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  • 1
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: An investigation on the improvement of the resolution of a radar target identification system is presented in this paper. Degradation of resolution is mainly due to influence factors associated with antennas, including the strong coupling between transmitting and receiving antennas and the variation in the antenna response. A filtering technique was therefore introduced to mitigate the underlying problem. In the technique, the antenna effects were filtered out of the total response backscattered from the objects in the radar target identification system. The short-time matrix pencil method (STMPM) was then employed to extract the poles from the backscattered response in order to identify the object. Simulation and experimentation examples are illustrated to confirm the improvement of the resolution by filtering the antenna effects. The simulation and experimentation were divided into several categories, that is, different antennas and differently shaped objects, in order to validate the advantage of filtering the antenna effects. They were setup in order to demonstrate that the poles obtained from performing the STMPM without the filtering technique were mainly because of the antenna rather than the object’s characteristic. The results showed that the resolution of the identification was significantly increased when performing pole extraction and filtering the antenna effects.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Based on the equivalent resonant cavity model, an effective analysis methodology of probe-fed hybrid microstrip antennas is carried out in this paper, resulting in a better understanding of the parameter interrelations affecting their behavior. With that, a new design criterion focused on establishing uniform radiation patterns with balanced 3 dB angles is proposed and implemented. Results obtained with the proposed model closely matched HFSS simulations. Measurements made on a prototype antenna, manufactured with substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology, also showed excellent agreement, thus validating the use of the cavity model for predesigning hybrid microstrip antennas in a simple, visible, and time- and cost-effective way.
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  • 3
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    Unknown
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The gradient refractive index structure in this paper is used to increase the quantum of energy transfer. This is done by improving the directive gain of the pyramidal horn antenna at a frequency of 10 GHz. A three-dimensional array of closed square rings is placed in front of the horn antenna aperture to form a gradient refractive index structure. This structure increases the directive gain by 1.6 dB as compared to that of the conventional horn antenna. The structure nearly doubles the wireless power transfer quantum between the transmitter and the receiver when placed at both ends. The increase in the directivity is achieved by converting the spherical wave emanating from the horn to a plane wave once it passes through the structure. This transformation is realized by the gradient refractive index structure being placed perpendicular to the direction of propagation. The gradient refractive index is constructed by changing the dimensions of a closed square ring placed in the unit cell of the array. The change in the refractive index gives rise to an improvement of the half power beam width and side lobe level compared to that of the normal horn. The design and simulation were done using CST Studio software.
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  • 4
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Radio and clutter that cover a certain number of range-Doppler-angle cells have a major impact on the detection performance of a high-frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) system. Especially for a small-aperture array, the angle spectrums of radio and clutter suffer from severe broadening, so the targets that are more easily submerged in the broadened radio and clutter can be hardly detected. To tackle this issue, this paper proposes an algorithm for radio decontamination and clutter suppression to enable detection of the submerged targets. First, the spatial correlation of the array is derived, and the characteristics of radio and clutter are analyzed based on angle-Doppler joint eigenvector. Then owing to the analysis, the information of radio and clutter in the main beam can be accurately estimated from that in the auxiliary beams and eliminated by subtracting it. The results of simulations and measured data indicate that the proposed method offers a significant performance improvement and has a strong robustness against the array amplitude-phase errors.
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  • 5
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper proposes a neural network approach to improve the Bullington method by using parameters obtained from ignored obstacles in mountainous areas. Measurements were performed in mountainous areas to compare the prediction accuracy of propagation loss. And the measured data were used for neural network training. A detailed description of the input parameters of the proposed neural network is presented. The prediction performances were improved by up to 3.20 dB in the average error and 2.11 dB in the standard deviation of errors by the proposed method when compared to traditional diffraction methods.
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  • 6
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A new single-layer metamaterial lens antenna aimed to operate at 10 GHz is proposed in this paper. The lens antenna consists of twelve capacitively coupled unit cells distributed along a ring and illuminated by an open-ended circular waveguide with a metallic resonant ring. The theory of characteristic modes is used to analyze the metamaterial lens, in order to provide an insight into the radiation characteristics of the antenna. The proposed antenna has been optimized, obtaining a large bandwidth and a maximum directivity of 12.88 dBi at 10 GHz.
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  • 7
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: By cyclic voltammetry at high scan rates, the electrochemical properties of RuO2 in acidic and alkaline solutions were investigated in detail. Thirteen current peaks can be distinguished in sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide. With respect to the pH sensitivity of RuO2 electrodes, we considered charge calculations, peak currents, and apparent diffusion coefficients. The nature of the Ru(II) oxidation was clarified by Ru(I)−Ru(III) species.
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  • 8
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    Unknown
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Pd crystals enclosed by (100) facets were prepared in an aqueous solution containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the capping agent and ascorbic acid as the reducing agent at 30, 40, and 50°C by a modified seed-mediated fabrication technique. Regardless of the reaction temperature, the absorption peak between 300 and 400 nm assigned to decreased with an increase in the reaction time after the addition of ascorbic acid in the aqueous solution containing CTAB because of Pd deposition. The field emission-scanning electron microscopy images showed that the Pd crystals were enclosed by only (100) facets, and their fractions depended on the reaction temperature. The ratios of the peak current at 0.54 and 0.48 V were 0.60, 0.54, and 0.47 for the samples prepared at 30, 40, and 50°C, respectively, suggesting that the proportion of the (100) facet on the Pd surface was higher at lower temperatures.
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  • 9
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Metal–air batteries exhibit high potential for grid-scale energy storage because of their high theoretical energy density, their abundance in the earth’s crust, and their low cost. In these batteries, the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) occurs on the air electrode during charging. This study proposes a method for improving the OER electrode performance. The method involves sequentially depositing a Ni underlayer, Sn whiskers, and a Ni protection layer on the metal mesh. Small and uniform gas bubbles form on the Ni/Sn/Ni mesh, leading to low overpotential and a decrease in the overall resistance of the OER electrode. The results of a simulated life cycle test indicate that the Ni/Sn/Ni mesh has a life cycle longer than 1,300 cycles when it is used as the OER electrode in 6 M KOH.
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  • 10
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper covers details of systematic investigation of the thermodynamics (entropy and enthalpy) of intercalation associated with lithium ion in a structurally novel carbon, called Randomly Oriented High Graphene (ROHG) carbon and graphite. Equilibrated OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) versus temperature relationship is investigated to determine the thermodynamic changes with the lithium intercalation. ROHG carbon shows entropy of 9.36 J·mol−1·K−1 and shows no dependency on the inserted lithium concentration. Graphite shows initial entropy of 84.27 J·mol−1·K−1 and shows a strong dependence on lithium concentration. ROHG carbon (from −90.85 kJ mol−1 to −2.88 kJ mol−1) shows gradual change in the slope of enthalpy versus lithium ion concentration plot compared to graphite (−48.98 kJ mol−1 to 1.84 kJ mol−1). The study clearly shows that a lower amount of energy is required for the lithium ion intercalation into the ROHG structure compared to graphite structure. Randomly oriented graphene platelet cluster structure of ROHG carbon makes it easier for the intercalation or deintercalation of lithium ion. The ease of intercalation and the small cluster structure of ROHG as opposed to the long linear platelet structure of graphite lead to higher rates of the charge-discharge process for ROHG, when used as an electrode material in electrochemical applications.
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  • 11
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Most recently, green synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles has become an interesting subject of the nanoscience and nanotechnology. The use of plant systems has been deemed a green route and a dependable method for nanoparticle biosynthesis, owing to its environmental friendly nature. The present work demonstrates the bioreductive green synthesis of nanosized zinc oxide (ZnO) using peel extracts of pomegranate. Highly crystalline ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) which are 5 nm in particle size were characterised by HRTEM and XRD. FT-IR spectra confirmed the presence of the biomolecules and formation of plant protein-coated ZnO NPs and also the pure ZnO NPs. Electrochemical investigation revealed the redox properties and the conductivity of the as-prepared ZnO nanoparticles. The optical band gap of ZnO NPs was calculated to be 3.48 eV which indicates that ZnO NPs can be used in metal oxide semiconductor-based devices. Further, the nanomaterials were also found to be good inhibitors of bacterial strains at both low and high concentrations of 5–10 mg mL−1.
