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  • 1
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: As systems increase in complexity, so too must the design principles used by software engineers. Also in this issue: The New Killer App for Security: Software Inventory (p. 60) and A Future with Quantum Machine Learning (p. 68).
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  • 2
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Advertisement, IEEE.
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  • 3
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Presents the table of contents for this issue of the publication.
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  • 4
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
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  • 5
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: A summary of articles recently published in IEEE Computer Society magazines.
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  • 6
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: A summary of articles published in Computer 50 and 25 years ago. Plus a comic strip by Ergun Akleman, “Computing through Time.”
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  • 7
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: This theme issue includes three articles that explore various aspects of engineering complex systems that involve software. As these systems increase in complexity, so too must the design principles employed.
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  • 8
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Assisted by centralized data collection and analytics, IoT-based mechanisms can substantially reduce food waste, improve transportation and distribution efficiency, and support quick removal of contaminated or spoiled products from the fresh food supply chain.
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  • 9
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: The IEEE Computer Society provides foundational standards for the benefit of consumers, industry, and government, as well as the programmers and engineers building tomorrow’s technology wonders. Participation in these standards-development projects is open to everyone.
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  • 10
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: There’s no consensus on what constitutes a solid undergraduate cybersecurity education. With the upcoming release of CSEC2017 curricular guidelines from the Joint Task Force of the ACM, IEEE Computer Society, AIS, and IFIP, along with the proposed undergraduate cybersecurity accreditation criteria from ABET, now’s the perfect time to reexamine the future landscape in this space.
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  • 11
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Advertisement, IEEE.
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  • 12
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Advertisement, IEEE.
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  • 13
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Information of interest to Computer Society members. This article includes two errata. One erratum for “The New Science Wars” (H. Berghel, vol. 50, no. 11, 2017, pp. 72-76; doi: 10.1109/MC.2017.4041367). The second erratum is for the Table of Contents for the January 2018 issue (vol. 51, no. 1; doi: 10.1109/MC.2018.1151011).
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  • 14
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
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  • 15
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-877X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 16
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: I welcome you to the first issue of the IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials in 2018. This issue includes 25 papers covering different aspects of communication networks. In particular, these articles survey and tutor various issues in “Wireless, Sensor, Optical, and Cognitive Radio Networks,” “Software-Defined Networking and Fog Computing,” “Security,” and “5G and Machine-to-Machine Communications.” A brief account for each of these papers is given below.
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-877X
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  • 17
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Since the recently emerging mobile applications have posed significant demands not only on high data rate but also on high caching and computing capabilities, the growth in communication capability alone is no longer sustainable for wireless networks. The integration of networking, caching, and computing functionalities into one system can provide not only native support for highly scalable and efficient content retrieval, but also powerful capability of data processing, hence reducing duplicate content transmissions and enabling swift executions of computationally intensive tasks. Despite the prospect of integrated networking, caching, and computing systems, a number of significant research challenges remain to be addressed prior to widespread deployment of integrated networking, caching, and computing systems, including latency requirement, interfaces, mobility management, resource and architecture tradeoffs, convergence, etc. In this paper, we provide a brief survey on some of the works that have been done to enable the integrated networking, caching, and computing system, and discuss several research challenges. We identify a number of important aspects of the integration of networking, caching, and computing: motivations, frameworks, performance metrics, enabling technologies, and challenges. At last, some broader perspectives are explored.
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-877X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 18
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Similar to radio-frequency-based wireless networks (RWNs) used in terrestrial environments, the medium access control (MAC) protocol is a key element for underwater acoustic networks (UWANs). However, due to peculiar features of underwater acoustic channels such as long propagation delay, very small channel capacity, low channel reliability, and high dynamics of channel quality, not only MAC protocols but also MAC design strategies originally developed for RWNs cannot work well in UWANs. A large number of UWAN MAC protocols have been investigated in the literature, and most of them have not been reviewed in the available surveys. To allow the reader to have an overview on the state-of-the-art UWAN MAC protocols, this paper reviews these proposals with an enhanced MAC reference model. This model decomposes an MAC protocol into a couple of components that make up a common structure for various MAC protocols so that they can be more easily understood. The major remaining issues and possible research directions are also discussed.
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-877X
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 19
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Many previous researches have already shown the advantages of multisensor land-cover classification. Here, we propose an innovative land-cover classification approach based on learning a joint latent model of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and multispectral satellite images using multimodal latent Dirichlet allocation (mmLDA), a probabilistic generative model. It has already been successfully applied to various other problems dealing with multimodal data. For our experiments, we chose overlapping SAR and multispectral images of two regions of interest. The images were tiled into patches and their local primitive features were extracted. Then each image patch is represented by SAR and multispectral bag-of-words (BoW) models. The BoW values are both fed to the mmLDA, resulting in a joint latent data model. A qualitative and quantitative validation of the topics based on ground-truth data demonstrate that the land-cover categories of the regions are correctly classified, outperforming the topics obtained using individual single modality data.
    Print ISSN: 1545-598X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-0571
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography , Geosciences
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  • 20
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Active learning (AL) is a promising solution to hyperspectral image classification with very few initial labeled samples. Although previous AL heuristics have exhibited encouraging results, some challenges are still open. On the one hand, traditional AL heuristics measured uncertainty only in feature domain (i.e., spectral or spectral–spatial features) with a pixelwise manner, which ignores the spatial uncertainty. On the other hand, traditional batch-mode AL methods rarely considered spatial homogeneity, since they selected a batch of samples from the candidates, which will induce redundancy unavoidably. To overcome these issues, we first propose an enhanced uncertainty measure considering the neighborhood information. We then propose to use simple linear iterative clustering for generating superpixels, where the selected batch samples are constrained to be from different superpixels, which improves the diversity of the selected samples. The experimental results with two popular hyperspectral data sets indicate that the proposed methods can significantly improve the classification accuracy compared with the traditional methods.
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    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography , Geosciences
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  • 21
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Print ISSN: 1545-598X
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    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography , Geosciences
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  • 22
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
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    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography , Geosciences
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  • 23
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
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  • 24
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Print ISSN: 1545-598X
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  • 25
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Recently, approaches based on fully convolutional networks (FCN) have achieved state-of-the-art performance in the semantic segmentation of very high resolution (VHR) remotely sensed images. One central issue in this method is the loss of detailed information due to downsampling operations in FCN. To solve this problem, we introduce the maximum fusion strategy that effectively combines semantic information from deep layers and detailed information from shallow layers. Furthermore, this letter develops a powerful backend to enhance the result of FCN by leveraging the digital surface model, which provides height information for VHR images. The proposed semantic segmentation scheme has achieved an overall accuracy of 90.6% on the ISPRS Vaihingen benchmark.
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  • 26
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: The dependence of thermally induced depolarization on crystallographic axis orientation in crystal materials with negative optical anisotropy parameter in the presence of Faraday rotation has been analyzed. The orientation at which thermally induced depolarization is minimal has been found. The contributions to thermally induced depolarization of linear birefringence caused by photoelastic effect, of the temperature dependence of Verdet constant, and of the temperature dependence of optical anisotropy parameter are assessed. Three magneto-optical materials with negative optical anisotropy parameter have been compared with a currently widely used TGG crystal from the viewpoint of their prospective application in Faraday devices for powerful laser radiation. It has been demonstrated that these magneto-optical materials are undoubtedly superior to a TGG crystal.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9197
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1713
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  • 27
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: We theoretically investigate a Dy 3+ -doped chalcogenide fiber lasers operating at 4.3 μ m based on the rate equations and propagation equations. The two main pump bands for 1319 and 1707 nm corresponding to the 6 H 15/2 → 6 H 9/2 and 6 H 15/2 → 6 H 13/2 transitions are discussed in detail. The predicted maximum slope efficiencies are determined to be ∼7.8% and ∼15.1% for the two pumping wavelength, respectively. Besides, the variety of laser performance has been systematically analyzed when the pump configurations, fiber length, fiber loss are varied. This numerical analysis might be useful to explore the 4.3 μ m lasing operation for the mid-infrared chalcogenide fiber lasers in future.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 28
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: The problem of Bayesian knowledge transfer from a secondary to a primary Kalman filter is addressed. The secondary filter makes available its probabilistic data predictor, but an explicit Bayesian conditioning mechanism between the filters is assumed to be unavailable. Thus, fully probabilistic design is adopted. This leads to a novel and fully tractable three-step recursive extension of the traditional Kalman filter flow, involving an extra data-like step for merging the secondary data predictor. An adapted form of the algorithm yields performance in simulation equal to that of measurement vector fusion, with the advantage that the Bayesian design allows full distributional knowledge to be transferred. There is flexibility in the way probabilistic knowledge transfer between interacting Kalman filters can be specified using this optimal Bayesian design strategy, and these options are discussed in the letter.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1558-2361
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  • 29
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
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  • 30
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
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  • 31
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Salient object detection has made a rapid progress in recent years. To improve the quality of initial saliency maps, existing algorithms typically refine them via a neighbor-constrained smoothing model, which assigns similar saliency values to neighboring regions. Since the adjacent regions could also cross the boundary between the salient object and background, these spatial distance-based methods easily cause false detection by involving the background regions that are close to the salient objects. To address this problem, we propose a boundary-guided optimization framework to jointly improve the region smoothness and correct the false detect regions. Specifically, we introduce a latent segmentation variable to regularize the consistency between the refined saliency map and the latent segmentation mask, which penalizes high (low) saliency values of the regions lying outside (inside) the estimated object boundary. To optimize the proposed objective function, we decompose the primary problem into two subproblems: submodular optimization problem and convex optimization problem. The submodular optimization problem can be quickly optimized using the off-the-shelf technique while the convex optimization can be solved with a closed-form solution. The experimental results show that the proposed method consistently improve the performances of eight state-of-the-art salient object detection algorithms on three datasets, including latest deep convolutional neural network-based algorithms. Meanwhile, our method outperforms state-of-the-art saliency refinement algorithms.
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  • 32
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: After the inclusion of the feature selective validation method into the IEEE Std. 1597.1/2, more and more attention has been paid to the performance evaluation and enhancements of this technique as well as broadening of applications. This paper reviews the progresses in these domains by first considering the body of work and the virtual team that is responsible for the method development, and offers conclusions about the validity, the correct implementation, and further applications of the feature selective validation technique in other domains besides the classic computational electromagnetics and electromagnetic compatibility.
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  • 33
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: An alternative method to compute the free-space antenna factor using time-domain transformation and deconvolution filter for pulse compression is proposed. The deconvolution filter helps in compressing the time-domain pulse to distinguish the direct wave from the reflected wave and help evaluate the free-space antenna factor for site validation of fully anechoic rooms. The antenna pair of ETS-Lindgren Model 3110C and 3180C antennas, simulated with numerical electromagnetics code, is subjected to the proposed method with deconvolution filter and Wiener filter. Based on the simulation results, the proposed method is implemented over the measured results of the antenna pair and used for the site validation of a fully anechoic room. The free-space normalized site attenuation results of the fully anechoic room comply with the ±4 dB specification.
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  • 34
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Alien crosstalk (AXT) between Ethernet cables produces interference and poses a potential threat to system security. AXT is challenging to measure in pre-existing installations because of the need for instrumentation at both the near- and far ends. Although commercially available portable equipment for this purpose exists, baluns must be used to excite the balanced modes on Ethernet cables, which restricts the bandwidth and includes the unwanted response of the baluns. Here, a novel measurement system is proposed that does not use baluns. The proposed system uses unbalanced network analyzers that are placed at both ends of the cable run. The analyzers are synchronized and phase locked, and the resulting unbalanced crosstalk measurements are then mathematically converted to balanced and common modes. A new calibration method for multiple network analyzers is presented and validated. Worst-case alien crosstalk measurements of Category 6 unshielded twisted pairs using the proposed system are then presented.
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  • 35
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: A wideband noise measurement technique with improved isolation is demonstrated for a practical mobile phone. The liquid crystal display (LCD) baseband noise modulated with a transmitted radio frequency (RF) signal interferes with the received RF signal, resulting in an RF desensitization problem. A wideband and simple measurement setup based on a 180° hybrid coupler is proposed and demonstrated to characterize the modulation and its coupling behaviors in duplex systems. This setup overcomes the frequency limitation of a duplexer-based measurement setting. In addition, signal-to-noise ratio improvement in the proposed measurement technique is quantitatively analyzed.
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  • 36
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: The reproducibility of the absorber lined shielded enclosure radiated emission test method, defined in the standard CISPR 25, is evaluated through an interlaboratory comparison (ILC). The ILC started on September 2016 and concluded on February 2017. Nineteen data sets have been received and analyzed. The investigated frequency range is from 1 to 1000 MHz. The most critical (worst reproducibility) frequency range is the one from 10 to 50 MHz where the robust (outlier-resistant) standard deviation of the measured values is comprised between 5 and 8 dB. In the frequency range from 50 to 1000 MHz, the robust standard deviation is comprised between 2 and 3 dB. The main causes of nonreproducibility are identified and test setup adjustments aimed at improving the reproducibility are proposed.
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  • 37
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: In this work, a new technique for an efficient, simple, and fast equivalent circuit and full wave numerical modeling of the electrostatic discharge (ESD) generator is presented. A novel circuit model of the NoiseKen ESD simulator is proposed based on the frequency domain measurement of the standard waveform calibration setup. The simple full wave electromagnetic model of the same generator, which requires much less computation resources, is also proposed using commercial CST Microwave Studio software. The reliability of the proposed models as an authentic ESD excitation source is validated through an example discharge application. The good agreement between the ESD reference waveform obtained through measurement, circuit model, and 3-D model of the generator is observed.
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  • 38
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: A codesign of an electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection device and a common-mode suppression circuit on printed circuit board (PCB) for high-speed input/output interfaces is introduced in this paper. The characteristic and the circuit model of the ESD protection device are investigated and applied into the design of the common-mode suppression circuit. The proposed one-stage design of two-layered PCB structure performs –10-dB common-mode noise suppression from 2.22 to 2.76 GHz; the proposed two-stage design with additional common-mode suppression unit performs wideband suppression from 2.25 GHz to over 8 GHz, covering IEEE 802.11ac WiFi band with –20-dB suppression level. The mode conversion for both designs is lower than –30 dB. The signal integrity and the ESD protection function of proposed design are investigated by eye diagram measurement and system-level ESD simulation. The proposed PCB design provides a low-cost solution for the integration on the high-speed input/output interface of next generation.
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  • 39
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: The common-mode (CM) noise at the output of ac/dc power adapters can interfere with touchscreen's normal operation in consumer electronic products. Existing power adapter's output CM voltage measurement used in power electronics industry does not align with the touchscreen's sensitivity test used by touchscreen manufacturers. This paper first reviews existing measurement setups and identifies the technical issues in the tests. The CM noise source impedance of ac/dc power adapters and the characteristics of touchscreens are investigated. A new measurement setup is proposed based on both the characteristics of CM noise source of power adapters and touchscreens. A CM voltage limit is also proposed with industry companies. A measurement device is developed for the proposed measurement setup and procedure. The experimental results validate the proposed techniques.
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  • 40
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: In a near-field scanning system, each element of the measurement chain contributes to the thermal noise power density: probe, cables, amplifiers, and the measuring instrument. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is strongly affected by the source output impedance, source temperature, the lossy transmission lines between probe and amplifiers, amplifier noise, amplifier temperature, and amplifier gain. By minimizing the loss between the probe and by using ultralow-noise amplifiers (noise figure (NF) 〈 0.5 dB), SNR improves by >10 dB, compared to a setup using a 1-m cable and a 3-dB NF amplifier. A resonant probe that is cooled with liquid nitrogen improves measurement SNR by an additional 10–12 dB, as compared to a broadband probe of similar loop size. To combine the advantages of a resonant probe, without sacrificing the ability to measure broadband, a proof of concept is demonstrated that uses a tunable resonant probe which is synchronized to the frequency sweep of the spectrum analyzer.
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  • 41
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Jitter is a critical factor in the performance of high-speed I/O links. Jitter can be modeled as a discrete-time random process. Both the probability density function (PDF) and the spectral characteristics of jitter are important for evaluating its impact on channel performance. The concept of numerical conditional PDF and a new statistical method called FastBER are proposed in this paper to accurately and efficiently perform bit-error-rate (BER) analysis while taking into account both the PDF and the spectral characteristics of an arbitrary jitter sequence for arbitrarily low BER levels. The proposed method achieves the accuracy and flexibility of a transient approach with the high efficiency of a statistical approach.
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  • 42
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
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  • 43
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: A method of moment (MoM)-based current reconstruction method is proposed to estimate the surface current density on the ground plane. Current continuity property is automatically enforced with Rao–Wilton–Glisson basis function. Both the least square method and the optimization method are utilized to solve the inverse problem and obtain the ground current. The proposed optimization method is successfully validated with numeric simulations and also a real-world measurement example. The reconstructed current distribution on the ground plane is further used in a typical radio frequency interference (RFI) example to perform RFI estimation and provide guidelines for RFI design. The proposed MoM-based ground current reconstruction method can be valuable to estimate and debug RFI issues in early design stage.
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  • 44
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
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  • 45
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
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  • 46
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
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  • 47
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: When an electrostatic discharge (ESD) event reaches a nongrounded metallic part within a product, the voltage of this metal with respect to ground will increase. If the isolation to the ground is insufficient, a secondary ESD event can occur. As secondary ESD often leads to system upset or damage, and to poorly reproducible results, it is important to detect the occurrence of secondary ESD. If the discharge current is monitored using an oscilloscope, the test equipment may miss the secondary discharge waveform. This is because the time delay between the primary and secondary discharge events can vary between nanoseconds to milliseconds. Present oscilloscopes do not offer functionality to autodetect a secondary discharge event. The goal of this study is to analyze different types of secondary discharge events acquired with various measurement setups and identify waveform parameters for software-assisted detection methods. A learning sequence is proposed for identifying secondary ESD events starting from low ESD gun test voltages. The data are analyzed with respect to the waveform parameters such as the vertical threshold of the rising edge, the dI/dt of the current waveform, and total charge delivered, which enable automatic detection of secondary ESD while monitoring the discharge waveform at the ESD gun tip.
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  • 48
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: A method for extracting the effective copper surface roughness of a laminate in situ is introduced. The rough copper attenuation as a function of surface roughness is removed from the total attenuation. The residual loss is fit to coefficients, and an error is calculated based on the remaining apparent surface roughness contribution. When the error is minimized or when the apparent surface roughness contribution is nearest zero, the effective surface roughness is found, and the dielectric attenuation is isolated by subtracting the rough copper attenuation from the total attenuation. Using this value, accurate broadband permittivity values can be extracted by simply measuring the S-parameters of two stripline transmission lines. Further, the extracted dielectric electrical properties are calculated with a higher accuracy than the existing methods that neglect copper surface roughness. A supplementing method to unwrap the phase constant is also included in this work to avoid errors do to the length of the devices. Previous methods of extracting laminate material properties that consider copper surface roughness rely on cutting the sample to make a cross-section and observe the surface roughness directly. In this work, the effective surface roughness is gathered without destroying the sample.
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  • 49
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: As a branch of sphere decoding, the K -best method has played an important role in detection in large-scale multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. However, as the numbers of users and antennas grow, the preprocessing complexity increases significantly, which is one of the major issues with the K -best method. To address this problem, this paper proposes a preprocessing algorithm combining Cholesky sorted QR decomposition and partial iterative lattice reduction (CHOSLAR) for K -best detection in a 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) 16 $times$ 16 MIMO system. First, Cholesky decomposition is conducted to perform sorted QR decomposition. Compared with conventional sorted QR decomposition, this method reduces the number of multiplications by 25.1% and increases parallelism. Then, a constant-throughput partial iterative lattice reduction method is adopted to achieve near-optimal detection accuracy. This method further increases parallelism, reduces the number of matrix swaps by 45.5%, and reduces the number of multiplications by 67.3%. Finally, a sorting-reduced K -best strategy is used for vector estimation, thereby, reducing the number of comparators by 84.7%. This method suffers an accuracy loss of only approximately 1.44 dB compared with maximum likelihood detection. Based on CHOSLAR, this paper proposes a fully pipelined very-large-scale-integration architecture. A series of different systolic arrays and parallel processing units achieves an optimal tradeoff among throughput, area consumption, and power consumption. This architectural layout is obtained via TSMC 65-nm 1P9M CMOS technology, and throughput metrics of 1.40 Gbps/W (throughput/power) and 0.62 Mbps/kG (throughput/area) are a- hieved, demonstrating that the proposed system is much more efficient than state-of-the-art designs.
    Print ISSN: 1053-587X
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  • 50
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Today's computer chips contain tens of kilometers of copper wiring, built up in 15 or so layers. As the semiconductor industry has shrunk the size of transistors, it has also had to make these interconnects thinner. Today, some wiring layers are so fine that electrical current can actually damage them. And chipmakers are running out of new ways to deal with this problem.
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  • 51
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: In the past six months, transmission lines have been destroyed by hurricanes in Puerto Rico, singed by wildfires in California, and bitterly opposed by residents in Utah and Pennsylvania who want to stop utilities from building more. Such problems have grid operators literally thinking deeper. Increasingly, utilities in the United States and elsewhere are routing power underground. Puerto Rico's grid rebuild is a prime example: A proposal, crafted by an industry-government consortium late last year, calls for "undergrounding" transmission to harden a power system still recovering from Hurricanes Irma and Maria.
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  • 52
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Bringing an innovative new product to market requires a lot of creativity. In the October 2016 issue of IEEE Spectrum, Rajiv Laroia described the technical development of the Light camera, a small, low-cost camera intended to rival the quality of bulky and expensive digital single-lens reflex cameras. But getting it into the hands of happy consumers also requires a lot of perseverance, and Light has seen some early stumbles. Laroia talked with Senior Editor Tekla S. Perry about some of the lessons learned during the troubled rollout.
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  • 53
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: The view from the office of Ioannis Papakonstantinou at University College London affords a great perspective on a wasted opportunity. He points to the university hospital, a tall oblong block adorned with decorative green glass strips. They look modern but serve no purpose. They don’t even let in light.
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  • 54
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: When does your computer need a slide rule? When it is the UNIVAC II. This 1950s circular slide rule from Remington Rand was used by programmers to optimize how the mainframe executed instructions. The computer had a drum memory that was constantly rotating, and the most efficient program would position the drum so that the next instruction would begin executing wherever the current instruction finished. Instructions were thus scattered across the drum and not physically adjacent to one another. To minimize rotational delays, a programmer had to figure out each instruction’s execution time in order to queue up the next command, an approach called minimum latency programming. Though the slide rule wasn’t strictly necessary to make those calculations, it probably helped
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  • 55
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Today, many scientific data sets are open to the public. For their operators, it is important to know what the users are interested in. In this paper, we study the problem of extracting and analyzing patterns from the query log of a database. We focus on design errors (antipatterns), which typically lead to unnecessary SQL statements. Such antipatterns do not only have a negative effect on performance. They also introduce bias on any subsequent analysis of the SQL log. We propose a framework designed to discover patterns and antipatterns in arbitrary SQL query logs and to clean antipatterns. To study the usefulness of our approach and to reveal insights regarding the existence of antipatterns in real-world systems, we examine the SQL log of the SkyServer project, containing more than 40 million queries. Among the top 15 patterns, we have found six antipatterns. This result as well as other ones gives way to the conclusion that antipatterns might falsify refactoring and any other downstream analyses.
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  • 56
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Given a sequence of snapshots of flu propagating over a population network, can we find a segmentation when the patterns of the disease spread change, possibly due to interventions? In this paper, we study the problem of segmenting graph sequences with labeled nodes. Memes on the Twitter network, diseases over a contact network, movie-cascades over a social network, etc. are all graph sequences with labeled nodes. Most related work on this subject is on plain graphs and hence ignores the label dynamics. Others require fix parameters or feature engineering. We propose SnapNETS , to automatically find segmentations of such graph sequences, with different characteristics of nodes of each label in adjacent segments. It satisfies all the desired properties (being parameter free, comprehensive and scalable) by leveraging a principled, multi-level, flexible framework which maps the problem to a path optimization problem over a weighted DAG. Also, we develop the parallel framework of SnapNETS which speeds up its running time. Finally, we propose an extension of SnapNETS to handle the dynamic graph structures and use it to detect anomalies (and events) in network sequences. Extensive experiments on several diverse real datasets show that it finds cut points matching ground-truth or meaningful external signals and detects anomalies outperforming non-trivial baselines. We also show that the segmentations are easily interpretable, and that SnapNETS scales near-linearly with the size of the input. Finally, we show how to use SnapNETS to detect anomaly in a sequence of dynamic networks.
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  • 57
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Document network is a kind of intriguing dataset which can provide both topical (textual content) and topological (relational link) information. A key point in modeling such datasets is to discover proper denominators beneath the text and link. Most previous work introduces the assumption that documents closely linked with each other share common latent topics. However, the heterophily (i.e., tendency to link to different others) of nodes is neglected, which is pervasive in social networks. In this paper, we simultaneously incorporate community detection and topic modeling in a unified framework, and appeal to Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) to capture the latent semantic correlations between the two heterogeneous factors, community and topic . Despite of the homophily (i.e., tendency to link to similar others) or heterophily, CCA can properly capture the inherent correlations which fit the dataset itself without any prior hypothesis. We also impose auxiliary word embeddings to improve the quality of topics. The effectiveness of our proposed model is comprehensively verified on three different types of datasets which are hyperlinked networks of web pages, social networks of friends, and coauthor networks of publications. Experimental results show that our approach achieves significant improvements compared with the current state of the art.
