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  • 1
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Presents the farewell message from the founding Editor-in-Chief.
    Print ISSN: 2168-6831
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Geosciences , Computer Science
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  • 2
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Presents the President’s message for this issue of the publication.
    Print ISSN: 2168-6831
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Geosciences , Computer Science
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  • 3
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: HyperLabelMe is a web platform that allows the automatic benchmarking of remote-sensing image classifiers. To demonstrate this platform's attributes, we collected and harmonized a large data set of labeled multispectral and hyperspectral images with different numbers of classes, dimensionality, noise sources, and levels. The registered user can download training data pairs (spectra and land cover/use labels) and submit the predictions for unseen testing spectra. The system then evaluates the accuracy and robustness of the classifier, and it reports different scores as well as a ranked list of the best methods and users. The system is modular, scalable, and ever-growing in data sets and classifier results.
    Print ISSN: 2168-6831
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Geosciences , Computer Science
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  • 4
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Presents information on the Remote Sensing with Intelligent Processing 2017 conference.
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    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Geosciences , Computer Science
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  • 5
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Presents information on various GRS Society chapters.
    Print ISSN: 2168-6831
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Geosciences , Computer Science
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  • 6
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Print ISSN: 2168-6831
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Geosciences , Computer Science
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  • 7
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Two kinds of compact planar electrical resonant structures (PERSs) are proposed as the solution to realize far-field sub-wavelength imaging of extended target. The proposed structures have their advantages in low profile, compact size, and electrical coupling property. The conversion between evanescent and propagation waves of the two structures enables the sub-wavelength information to be carried to far-field. The first PERS consists of periodically distributed spiral resonators. With the help of background Green's function, sub-wavelength images of two-dimensional extended target with the resolutions of λ/11 from simulation and λ/7 from experiment are reconstructed in the far-field by multiple signal classification imaging method. The second PERS similarly consists of spiral resonators, which operate at different frequencies. Image of an extended target with a resolution of λ/17 from experiment is reconstructed from the spectra received in the far-field, without the use of the background Green's function. Both simulations and experiments are performed to validate the proposed structures. The sub-wavelength imaging results show that the proposed PERSs can be widely applied in new super-resolution imaging systems.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 8
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: A 15 dB differential link-loss ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (UDWDM-PON) with two optical network units (ONU) spectrally spaced 6.25 GHz is experimentally implemented and tested. The ONU transmitters consist of direct phase modulated distributed feedback lasers through a digital beat signal, whose amplitude and duty cycle are optimized for maximum phase variations, avoiding the need for an analogue equalizer. We achieved receiver sensitivities of −53, −50.5, and −45 dBm for bit rates of 1.25, 2.5, and 5 Gb/s, respectively, at BER $= 4~cdot ~10^{-3}$ with an intradyne coherent receiver.
    Print ISSN: 1041-1135
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0174
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  • 9
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: In this letter, we demonstrate a compact optical switch realized by integrating a graphene layer with a silicon photonic crystal cavity fabricated using deep UV immersion lithography and a novel transfer printing approach. A 17-dB extinction ratio and 0.75-nm shift in the cavity resonance are measured for a swing voltage of only 1.2 V. The graphene layer is limited to $mu $ m in size. The experimental results are linked to a theoretical model and used to predict possible improvements to the design.
    Print ISSN: 1041-1135
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  • 10
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: In this letter, we propose layered/enhanced asymmetrically clipped optical single-carrier frequency-division multiplexing (L/E-ACO-SCFDM) for optical-wireless communications. L/E-ACO-SCFDM has a lower computational complexity and peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) than L/E-ACO orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (L/E-ACO-OFDM). The computational complexity of the simplified transmitter in L/E-ACO-SCFDM with $R$ layers is $(2-2/2^{R})O(N)$ , which is lower than the computational complexity of $(2-2/2^{R})O(Ntext {log}_{2}N)$ in L/E-ACO-OFDM. At a complementary cumulative distribution function of $10^{-3}$ , the PAPR of L/E-ACO-SCFDM is approximately 4.2, 3.4, and 2.7 dB lower than that of L/E-ACO-OFDM for 2, 3, and 4 layers, respectively. The simulation results indicate that L/E-ACO-SCFDM has better performance than L/E-ACO-OFDM under the transmitter nonlinearity and multipath fading.
    Print ISSN: 1041-1135
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  • 11
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Front-illuminated GaN-based separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) ultraviolet (UV) avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with various photon detection areas are demonstrated grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on bulk GaN native substrates with low dislocation density. By adopting a front-illuminated UV-APD structure with a thin AlGaN window layer, no additional etching of the substrate for the reduction of strong UV absorption is required. The epitaxial layer structure of the p-i-p-i-n SAM UV-APDs consists of a Mg-doped ${p}$ -Al 0.05 Ga 0.95 N window layer to minimize UV absorption at the top surface region and a Mg-graded ${p}$ -GaN charge layer to serve as a field-termination layer. The onset point of the breakdown voltage ( $V_{text {BR}}$ ) is around 73 V for all SAM-APDs with different mesa areas ranging from 1963 to 10 $000~mu text{m}^{2}$ , which is a lower $V_{text {BR}}$ than the typical p-i-n UV-APDs with the similar thickness of undoped layer, where the photon absorption and multiplication processes take place simultaneously. Under UV-light illumination at $lambda =340$ nm, the SAM-APDs exhibit high avalanche gains greater than $8.0times 10^{5}$ at a reverse bias of $V_{R}> 72.5$ V
    Print ISSN: 1041-1135
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  • 12
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: A novel fully explicit vectorial time-domain algorithm for the analysis of photonic devices capable of solving Maxwell’s equations with arbitrarily large time steps is presented. Furthermore, the time-domain propagation algorithm ensures energy conservation and stability. For this purpose, a unitary time-domain propagation scheme is defined by a suitable polynomial expansion of the propagator.
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  • 13
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: In this letter, the design, fabrication, and characterization of an SU-8 GPON diplexer based on directional couplers are presented. The polymeric devices on SiO 2 /Si lower cladding substrate were directly written by introducing H-nu 470 photoinitiator, which provides substantial improvement in mechanical and thermal stability, reliability, and low loss, allowing flexible prototyping through H-line lithography at a 405-nm wavelength. Design of the filters and waveguide processing and fabrication are described, and the experimental results of the designed diplexer are shown.
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  • 14
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: A grating coupler having asymmetric grating trenches for low back reflections is experimentally demonstrated. Conventional and asymmetric-trench grating couplers have been fabricated on a silicon nitride waveguide platform. Both grating couplers have fully etched trenches, which normally result in higher back reflections than shallow-etched trenches. For evaluating the back reflection characteristics, test structures based on a 3-dB multimode interference power splitter have been measured and the backreflection has been extracted from each grating coupler using an equivalent optical circuit. The designed grating coupler has no critical penalty (<0.2 dB) in coupling efficiency and ~5 dB lower back reflections than a conventional grating coupler design. Using ray transfer matrix modeling, further improvements to the back reflection characteristics of the asymmetric grating coupler are expected.