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  • 12
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Porous metals and alloys, such as those fabricated via electrochemical dealloying, are of interest for a variety of energy applications, ranging from their potential for enhanced catalytic behavior to their use as high surface area supports for pseudocapacitor materials. Here, the electrochemical dealloying process was explored for electrodeposited binary NiCo and ternary NiCoCu thin films. For each of the four different metal ratios, films were dealloyed using linear sweep voltammetry to various potentials in order to gain insight into the evolution of the film over the course of the linear sweep. Electrochemical capacitance, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to examine the structure and composition of each sample before and after linear sweep voltammetry was performed. For NiCo films, dealloying resulted in almost no change in composition but did result in an increased capacitance, with greater increases occurring at higher linear sweep potentials, indicating the removal of material from the films. Dealloying also resulted in the appearance of large pores on the surface of the high nickel percentage NiCo films, while low nickel percentage NiCo films had little observable change in morphology. For NiCoCu films, Cu was almost completely removed at linear sweep potentials greater than 0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl. The linear sweep removed large Cu-rich dendrites from the films, while also causing increases in measured capacitance.
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  • 13
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A gravimetric method for the quantitative assessment of the products of electrolysis of water is presented. In this approach, the electrolysis cell was directly powered by 9 V batteries. Prior to electrolysis, a known amount of potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) was added to the cathode compartment, and an excess amount of KHCO3 was added to the anode compartment electrolyte. During electrolysis, cathode and anode compartments produced OH−(aq) and H+(aq) ions, respectively. Electrolytically produced OH−(aq) neutralized the KHP, and the completion of this neutralization was detected by a visual indicator color change. Electrolytically produced H+(aq) reacted with HCO3−(aq) liberating CO2(g) from the anode compartment. Concurrent liberation of H2(g) and O2(g) at the cathode and anode, respectively, resulted in a decrease in the mass of the cell. Mass of the electrolysis cell was monitored. Liberation of CO2(g) resulted in a pronounced effect of a decrease in mass. Experimentally determined decrease in mass (53.7 g/Faraday) agreed with that predicted from Faraday’s laws of electrolysis (53.0 g/Faraday). The efficacy of the cell was tested to quantify the acid content in household vinegar samples. Accurate results were obtained for vinegar analysis with a precision better than 5% in most cases. The cell offers the advantages of coulometric method and additionally simplifies the circuitry by eliminating the use of a constant current power source or a coulometer.
    Print ISSN: 2090-8865
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-8873
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 14
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    Unknown
    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Quality assessment of diesel fuel is highly necessary for society, but the costs and time spent are very high while using standard methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an analytical method capable of simultaneously determining eight diesel quality parameters (density; flash point; total sulfur content; distillation temperatures at 10% (T10), 50% (T50), and 85% (T85) recovery; cetane index; and biodiesel content) through attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and the multivariate regression method, partial least square (PLS). For this purpose, the quality parameters of 409 samples were determined using standard methods, and their spectra were acquired in ranges of 4000–650 cm−1. The use of the multivariate filters, generalized least squares weighting (GLSW) and orthogonal signal correction (OSC), was evaluated to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the models. Likewise, four variable selection approaches were tested: manual exclusion, forward interval PLS (FiPLS), backward interval PLS (BiPLS), and genetic algorithm (GA). The multivariate filters and variables selection algorithms generated more fitted and accurate PLS models. According to the validation, the FTIR/PLS models presented accuracy comparable to the reference methods and, therefore, the proposed method can be applied in the diesel routine monitoring to significantly reduce costs and analysis time.
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  • 15
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Increased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in human plasma has been associated with reduced generation of nitric oxide, leading to atherosclerotic diseases. ADMA may therefore be an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. In the present study, three sample preparation techniques were compared regarding the quantification of L-arginine and ADMA in human plasma: (A) protein precipitation (PP) based on aqueous trichloroacetic acid (TCA), (B) PP using a mixture of ammonia and acetonitrile, and (C) solid-phase extraction (SPE). The samples were analysed by using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The analytical performance of (A) was comparable with that of (C), demonstrating recoveries of 〉90%, coefficient of variations (CVs, %) of 0.994), precision (
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  • 16
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica)—a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans-caffeic, cis-caffeic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, cis-ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans-sinapic, and cis-sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea. Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol’s activity.
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  • 17
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Different plant parts of Ligusticopsis wallichiana (family: Apiaceae) are widely used as traditional medicines. Although many volatile constituents are already identified from the leaves of L. wallichiana, there is no detailed report on the nonvolatile constituents. In the present study, we aimed to isolate and identify the major chemical constituents from the leaves. Bhutkesoside A (1), falcarindiol (2), ferulic acid (3), cnidioside A (4), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), rutin (6), 4′-O-methylquercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), scopoletin (8), umbelliferone (9), eugenol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10) and pumilaside A (11) were isolated from the 70% MeOH extract. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 4–11 are reported for the first time from L. wallichiana. Compounds 5 and 6 showed potent free radical-scavenging activity.
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  • 18
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The structure of carbon material comprising the anode is the key to the performance of a lithium ion capacitor. In addition to determining the capacity, the structure of the carbon material also determines the diffusion rate of the lithium ion into the anode which in turn controls power density which is vital in high rate applications. This paper covers details of systematic investigation of the performance of a structurally novel carbon, called Randomly Oriented High Graphene (ROHG) carbon, and graphite in a high rate application device, that is, lithium ion capacitor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that ROHG is less resistive and has faster lithium ion diffusion rates (393.7 × 10−3 S·s(1/2)) compared to graphite (338.1 × 10−3 S·s(1/2)). The impedance spectroscopy data is supported by the cell data showing that the ROHG carbon based device has energy density of 22.8 Wh/l with a power density of 4349.3 W/l, whereas baseline graphite based device has energy density of 5 Wh/l and power density of 4243.3 W/l. This data clearly shows advantage of the randomly oriented graphene platelet structure of ROHG in lithium ion capacitor performance.
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  • 19
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The voltammetric response of platinum metal oxides is discussed with respect to novel pH sensors combining both miniaturization and stability. For practical applications in solutions of any kind, for example, in tap water and in domestic sewage, various interferences must be considered, such as chloride and reducing agents. This work clarifies the voltammetric behavior of RuO2 electrodes in solutions of different pH values and ionic strengths.
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  • 20
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This study presents the results of a coupled electrocoagulation-phytoremediation treatment for the reduction of copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc, present in aqueous solution. The electrocoagulation was carried out in a batch reactor using aluminum electrodes in parallel arrangement; the optimal conditions were current density of 8 mA/cm2 and operating time of 180 minutes. For phytoremediation the macrophytes, Typha latifolia L., were used during seven days of treatment. The results indicated that the coupled treatment reduced metal concentrations by 99.2% Cu, 81.3% Cd, and 99.4% Pb, while Zn increased due to the natural concentrations of the plant used.
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  • 21
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The Real Time Analyzer (RTA) utilizing DC- and AC-voltammetric techniques is an in situ, online monitoring system that provides a complete chemical analysis of different electrochemical deposition solutions. The RTA employs multivariate calibration when predicting concentration parameters from a multivariate data set. Although the hierarchical and multiblock Principal Component Regression- (PCR-) and Partial Least Squares- (PLS-) based methods can handle data sets even when the number of variables significantly exceeds the number of samples, it can be advantageous to reduce the number of variables to obtain improvement of the model predictions and better interpretation. This presentation focuses on the introduction of a multistep, rigorous method of data-selection-based Least Squares Regression, Simple Modeling of Class Analogy modeling power, and, as a novel application in electroanalysis, Uninformative Variable Elimination by PLS and by PCR, Variable Importance in the Projection coupled with PLS, Interval PLS, Interval PCR, and Moving Window PLS. Selection criteria of the optimum decomposition technique for the specific data are also demonstrated. The chief goal of this paper is to introduce to the community of electroanalytical chemists numerous variable selection methods which are well established in spectroscopy and can be successfully applied to voltammetric data analysis.
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  • 22
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Environmental concerns and energy security uncertainties associated with fossil fuels have driven the world to shift to renewable energy sources. However, most renewable energy sources with exception of hydropower are intermittent in nature and thus need storage systems. Amongst various storage systems, supercapacitors are the promising candidates for energy storage not only in renewable energies but also in hybrid vehicles and portable devices due to their high power density. Supercapacitor electrodes are almost invariably made of carbon derived from biomass. Several reviews had been focused on general carbon materials for supercapacitor electrode. This review is focused on understanding the extent to which different types of biomasses have been used as porous carbon materials for supercapacitor electrodes. It also details hydrothermal microwave assisted, ionothermal, and molten salts carbonization as techniques of synthesizing activated carbon from biomasses as well as their characteristics and their impacts on electrochemical performance.
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  • 23
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Consider Krein spaces and and let and be regular subspaces of and , respectively, such that and . For each , let be a contraction. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a contraction such that . Some interesting results are proved along the way.