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  • 58
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: This paper proposes a new unsupervised spectral feature selection method to preserve both the local and global structure of the features as well as the samples. Specifically, our method uses the self-expressiveness of the features to represent each feature by other features for preserving the local structure of features, and a low-rank constraint on the weight matrix to preserve the global structure among samples as well as features. Our method also proposes to learn the graph matrix measuring the similarity of samples for preserving the local structure among samples. Furthermore, we propose a new optimization algorithm to the resulting objective function, which iteratively updates the graph matrix and the intrinsic space so that collaboratively improving each of them. Experimental analysis on 12 benchmark datasets showed that the proposed method outperformed the state-of-the-art feature selection methods in terms of classification performance.
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  • 59
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Episode Rule Mining is a popular framework for discovering sequential rules from event sequential data. However, traditional episode rule mining methods only tell that the consequent event is likely to happen within a given time interval after the occurrence of the antecedent events. As a result, they cannot satisfy the requirement of many time sensitive applications, such as program security trading and intelligent transportation management due to the lack of fine-grained response time. In this study, we come up with the concept of fixed-gap episode to address this problem. A fixed-gap episode consists of an ordered set of events where the elapsed time between any two consecutive events is a constant. Based on this concept, we formulate the problem of mining precise-positioning episode rules in which the occurrence time of each event in the consequent is clearly specified. In addition, we develop a trie-based data structure to mine such precise-positioning episode rules with several pruning strategies incorporated for improving the performance as well as reducing memory consumption. Experimental results on real datasets show the superiority of our proposed algorithms.
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  • 60
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Clustering of customer transaction data is an important procedure to analyze customer behaviors in retail and e-commerce companies. Note that products from companies are often organized as a product tree, in which the leaf nodes are goods to sell, and the internal nodes (except root node) could be multiple product categories. Based on this tree, we propose the “personalized product tree”, named purchase tree, to represent a customer’s transaction records. So the customers’ transaction data set can be compressed into a set of purchase trees. We propose a partitional clustering algorithm, named PurTreeClust, for fast clustering of purchase trees. A new distance metric is proposed to effectively compute the distance between two purchase trees. To cluster the purchase tree data, we first rank the purchase trees as candidate representative trees with a novel separate density, and then select the top $k$ customers as the representatives of $k$ customer groups. Finally, the clustering results are obtained by assigning each customer to the nearest representative. We also propose a gap statistic based method to evaluate the number of clusters. A series of experiments were conducted on ten real-life transaction data sets, and experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed method.
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  • 61
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Utilizing large-scale GPS data to improve taxi services has become a popular research problem in the areas of data mining, intelligent transportation, geographical information systems, and the Internet of Things. In this paper, we utilize a large-scale GPS data set generated by over 7,000 taxis in a period of one month in Nanjing, China, and propose TaxiRec: a framework for evaluating and discovering the passenger-finding potentials of road clusters, which is incorporated into a recommender system for taxi drivers to seek passengers. In TaxiRec, the underlying road network is first segmented into a number of road clusters, a set of features for each road cluster is extracted from real-life data sets, and then a ranking-based extreme learning machine (ELM) model is proposed to evaluate the passenger-finding potential of each road cluster. In addition, TaxiRec can use this model with a training cluster selection algorithm to provide road cluster recommendations when taxi trajectory data is incomplete or unavailable. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of TaxiRec.
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  • 62
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Online multi-object tracking aims at estimating the tracks of multiple objects instantly with each incoming frame and the information provided up to the moment. It still remains a difficult problem in complex scenes, because of the large ambiguity in associating multiple objects in consecutive frames and the low discriminability between objects appearances. In this paper, we propose a robust online multi-object tracking method that can handle these difficulties effectively. We first define the tracklet confidence using the detectability and continuity of a tracklet, and decompose a multi-object tracking problem into small subproblems based on the tracklet confidence. We then solve the online multi-object tracking problem by associating tracklets and detections in different ways according to their confidence values. Based on this strategy, tracklets sequentially grow with online-provided detections, and fragmented tracklets are linked up with others without any iterative and expensive association steps. For more reliable association between tracklets and detections, we also propose a deep appearance learning method to learn a discriminative appearance model from large training datasets, since the conventional appearance learning methods do not provide rich representation that can distinguish multiple objects with large appearance variations. In addition, we combine online transfer learning for improving appearance discriminability by adapting the pre-trained deep model during online tracking. Experiments with challenging public datasets show distinct performance improvement over other state-of-the-arts batch and online tracking methods, and prove the effect and usefulness of the proposed methods for online multi-object tracking.
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  • 63
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Direct Sparse Odometry (DSO) is a visual odometry method based on a novel, highly accurate sparse and direct structure and motion formulation. It combines a fully direct probabilistic model (minimizing a photometric error) with consistent, joint optimization of all model parameters, including geometry-represented as inverse depth in a reference frame-and camera motion. This is achieved in real time by omitting the smoothness prior used in other direct methods and instead sampling pixels evenly throughout the images. Since our method does not depend on keypoint detectors or descriptors, it can naturally sample pixels from across all image regions that have intensity gradient, including edges or smooth intensity variations on essentially featureless walls. The proposed model integrates a full photometric calibration, accounting for exposure time, lens vignetting, and non-linear response functions. We thoroughly evaluate our method on three different datasets comprising several hours of video. The experiments show that the presented approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art direct and indirect methods in a variety of real-world settings, both in terms of tracking accuracy and robustness.
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  • 64
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: The objective of this paper is to design an embedding method that maps local features describing an image (e.g., SIFT) to a higher dimensional representation useful for the image retrieval problem. First, motivated by the relationship between the linear approximation of a nonlinear function in high dimensional space and the state-of-the-art feature representation used in image retrieval, i.e., VLAD, we propose a new approach for the approximation. The embedded vectors resulted by the function approximation process are then aggregated to form a single representation for image retrieval. Second, in order to make the proposed embedding method applicable to large scale problem, we further derive its fast version in which the embedded vectors can be efficiently computed, i.e., in the closed-form. We compare the proposed embedding methods with the state of the art in the context of image search under various settings: when the images are represented by medium length vectors, short vectors, or binary vectors. The experimental results show that the proposed embedding methods outperform existing the state of the art on the standard public image retrieval benchmarks.