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  • 15
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Print ISSN: 1540-7977
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-4216
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  • 16
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Print ISSN: 1540-7977
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  • 17
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Print ISSN: 1540-7977
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  • 18
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: One of the most critical and pressing solutions needed to address global climate change is the transition to secure, affordable, and sustainable-energy systems. This transition is usually considered a technological challenge because it involves the integration of renewable energy, a trend toward decentralizing energy generation, and more demandside participation. However, involving consumers in the transition is crucial for its success. For example, sustainable-energy transitions may require consumers to adopt sustainable-energy sources, technologies, and energy-efficiency measures as well as change their direct and indirect energy use behaviors to the limited and fluctuating supply of (renewable) energy. However, such behaviors may not always be easy for consumers to adopt, as they can entail personal sacrifice and discomfort or require them to change habits or infrastructure, which can be cognitively and financially demanding. To guarantee a sustainable future for all, it is critical that we understand what motivates consumers' energy behaviors and how we can promote consumers' motivation to engage in sustainable-energy behaviors and act beyond immediate personal interests.
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  • 19
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: To combat climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) calculated that greenhouse gas emissions in the energy domain should be reduced by 90%, compared to 2010 emissions, between the years 2040 and 2070. In Europe, residential households consume about a quarter of total energy used (excluding the energy that is embodied in products). To contribute to the carbon emission reduction targets set by the IPCC , households need to reduce their fossilenergy use.
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  • 20
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Public acceptability is at the heart of changing the energy system toward a more sustainable way of energy production and use. Without public acceptability and support for changes, a sustainable energy transition is unlikely to be viable. We argue that public acceptability is often addressed too late and should be incorporated into the planning process from the start. Moreover, engineers, policy makers, and project developers tend to misjudge the complexity and causes of public resistance, trying to find the magic bullet to "solve" the lack of public acceptability. Such attempts are likely to be ineffective, or even counterproductive, if they fail to address people's key concerns surrounding energy projects. There is not a one-size-fits-all solution: public acceptability is a dynamic process that depends on the context, the specific project at stake, and the parties involved.
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  • 21
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: A simple design for an orthomode transducer (OMT) is proposed for low-power antenna applications, such as receiver antennas as well as laboratory testing antennas. The design exploits detuning pins to enable enlarging the higher order mode-free bandwidth in an asymmetric configuration without compromising the port isolation. The design guidelines are presented for a scalable design. Moreover, the design is optimized to utilize all the single-mode operation bandwidth of the circular waveguide, covering the satellite communications band in North America (i.e., from 11.7 to 14.2 GHz). The presented OMT features a port coupling level below −34 dB. The measurement results are in a very good agreement with the full-wave analysis simulations.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9480
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 22
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Photonic generation of tunable microwave signal has gained the attention of many research communities. Various active components such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diode, semiconductor optical amplifier, and Fabry–Perot laser diode have been used for generating microwave signals using different techniques including side mode injection, feedback injection, and frequency combs. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to generate millimeter wave, simultaneous microwave and millimeter wave, and microwave together with hopping of RF frequency using a single external beam. Furthermore, we demonstrate injecting multiple external beams in a spatial-mode Fabry–Perot laser diode (SMFP-LD) to generate simultaneous multiband signals with negative wavelength detuning. The generated signal ranges from microwave to terahertz. We inject four external beams in SMFP-LD to generate RF frequencies that lie in Ku-, K-, Ka-, V-bands and higher millimeter wave. The frequency of generated signals can be tuned from a few gigahertz to several terahertz. The effects of changing the dominant mode, injecting external beams to different side modes, wavelength and power stability of beating wavelengths, and harmonic generations are analyzed. The maximum linewidth of the generated RF signals with multiple input beams (up to 42.5 GHz) is found to be about 300 kHz.
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  • 23
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Bilinear and Volterra models are important when dealing with nonlinear systems which arise in several signal processing applications. The former can approximate a large class of systems affine in the input with relatively low parametric complexity. Such an approximate bilinear model can be derived by means of Carleman bilinearization (CB). Then, a Volterra model can be computed from it, having the advantage of being linear in the parameters, but often involving a large number of them. In this paper, we develop efficient routines for CB and for computing the Volterra kernels of a bilinear system. We argue that they are useful for studying a class of systems for which a reference physical model is known. In particular, the so-derived kernels allow assessing the suitability of a Volterra filter and of other alternatives for modeling the system of interest. Techniques exploiting sparsity and low rank of involved matrices are proposed for alleviating computing cost. Several examples are given along the paper to illustrate their use, based on existing physical models of loudspeakers.
    Print ISSN: 1053-587X
    Electronic ISSN: 1941-0476
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  • 24
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: An emerging way to deal with high-dimensional noneuclidean data is to assume that the underlying structure can be captured by a graph. Recently, ideas have begun to emerge related to the analysis of time-varying graph signals. This paper aims to elevate the notion of joint harmonic analysis to a full-fledged framework denoted as time-vertex signal processing, that links together the time-domain signal processing techniques with the new tools of graph signal processing. This entails three main contributions: a) We provide a formal motivation for harmonic time-vertex analysis as an analysis tool for the state evolution of simple partial differential equations on graphs; b) we improve the accuracy of joint filtering operators by up-to two orders of magnitude; c) using our joint filters, we construct time-vertex dictionaries analyzing the different scales and the local time-frequency content of a signal. The utility of our tools is illustrated in numerous applications and datasets, such as dynamic mesh denoising and classification, still-video inpainting, and source localization in seismic events. Our results suggest that joint analysis of time-vertex signals can bring benefits to regression and learning.
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  • 25
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: Offset-quadratic-amplitude-modulation-based filterbank multicarrier (FBMC-OQAM) has been shown to be a promising alternative to cyclic prefix-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. More recently, the use of FBMC-OQAM has been proposed in combination with massive MIMO communications. In this context, it is interesting to study the overall effect of massive MIMO on the FBMC-OQAM intrinsic interference and its interaction with channel frequency selectivity. In this paper, the performance of an FBMC-OQAM uplink massive MIMO system is theoretically characterized in terms of the output mean squared error (MSE) of the estimated transmitted symbols and for three types of linear receivers, namely, zero forcer, linear minimum mean squared error, and matched filter. Using random matrix theory, the output MSE of these receivers is asymptotically characterized as the number of base station antennas $N$ and the number of users $K$ grow large, while keeping a finite ratio $N/K$ . The obtained expressions allow to draw many conclusions, some of which were already noticed in the literature but not yet theoretically proven. First, the MSE becomes uniform across the frequency band as a result of the channel hardening effect. Second, it is shown that a good synchronization of the users is crucial in a massive MIMO scenario. Finally, if the users are well synchronized, the different terms that compose the MSE, such as noise, interuser interference, and the distortion caused by the channel frequency selectivity, become negligible for large values of the ratio $N/K$ . This effect was previously referred to as “self-equalization” in the literature.
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  • 26
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Advertisement.
    Print ISSN: 1527-3342
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-9581
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  • 27
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: The impact of spectral phase noise on the temporal pulse contrast is explored experimentally by using two zero-dispersion stretchers (Offner stretcher and two-lens stretcher). The results show clearly that a long temporal pedestal appears when there exists far-field spectral phase noise, which greatly degrades the pulse contrast. In our proof-of-principle experiment, by using a two-lens stretcher, the far-field spectral phase noise is avoided and the noise pedestal of the amplified pulse in a Nd:glass laser system is reduced, with the contrast reaching a level of 10 –11 in the 60-ps time window before the main pulse. This simple method may pave the way in a PW-level Nd:glass laser by directly using pre-cleaning techniques.
    Print ISSN: 1077-260X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-4542
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  • 28
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Advertisement.
    Print ISSN: 1527-3342
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  • 29
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: A novel fluorescence probe based on ZnTe quantum dots (QDs) modified by 3-Mercaptopropionic acid had been constructed for the selective and sensitive detection of paeoniflorin. ZnTe QDs were successfully synthesized via a simple method in aqueous solutions. The average size of ZnTe QDs was 12 nm and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractograms. Upon addition of paeoniflorin into the system, the fluorescence intensity was significantly quenched in buffer solution. This proposed fluorescence sensor can be used to detect paeoniflorin under certain conditions, which pH was 7.5, temperature was 25 °C and incubation time was 20 min. Additionally, the quenching procedure was presumed to be static and the mechanism was proved by the rate constant $K_{q},(9.70 times 10^{11}text {L}cdot text {mol}^{-1}cdot text {s}^{-1})$
    Print ISSN: 1530-437X
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1748
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  • 30
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: The electronic properties and the adsorption behavior of n-butylamine on B 40 borospherene molecular device are studied using the density functional theory in combination with the non-equilibrium Green’s function method. The device density of states spectrum demonstrates the variation in peak maxima, and the molecular orbitals between the borospherene base material and the target vapor show the transfer of electrons. $I - V$ characteristics confirm the variation in the current upon adsorption of n-butylamine vapor molecules on borospherene device. The findings from the quantum chemical studies infer that borospherene molecular device may be used to detect n-butylamine vapors in the trace level.
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  • 31
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Fullerenes (C60) exhibits many advantageous properties but its poor solubility seriously restricts its applications. In this paper, C60 is dissolved in graphene oxide (GO) aqueous solution homogenously. This water-soluble composite material of GO/C60 is used for making a capacitive humidity sensor. This sensor shows a sensitivity of three times larger than that of the sensor based on C60 film. The possible reason is that C60 is uniformly adsorbed on the surface of GO, thus reducing the agglomeration of C60. This is supported by TEM, FTIR, and complex impedance test.
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  • 32
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: We demonstrate that using a broadband, first order, and coherent pump laser enables effective and efficient forward-pumped distributed Raman amplification for long-haul transmission systems, thanks to the simultaneous suppression of ASE noise and RIN-related penalty. We show in both experiments and simulation that this scheme extends the reach of $10times120$ Gb/s DP-QPSK WDM transmission by a minimum of 50%, compared with low RIN Bi-doped fibre laser and other commercially available pump lasers. Moreover, it requires very low forward pump power, and maintains uniform/symmetric signal power distribution which allows effective nonlinearity compensation.
    Print ISSN: 1041-1135
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  • 33
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: We proposed an improved femtosecond optical Kerr gate with double gate pulses (DOKG) using a femtosecond laser, in which an ultrashort switching time can be realized even when a relatively slow response optical Kerr medium of carbon disulfide was used. The results showed that when the time delay and the light intensity ratio of the two pump pulses were adjusted to be about 140 fs and 1:0.9, the switching time and the maximum transmission efficiency of the DOKG could be optimized to be about 130 fs and 37%. The DOKG is convenient to be built and offers a good choice for applications based on ultrafast optical switch.
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  • 34
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Energy involves everybody. Current changes in energy and power systems, including the distributed production of renewables, an increasing need for flexibility of operations, and energy storage and transmission, affect consumers in one way or another. Changes often require the active participation and support of consumers, who may become prosumers. All the new systems and technologies developed by electrical engineers may influence consumer behavior and trigger positive or negative responses. Hence, it is important for electrical engineers to understand how their work may affect consumers, which behavior changes their solutions involve, and which consumer needs and preferences must be considered when developing new technology. This issue encourages a conversation among electrical engineers and social scientists and facilitates the integration of their different expertise.
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  • 35
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: In this paper, for the first time, we introduce a simple and low cost hydrazine sensor based on a commercial junction field-effect transistor (JFET). The transistor was mechanically treated, isolated, and used as an ion sensitive FET (ISFET) for hydrazine detection, after the electrodeposition of the sensing membrane on its metal gate surface. Copper hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles as suitable sensing membrane were electrodeposited on the copper metal gate of transistor from a solution containing K 4 Fe(CN) 6 by a cyclic voltammetry method. The prepared sensor showed a super-Nernstian response of 94.8 mV pHyd −1 over a linear concentration range of $1.17times 10^{-5}$ – $2.15times 10^{-2}$ M, a very low drift of 0.04 mV h −1 , and the detection limit of $3.16~mu text{M}$ . Also, the various ISFET characteristics of the prepared sensor were studied and discussed.
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  • 36
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Pristine and different amounts of praseodymium oxide (Pr 6 O 11 )-functionalized tin oxide (SnO 2 ) flower-like architectures were synthesized by a facile one-step hydrothermal method. Their crystal structure, surface morphology, and chemical compositions were analyzed by XRD, SEM, TEM, and XPS. Measured results showed that Pr existing was in the form of Pr 6 O 11 . Compared with pristine SnO 2 architectures, the gas sensing properties toward acetone of Pr 6 O 11 -functionalized SnO 2 architectures could significantly be enhanced under different working temperatures. The response of the as-synthesized Pr 6 O 11 /SnO 2 (Pr (mol) :Sn (mol) = 1:50) sensor to 100 ppm acetone was about 27, which was about three times higher than that of pristine SnO 2 architectures. The response/recovery time was 2/36 s at 200 °C. When acetone concentration was down to 1 ppm, Pr 6 O 11 /SnO 2 (Pr (mol) :Sn (mol) = 1:50) sensor also exhibited an obvious response. Meanwhile, the enhanced gas sensing mechanism of Pr 6 O 11 -functionalized SnO 2 architectures was discussed, and the results indicated that the architectures are promising candidates for the practical acetone sensing.
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  • 37
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: This paper presents an analytical model for a recently introduced class of 2-D directional anemometers based on fluidic structures capable of averaging the differential pressure developed by the wind across distinct diameters of the transverse cross-section of a single cylinder. In previous works, it was found that performing the average over a proper set of diameters produces a differential pressure that depends on the wind direction according to a cosine law, allowing simple direction estimation. This fact, which was not investigated in previous articles, is explained in this paper taking into account symmetry and angular spectral properties of the pressure distribution. Besides analyzing previously proposed devices, this paper introduces several new configurations, which are classified according to the type of average and number of diameters involved. Comparison of the estimated performances with the experimental results obtained in earlier works clearly shows that prototypes proposed so far were far from achieving the best theoretical accuracy, suggesting that significant improvements can be obtained by re-design of the fluidic structures.
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  • 38
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: A new, non-contact, planar spiral coil-based inductive displacement sensor is presented in this paper. The proposed sensor employs a fixed planar coil and a movable $U$ -shaped magnetic core. The sensor is designed such a way that the shape of inductance versus displacement $x$ is sinusoidal. Due to this feature, the value of $x$ is obtained easily from the inductance measured without the need of a look-up table, which is not the case for most of the planar coil-based sensors. The proposed sensor has very low sensitivity to vertical misalignment of the core. A phase-sensitive detector-based measurement scheme is employed to measure the inductance. The inductance characteristic of the proposed sensor is symmetric with respect to the center of the coil. A simple capacitive detection scheme to distinguish the position of the core between the two halves of the coil is proposed in this paper. This method enables to extend the sensor range with multiple coils connected in series. A prototype of the proposed sensor has been developed and tested. The sensor has a worst case error of 0.6%. A modified sensor using two coil sets has been developed. The modified sensor has high sensitivity over its entire range, unlike the first prototype. It has a worst case error of 0.2% and a resolution of 6.5 $mu text{m}$ . The low-cost sensor developed will be useful for many industrial linear position sensing applications.
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  • 39
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: We developed a gyroscope with less than 1-deg/h bias instability variation in a temperature range from −40 °C to 125 °C while performing around 4-deg/h bias instability. This stability was achieved by using the stable frequency separation between the drive and sense modes of a Coriolis vibratory gyroscope. To achieve this stability, the mechanical part was designed with a one-sided open frame to mitigate the variation of resonant frequencies caused by thermal stress. At the circuit level, we implemented a self-clocking architecture with a bandpass $Sigma -Delta $ analog-to-digital converter to maintain low quantization noise level over the operational temperature range. The fabricated gyroscope demonstrated a 2-Hz variation of frequency separation for an operational frequency of 18.5 kHz in the operational temperature range. At a system level, a bias instability variation of 0.9 deg/h in the temperature range while performing bias instability less than 4.21 deg/h was demonstrated. This low-noise variation is potentially beneficial for applications requiring a Kalman filter, such as GPS-denied navigation systems, that demands a precise and predetermined noise property.
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  • 40
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Fabrication and characterization of a highly sensitive fiber-optic cholesterol sensor utilizing cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) have been carried out. The operation of the sensor is based on combined phenomenon of localized and propagating surface plasmons. Two different immobilization schemes of enzyme ChOx have been used. In one, the enzyme is entrapped in the hydrogel and in second the enzyme is immobilized over the graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets. The synthesis of GO is confirmed by XRD, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy and the binding between ChOx and GO is verified through the Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Following three types of probes having different configurations are fabricated and compared: 1) enzyme entrapped gel layer over silver coated unclad fiber; 2) enzyme immobilized over silver and GO coated unclad fiber; and 3) enzyme immobilized over silver, GO, and silver nanoparticles coated unclad fiber. The performance of all these probes have been compared in terms of operating range, sensitivity and limit of detection. The sensors have many advantages, such as compact size, modest cost, high sensitivity, high selectivity, and capability of remote sensing.
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  • 41
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: This paper presents a novel diaphragm-type fiber Bragg grating (FBG) force transducer with a high sensitivity through combining the axial property of the optical fiber and the transverse property of a circular diaphragm. The theoretical model of the presented sensor was derived, and its sensing characteristics were analyzed by numerical simulation and finite element analysis. A specimen of this type of sensor was manufactured with a 0.6mm-thickness diaphragm and a 0.1-ratio of the radius of the hard core and the outer radius of the diaphragm. Experiments were conducted to show that its experimental force sensitivity 441.84 pm/N was consistent with the theoretical value 422.4 pm/N within a working range of 0~4.9 N, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical model. Moreover, experimentally the designed transducer provided a broad flat frequency range from 0 to 200 Hz and a dynamic resolution of 0.15 mN $cdot $ (Hz −0.5 ). The temperature cross-sensitivity of this sensor was suppressed effectively in the range of 16.7 °C~53.6 °C after implementing the temperature compensation. Compared with the existing FBG force sensors, the proposed sensor provided higher and more easily adjustable sensitivity.
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  • 42
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Gesturing is an instinctive way of communicating to present a specific meaning or intent. Therefore, research into sign language interpretation using gestures has been explored progressively during recent decades to serve as an auxiliary tool for deaf and mute people to blend into society without barriers. In this paper, a smart sign language interpretation system using a wearable hand device is proposed to meet this purpose. This wearable system utilizes five flex-sensors, two pressure sensors, and a three-axis inertial motion sensor to distinguish the characters in the American sign language alphabet. The entire system mainly consists of three modules: 1) a wearable device with a sensor module; 2) a processing module; and 3) a display unit mobile application module. Sensor data are collected and analyzed using a built-in embedded support vector machine classifier. Subsequently, the recognized alphabet is further transmitted to a mobile device through Bluetooth low energy wireless communication. An Android-based mobile application was developed with a text-to-speech function that converts the received textinto audible voice output. Experiment results indicate that a true sign language recognition accuracy rate of 65.7% can be achieved on average in the first version without pressure sensors. A second version of the proposed wearable system with the fusion of pressure sensors on the middle finger increased the recognition accuracy rate dramatically to 98.2%. The proposed wearable system outperforms the existing method, for instance, although background lights, and other factors are crucial to a vision-based processing method, they are not for the proposed system.
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  • 43
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: A wireless and passive (battery free) temperature sensor that can be embedded inside an orthopedic implant, such as an interference screw, was developed. The sensor is based on an inductive–capacitive–resistive resonant circuit that is inductively powered so the temperature at the implant can be measured wirelessly. A potential application of this sensor is to monitor internal wound temperature for the diagnosis of local infection at the implant site. Infections pose a significant risk to patients, who receive orthopedic implants, often lead to adverse conditions including implant failure, tissue necrosis, and amputation. Current approaches for diagnosing orthopedic implant-associated infections, such as blood tests, radiographic imaging, and histological study are slow, tedious, and nonspecific. In recent years, thermographic imaging has been used to monitor local temperature at the external surgical site as a means to detect infection, but its applications are limited to surface or near-surface wounds. The described sensor will serve as an useful research tool to investigate using temperature as an indication of deep-tissue orthopedic implant infection. When fully developed, this sensor may also improve orthopedic care by allowing simple, early detection of infection at an implant site. This paper describes the design and fabrication of the sensor, as well as characterizes its performance. Experimental results indicate the temperature response of the sensor is reproducible within the tested range of 30–42 °C.
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  • 44
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Feature extraction for fault signals is critical and difficult in all kinds of fault detection schemes. A novel simple and effective method of faulty feeder detection in resonant grounding distribution systems based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and convolutional neural network (CNN) is presented in this paper. The time-frequency gray scale images are acquired by applying the CWT to the collected transient zero-sequence current signals of the faulty feeder and sound feeders. The features of the gray scale image will be extracted adaptively by the CNN, which is trained by a large number of gray scale images under various kinds of fault conditions and factors. The features extraction and the faulty feeder detection can be implemented by the trained CNN simultaneously. As a comparison, two faulty feeder detection methods based on artificial feature extraction and traditional machine learning are introduced. A practical resonant grounding distribution system is simulated in power systems computer aided design/electromagnetic transients including DC, the effectiveness and performance of the proposed faulty feeder detection method is compared and verified under different fault circumstances.
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  • 45
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: With the increase of large outdoor advertising boards, the issues of public safety raised by the collapse of outdoor advertising boards have attracted great public concern. In this paper, a wireless sensor network (WSN) monitoring system is designed for the structural health monitoring of large outdoor advertising boards. By using the WSN technology, this system can judge the security of the outdoor advertising boards and give early warnings when the boards are being in danger. The monitoring system consists of two subsystems, one is the WSN structure system based on ZigBee wireless sensor nodes with a six-axis MEMS motion sensor integrated to capture the movement information, and the other is the monitoring center system controlled by ARM microcontroller for data processing and long-distance wireless communications with remote server through a GPRS module. The simulation model of outdoor advertising board is also built to analyze the deformed shape of the advertising board structure under wind load, and the early warning judgment standard is proposed. The performance of the monitoring system is evaluated through several experiments under the condition of laboratory in different aspects of the comparison experiments. The experimental results indicate that the WSN monitoring system can real timely and accurately monitor the state of the outdoor advertising boards.
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  • 46
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Presents information on the IEEE Sensor Journal cover/frontispiece competition.
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  • 47
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: In this letter, a novel time-domain implementation of robust first-order differential microphone arrays (DMAs), based on wave digital filters, is presented. The proposed beamforming method is extremely efficient, as it requires at most two multipliers and one delay for each filter, where the necessary number of filters equals the number of physical microphones of the array, and it avoids the use of fractional delays. The update of the coefficients of the filters, required for reshaping the beampattern, has a significantly lower computational cost with respect to the time-domain methods presented in the literature. This makes the proposed method suitable for real-time DMA applications with time-varying beampatterns.
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  • 48
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: The deployment of Wi-Fi fingerprint-based indoor positioning systems is severely hindered by the lack of an efficient and low-cost way to establish a signal fingerprint database. In this paper, we present a novel fingerprinting method, slide , that can collect fingerprints in a fast and accurate way. Slide uses a commodity flashlight and a smartphone to achieve linear positioning . This allows automatic mapping from the received signal strength to the position on a line, serving as a building block for fingerprinting in general environments. Slide also features a channel-based scanning method, which acquires fingerprint location after each Wi-Fi channel scanning, to mitigate the fingerprint misalignment problem found in the general mobile fingerprinting. Quantitative analysis and experimental results show that slide is faster than the manual fingerprinting method by up to an order of magnitude with comparable positioning accuracy, and is also more efficient than state-of-the-art mobile fingerprinting methods.
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  • 49
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Taste sensor with five all-solid-state electrodes (ASSE) III (third version) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of selected tonic waters (J.Gasco, Kinley, Jurajski, Jurajski with citrus flavor, Carrefour, Schweppes Indian Tonic, and Schweppes Bitter Lemon). The results obtained by this taste sensor analyzed with principal component analysis, agglomerative hierarchical clustering methods show that this sensor can be applied for discrimination of tonic waters with respect to their composition. Based on sensor’s results, two models for prediction of the content of quinine hydrochloride and total saccharides in selected tonic waters were developed using multivariate linear regression. The results obtained by this analysis in comparison to nominal data (experimentally determined and obtained from manufacturers’) are consistent (range of 0.1%–1.8%). It means that taste sensor with five ASSE III may be a useful tool for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of selected tonic waters.
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  • 50
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: A quasi-coaxial system consisting of a central current carrying copper rod and five symmetric return paths takes up to 20 kA. The installation provides a homogeneous magnetic field $mathbf {B_{varphi }}$ to a Taylor–Couette flow. One challenging part of the system is the design of the current distributor, which is supposed to divide the return current into several equally weighted lines. The individual components like the copper rods as well as all electrical contacts provide a characteristic resistance, each in the same magnitude of several $ {mu }Omega $ . By initial installation this will support an imbalance in the current distribution affecting the symmetry of the magnetic field. So the adjustment of current distribution becomes mandatory to ensure maximum field homogeneity. Controlling the outflow temperature of the required water cooling offers an indirect access to set the current by thermostatically operated valves with CO 2 adsorption charge in conjunction with the temperature dependent branch resistance. A numerical investigation proves that a stable current distribution can be achieved by a couple of paralleled thermal controlled heater valves with proportional characteristics. Finally, recent ironless Hall-effect current sensors help to calibrate the system so that the current homogeneity differs less than 1% from optimal state in a wide range of currents.
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  • 51
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Recognition of movement is a crucial process to assist humans in activities of daily living, such as walking. In this work, a high-level method for the simultaneous recognition of locomotion and gait phases using wearable sensors is presented. A Bayesian formulation is employed to iteratively accumulate evidence to reduce uncertainty, and to improve the recognition accuracy. This process uses a sequential analysis method to autonomously make decisions, whenever the recognition system perceives that there is enough evidence accumulated. We use data from three wearable sensors, attached to the thigh, shank, and foot of healthy humans. Level-ground walking, ramp ascent and descent activities are used for data collection and recognition. In addition, an approach for segmentation of the gait cycle for recognition of stance and swing phases is presented. Validation results show that the simultaneous Bayesian recognition method is capable to recognize walking activities and gait phases with mean accuracies of 99.87% and 99.20%. This process requires a mean of 25 and 13 sensor samples to make a decision for locomotion mode and gait phases, respectively. The recognition process is analyzed using different levels of confidence to show that our method is highly accurate, fast, and adaptable to specific requirements of accuracy and speed. Overall, the simultaneous Bayesian recognition method demonstrates its benefits for recognition using wearable sensors, which can be employed to provide reliable assistance to humans in their walking activities.
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  • 52
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Wireless body area networks are being deployed for an ever increasing number of applications. The main research challenges are still related to the quality of the communication link and to the energy consumption. Since WBAN on-body communication channels’ quality varies over time, it is not appropriate to use a static and pre-defined transmission power level (TPL). Nowadays, the vast majority of WBANs use transmission power control (TPC) mechanisms aiming to minimize energy waste during on-body communications, radio interferences, and the energy specific absorption rate (SAR). These goals are achieved by continuously adjusting and updating the TPL. This paper proposes a novel TPC mechanism that employs a hybrid operation principle (closed-loop control together with posture and motion detection) targeting resource constrained devices. This mechanism uses the on-body communication RSSI values to approximate the fading signal during the user’s gait cycle and, simultaneously, the acceleration signal (from inertial sensors) is used to determine the position within the gait cycle. Experimental results shows that the proposed TPC mechanism is capable to achieve up to 35% energy save per packet transmitted compared with the transmissions performed at maximum TPL. Furthermore, the additional traffic overhead is significantly smaller than those verified in other TPCs addressed in the literature. This research shows that all WBAN application requirements identified by IEEE 802.15.6 TG can be ensured in an energy-efficient way without sacrificing reliability and latency.
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  • 53
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: The experimental results of the paper titled “Delay compensation of tilt sensors based on mems accelerometer using data fusion technique” was commented by Bodnicki and Łuczak. In this note, we address the raised comments by the mentioned authors. Moreover, appropriate explanations are provided in order to make the procedure of the experimental section more clear.
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  • 54
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
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  • 55
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: This letter investigates an amplify-and-forward two-way relay network (TWRN) for short-packet communications. We consider a classical three-node TWRN consisting of two sources and one relay. Both two time slots (2TS) scheme and three time slots (3TS) scheme are studied under the finite blocklength regime. We derive approximate closed-form expressions of sum-block error rate (BLER) for both schemes. Simple asymptotic expressions for sum-BLER at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are also derived. Based on the asymptotic expressions, we analytically compare the sum-BLER performance of 2TS and 3TS schemes, and attain an expression of critical blocklength, which can determine the performance superiority of 2TS and 3TS in terms of sum-BLER. Extensive simulations are provided to validate our theoretical analysis. Our results discover that 3TS scheme is more suitable for a system with higher differences between the average SNR of both links, and relatively lower requirements on data rate and latency.
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  • 56
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Provides a listing of current staff, committee members and society officers.
    Print ISSN: 0018-9375
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  • 57
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: In the context of printed circuit design, microstrip interconnects pose a great challenge in terms of radiated emission, signal integrity, and intertrace interference. Curved and bent microstrip lines are integral part of such high-frequency circuit design. In this paper, internal fields of an arbitrarily curved microstrip line are calculated using a sequential mode matching technique with piecewise circular discretization. Transverse asymmetry of the electric field is observed due to unequal curvatures of the two side edges of the microstrip line. A dynamic co-ordinate system based on Serret–Frenet reference frame is developed. A simple transmission line model is formulated in this new co-ordinate system to calculate the radiated far fields from the line. The developed model is applied to compute radiation from a sinusoidal line as well as that of a planar spiral. The model is also applied to compute the radiation efficiencies from various microstrip bends and it is observed that circular bends exhibit minimum leakage amongst others. A sinusoidal line and a planar spiral are fabricated and measured. Results are shown to be in good agreement with those predicted by the analytical model.
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  • 58
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: The continuous trend toward the miniaturization of modules, comprising high sensitive devices along with noisy circuits like wireless transceivers and digital core blocks, has led us to investigate the effect of disturbances on analog front-end circuits used in system-in-package modules. In this context, this paper focuses on the distortion of radio frequency interference in CMOS current feedback instrumentation amplifiers like those used in MEMS readout circuits. The way baseband signals are distorted by such amplifiers, when the interference is superimposed onto the input signals, is analyzed referring to a math model, to computer simulations and to measurements carried out on a test chip designed and fabricated specifically for this purpose.
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  • 59
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: This paper proposes a method for efficient identification of instruction-dependent sources on a printed circuit board (PCB) by localizing magnetic field sources from a limited number of measurements around the PCB. We first excite the processor by generating an artificial leakage signal at a specific frequency that is directly related to processor instructions. Then, we collect all three components of the magnetic field, but only at locations around the edge of the board. Furthermore, we model these magnetic field sources and then solve a forward–backward optimization problem using the model and measured data to identify the locations of the magnetic field sources, the magnitudes of the moments, and their orientations. The localization results are first verified using simulations, then tested when noise is added to the simulation results, and finally verified against measurements on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and internet of things (IoT) development boards. The results show that the number of strong magnetic field sources on a board depends on the instructions used to excite the board. Furthermore, the results show that the proposed localization algorithm can accurately identify those sources, regardless of the frequency at which the measurements are conducted and the instruction pairs that are executed. Finally, the proposed method can significantly reduce the number of measurement points and the time needed to identify magnetic field sources on a PCB.
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  • 60
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Uncertainty quantification is an important issue in the field of radar cross section (RCS) research. To quantify the impact of specific uncertainty factor on RCS, a novel approach based on the feature selective validation (FSV) method combined with Monte Carlo (MC) method is proposed in this paper. MC method is applied as the basic framework for uncertainty analysis, and FSV is initially employed to compare the results derived from sufficient uncertainty simulations. To facilitate and enhance the massive data assessment, a novel single and direct indicator of FSV is proposed as a quantitative descriptor of data uncertainty. The feasibility of the proposed method in RCS uncertainty quantification is benchmarked through many RCS evaluation examples. The impact of attitude uncertainty on the target RCS, including the scene of dynamic flight, is also studied by the proposed method.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: In previous studies, high-frequency approximation (HFA) and outgoing wave methods (OWM) were used in calculating the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) generated by the high-altitude nuclear explosion. Maxwell's equations were reduced to ordinary differential equations. Here, an integral equation method (IEM) based on the HFA is employed to solve Maxwell's equations in the HEMP environment. A space and basis function decomposition is developed to improve the calculation performance. The IEM and the OWM are found identical in calculating both the transverse and the radial electric field. They are found to be of the first-order accuracy during the calculation of the transverse radiation field and the radial electric field. The saturation effects of both the transverse and the radial electric field are also discussed in this paper.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: During recent years anisotropic materials have received an increasing interest and found important applications in the field of shielding and antennas. The anisotropy may be due to intrinsic properties, or as a consequence of mixing. Intentionally or not, the anisotropy impacts the electromagnetic (EM) behavior of a system. Therefore, it is desirable to be able to incorporate the anisotropic effects in an EM model, to allow design tasks and analysis. In this paper, the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) formulation is extended to handle nondispersive linear anisotropic dielectrics. The anisotropic dielectric PEEC cell is derived and the resulting PEEC equations are developed into a descriptor system form, which is well suited for implementation in SPICE-like solvers, and for reduction by model-order reduction techniques. A verification of the model is given by a numerical example of a patch antenna situated on an anisotropic substrate and the results are in good agreement with a finite-difference time-domain implementation. The proposed PEEC model is of interest for further work, i.e., in the modeling of setups involving mixtures of materials, with an orientational alignment, and engineered materials, encountered in different EM compatibility applications.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the impedance characteristics of power distribution networks (PDNs) made of carbon nanotube through-silicon vias (CNT-TSVs). The equivalent circuit model of the CNT-TSV array is presented and validated through three-dimensional full-wave electromagnetic simulator up to 100 GHz. By virtue of the circuit model, the inductive properties of CNT-TSVs are characterized and compared for various physical parameters. Then, the PDN impedance characteristics of multiple stacked chip-PDNs with CNT-TSVs are captured and evaluated. It is found that the large CNT kinetic inductance may limit the PDN frequency range. Therefore, the fabrication of CNT-TSVs should be improved to increase the CNT density and reduce the contact resistance.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: In this paper, fast capacitor assignment algorithms capable of finding a decoupling solution scheme with a minimum number of components that meets a predefined target impedance with a semi-arbitrary shape within a few seconds to an hour for a given power distribution network (PDN) are proposed. The proposed algorithms also provide identification of shadowed decap ports in a PDN based on an inductance matrix extraction from the given PDN model. Elimination of those shadowed decap ports with the proposed algorithms enables more effective layouts and cost savings on PCB designs.
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  • 65
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: A novel broadband bandpass frequency-selective surface (FSS) designed for fifth generation (5G) EMI shielding is proposed in this paper. This new design employs the vertical vias into the 2-D periodic arrays, and such a single 2.5-D periodic layer of via-based structure is demonstrated to produce a highly stable angular response up to 60° for both TE and TM polarizations. By cascading two layers of such 2.5-D periodic arrays, the proposed FSS is able to obtain a broad passband as well as the wide out-of-band rejection. Moreover, it has a quite sharp band edge between the passband and the specified stopband. A corresponding equivalent circuit model (ECM) is further developed for better analysis of the operating principle. Finally, a prototype working at the center frequency of around 28 GHz is fabricated and measured. The main novelty of this paper is introducing the 2.5-D concept into designing a wideband FSS, and further reduce the unit size as well as improve the angular stability. Favorable agreement is achieved among the 3-D full-wave simulation, ECM and measurement. All these results demonstrate that the proposed FSS is a good candidate for 5G EMI shielding.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Magnetic field energy could be calculated by means of inductance, magnetic field intensity, or vector potential A, respectively. However, the former two methods may not reach an agreement in open loop problems. Partial inductance is calculated through A , whereas magnetic field intensity is also related to A . This letter analytically derives the difference between the former two methods. It is necessary that displacement current have to be carefully considered in open loop problems. A numerical example is given out for validation.
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  • 67
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Advertisement: Now over three million documents in IEEE Xplore. Thank you for your authorship.
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  • 68
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Advertisement, IEEE. IEEE Collabratec is a new, integrated online community where IEEE members, researchers, authors, and technology professionals with similar fields of interest can network and collaborate, as well as create and manage content. Featuring a suite of powerful online networking and collaboration tools, IEEE Collabratec allows you to connect according to geographic location, technical interests, or career pursuits. You can also create and share a professional identity that showcases key accomplishments and participate in groups focused around mutual interests, actively learning from and contributing to knowledgeable communities. All in one place! Learn about IEEE Collabratec at ieeecollabratec.org.
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  • 69
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
    Print ISSN: 0162-8828
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-3539
    Topics: Computer Science
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Given a large collection of unlabeled face images, we address the problem of clustering faces into an unknown number of identities. This problem is of interest in social media, law enforcement, and other applications, where the number of faces can be of the order of hundreds of million, while the number of identities (clusters) can range from a few thousand to millions. To address the challenges of run-time complexity and cluster quality, we present an approximate Rank-Order clustering algorithm that performs better than popular clustering algorithms (k-Means and Spectral). Our experiments include clustering up to 123 million face images into over 10 million clusters. Clustering results are analyzed in terms of external (known face labels) and internal (unknown face labels) quality measures, and run-time. Our algorithm achieves an F-measure of 0.87 on the LFW benchmark (13 K faces of 5,749 individuals), which drops to 0.27 on the largest dataset considered (13 K faces in LFW + 123M distractor images). Additionally, we show that frames in the YouTube benchmark can be clustered with an F-measure of 0.71. An internal per-cluster quality measure is developed to rank individual clusters for manual exploration of high quality clusters that are compact and isolated.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: The analysis of thin curvilinear objects in 3D images is a complex and challenging task. In this article, we introduce a new, non-linear operator, called RORPO (Ranking the Orientation Responses of Path Operators). Inspired by the multidirectional paradigm currently used in linear filtering for thin structure analysis, RORPO is built upon the notion of path operator from mathematical morphology. This operator, unlike most operators commonly used for 3D curvilinear structure analysis, is discrete, non-linear and non-local. From this new operator, two main curvilinear structure characteristics can be estimated: an intensity feature, that can be assimilated to a quantitative measure of curvilinearity; and a directional feature, providing a quantitative measure of the structure's orientation. We provide a full description of the structural and algorithmic details for computing these two features from RORPO, and we discuss computational issues. We experimentally assess RORPO by comparison with three of the most popular curvilinear structure analysis filters, namely Frangi Vesselness, Optimally Oriented Flux, and Hybrid Diffusion with Continuous Switch. In particular, we show that our method provides up to 8 percent more true positive and 50 percent less false positives than the next best method, on synthetic and real 3D images.
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  • 72
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: In this paper, we investigate and exploit the influence of facial expressions on automatic age estimation. Different from existing approaches, our method jointly learns the age and expression by introducing a new graphical model with a latent layer between the age/expression labels and the features. This layer aims to learn the relationship between the age and expression and captures the face changes which induce the aging and expression appearance, and thus obtaining expression-invariant age estimation. Conducted on three age-expression datasets (FACES [1] , Lifespan [2] and NEMO [3] ), our experiments illustrate the improvement in performance when the age is jointly learnt with expression in comparison to expression-independent age estimation. The age estimation error is reduced by 14.43, 37.75 and 9.30 percent for the FACES, Lifespan and NEMO datasets respectively. The results obtained by our graphical model, without prior-knowledge of the expressions of the tested faces, are better than the best reported ones for all datasets. The flexibility of the proposed model to include more cues is explored by incorporating gender together with age and expression. The results show performance improvements for all cues.
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  • 73
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: A set of image preprocessing approaches are developed for processing plankton images reconstructed from digital holograms. First, a threshold-based algorithm of image segmentation is proposed and applied to extract the regions of plankton from the original digital images. To improve the performance of image segmentation, an appropriate filter is adopted to reduce the background noise from the image and the image gray level is adjusted to enhance the image contrast. Second, we develop a novel and efficient edge detection method purposefully for the binary images. Third, we propose and use a simple chain-code-based algorithm to eliminate the single-pixel branches along the shape boundary, which will help boundary tracing work stably. Then, an algorithm is improved and applied to trace the boundaries of the plankton regions. This algorithm is optimized based on the relationship between two consecutive chain-codes such that it is fast on implementation. Finally, break points of the shape boundary are efficiently detected based on chain-codes and the boundary is represented compactly by a polygon comprised of those points. After images are preprocessed by these approaches, some redundant information of shape is reduced that will accelerate the running speeds of further image processing and aid identification and classification of plankton at species level. We analyze the accuracy and efficiency of our algorithms. The results show that our algorithm of image segmentation has a good performance in accuracy. Our edge detection method also outperforms the commonly used edge detection methods in terms of localization performance and the running time.
    Print ISSN: 0364-9059
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-1691
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Physics
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Shipboard electric propulsion systems experience large power and torque fluctuations on their drive shaft due to propeller rotational motion and waves. This paper explores new solutions to address these fluctuations by integrating a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) and exploring energy management (EM) strategies. The HESS combines battery packs with ultracapacitor banks. Two strategies for real-time EM of HESS are considered: one splits the power demand such that high- and low-frequency power fluctuations are compensated by ultracapacitors and batteries, respectively; another considers the HESS as a single entity and designs an EM strategy to coordinate the operations of the ultracapacitors and batteries. For both strategies, model predictive control is used to address power tracking and energy saving under various operating constraints. To quantitatively analyze the performance of HESS and its associated controls, a propeller and ship dynamic model, which captures the underlying physical behavior, is established to support the control development and system optimization. Power fluctuation mitigation and HESS loss minimization, the main objectives, are evaluated in different sea conditions. Simulation results show that the coordination within HESS provides substantial benefits in terms of reducing fluctuations and losses.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Recently, penalty functions promoting signals that are sparse within and across groups have been proposed. In this letter, we propose a modified penalty function that offers additional flexibility in forming groups. We study the properties of the penalty function and propose a new algorithm that can be used in energy minimization formulations that employ it. We demonstrate the effects of using the penalty function on a simple linear inverse problem.
    Print ISSN: 1070-9908
    Electronic ISSN: 1558-2361
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: In this paper, we investigate noise reduction in swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) using compressed sensing (CS). Multiple scan averaging is a classical method used to enhance the quality of OCT images by reducing the noise of a system. However, the conventional averaging method requires a repetitive scan at the same location and thus reduces the imaging speed. In this paper, the sparsity property of an OCT A-scan is utilized, and one full A-scan OCT image can be reconstructed from a portion of the acquired data during one sweep period using CS. Thus, multiple OCT A-scans can be reconstructed from a single sweep. The average A-scans yield a better quality than the single A-scan obtained from the whole data acquired during a sweep period. We demonstrate that the average of five reconstructed A-scans from a single sweep using CS offers an image quality and depth resolution similar to those obtained by averaging three sequential A-scans from three sweeps using the conventional averaging method. This proposed method can shorten the time required to perform repetitive scans and thus improve the imaging speed.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Presents corrections to the paper, “Perfecting protection for interactive multimedia: A survey of forward errror correction for low-delay interactive applications,” (Badr, A. et al), IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 95–113, Mar. 2017.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Traditionally, analytical methods have been used to solve imaging problems such as image restoration, inpainting, and superresolution (SR). In recent years, the fields of machine and deep learning have gained a lot of momentum in solving such imaging problems, often surpassing the performance provided by analytical approaches. Unlike analytical methods for which the problem is explicitly defined and domain-knowledge carefully engineered into the solution, deep neural networks (DNNs) do not benefit from such prior knowledge and instead make use of large data sets to learn the unknown solution to the inverse problem. In this article, we review deep-learning techniques for solving such inverse problems in imaging. More specifically, we review the popular neural network architectures used for imaging tasks, offering some insight as to how these deep-learning tools can solve the inverse problem. Furthermore, we address some fundamental questions, such as how deeplearning and analytical methods can be combined to provide better solutions to the inverse problem in addition to providing a discussion on the current limitations and future directions of the use of deep learning for solving inverse problem in imaging.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: A novel slow-light reflector composed of a double-ring resonator with a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) incorporated is proposed in this paper, which can be used as a mirror of narrow-linewidth fiber laser, based on its enlarged group delay, and as a high-sensitivity sensor. Its characteristics are investigated theoretically and experimentally in this paper. Compared with the single fiber ring the amplitude of resonance is modulated, the effective mode spacing is expanded greatly, due to the Vernier effect, giving much better mode selectivity. Mode hopping is believed to be suppressed effectively in applications of narrow-linewidth lasers, and resolution will be enhanced in sensor applications.
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-0655
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Deep directed generative models have attracted much attention recently due to their generative modeling nature and powerful data representation ability. In this article, we review different structures of deep directed generative models and the learning and inference algorithms associated with the structures. We focus on a specific structure that consists of layers of Bayesian networks (BNs) due to the property of capturing inherent and rich dependencies among latent variables. The major difficulty of learning and inference with deep directed models with many latent variables is the intractable inference due to the dependencies among the latent variables and the exponential number of latent variable configurations. Current solutions use variational methods, often through an auxiliary network, to approximate the posterior probability inference. In contrast, inference can also be performed directly without using any auxiliary network to maximally preserve the dependencies among the latent variables. Specifically, by exploiting the sparse representation with the latent space, max-max instead of maxsum operation can be used to overcome the exponential number of latent configurations. Furthermore, the max-max operation and augmented coordinate ascent (AugCA) are applied to both supervised and unsupervised learning as well as to various inference. Quantitative evaluations on benchmark data sets of different models are given for both data representation and feature-learning tasks.
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  • 81
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Traditionally, recommender systems modelled the physical and cyber contextual influence on people’s moving, querying, and browsing behaviors in isolation. Yet, searching, querying, and moving behaviors are intricately linked, especially indoors. Here, we introduce a tripartite location-query-browse graph (LQB) for nuanced contextual recommendations. The LQB graph consists of three kinds of nodes: locations, queries, and Web domains. Directed connections only between heterogeneous nodes represent the contextual influences, while connections of homogeneous nodes are inferred from the contextual influences of the other nodes. This tripartite LQB graph is more reliable than any monopartite or bipartite graph in contextual location, query, and Web content recommendations. We validate this LQB graph in an indoor retail scenario with extensive dataset of three logs collected from over 120,000 anonymized, opt-in users over a 1-year period in a large inner-city mall in Sydney, Australia. We characterize the contextual influences that correspond to the arcs in the LQB graph, and evaluate the usefulness of the LQB graph for location, query, and Web content recommendations. The experimental results show that the LQB graph successfully captures the contextual influence and significantly outperforms the state of the art in these applications.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Aspect-based opinion mining is finding elaborate opinions towards a subject such as a product or an event. With explosive growth of opinionated texts on the Web, mining aspect-level opinions has become a promising means for online public opinion analysis. In particular, the boom of various types of online media provides diverse yet complementary information, bringing unprecedented opportunities for cross media aspect-opinion mining. Along this line, we propose CAMEL, a novel topic model for complementary aspect-based opinion mining across asymmetric collections. CAMEL gains information complementarity by modeling both common and specific aspects across collections, while keeping all the corresponding opinions for contrastive study. An auto-labeling scheme called AME is also proposed to help discriminate between aspect and opinion words without elaborative human labeling, which is further enhanced by adding word embedding-based similarity as a new feature. Moreover, CAMEL-DP, a nonparametric alternative to CAMEL is also proposed based on coupled Dirichlet Processes. Extensive experiments on real-world multi-collection reviews data demonstrate the superiority of our methods to competitive baselines. This is particularly true when the information shared by different collections becomes seriously fragmented. Finally, a case study on the public event “2014 Shanghai Stampede” demonstrates the practical value of CAMEL for real-world applications.
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  • 83
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Triadic closure is ubiquitous in social networks, which refers to the property among three individuals, A, B, and C, such that if there exist strong ties between A-B and A-C, then there must be a strong or weak tie between B-C. Related to triadic closure, the number of triangles has been extensively studied since it can be effectively used as a metric to analyze the structure and function of a network. In this paper, from a different viewpoint, we study triangle-free dense structures which have received little attention. We focus on $K_{3,3}$ where there are two subsets of three vertices, a vertex in a subset has an edge connected to every vertex in another subset while it does not have an edge to any other vertex in the same subset. Such $K_{n,n}$ in general implies a philosophy contradiction: (a) Any two individuals are friends if they have no common friends, and (b) Any two individuals are not friends if they have common friends. However, we find such induced $K_{3,3}$ does exist frequently, and they do not disappear over time over a real academic collaboration network. In addition, in the real datasets tested, nearly all edges appearing in $K_{3,3}$ appear in some triangles. We analyze the expected numbers of induced $K_{3,3}$ and triangles ( $Delta$ ) in four representative random graph models, namely, Erdős-Rényi random graph model, Watts-Strogatz small-world model, Barabási-Albert preferential attachment model, and configuration model, and give an algorithm to enumerate all distinct $K_{3,3}$ in an undirected social network. We conduct extensive experiments on both real and synthetic datasets to confirm our findings. As an application, such $K_{3,3}$ found helps to find new stars collaborated by well-known figures who themselves do not collaborate.
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Given a set of facilities and a set of users, a reverse nearest neighbors (RNN) query retrieves every user $u$ for which the query facility $q$ is its closest facility. Since $q$ is the closest facility to $u$ , the user $u$ is said to be influenced by $q$ . In this paper, we propose a relaxed definition of influence where a user $u$ is said to be influenced by not only its closest facility but also every other facility that is almost as close to $u$ as its closest facility is. Based on this definition of influence, we propose reverse approximate nearest neighbors (RANN) queries. Formally, given a value $x>1$ , an RANN query $q$ returns every user $u$ for which $dist(u,q) leq xtimes NNDist(u)$ where $NNDist(u)$ denotes the distance between a user $u$ and its nearest facility, i.e., $q$ is an approximate nearest neighbor of $u$ . In this paper, we study both snapshot and continuous versions of RANN queries. In a snapshot RANN query, the underlying data sets do not change and the results of a query are to be computed only once. In the continuous version, the users continuously change their locations and the results of RANN queries are to be continuously monitored. Based on effective pruning techniques and several non-trivial observations, we propose efficient RANN query processing algorithms for both the snapshot and continuous RANN queries. We conduct extensive experiments on both real and synthetic da
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  • 85
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    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Information measures, such as the entropy and the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, are typically introduced using an abstract viewpoint based on a notion of "surprise." Accordingly, the entropy of a given random variable (rv) is larger if its realization, when revealed, is on average more "surprising" (see, e.g., [1]-[3]). The goal of this lecture note is to describe a principled and intuitive introduction to information measures that builds on inference, i.e., estimation and hypothesis testing. Specifically, entropy and conditional entropy measures are defined using variational characterizations that can be interpreted in terms of the minimum Bayes risk in an estimation problem. Divergence metrics are similarly described using variational expressions derived via mismatched estimation or binary hypothesis testing principles. The classical Shannon entropy and the KL divergence are recovered as special cases of more general families of information measures.
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