    Print ISSN: 0161-1712
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-0425
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 24
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The polar derivative of a polynomial of degree with respect to a complex number is a polynomial , denoted by . Let . For a polynomial of degree having all its zeros in , we investigate a lower bound of modulus of on . Furthermore, we present an upper bound of modulus of on for a polynomial of degree having no zero in . In particular, our results in case generalize some well-known inequalities.
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  • 25
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Numerical experiments with smooth surface extension and image inpainting using harmonic and biharmonic functions are carried out. The boundary data used for constructing biharmonic functions are the values of the Laplacian and normal derivatives of the functions on the boundary. Finite difference schemes for solving these harmonic functions are discussed in detail.
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  • 26
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We extend the result of Kirk-Saliga and we generalize Alfuraidan and Khamsi theorem for reflexive graphs. As a consequence, we obtain the ordered version of Caristi’s fixed point theorem. Some concrete examples are given to support the obtained results.
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  • 27
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The study examined the effect of exchange rate and inflation on stock market returns in Ghana using monthly inflation and exchange rate data obtained from the Bank of Ghana and monthly market returns computed from the GSE all-share index from January 2000 to December 2013. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) cointegration technique and the error correction parametization of the ARDL model were used for examining this effect. The ARDL and its corresponding error correction model were used in establishing the long- and short-run relationship between the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) market returns, inflation, and exchange rate. The result of the study showed that there exists a significant long-run relationship between GSE market returns and inflation. However, no significant short-run relationship between them existed. The result also showed a significant long- and short-run relationship between GSE market returns and exchange rate. The variables were tested for long memory and it was observed that such property did exist in these variables, making it a desirable feature of which investors can take advantage of. This is due to the establishment of long-run effect of inflation and exchange rate on stock market returns.
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  • 28
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We study the compactness of some classes of bounded operators on the Bergman space with variable exponent. We show that via extrapolation, some results on boundedness of the Toeplitz operators with general symbols and compactness of bounded operators on the Bergman spaces with constant exponents can readily be extended to the variable exponent setting. In particular, if is a finite sum of finite products of Toeplitz operators with symbols from class , then is compact if and only if the Berezin transform of vanishes on the boundary of the unit disc.
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    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 29
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The results of three papers, in which the author inadvertently overlooks certain deficiencies in the descriptions of the Carleman classes of vectors, in particular the Gevrey classes, of a scalar type spectral operator in a complex Banach space established in “On the Carleman Classes of Vectors of a Scalar Type Spectral Operator,” Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 2004 (2004), no. 60, 3219–3235, are observed to remain true due to more recent findings.
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    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 30
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We present a new class of fuzzy aggregation operators that we call fuzzy triangular aggregation operators. To do so, we focus on the situation where the available information cannot be assessed with exact numbers and it is necessary to use another approach to assess uncertain or imprecise information such as fuzzy numbers. We also use the concept of triangular norms (t-norms and t-conorms) as pseudo-arithmetic operations. As a result, we get notably the fuzzy triangular weighted arithmetic (FTWA), the fuzzy triangular ordered weighted arithmetic (FTOWA), the fuzzy generalized triangular weighted arithmetic (FGTWA), the fuzzy generalized triangular ordered weighted arithmetic (FGTOWA), the fuzzy triangular weighted quasi-arithmetic (Quasi-FTWA), and the fuzzy triangular ordered weighted quasi-arithmetic (Quasi-FTOWA) operators. Main properties of these operators are discussed as well as their comparison with other existing ones. The fuzzy triangular aggregation operators not only cover a wide range of useful existing fuzzy aggregation operators but also provide new interesting cases. Finally, an illustrative example is also developed regarding the selection of strategies.
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    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 31
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A new SEIRS epidemic model with nonlinear incidence rate and nonpermanent immunity is presented in the present paper. The fact that the incidence rate per infective individual is given by a nonlinear function and product of rational powers of two state variables, as well as the introduction of an epidemic-induced death rate, leads to a more realistic modeling of the physical problem itself. A stability analysis is performed and the features of Hopf bifurcation are investigated. Both the corresponding critical regions in the parameter space and their stability characteristics are presented. Furthermore, by using algorithms based on a new symbolic form as regards the restriction of an -dimensional nonlinear parametric system to the center manifold and the normal forms of the corresponding Hopf bifurcation, as well, the associated bifurcation diagram is derived, and finally various emerging limit cycles are numerically obtained by appropriate implemented methods.
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  • 32
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The performance of the numerical computation based on the diagonally implicit multistep block method for solving Volterra integrodifferential equations (VIDE) of the second kind has been analyzed. The numerical solutions of VIDE will be computed at two points concurrently using the proposed numerical method and executed in the predictor-corrector (PECE) mode. The strategy to obtain the numerical solution of an integral part is discussed and the stability analysis of the diagonally implicit multistep block method was investigated. Numerical results showed the competence of diagonally implicit multistep block method when solving Volterra integrodifferential equations compared to the existing methods.
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  • 33
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The convolution of harmonic functions, unlike the analytic case, proved to be very challenging. In this paper, we introduce dilatation conditions that guarantee the convolution of two harmonic functions to be locally one-to-one, sense-preserving, and close-to-convex harmonic in the unit disk.
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  • 34
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: For the tuple set of commuting invertible matrices with coefficients in a given field, the joint determinants are defined as generalizations of the determinant map for the square matrices. We introduce a natural topology on Milnor’s -groups of a topological field as the quotient topology induced by the joint determinant map and investigate the existence of a nontrivial continuous joint determinant by utilizing this topology, generalizing the author’s previous results on the continuous joint determinants for the commuting invertible matrices over and .
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  • 35
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This study was conducted to investigate the tree species richness and diversity of urban and periurban areas of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria, and produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the territory. Data were collected from urban (Abuja city) and periurban (Lugbe) areas of the FCT using both semistructured questionnaire and inventory of tree species within green areas. In the study location, all trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 10 cm were identified; their dbh was measured and frequency was taken. The NDVI was calculated in ArcGIS 10.3 environment using standard formula. A cumulative total of twenty-nine (29) families were encountered within the FCT, with 27 occurring in Abuja city (urban centre) and 12 in Lugbe (periurban centre) of the FCT. The results of Shannon-Wiener diversity index for the two centres are 3.56 and 2.24 while Shannon’s maximum diversity index is 6.54 (Abuja city) and 5.36 (Lugbe) for the urban (Abuja city) and periurban (Lugbe) areas of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The result of tree species evenness (Shannon’s equitability () index) in urban and periurban centres was 0.54 and 0.42, respectively. The study provided baseline information on urban and periurban forests in the FCT of Nigeria, which can be used for the development of tree species database of the territory.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9368
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    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 36
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Fertilizers in different nitrogen forms (calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), urea, ammonium sulfate (AS), and ammonium nitrate (AN)) and their doses (50, 100, and 150) for beetroot (BT) (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva Alef.) and the antioxidant and antiradical activities in the lyophilized water and alcohol extracts of BT were evaluated. In order to evaluate antioxidant and radical removing activities of BT roots, total phenolic compound amount assignment, total flavonoids amount assignment, method of Fe3+-Fe2+ reduction activity using ferric cyanate reduction, cupric ions (Cu2+) reducing capacity with CUPRAC method, Fe3+ reducing capacity according to FRAP method, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity, superoxide anion radical () removing activity, and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) radical removing activity were determined. In the study, BHA and α-tocopherol were used as standard antioxidants. It was determined that water and alcohol extracts obtained from BT roots indicated reduction activities, effectively. In addition, it was also determined that these reduction activities were indicated in most BT roots grown in fertilizer media at lower percentage and that they had higher antioxidative level than that of standard antioxidants.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 37
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This study focuses on water resources management and shows the need to enforce the existing international bilateral agreements and to implement the Water Framework Directive of the European Union in order to improve the water quantity and quality received by a downstream country of a common watershed, like Timiş-Bega hydrographical basin, shared by two countries (Romania and Serbia). The spatial trend of water quality index (WQI) and its subindexes are important for determining the locations of major pollutant sources that contribute to water quality depletion in this basin. We compared the values of WQI obtained for 10 sections of the two most important rivers from Banat, which have a great importance for socioeconomic life in southwestern part of Romania and in northeastern part of Serbia. In order to assess the water quality, we calculated the WQI for a long period of time (2004–2014), taking into account the maximum, minimum, and the mean annual values of physical, chemical, and biological parameters (DO, pH, BOD5, temperature, total P, N-NO2−, and turbidity). This article highlights the importance of using the water quality index which has not been sufficiently explored in Romania and for transboundary rivers and which is very useful in improving rivers water quality.
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  • 38
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on anticorrosion performance has been studied in conductive polyaniline containing zinc-rich primer in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution, using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and localized electrochemical Scanning Vibrating Electrode Technique (SVET). The results showed that the addition of nano-zinc oxide particles in conductive polyaniline containing zinc-rich primer made the reaction of zinc more stable and slower, further increasing the effective cathodic protection period. EIS and SVET results confirmed that three performance evolution stages were obtained for zinc-rich primer being immersed in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 39
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The aim of this study is to analyze the differential proteins in MRSA ATCC 33591 treated with aqueous extract from Q. infectoria gall. Protein extracts were obtained from MRSA cells by sonication and were separated by 2D polyacrylamide gels. Protein spots of interest were extracted from the gels and identified using LC-ESI-QTOF MS. The concentration of Q. infectoria extract used for 2D-gel electrophoresis was subinhibitory concentration. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the extract against MRSA was 19.50 μg/mL with bacteriostatic action at 1x MIC from time-kill assay. However, the extract exhibited dose-dependent manner and was bactericidal at 4x MIC with more than 3 log10 CFU/mL reduction at 4 h. 2D-GE map showed that 18 protein spots were upregulated and another six were downregulated more than twofold () after treatment with subinhibitory concentration. Out of six proteins being downregulated, four proteins were identified as ferritin and catalase, branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase subunit E2, and succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP-forming] subunit beta. Seven upregulated proteins which have been successfully identified were 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain protein, formate C-acetyltransferase, 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase FabZ, NAD dependent epimerase/dehydratase family protein, and phosphopantothenoyl cysteine decarboxylase. It is postulated that the main mechanism of aqueous extract from gall of Q. infectoria was most likely involved in energy metabolism and protein stress.
    Print ISSN: 2090-2166
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-2174
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 40
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Urea based protein extraction of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue provides the most efficient workflow for proteomics due to its compatibility with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). This study optimizes the use of urea for proteomic analysis of clinical FFPE tissue. A series of protein extraction conditions manipulating temperature and buffer composition were compared to reduce carbamylation introduced by urea and increase protein detection. Each extraction was performed on a randomized pair of serial sections of homogenous FFPE tissue and analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS. Results were compared in terms of yield, missed cleavages, and peptide carbamylation. Lowering extraction temperature to 60°C decreased carbamylation at the cost of decreased protein detection and yield. Protein extraction for at least 20 minutes at 95°C followed by 60°C for 2 hours maximized total protein yield while maintaining protein detection and reducing carbamylation by 7.9%. When accounting for carbamylation during analysis, this modified extraction temperature provides equivalent peptide and protein detection relative to the commercially available Qproteome® FFPE Tissue Kit. No changes to buffer composition containing 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, and 1 M ammonium bicarbonate resulted in improvements to control conditions. Optimized urea in-solution digestion provides an efficient workflow with maximized yields for proteomic analysis of clinically relevant FFPE tissue.
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 41
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A bidentate (N- and O-) imine-based ligand (L1) and its metal complexes of types [(L1)2] (C1), [(L1)(Phen)] (C2), [(L1)2] (C3), and [(L1)(Phen)] (C4) (L1 = 2-((E)-(6-fluorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-ylimino)methyl)-4-chlorophenol and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized as potential chemotherapeutic drug candidates. The prepared complexes were structurally characterized by spectral techniques (NMR, FT-IR, LC-MS, EPR, and electronic absorption), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA), magnetic moment, and CHNO elemental analysis. Spectroscopic studies suggested the distorted octahedral structure for all complexes. In vitro bioassay studies include binding and nuclease activities of the ligand and its complexes with target calf thymus- (CT-) DNA were carried out by employing UV-Vis, fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosity, and gel electrophoresis techniques. The extent of binding propensity was determined quantitatively by and values which revealed a higher binding affinity for C2 and C4 as compared to C1 and C3. In addition, the scavenging superoxide anion free radical () activity of metal complexes was determined by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) light reduction assay. Molecular docking studies with DNA and SOD enzyme were also carried out on these compounds. The antimicrobial study has shown that all the compounds are potential antibacterial agents against Gram-negative bacterial strains and better antifungal agents with respect to standard drugs used.
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  • 42
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Print ISSN: 1687-9449
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 43
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and MoS2, have been attracting wide interest in surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy. This perspective gives an overview of recent developments in 2D materials’ application in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. This review paper focuses on the applications of using bare 2D materials and metal/2D material hybrid substrate for Raman enhancement. The Raman enhancing mechanism of 2D materials will also be discussed. The progress covered herein shows great promise for widespread adoption of 2D materials in SERS application.
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  • 44
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Selective and sensitive detection of explosive materials through a simple approach is an attractive area of research having implications on public safety and homeland security. Considering this implication in mind, a new Ni-anthracene complex was designed and synthesized and has been demonstrated as an efficient fluorescence chemosensor for the selective and sensitive detection of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol. Firstly, a fluorescent anthracene ligand (A) was synthesized by treating anthracene-9-carboxaldehyde with 1,3-diaminopropane in presence of a weak acid. To achieve superior selectivity and great quenching efficiency for 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP), a Ni complex, namely, [Ni(-L)(NO3)] (B), was synthesized via the reaction of A with Ni(NO3)2·6H2O. Complex B showed strong emission peak () at 412 nm and exhibited high selectivity towards TNP among other nitroaromatics and anions. 100 equivalents of TNP made 95% fluorescence quenching of B and its detection limit for TNP was calculated as 2.8 μM.
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  • 45
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The production of phosphoric acid by the Tunisian Chemical Group, in Sfax, Tunisia, led to the degradation of the groundwater quality of the Sfax-Agareb aquifer mainly by the phosphogypsum leachates infiltration. Spatiotemporal monitoring of the quality of groundwater was carried out by performing bimonthly sampling between October 2013 and October 2014. Samples culled in the current study were subject to physicochemical parameters measurements and analysis of the major elements, orthophosphates, fluorine, trace metals, and stable isotopes (18O, 2H). The obtained results show that the phosphogypsum leachates infiltration has a major effect on the downstream part of the aquifer, where the highest values of conductivity, , Ortho-P, and , and the lowest pH were recorded. In addition, these results indicated that phosphogypsum leachates contained much higher amount of Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Al compared to the groundwater. Spatiotemporal variation of the conductivity and concentrations of major elements is linked to the phosphogypsum leachates infiltration as well as to a wide range of factors such as the natural conditions of feeding and the water residence time. Contents of and 2H showed that the water of the Sfax-Agareb aquifer undergoes a large scale evaporation process originated from recent rainfall.
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  • 46
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are the innate immunity receptors that play an activating role when interacting with molecules released by bacteria and viruses (PAMPs, pathogen-associated molecular patterns) or with molecules released by injured cells and tissues (DAMPs, danger-associated molecular patterns). TLR triggering leads to the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, driving the activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. In particular, Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) has been described to be involved in the inflammatory processes observed in several pathologies (such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, neuropathic pain, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer). Molecules obtained by natural sources have been discovered to exert an anti-inflammatory action by targeting TLR4 activation pathways. This review focuses on TLR4 antagonists obtained from bacteria, cyanobacteria, and plants.
    Electronic ISSN: 2042-0099
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 47
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Purpose. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) are extracellular neutrophil derived DNA webs which have been implicated in cancer progression and in the development of metastases. NETs production in patients with colorectal cancer was investigated to elucidate their role and prognostic significance. Methods. Systemic neutrophils were isolated from consecutive patients with colorectal cancer and from age-matched healthy volunteers. Neutrophils were stimulated to produce NETs which were quantified by a measure of the fluorescence of the extracellular DNA. The impact of cancer location, tumour stage, and patient outcomes (complications, length of stay, and mortality) on NET production was investigated. Results. Quantification of NET formation was performed in patients with colorectal cancer () and in well-matched healthy individuals (). Significant increases in NETs production in response to no stimulant (9,735 AFU versus 11347 AFU, ), IL-8 (8,644 AFU versus 11,915 AFU, ), and LPS (10,576 AFU versus 12,473 AFU, ) were identified in patients with colorectal cancer. A significant increase in NETs production in response to fMLP was detected in patients who developed significant postoperative complications (11,760 AFU versus 18,340 AFU, ) and who had a prolonged hospital recovery (9,008 AFU versus 12,530 AFU, ). An increase in NETs production was also observed in patients who died, but this did not reach statistical significance. Cancer location and tumour stage did not appear to affect preoperative NETs production. Conclusions. Patients with colorectal cancer have significantly increased NETs production in vitro when compared to healthy volunteers, possibly implicating them in cancer development. Adverse patient outcomes were associated with increased preoperative NETs production, which highlights them as potential therapeutic targets.
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    Topics: Medicine
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  • 48
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This research intended to investigate combustion of liquid fuel in 3.5 mm inner diameter quartz glass tube mesocombustor, based on liquid film evaporation by using heat recirculation. The mesocombustor has a copper section for heating and evaporating the liquid fuel. In mesocombustor type A, the fuel was glided through the narrow canal in the copper wall while the air was glided through the axial of combustor. The flame could only be successfully stabilized in high-ratio equivalent ranging from to , due to the gap without combustion reaction caused by high air-fuel mixture over the limits of flame stability. Mesocombustor type B, which has annulus-shaped canal, could shift the flame stability from to ; however, it also narrowed the limits of flame stability due to the wall cooling. In mesocombustor type C, both liquid fuel and air were glided through the annulus-shaped canal in the copper wall to fix the fuel evaporation and air mixture. The flame of type C was successfully stabilized, from to wider than types A and B. The flame of type C mesocombustor is circle-shaped and fitted to cross section of mesocombustor, but it still has thin gap without any flames due to thermal quenching by the wall.
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 49
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Heat recovery bottoming cycles for internal combustion engines have opened new avenues for research into small steam expanders (Stobart and Weerasinghe, 2006). Dependable data for small steam expanders will allow us to predict their suitability as bottoming cycle engines and the fuel economy achieved by using them as bottoming cycles. Present paper is based on results of experiments carried out on small scale Wankel and two-stroke reciprocating engines as air expanders and as steam expanders. A test facility developed at Sussex used for measurements is comprised of a torque, power and speed measurements, electronic actuation of valves, synchronized data acquisition of pressure, and temperatures of steam and inside of the engines for steam and internal combustion cycles. Results are presented for four engine modes, namely, reciprocating engine in uniflow steam expansion mode and air expansion mode and rotary Wankel engine in steam expansion mode and air expansion mode. The air tests will provide base data for friction and motoring effects whereas steam tests will tell how effective the engines will be in this mode. Results for power, torque, and diagrams are compared to determine the change in performance from air expansion mode to steam expansion mode.
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 50
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The thermal degradation characteristics of microalgae were investigated in highly purified N2 and CO2 atmospheres by a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under different heating rates (10, 20, and 40°C/min). The results indicated that the total residual mass in CO2 atmosphere (16.86%) was less than in N2 atmosphere (23.12%); in addition, the kinetics of microalgae in N2 and CO2 atmospheres could be described by the pseudo bicomponent separated state model (PBSM) and pseudo-multi-component overall model (PMOM), respectively. The kinetic parameters calculated by Coats-Redfern method showed that, in CO2 atmosphere, the apparent activation energy () of microalgae was between 9.863 and 309.381 kJ mol−1 and the reaction order () was varied from 1.1 to 7. The kinetic parameters of the second stage in CO2 atmosphere were quite similar to those in N2 atmosphere.
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  • 51
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Despite the abundance of in situ combustion models of oil oxidation, many of the effects are still beyond consideration. For example, until now, initial stages of oxidation were not considered from a position of radical chain process. This is a serious difficulty for the simulation of oil recovery process that involves air injection. To investigate the initial stages of oxidation, the paper considers the sequence of chemical reactions, including intermediate short-living compounds and radicals. We have attempted to correlate the main stages of the reaction with areas of heat release observed in the experiments. The system of differential equations based on the equations of oxidation reactions was solved. Time dependence of peroxides formation and start of heat release is analytically derived for the initial stages. We have considered the inhibition of initial oxidation stages by aromatic oil compounds and have studied the induction time in dependence on temperature. Chain ignition criteria for paraffins and crude oil in presence of core samples were obtained. The calculation results are compared with the stages of oxidation that arise by high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry. According to experimental observations we have determined which reactions are important for the process and which can be omitted or combined into one as insignificant.
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  • 52
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Biacetyl phosphorescence has been the commonly used molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) technique to investigate in-cylinder flow evolution and cycle-to-cycle variations in an optical engine. As the phosphorescence of biacetyl tracer deteriorates in the presence of oxygen, nitrogen was adopted as the working medium in the past. Recently, nitrous oxide MTV technique was employed to measure the velocity profile of an air jet. The authors here plan to investigate the potential application of this technique for engine flow studies. A possible experimental setup for this task indicated different permutations of image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and laser line width. In the current work, a numerical analysis is performed to study the effect of these two factors on displacement error in MTV image processing. Also, several image filtering techniques were evaluated and the performance of selected filters was analyzed in terms of enhancing the image quality and minimizing displacement errors. The flow displacement error without image preprocessing was observed to be inversely proportional to SNR and directly proportional to laser line width. The mean filter resulted in the smallest errors for line widths smaller than 9 pixels. The effect of filter size on subpixel accuracy showed that error levels increased as the filter size increased.
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  • 53
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: When a fire occurs in a tunnel in the absence of sufficient air supply, large quantities of smoke are generated, filling the vehicles and any space available around them. Hot gases and smoke produced by fire form layers flowing towards extremities of the tunnel which may interfere with person’s evacuation and firefighter’s intervention. This paper carries out a numerical simulation of an unexpected fire occurring in a one-way tunnel in order to investigate for the critical velocity of the ventilation airflow; this one is defined as the minimum velocity able to maintain the combustion products in the downstream side of tunnel. The computation is performed successively with two types of fuels representing a large and a small heat release rate, owing to an open source CFD code called ISIS, which is specific to fires in confined and nonconfined environments. It is indicated that, after several computations of full-scale fires of 43.103 and 19.103 kJ/kg as heat release rate, the velocities satisfying the criterion of healthy environment in the upstream side of the tunnel are 1.34 m/s and 1.12 m/s, respectively.
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  • 54
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper presents the investigation of engine optimisation when plastic pyrolysis oil (PPO) is used as the primary fuel of a direct injection diesel engine. Our previous investigation revealed that PPO is a promising fuel; however the results suggested that control parameters should be optimised in order to obtain a better engine performance. In the present work, the injection timing was advanced, and fuel additives were utilised to overcome the issues experienced in the previous work. In addition, spray characteristics of PPO were investigated in comparison with diesel to provide in-depth understanding of the engine behaviour. The experimental results on advanced injection timing (AIT) showed reduced brake thermal efficiency and increased carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides emissions in comparison to standard injection timing. On the other hand, the addition of fuel additive resulted in higher engine efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. Finally, the spray tests revealed that the spray tip penetration for PPO is faster than diesel. The results suggested that AIT is not a preferable option while fuel additive is a promising solution for long-term use of PPO in diesel engines.
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  • 55
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Transitional phenomena of smoldering combustion over thin solid fuels are investigated. An experimental setup was upraised and implications of both smoldering and flaming external heat sources are estimated. Incense sticks were used as potential fuel and external smoldering heat source along with a fixed candle flame. The role of key controlling parameters, namely, separation distance and number of external heat sources in horizontal and vertical direction, was extensively examined. The surfacing issues of enclosure effect and the external heat sources orientation are addressed. The study primarily aims at understanding the feasibility and spontaneity of transition owing to external heat sources (both flaming and smoldering). Forward heat transfer significantly deviates qualitatively and quantitatively with varying separation distance in both directions. Number of external heat sources intensifies the transition phenomenon in smoldering combustion. With practical considerations, external heat sources arrangement and orientation have substantial effect on the combustion process.
    Print ISSN: 2090-1968
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-1976
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 56
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The interaction of converging fires often leads to significant changes in fire behavior, including increased flame length, angle, and intensity. In this paper, the fluid mechanics of two adjacent line fires are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A simple potential flow model is used to explain the tilting of interacting flames towards each other, which results from a momentum imbalance triggered by fire geometry. The model was validated by measuring the velocity field surrounding stationary alcohol pool fires. The flow field was seeded with high-contrast colored smoke, and the motion of smoke structures was analyzed using a cross-correlation optical flow technique. The measured velocities and flame angles are found to compare reasonably with the predicted values, and an analogy between merging fires and wind-blown flames is proposed.
    Print ISSN: 2090-1968
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-1976
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 57
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Cytokines, including interleukins, interferons, tumor necrosis factors, and chemokines, have a variety of pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in the body through a number of biochemical pathways and interactions. Stimuli, actions, interactions, and downstream effects of cytokines have been investigated in more depth in recent years, and clinical research has also been conducted to implicate cytokines in causal patterns in certain diseases. However, particular cutoffs of cytokines as biomarkers for disease processes have not been well studied, and this warrants future work to potentially improve diagnoses for diseases with inflammatory markers. A limited number of studies in this area are reviewed, considering diseases correlated with abnormal cytokine profiles, as well as specific cutoffs at which cytokines have been deemed clinically useful for diagnosing those diseases through Receiver Operator Characteristics modeling. In light of studies such as those discussed in this review, cytokine testing has the potential to support diagnosis due to its lack of invasiveness and low cost, compared to other common types of testing for infections and inflammatory diseases.
    Electronic ISSN: 2042-0099
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 58
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: In Syria, health risk data on young males are limited. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors along with C-reactive protein levels measured by high-sensitive method (hsCRP) in a group of healthy males of university students (, 18–25 years old). Participants’ anthropometric characteristics; alcohol drinking, smoking, and physical activity habits; parents medical history; and some inflammatory biomarkers were inspected for their associations with hsCRP. Results. Regarding hsCRP level, 19 participants were at average (1–3 mg/L) and 13 were at high (〉3 mg/L) risk of CVD. Nonparametric statistical tests ( value 〈 0.05) revealed that hsCRP level was higher in participants who had high body mass index (BMI), had high BMI with high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), or did not practice sport frequently. Unexpectedly, it did not vary between smokers and nonsmokers. In general, it correlated positively with anthropometric and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurements. Nevertheless, it negatively correlated with sports practicing in overall and nonsmoker groups and in participants whose parents were without medical history. Finally, when participants with high BMI were smokers, did not practice sport frequently, or had a parent with medical history, their hsCRP levels were higher than others who had the same circumstances but with low BMI.
    Electronic ISSN: 2042-0099
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder, characterized by cytokine imbalance and transcription signaling pathways activation. In addition, the increase of mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) near the affected intestinal area is a hallmark of CD. Therefore, we evaluated the transcription signaling pathways and cytokines expression in intestinal mucosa and MAT of active CD patients. Ten patients with ileocecal CD and eight with noninflammatory diseases were studied. The biopsies of intestinal mucosa and MAT were snap-frozen and protein expression was determined by immunoblotting. RNA levels were measured by qPCR. The pIkB/IkB ratio and TNFα level were significantly higher in intestinal mucosa of CD when compared to controls. However, STAT1 expression was similar between intestinal mucosa of CD and controls. Considering the MAT, the pIkB/IkB ratio was significantly lower and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 was significantly higher in CD when compared to controls. Finally, the protein content of pSTAT1 was higher in MAT of CD compared to controls. These findings reinforce the predominance of the proinflammatory NF-kB pathway in CD intestinal mucosa. For the first time, we showed the activation of STAT1 pathway in MAT of CD patients, which may help to understand the physiopathology of this immune mediated disease.
    Electronic ISSN: 2042-0099
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 60
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. Psoriasis affects joints in around 30% of the patients. Recent studies have demonstrated an increased risk of essential hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and stroke in psoriatic patients. However, the prevalence of renal disease in patients with psoriasis has not been evaluated properly. Objectives. Objectives were to evaluate renal functions in patients with psoriasis and to assess any possible relationship of renal failure with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 30 participants were recruited into the following three groups: group-A, psoriatic arthritis; group-B, psoriasis without arthritis; and group-C, healthy subjects. Renal function tests were performed for every participant of each group. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 16. Chi-squared and one-way ANOVA tests were applied, considering a value of less than 0.05 as a standard criterion. Results. Serum creatinine, urea, and phosphate were the highest in group-A, higher in group-B, and normal in group-C, . Similarly, GFR was the lowest in group-A, lower in group-B, and normal in group-C. The difference in mean GFR values was statistically significant, , . Moreover, proteinuria (gm/day) was seen in 96.7% of the patients with psoriatic arthritis, (, ) against 10% of the psoriatic patients without arthritis (, ). Conclusion. Derangement of renal function is more prevalent in psoriatic patients, especially in those with concomitant psoriatic arthritis. Therefore, each psoriatic patient must be routinely screened for an underlying renal failure.
    Electronic ISSN: 2042-0099
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 61
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) starts as a local inflammation of pancreatic tissue that induces the development of multiple extrapancreatic organs dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Ischemia-reperfusion, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and possible bile cytokines significantly contribute to gut mucosal injury and intestinal bacterial translocation (BT) during SAP. Circulating HMGB1 level is significantly increased in SAP patients and HMGB1 is an important factor that mediates (at least partly) gut BT during SAP. Gut BT plays a critical role in triggering/inducing systemic inflammation/sepsis in critical illness, and profound systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) during SAP, and systemic inflammation with multiorgan dysfunction is the cause of death in experimental SAP. Therefore, HMGB1 is an important factor that links gut BT and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, HMGB1 significantly contributes to multiple organ injuries. The SAP patients also have significantly increased circulating histones and cell-free DNAs levels, which can reflect the disease severity and contribute to multiple organ injuries in SAP. Hepatic Kupffer cells (KCs) are the predominant source of circulating inflammatory cytokines in SAP, and new evidence indicates that hepatocyte is another important source of circulating HMGB1 in SAP; therefore, treating the liver injury is important in SAP.
    Electronic ISSN: 2042-0099
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 62
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Sterile neuroinflammation is essential for the proper brain development and tissue repair. However, uncontrolled neuroinflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of various disease processes. The endogenous intracellular molecules so called damage-associated molecular patterns or alarmins or damage signals that are released by activated or necrotic cells are thought to play a crucial role in initiating an immune response. Sterile inflammatory response that occurs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), stroke, hemorrhage, epilepsy, or traumatic brain injury (TBI) creates a vicious cycle of unrestrained inflammation, driving progressive neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation is a key mechanism in the progression (e.g., AD and PD) or secondary injury development (e.g., stroke, hemorrhage, stress, and TBI) of multiple brain conditions. Hence, it provides an opportunity for the therapeutic intervention to prevent progressive tissue damage and loss of function. The key for developing anti-neuroinflammatory treatment is to minimize the detrimental and neurotoxic effects of inflammation while promoting the beneficial and neurotropic effects, thereby creating ideal conditions for regeneration and repair. This review outlines how inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of major nonpathogenic neuroinflammatory conditions and discusses the complex response of glial cells to damage signals. In addition, emerging experimental anti-neuroinflammatory drug treatment strategies are discussed.
    Electronic ISSN: 2042-0099
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 63
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Beyond its role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism for healthy bone mineralization, there is increasing awareness for vitamin D contribution in modulation of immune reactions. Given that ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving excess immune/inflammatory activity and posing great therapeutic challenges, it is conceivable to claim that vitamin D treatment may be a safe and effective treatment to influence or modify the primary disease and its related comorbidities. Nevertheless, consistent body of research supporting this hypothesis is still lacking. In this paper, we examine whether systematic screening and treatment for vitamin D deficiency are feasible at present. We will review the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D and its contribution in initiation and progression of AS, as well as how they would determine the occurrence of comorbid conditions. Our conclusion is that despite the overwhelmed interest about vitamin D treatment in AS patients, systematic screening and treatment for vitamin D deficiency of all AS patients are not feasible as yet. This stresses the need for further extensive well-designed research to prove vitamin D efficacy in AS beyond bone protection. And if utility is proven, personalized treatment regimes, duration of treatment, and threshold values for vitamin D should be provided.
    Electronic ISSN: 2042-0099
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 64
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Introduction. Lumbar radicular pain following intervertebral disc herniation may be associated with a local inflammatory response induced by nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Methods. In anaesthetized Lewis rats, extracellular single unit recordings of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in the dorsal horn and qPCR were used to explore the effect of NP application onto the dorsal nerve roots (L3–L5). Results. A clear increase in C-fiber response was observed following NP conditioning. In the NP tissue, the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), colony stimulating factor 1 (Csf1), fractalkine (CX3CL1), and the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 was increased. Minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation, inhibited the increase in neuronal activity and attenuated the increase in IL-1β, Csf1, CX3L1, and CX3CR1 expression in NP tissue. In addition, the results demonstrated an increase in the expression of TNF, CX3CL1, and CX3CR1 in the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Conclusion. Hyperexcitability in the pain pathways and the local inflammation after disc herniation may involve upregulation of CX3CL1 signaling in both the NP and the DRG.
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  • 65
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key players in the pathogenesis of inflammatory conditions including coronary arterial disease (CAD). They are expressed by a variety of immune cells where they recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLRs recruit adaptor molecules, including myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MYD88) and TIRF-related adaptor protein (TRAM), to mediate activation of MAPKs and NF-kappa B pathways. They are associated with the development of CAD through various mechanisms. TLR4 is expressed in lipid-rich and atherosclerotic plaques. In TLR2−/− and TLR4−/− mice, atherosclerosis-associated inflammation was diminished. Moreover, TLR2 and TLR4 may induce expression of Wnt5a in advanced staged atheromatous plaque leading to activation of the inflammatory processes. TLR9 is activated by CpG motifs in nucleic acids and have been implicated in macrophage activation and the uptake of oxLDL from the circulation. Furthermore, TLR9 also stimulates interferon-α (INF-α) secretion and increases cytotoxic activity of CD4+ T-cells towards coronary artery tunica media smooth muscle cells. This review outlines the pathophysiological role of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 in atherosclerosis, focusing on evidence from animal models of the disease.
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  • 66
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A sudden jump in the value of the state variable in a certain dynamical system can be studied through a catastrophe model. This paper presents an application of catastrophe model to solve psychological problems. Since we will have three psychological aspects or parameters, intelligence (I), emotion (E), and adversity (A), a Swallowtail catastrophe model is considered to be an appropriate one. Our methodology consists of three steps: solving the Swallowtail potential function, finding the critical points up to and including threefold degenerates, and fitting the model into our measured data. Using a polynomial curve fitting derived from the potential function of Swallowtail catastrophe model, relations among three parameters combinations are analyzed. Results show that there are catastrophe phenomena for each relation, meaning that a small change in one psychological aspect may cause a dramatic change in another aspect.
    Print ISSN: 0161-1712
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-0425
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 67
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A trapezoidal number, a sum of at least two consecutive positive integers, is a figurate number that can be represented by points rearranged in the plane as a trapezoid. Such numbers have been of interest and extensively studied. In this paper, a generalization of trapezoidal numbers has been introduced. For each positive integer , a positive integer is called an -trapezoidal number if can be written as an arithmetic series of at least terms with common difference . Properties of -trapezoidal numbers have been studied together with their trapezoidal representations. In the special case where , the characterization and enumeration of such numbers have been given as well as illustrative examples. Precisely, for a fixed -trapezoidal number , the ways and the number of ways to write as an arithmetic series with common difference have been determined. Some remarks on -trapezoidal numbers have been provided as well.
    Print ISSN: 0161-1712
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-0425
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 68
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A multiresidue method for detecting and quantifying sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethoxypyridazine) and trimethoprim in tilapia fillet (Oreochromis niloticus) using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The sample preparation was optimized using the QuEChERS approach. The chromatographic separation was performed using a C18 column and 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase in the isocratic elution mode. Method validation was performed based on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and Brazilian guideline. The validation parameters evaluated were linearity (r ≥ 0.99); limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), 1 ng·g−1 and 5 ng·g−1, respectively; intraday and interdays precision (CV lower than 19.4%). The decision limit (CCα 102.6–120.0 ng·g−1 and 70 ng·g−1 for sulfonamides and trimethoprim, respectively) and detection capability (CCβ 111.7–140.1 ng·g−1 and 89.9 ng·g−1 for sulfonamides and trimethoprim, respectively) were determined. Analyses of tilapia fillet samples from fish exposed to sulfamethazine through feed (incurred samples) were conducted in order to evaluate the method. This new method was demonstrated to be fast, sensitive, and suitable for monitoring sulfonamides and trimethoprim in tilapia fillet in health surveillance programs, as well as to be used in pharmacokinetics and residue depletion studies.
    Print ISSN: 2090-8865
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-8873
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 69
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Enzyme-based sensors have emerged as important analytical tools with application in diverse fields, and biosensors for the detection of glucose using the enzyme glucose oxidase have been widely investigated. In this work, the preparation of biosensors by electrochemical polymerization of (poly)thiophenes, namely 2,2′-bithiophene (2,2′-BT) and 4,4′-bis(2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol)-2,2′-bithiophene (4,4′-bBT), followed by immobilization of glucose oxidase on the films, is described. N-cyclohexyl-N′-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide metho-p-toluenesulfonate (CMC) was used as a condensing agent, and p-benzoquinone (BQ) was used as a redox mediator in solution. The glucose oxidase electrodes with films of 2,2′-BT and 4,4′-bBT were then tested for their ability in detecting glucose from synthetic and real samples (pear, apricot, and peach fruit juices).
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  • 70
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Formaldehyde is a highly reactive impurity that can be found in many pharmaceutical excipients. Trace levels of this impurity may affect drug product stability, safety, efficacy, and performance. A static headspace gas chromatographic method was developed and validated to determine formaldehyde in pharmaceutical excipients after an effective derivatization procedure using acidified ethanol. Diethoxymethane, the derivative of formaldehyde, was then directly analyzed by GC-FID. Despite the simplicity of the developed method, however, it is characterized by its specificity, accuracy, and precision. The limits of detection and quantification of formaldehyde in the samples were of 2.44 and 8.12 µg/g, respectively. This method is characterized by using simple and economic GC-FID technique instead of MS detection, and it is successfully used to analyze formaldehyde in commonly used pharmaceutical excipients.
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  • 71
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a method for quantitative analysis of rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate (RHT) in dual-ligand polymeric nanoparticle formulation matrices, drug release medium, and cellular transport medium. An isocratic HPLC analysis method using a reverse phase C18 column and a simple mobile phase without buffer was developed, optimised, and fully validated. Analyses were carried out at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min at 50°C and monitored at 214 nm. This HPLC method exhibited good linearity, accuracy, and selectivity. The recovery (accuracy) of RHT from all matrices was greater than 99.2%. The RHT peak detected in the samples of a forced degradation study, drug loading study, release study, and cellular transport study was pure and free of matrix interference. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the assay were 60 ng/mL and 201 ng/mL, respectively. The method was rugged with good intra- and interday precision. This stability indicating HPLC method was selective, accurate, and precise for analysing RHT loading and its stability in nanoparticle formulation, RHT release, and cell transport medium.
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  • 72
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: An accurate IPC-UV method was developed and validated for the determination of nitrite (NI) and nitrate (NA) in meat products. The best separation was achieved on a phenyl-hexyl column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) with a mobile phase composed of 25% acetonitrile and 75% buffer (2 mM disodium hydrogen phosphate and 3 mM tetrabutylammonium bromide, pH = 4). Eluents were monitored at 205 nm. Linearity ranges were 1.86 × 10−6–7.5 µg·ml−1 and 0.09–5.0 µg·ml−1 for NI and NA, respectively. The correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999 for NI and NA. This method was applied to a number of processed meat products in Riyadh (n = 155). NI ranged from 1.78 to 129.69 mg·kg−1, and NA ranged from 0.76 to 96.64 mg·kg−1. Results showed extensive use of NI and NA; however, concentrations were within the legal limit of Saudi Arabia except for one sample. Further, the risk assessment and dietary exposure have been estimated for both NI and NA.
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  • 73
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A simple, sensitive, accurate, robust headspace gas chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of acetone and isopropyl alcohol in tartaric acid-based pellets of dipyridamole modified release capsules. The residual solvents acetone and isopropyl alcohol were used in the manufacturing process of the tartaric acid-based pellets of dipyridamole modified release capsules by considering the solubility of the dipyridamole and excipients in the different manufacturing stages. The method was developed and optimized by using fused silica DB-624 (30 m × 0.32 mm × 1.8 µm) column with the flame ionization detector. The method validation was carried out with regard to the guidelines for validation of analytical procedures Q2 demanded by the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). All the validation characteristics were meeting the acceptance criteria. Hence, the developed and validated method can be applied for the intended routine analysis.
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  • 74
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques comprising Aβ40 and Aβ42 in the brain is the most significant factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Thus, the detection of Aβ plaques has increasingly attracted interest in the context of AD diagnosis. In the present study, a fluorescent pyridazine-based dye that can detect and image Aβ plaques was designed and synthesized, and its optical properties in the presence of Aβ aggregates were evaluated. An approximately 34-fold increase in emission intensity was exhibited by the fluorescent probe after binding with Aβ aggregates, for which it showed high affinity (KD = 0.35 µM). Moreover, the reasonable hydrophobic properties of the probe (log P = 2.94) allow it to penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBB). In addition, the pyridazine-based probe was used in the histological costaining of transgenic mouse (APP/PS1) brain sections to validate the selective binding of the probe to Aβ plaques. The results suggest that the pyridazine-based compound has the potential to serve as a fluorescent probe for the diagnosis of AD.
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  • 75
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Method for extraction and determination of amoxicillin, caffeine, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, tetracycline, diclofenac, ibuprofen, nimesulide, levonorgestrel, and 17α-ethynylestradiol exploiting micellar liquid chromatography with PDA detector and solid-phase extraction was proposed. The usage of toxic solvents was low; the chromatographic separation of the medicaments was performed using a C18 column and mobile phases A and B containing 15.0% (v/v) ethanol, 3.0% (m/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 0.02 mol·L−1 phosphate at pHs 7.0 and 8.0, respectively. The method is simple, selective, and fast, and the analytes were separated in 23.0 min. For extraction, 1000 mL of sample containing 2.0% (v/v) ethanol and 0.002 mol·L−1 citric acid at pH 2.50 was loaded through a 1000 mg of C18 cartridge. The analytes were eluted using 3.0 mL of ethanol, which were evaporated and redissolved in 0.5 mL of mobile phase. Concentration factors better than 1200, except amoxicillin (224), were obtained. The analytical curves were linear (R2 better than 0.992); LOD and LOQ presented values in the range of 0.019–0.247 and 0.058–0.752 mg·L−1, respectively. Recoveries of 99% were obtained, and the results are in agreement with those obtained by the comparative methods.
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  • 76
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Fosetyl-aluminum is a synthetic fungicide administered to plants especially to prevent diseases caused by the members of the Peronosporales and several Phytophthora species. Herein, we present a selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyze residues of fosetyl-A1 in air particulate matter. This study was performed in perspective of an exposure assessment of this substance of health concern in environments where high levels of fosetly-Al, relatively to airborne particulate matter, can be found after spraying it. The cleanup procedure of the analyte, from sampled filters of atmospheric particulate matter, was optimized using a Strata X solid-phase extraction cartridge, after accelerated extraction by using water. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a polymeric column based on hydrophilic interaction in step elution with water/acetonitrile, whereas the mass spectrometric detection was performed in negative electrospray ionization. The proposed method resulted to be a simple, fast, and suitable method for confirmation purposes.
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  • 77
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The techniques used to monitor the quality of the biodiesel are intensely discussed in the literature, partly because of the different oil sources and their intrinsic physicochemical characteristics. This study aimed to monitor the thermal degradation of the fatty acid methyl esters of Sesamum indicum L. and Raphanus sativus L. biodiesels (SILB and RSLB, resp.). The results showed that both biodiesels present a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, ∼84% (SILB) and ∼90% (RSLB). The SILB had a high content of polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18  :  2), about 49%, and the oleic monounsaturated (18  :  1), ∼34%. On the other hand, RSLB presented a considerable content of linolenic fatty acid (18  :  3), ∼11%. The biodiesel samples were thermal degraded at 110°C for 48 hours, and acid value, UV absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy analysis were carried out. The results revealed that both absorption and fluorescence presented a correlation with acid value as a function of degradation time by monitoring absorptions at 232 and 270 nm as well as the emission at 424 nm. Although the obtained correlation is not completely linear, a direct correlation was observed in both cases, revealing that both properties can be potentially used for monitoring the biodiesel degradation.
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  • 78
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Solid-phase extraction in combination with large-volume sample stacking-capillary electrophoresis (SPE-LVSS-CE) was applied to measure chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline in milk samples. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method had a linear range of 29 to 200 µg·L−1, with limits of detection ranging from 18.6 to 23.8 µg·L−1 with inter- and intraday repeatabilities 
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  • 79
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Nervous necrosis virus (nodavirus) has been responsible for mass mortalities in aquaculture industry worldwide, with great economic and environmental impact. A rapid low-cost test to identify nodavirus genotype could have important benefits for vaccine and diagnostic applications in small- and medium-scale laboratories in both academia and fish farming industry. A dual lateral flow biosensor for simultaneous detection of the most prevalent nodavirus genotypes (RGNNV and SJNNV) was developed and optimized. The dual biosensor consisted of two antibody-based test zones, indicative of each genotype, and a control zone. The positive signals were visualized by gold nanoparticles functionalized with anti-biotin antibody, and the detection was completed within 20 min. Optimization studies included antibody type and amount determination for test zone construction, gold nanoparticle conjugate type selection for high signal generation, and detection assay parameter determination. Following optimization, the biosensor was evaluated with healthy and RGNNV-nodavirus-infected fish samples. The proposed assay’s cost was estimated to be less than 3 €, including the required reagents and biosensor. This work presents important steps towards making a dual lateral flow biosensor for nodavirus genotyping; further evaluation with clinical samples is needed before the test is appropriate for diagnostic kit development.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 80
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: In this work, DPV determination of anethole was presented using various carbon, two-diameter (1.5 and 3 mm) electrodes, that is, BDD, GC, CP, and CP doped by La2O3 and CeO2 nanoparticles. La2O3/CPE to our best knowledge was proposed first time. Cyclic voltammograms confirmed totally irreversible electrode electrooxidation process, controlled by diffusion, in which two electrons take part. The most satisfactory sensitivity 0.885 ± 0.016 µA/mg L−1 in 0.1 mol L−1 acetate buffer was obtained for La2O3/CPE with the correlation coefficient r of 0.9993, while for BDDE it was 0.135 ± 0.003 µA/mg L−1 with r of 0.9990. The lowest detection limit of 0.004 mg L−1 was reached on La2O3/CPE (3 mm), what may be compared with the most sensitive conjugate methods, but in the proposed approach, no sample preparation and analyte separation was needed. Anethole was successfully determined in specially prepared ethanol extracts of herbal mixtures of various compositions, which imitated real products. The proposed procedure was verified in analysis of commercial products, that is, anise essential oil, which contains a large concentration of anethole, and in alcohol drinks like Metaxa, Ouzo, and Rakija, in which the considered analyte occurs on trace levels. Structure and properties of the considered nanopowders and graphite pastes were investigated by EDX, SEM, and EIS.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 81
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading world’s public health problems. Therefore, it is of a huge interest to develop new antidiabetic drugs. Apart from traditional therapy of diabetes, nowadays, importance is given to natural substances with antidiabetic potential. Fomes fomentarius is a mushroom widely used for different purposes, due to its range of already confirmed activities. Fomentariol is a constituent of Fomes fomentarius, responsible for its antidiabetic potential. In that respect, it is important to develop a method for isolation and quantification of fomentariol from fungal material, which will be simple and efficient. Multistep, complex extraction applied in the previously reported studies was avoided with ethanol, providing rapid single-step extraction. The presence of fomentariol in ethanolic extract was confirmed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Semipreparative HPLC method was developed and applied for isolation from ethanol extract and purification of the active compound fomentariol. It was a gradient reversed-phase method with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water and total run time of 15 minutes. The amount of 6.5 mg of high-purity fomentariol was determined by quantitative NMR with toluene as internal standard. The isolated and determined amount of substance can be further used for the quantitative estimation of activity of fomentariol.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 82
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A simple and rapid capillary electrophoresis method with diode array detector was developed for determination of sarafloxacin and difloxacin in beef. In this study, the experimental parameters affecting the determination were systematically optimized, including wavelength, buffer system, pH and concentration, and separation temperature and voltage. Under the optimal conditions, sarafloxacin and difloxacin could be quantified within 4 min using H3BO3/Na2B4O7 buffer (35 mmol/L, pH 8.8) as background electrolyte, 25 kV as separation voltage, and 22°C as the column temperature. The linear range of the method was 1–20 μg/mL with LOD 0.8 μg/mL for sarafloxacin and 0.5–20 μg/mL with LOD 0.3 μg/mL for difloxacin. The RSDs for the peak area of 8 μg/mL sarafloxacin were 4.8% (intraday) and 7.8% (interday), respectively. The proposed method has been applied to determine the residue of sarafloxacin and difloxacin in beef samples with the satisfactory recovery.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 83
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    Hindawi
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Chelidonium majus L. is a rich source of isoquinoline alkaloids with confirmed anti-inflammatory, choleretic, spasmolytic, antitumor, and antimicrobial activities. However, their chromatographic analysis is difficult because they may exist both in charged and uncharged forms and may result in the irregular peak shape and the decrease in chromatographic system efficacy. In the present work, the separation of main C. majus alkaloids was optimized using a new-generation XB-C18 endcapped core-shell column dedicated for analysis of alkaline compounds. The influence of organic modifier concentration, addition of salts, and pH of eluents on chromatographic parameters such as retention, resolution, chromatographic plate numbers, and peak asymmetry was investigated. The results were applied to elaborate the optimal chromatographic system for simultaneous quantification of seven alkaloids from the root, herb, and fruit of C. majus.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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