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  • 65
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Median filtering is among the most utilized tools for smoothing real-valued data, as it is robust, edge-preserving, value-preserving, and yet can be computed efficiently. For data living on the unit circle, such as phase data or orientation data, a filter with similar properties is desirable. For these data, there is no unique means to define a median; so we discuss various possibilities. The arc distance median turns out to be the only variant which leads to robust, edge-preserving and value-preserving smoothing. However, there are no efficient algorithms for filtering based on the arc distance median. Here, we propose fast algorithms for filtering of signals and images with values on the unit circle based on the arc distance median. For non-quantized data, we develop an algorithm that scales linearly with the filter size. The runtime of our reference implementation is only moderately higher than the Matlab implementation of the classical median filter for real-valued data. For quantized data, we obtain an algorithm of constant complexity w.r.t. the filter size. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithms for real life data sets: phase images from interferometric synthetic aperture radar, planar flow fields from optical flow, and time series of wind directions.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Recognizing human actions from unknown and unseen (novel) views is a challenging problem. We propose a Robust Non-Linear Knowledge Transfer Model (R-NKTM) for human action recognition from novel views. The proposed R-NKTM is a deep fully-connected neural network that transfers knowledge of human actions from any unknown view to a shared high-level virtual view by finding a set of non-linear transformations that connects the views. The R-NKTM is learned from 2D projections of dense trajectories of synthetic 3D human models fitted to real motion capture data and generalizes to real videos of human actions. The strength of our technique is that we learn a single R-NKTM for all actions and all viewpoints for knowledge transfer of any real human action video without the need for re-training or fine-tuning the model. Thus, R-NKTM can efficiently scale to incorporate new action classes. R-NKTM is learned with dummy labels and does not require knowledge of the camera viewpoint at any stage. Experiments on three benchmark cross-view human action datasets show that our method outperforms existing state-of-the-art.
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  • 67
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: In this study, the expected time required to eradicate HIV-1 completely was found as the conditional absorbing time in a finite state space continuous-time Markov chain model. The Markov chain has two absorbing states: one corresponds to HIV eradication and another representing the possible disaster. This method allowed us to calculate the expected eradication time by solving systems of linear equations. To overcome the challenge of huge dimension of the problem, we applied a novel stop and resume technique. This technique also helped to stop the numerical computation whenever we wanted and continue later from that point until the final result was obtained. Our numerical study showed the dependence of the expected eradication time of HIV on the half-life of the latently infected cells and there agreed with the previous studies. The study predicted that when the half-life of the latent cells varied from 4.6 to 60 months, it took a mean 4.97 to 31.04 years with a corresponding standard deviation of 0.64 to 3.99 years to eradicate the latent cell reservoir. It also revealed the crucial dependence of eradication time on the initial number of latently infected cells.
    Print ISSN: 1545-5963
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-9964
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
    Published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) on behalf of The IEEE Computational Intelligence Society ; The IEEE Computer Society ; The IEEE Control Systems Society ; The IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society ; The Association for Computing Machinery.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Entropy, being closely related to repetitiveness and compressibility, is a widely used information-related measure to assess the degree of predictability of a sequence. Entropic profiles are based on information theory principles, and can be used to study the under-/over-representation of subwords, by also providing information about the scale of conserved DNA regions. Here, we focus on the algorithmic aspects related to entropic profiles. In particular, we propose linear time algorithms for their computation that rely on suffix-based data structures, more specifically on the truncated suffix tree (TST) and on the enhanced suffix array (ESA). We performed an extensive experimental campaign showing that our algorithms, beside being faster, make it possible the analysis of longer sequences, even for high degrees of resolution, than state of the art algorithms.
    Print ISSN: 1545-5963
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    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
    Published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) on behalf of The IEEE Computational Intelligence Society ; The IEEE Computer Society ; The IEEE Control Systems Society ; The IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society ; The Association for Computing Machinery.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Hajirasouliha and Raphael (WABI 2014) proposed a model for deconvoluting mixed tumor samples measured from a collection of high-throughput sequencing reads. This is related to understanding tumor evolution and critical cancer mutations. In short, their formulation asks to split each row of a binary matrix so that the resulting matrix corresponds to a perfect phylogeny and has the minimum number of rows among all matrices with this property. In this paper, we disprove several claims about this problem, including an NP-hardness proof of it. However, we show that the problem is indeed NP-hard, by providing a different proof. We also prove NP-completeness of a variant of this problem proposed in the same paper. On the positive side, we propose an efficient (though not necessarily optimal) heuristic algorithm based on coloring co-comparability graphs, and a polynomial time algorithm for solving the problem optimally on matrix instances in which no column is contained in both columns of a pair of conflicting columns. Implementations of these algorithms are freely available at https://github.com/alexandrutomescu/MixedPerfectPhylogeny .
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    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
    Published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) on behalf of The IEEE Computational Intelligence Society ; The IEEE Computer Society ; The IEEE Control Systems Society ; The IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society ; The Association for Computing Machinery.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: This study proposes a new method to determine the functions of an unannotated protein. The proteins and amino acid residues mentioned in biomedical texts associated with an unannotated protein $p$ can be considered as characteristics terms for $p$ , which are highly predictive of the potential functions of $p$ . Similarly, proteins and amino acid residues mentioned in biomedical texts associated with proteins annotated with a functional category $f$ can be considered as characteristics terms of $f$ . We introduce in this paper an information extraction system called IFP_IFC that predicts the functions of an unannotated protein $p$ by representing $p$ and each functional category $f$ by a vector of weights. Each weight reflects the degree of association between a c- aracteristic term and $p$ (or a characteristic term and $f$ ). First, IFP_IFC constructs a network, whose nodes represent the different functional categories, and its edges the interrelationships between the nodes. Then, it determines the functions of $p$ by employing random walks with restarts on the mentioned network. The walker is the vector of $p$ . Finally, $p$ is assigned to the functional categories of the nodes in the network that are visited most by the walker. We evaluated the quality of IFP_IFC by comparing it experimentally with two other systems. Results showed marked improvement.
    Print ISSN: 1545-5963
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-9964
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
    Published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) on behalf of The IEEE Computational Intelligence Society ; The IEEE Computer Society ; The IEEE Control Systems Society ; The IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society ; The Association for Computing Machinery.
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  • 71
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: The application of machine learning methods for the identification of candidate genes responsible for phenotypes of interest, such as cancer, is a major challenge in the field of bioinformatics. These lists of genes are often called genomic signatures and their linkage to phenotype associations may form a significant step in discovering the causation between genotypes and phenotypes. Traditional methods that produce genomic signatures from DNA Microarray data tend to extract significantly different lists under relatively small variations of the training data. That instability hinders the validity of research findings and raises skepticism about the reliability of such methods. In this study, a complete framework for the extraction of stable and reliable lists of candidate genes is presented. The proposed methodology enforces stability of results at the validation step and as a result, it is independent of the feature selection and classification methods used. Furthermore, two different statistical tests are performed in order to assess the statistical significance of the observed results. Moreover, the consistency of the signatures extracted by independent executions of the proposed method is also evaluated. The results of this study highlight the importance of stability issues in genomic signatures, beyond their prediction capabilities.
    Print ISSN: 1545-5963
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-9964
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
    Published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) on behalf of The IEEE Computational Intelligence Society ; The IEEE Computer Society ; The IEEE Control Systems Society ; The IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society ; The Association for Computing Machinery.
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  • 72
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: In systems biology, network models are often used to study interactions among cellular components, a salient aim being to develop drugs and therapeutic mechanisms to change the dynamical behavior of the network to avoid undesirable phenotypes. Owing to limited knowledge, model uncertainty is commonplace and network dynamics can be updated in different ways, thereby giving multiple dynamic trajectories, that is, dynamics uncertainty. In this manuscript, we propose an experimental design method that can effectively reduce the dynamics uncertainty and improve performance in an interaction-based network. Both dynamics uncertainty and experimental error are quantified with respect to the modeling objective, herein, therapeutic intervention. The aim of experimental design is to select among a set of candidate experiments the experiment whose outcome, when applied to the network model, maximally reduces the dynamics uncertainty pertinent to the intervention objective.
    Print ISSN: 1545-5963
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-9964
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
    Published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) on behalf of The IEEE Computational Intelligence Society ; The IEEE Computer Society ; The IEEE Control Systems Society ; The IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society ; The Association for Computing Machinery.
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  • 73
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Network Alignment over graph-structured data has received considerable attention in many recent applications. Global network alignment tries to uniquely find the best mapping for a node in one network to only one node in another network. The mapping is performed according to some matching criteria that depend on the nature of data. In molecular biology, functional orthologs, protein complexes, and evolutionary conserved pathways are some examples of information uncovered by global network alignment. Current techniques for global network alignment suffer from several drawbacks, e.g., poor performance and high memory requirements. We address these problems by proposing IBNAL, Indexes-Based Network ALigner, for better alignment quality and faster results. To accelerate the alignment step, IBNAL makes use of a novel clique-based index and is able to align large networks in seconds. IBNAL produces a higher topological quality alignment and comparable biological match in alignment relative to other state-of-the-art aligners even though topological fit is primarily used to match nodes. IBNAL’s results confirm and give another evidence that homology information is more likely to be encoded in network topology than sequence information.
    Print ISSN: 1545-5963
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-9964
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
    Published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) on behalf of The IEEE Computational Intelligence Society ; The IEEE Computer Society ; The IEEE Control Systems Society ; The IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society ; The Association for Computing Machinery.
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  • 74
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: This index covers all technical items - papers, correspondence, reviews, etc. - that appeared in this periodical during the year, and items from previous years that were commented upon or corrected in this year. Departments and other items may also be covered if they have been judged to have archival value. The Author Index contains the primary entry for each item, listed under the first author's name. The primary entry includes the co-authors' names, the title of the paper or other item, and its location, specified by the publication abbreviation, year, month, and inclusive pagination. The Subject Index contains entries describing the item under all appropriate subject headings, plus the first author's name, the publication abbreviation, month, and year, and inclusive pages. Note that the item title is found only under the primary entry in the Author Index.
    Print ISSN: 1545-5963
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-9964
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
    Published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) on behalf of The IEEE Computational Intelligence Society ; The IEEE Computer Society ; The IEEE Control Systems Society ; The IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society ; The Association for Computing Machinery.
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  • 75
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper presents the study of the energy characteristics of CuBr and CuCl lasers pumped by a longitudinal capacitive discharge. It is shown that with the peaking capacitor connected to the electrodes of a gas-discharge tube of capacitive-discharge-pumped metal halide vapor laser, the lasing power can significantly increase. The optimum value of peaking capacitance varies from 25% to 60% of the value of the capacitive electrodes serial connection. The introduction of HBr additive into the active volume significantly improves laser performance and requires greater peaking capacitance than operation without active additive. The most increase in the output power corresponds to small diameter tubes and amounts 50%, in tubes of large diameter an increase amounts 20%–40%. Currently, the maximum average lasing power of 15 W has been achieved for the capacitive-discharge-pumped metal vapor laser.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9197
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1713
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 76
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Monolithic integration of antimonide (Sb)-based compound semiconductors on Si is in high demand to enrich silicon photonics by extending the detection range to longer infrared wavelengths. In this paper, we have demonstrated the damage-free transfer of large-area ( $1times 1$ cm 2 ) narrow-bandgap Sb-based type-II superlattice (T2SL)-based thin-film materials onto a Si substrate using a combination of wafer-bonding and chemical epilayer release techniques. An array of Sb-based T2SL-based long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) photodetectors with diameters from 100 to $400~mu text{m}$ has been successfully fabricated using standard “top–down” processing technique. The transferred LWIR photodetectors exhibit a cut-off wavelength of $sim 8.6~mu text{m}$ at 77 K. The dark current density of the transferred photodetectors under 200 mV applied bias at 77 K is as low as $5.7times 10^{mathrm {-4}}$ A/cm 2 and the $text{R}times text{A}$ reaches $66.3~Omega cdot $ cm 2 , exhibiting no electrical degradation compared with reference samples on GaSb native substrate. The quantum efficiency and peak responsivity at $6.75~mu text{m}$ (@77 K, 200 mV) are 46.2% and 2.44 A/W, respectively. The specific detectivity (D*) at $6.75~mu text{m}$ reaches as high as $1.6times 10^{mathrm {11}}$ cm $cdot $ Hz 1/2 /W under 200 mV bias at 77 K. Our method opens a reliable pathway to realize high performance and practical Sb-based optoelectronic devices on a Si platform.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9197
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1713
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 77
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: An all-optical forwarding relay (AOFR) system is proposed to provide an arbitrary forward with multiple channels and demonstrated by incorporating multiple acquisition, tracking, and pointing (ATP) systems and an arbitrary optical forwarding system (AOFS) with eight channels carrying passive loads. The insertion loss and arbitrary switching time of the AOFS are tested to be <1.1 dB and ~3 ms, respectively. The number of hops, bit error rate, and $Q$ factor are evaluated with three modulation formats, 997 Mb/s 16-QAM, 27 Gb/s BPSK, and 54 Gb/s QPSK. The results indicate that the connection time of the optical communication is reduced to a few milliseconds by using the rapid arbitrary channel switching and the pre-point of ATP systems. In addition, the AOFR system is fully transparent to the channel wavelengths, forwarding ports, data rates, and modulation formats. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed AOFR system demonstrates the first arbitrary channel forwarding solution for large-capacity passive load among satellites, which will be an enabling solution for future interstellar optical communication networks.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9197
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1713
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 78
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: An approach based on a comprehensive, unified model for fiber laser and amplifier systems is used in the design of high-power, high-energy systems. With guidance from the model, a chirally coupled-core Yb-doped fiber amplifier system is constructed. We use a two-stage system comprised of a 2.5-m long fiber preamplifier and a 3.0-m long fiber booster amplifier to illustrate the method. This compact system is capable of generating outputs of up to 1.2 mJ for 25-ns pulses at a repetition rate of 100 kHz, with average power of up to 121 W, and a slope efficiency of 82%.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 79
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) composed of Y 2 O 3 -doped HfO 2 (YDH)/SiO 2 layers with high reflectivity spectrum centered at a wavelength of ∼240 nm is fabricated using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Before the DBR deposition, optical properties for a single layer of YDH, SiO 2 , and HfO 2 thin films were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry. To investigate the performance of YDH as a material for the high refractive index layer in the DBR, a comparison of its optical properties was made with HfO 2 thin films. Due to larger optical bandgap, the YDH thin films demonstrated higher transparency, lower extinction coefficient, and lower absorption coefficient in the UV-C regime (especially for wavelengths below 250 nm) compared to the HfO 2 thin films. The fabricated YDH/SiO 2 DBR consisting of 15 periods achieved a reflectivity higher than 99.9% at the wavelength of ∼240 nm with a stopband of ∼50 nm. The high reflectivity and broad stopband of YDH/SiO 2 DBRs will enable further advancement of various photonic devices such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and resonant-cavity photodetectors operating in the UV-C wavelength regime.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 80
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Phased antenna arrays have been used extensively for massive MIMO-based multiuser beamforming to improve both the throughput and power efficiency of wireless communication systems. Beamforming can be realized by the Butler matrix, which has been demonstrated in the electric domain. With wireless systems migration toward simplified remote radio units through radio-over-fiber and sharing of signal processing functions located in the central office, it is desirable to implement this beamforming technique in the optical domain. In this paper, we propose an optical implementation of the Butler matrix using purely passive optical components such as directional couplers and delay lines. With the additional use of optical routing elements, the number of signal streams connected to the baseband unit equals the number of the actual users rather than the number of antenna elements, thereby achieving hardware efficiency for multiuser beamforming. Moreover, the proposed optical Butler matrix acts on the optical intensity rather than the optical field, and therefore, low-cost intensity-modulation direct-detection (IMDD) optical transceivers can be used. A proof-of-concept experiment is conducted to demonstrate the optical 2 × 2 Butler matrix. Scaling the optical Butler matrix to high port counts is also discussed.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 81
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: In this work, we investigate the possibility of employing graphene field effect transistors, specifically designed for microwave applications, as infrared detectors for telecom applications. Our devices have been fabricated on a sapphire substrate employing CVD-grown transferred graphene. The roles of both the gate dielectric and the DC bias conditions have been evaluated in order to maximize the infrared generated signal through an experimental investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio dependence on the transistor operating point.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 82
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Cascaded cross-phase modulation instability (XPMI) is experimentally observed in the normal dispersion regime of a birefringent tellurite microstructured optical fiber (BTMOF). At the average pump power of ∼33 mW, cascaded XPMI with nine stokes sidebands and six antistokes sidebands is observed in a 3-m BTMOF. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of cascaded XPMI in nonsilica optical fibers. The influence of fiber length variation on the evolution of cascaded XPMI is investigated by using a 0.3-m BTMOF. At the same pump power, cascaded XPMI with only eight stokes sidebands and five antistokes sidebands is observed. This is because shorter fiber length leads to lower nonlinear effect, which in turn induces less obvious XPMI effect.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 83
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A new structure for suppressing the relative intensity noise (RIN) from an optical source is presented. It is based on an integrated dual-polarization dual-parallel modulator and a balanced detector. It only requires a single fiber connected between the transmitter and the receiver whereas two fibers are required in the conventional dual-output modulator based RIN suppression structure. Experimental results demonstrate RIN suppression of >10 dB over 1–16 GHz frequency range with and without RF signal modulation.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 84
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We propose a chaotic discrete Hartley transform (DHT) to enhance the physical-layer security and simultaneously improve the transmission performance of optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) in passive optical network. The theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the chaotic DHT precoding matrix after independent row/column permutations can also effectively reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of OFDM signals, which can be generated for OFDM data encryption using digital chaos. The multifold data encryption provides a huge key space of ∼10 178 to ensure the physical-layer confidentiality. An encrypted data transmission of 8.9 Gb/s 16-QAM optical OFDM signals is successfully demonstrated over 20 km standard single-mode fiber. Due to the effective reduction in PAPR by the chaotic DHT precoding matrix, the receiver sensitivity is improved by ∼1.4 dB ${(text{BER}@ 10}^{- 3})$ . Moreover, the proposed scheme has low computational complexity, which also provides high spectral efficiency since no additional sideband information is required.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 85
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) show several attractive features superior to traditional semiconductor LEDs for visible light communication (VLC). This paper experimentally tests and models the radiation pattern of a bent OLED panel for the first time. Different from a Lambertian radiation pattern, we propose an improved analytic mixed Gaussian model to describe the rotational radiation asymmetry, whose parameter values are found by applying an expectation-maximization algorithm for curve fitting with measurements. The OLED radiation pattern is observed to show strong directionality along the bent axes. Its impact on VLC channel characteristics is further studied. Compared with the Lambertian source, the OLED source is more flexible in radiation pattern control and shows advantages in smaller root mean square delay spread and optical path loss.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 86
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: With the development of wireless optical communication and solid-state lighting, the high efficiency, large bandwidth, and high uniform white light source becomes more and more important. In this paper, a white light source generated by red, green, and blue laser diodes (RGB LDs) was synthetized according to the calculated power ratio of RGB LDs based on the chromaticity theory. The high coherence of the lasers normally leads to the nonuniform white light. Thus, it is to improve the illumination quality of the lighting source by employing micro lens for the purpose of homogenization. The simulation results showed that the uniformity of the white light incoherent radiation was above 90% which proves that the coherence of the lasers was destroyed. In addition, the photoelectric parameters of the RGB-LD mixed white light after homogenization was characterized. Meanwhile, the modulation bandwidth of RGB LDs before and after homogenization was analyzed, respectively, and it shows that the bandwidth was more than 1 GHz, which is limited by the photodetector cut-off frequency. Such a high-uniformity and high-speed RGB-LD mixed white light can be deployed for illumination and wireless communication simultaneously.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics