee mangrove were also investigated to clarify their potencies. The crude extracts of five samples were subjected to antioxidant assay using DPPH. The results show that the extract of tea mangrove has the strongest activity; then, it was successfully fractionated using different polarity of solvents and yielded acetone and methanol fractions that had high antioxidant activity. The acetone fraction was purified and gave fractions A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, and A6, but only A2 and A3 indicated antioxidant activity and, therefore, they were subjected to further purification. Fractions A3 (caffeine) and A2 gave AS1 (N,N-dimethyl-L-alanine), AS2 (quercetin-3-O-galactopyranoside), AS3 (dodecanoic acid), and AS4 that had the similar 1H-NMR spectrometric results with AS2, while the methanol fraction did not exhibit clear peaks on the chromatogram by HPLC. Therefore, the precipitation method was conducted to purify this fraction, and the precipitate was analyzed by NMR spectra. The results from 1H and 13C NMR indicate that this fraction is a typical polymer of condensed tannins, containing procyanidin and prodelphinidin units.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9368
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9376
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 85
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    Unknown
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The understanding of interaction between rural people and forest products is one of the challenges faced while balancing forest product utilization with forest conservation in Myanmar. This study aims to contribute an effort to such challenges by analyzing the interaction of rural households with forest products in Myanmar. Data were collected using face-to-face questionnaire interviews with 218 households and conducting a rapid tree inventory across 132 circular random plots in selected rural communities around four townships of the Katha District. The empirical results indicate that the 95% of rural households were entirely dependent on forest products. The survey documented 13 main forest products and 54 tree species, which were primarily used for household consumption. Low-income households compared with medium- and high-income households with low educational level () and a small agricultural land area () were found to be more forest-dependent households. Illegal logging, mining, fuel-wood collection, slash-and-burn agriculture, and the establishment of forest plantations were reported as the main causes of forest products depletion. Findings from this study, although at a microlevel, can be used by the Myanmar Forestry Department as baseline information to improve community-based forest management activities.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9368
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9376
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition