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  • 1
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Forests
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Forests, Vol. 9, Pages 141: Forest Plantations’ Externalities: An Application of the the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Non-Industrial Forest Owners in Central Chile Forests doi: 10.3390/f9030141 Authors: Giorgia Bottaro Lisandro Roco Davide Pettenella Stefano Micheletti Julien Vanhulst The forestry sector in Chile has an important role in the domestic economy, being the second leading export sector after the mining industry. Investments in forest plantations have grown in the last 40 years thanks to implementation of the Decree Law 701. Planted forests currently account for 17.4% of the total national forest cover. The objective of the study is to analyse non-industrial forest owners’ perceptions of positive and negative externalities of forest plantations in four less developed municipalities of the Maule Region. We implemented a literature review, the estimation of an Expert’s Response Indicator (ERI), and the implementation of an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) methodology for the analysis. The results indicate that non-industrial forest owners in the four municipalities perceive the importance of each externality in a different way according to their territorial specificities. However, considering the whole study area, “CO2 sequestration”, “improvement of livelihood”, and “more importance of small and medium forest owners” were considered the most important positive externalities, while the most relevant negative externalities were “water shortage”, “power asymmetry”, and “land loss”. The study encourages further research with a similar detailed analysis on stakeholders’ perceptions of plantation projects, both to revise investment features and inform local stakeholders on their real impacts.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4907
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 2
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Geosciences, Vol. 8, Pages 101: SPI Trend Analysis of New Zealand Applying the ITA Technique Geosciences doi: 10.3390/geosciences8030101 Authors: Tommaso Caloiero A natural temporary imbalance of water availability, consisting of persistent lower-than-average or higher-than-average precipitation, can cause extreme dry and wet conditions that adversely impact agricultural yields, water resources, infrastructure, and human systems. In this study, dry and wet periods in New Zealand were expressed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). First, both the short term (3 and 6 months) and the long term (12 and 24 months) SPI were estimated, and then, possible trends in the SPI values were detected by means of a new graphical technique, the Innovative Trend Analysis (ITA), which allows the trend identification of the low, medium, and high values of a series. Results show that, in every area currently subject to drought, an increase in this phenomenon can be expected. Specifically, the results of this paper highlight that agricultural regions on the eastern side of the South Island, as well as the north-eastern regions of the North Island, are the most consistently vulnerable areas. In fact, in these regions, the trend analysis mainly showed a general reduction in all the values of the SPI: that is, a tendency toward heavier droughts and weaker wet periods.
    Electronic ISSN: 2076-3263
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 3
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1093: Postharvest Monitoring of Tomato Ripening Using the Dynamic Laser Speckle Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041093 Authors: Piotr Mariusz Pieczywek Małgorzata Nowacka Magdalena Dadan Artur Wiktor Katarzyna Rybak Dorota Witrowa-Rajchert Artur Zdunek The dynamic laser speckle (biospeckle) method was tested as a potential tool for the assessment and monitoring of the maturity stage of tomatoes. Two tomato cultivars—Admiro and Starbuck—were tested. The process of climacteric maturation of tomatoes was monitored during a shelf life storage experiment. The biospeckle phenomena were captured using 640 nm and 830 nm laser light wavelength, and analysed using two activity descriptors based on biospeckle pattern decorrelation—C4 and ε. The well-established optical parameters of tomatoes skin were used as a reference method (luminosity, a*/b*, chroma). Both methods were tested with respect to their prediction capabilities of the maturity and destructive indicators of tomatoes—firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. The statistical significance of the tested relationships were investigated by means of linear regression models. The climacteric maturation of tomato fruit was associated with an increase in biospckle activity. Compared to the 830 nm laser wavelength the biospeckle activity measured at 640 nm enabled more accurate predictions of firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. At 640 nm laser wavelength both activity descriptors (C4 and ε) provided similar results, while at 830 nm the ε showed slightly better performance. The linear regression models showed that biospeckle activity descriptors had a higher correlation with chlorophyll and carotenoids content than the a*/b* ratio and luminosity. The results for chroma were comparable with the results for both biospeckle activity indicators. The biospeckle method showed very good results in terms of maturation monitoring and the prediction of the maturity indices of tomatoes, proving the possibility of practical implementation of this method for the determination of the maturity stage of tomatoes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 4
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1090: A Fiber Optic Interferometric Sensor Platform for Determining Gas Diffusivity in Zeolite Films Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041090 Authors: Ruidong Yang Zhi Xu Shixuan Zeng Wenheng Jing Adam Trontz Junhang Dong Fiber optic interferometer (FOI) sensors have been fabricated by directly growing pure-silica MFI-type zeolite (i.e., silicalite) films on straight-cut endfaces of single-mode communication optical fibers. The FOI sensor has been demonstrated for determining molecular diffusivity in the zeolite by monitoring the temporal response of light interference from the zeolite film during the dynamic process of gas adsorption. The optical thickness of the zeolite film depends on the amount of gas adsorption that causes the light interference to shift upon loading molecules into the zeolitic channels. Thus, the time-dependence of the optical signal reflected from the coated zeolite film can represent the adsorption uptake curve, which allows computation of the diffusivity using models derived from the Fick’s Law equations. In this study, the diffusivity of isobutane in silicalite has been determined by the new FOI sensing method, and the results are in good agreement with literature values obtained by various conventional macroscopic techniques. The FOI sensor platform, because of its robustness and small size, could be useful for studying molecular diffusion in zeolitic materials under conditions that are inaccessible to the existing techniques.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 5
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1087: Biosensing Based on Nanoparticles for Food Allergens Detection Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041087 Authors: Lidia Nazaret Gómez-Arribas Elena Benito-Peña María del Carmen Hurtado-Sánchez María Cruz Moreno-Bondi Food allergy is one of the major health threats for sensitized individuals all over the world and, over the years, the food industry has made significant efforts and investments to offer safe foods for allergic consumers. The analysis of the concentration of food allergen residues in processing equipment, in raw materials or in the final product, provides analytical information that can be used for risk assessment as well as to ensure that food-allergic consumers get accurate and useful information to make their food choices and purchasing decisions. The development of biosensors based on nanomaterials for applications in food analysis is a challenging area of growing interest in the last years. Research in this field requires the combined efforts of experts in very different areas including food chemistry, biotechnology or materials science. However, the outcome of such collaboration can be of significant impact on the food industry as well as for consumer’s safety. These nanobiosensing devices allow the rapid, selective, sensitive, cost-effective and, in some cases, in-field, online and real-time detection of a wide range of compounds, even in complex matrices. Moreover, they can also enable the design of novel allergen detection strategies. Herein we review the main advances in the use of nanoparticles for the development of biosensors and bioassays for allergen detection, in food samples, over the past few years. Research in this area is still in its infancy in comparison, for instance, to the application of nanobiosensors for clinical analysis. However, it will be of interest for the development of new technologies that reduce the gap between laboratory research and industrial applications.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 6
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1084: An In-Vitro Optical Sensor Designed to Estimate Glycated Hemoglobin Levels Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041084 Authors: Sanghamitra Mandal M. O. Manasreh The purpose of this research was to design an optical sensor for evaluating glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) percentages in hemoglobin. The A1c sensors available in the market use invasive methods, while our device offers the possibility of non-invasive monitoring of HbA1c levels in diabetic patients. A prototype is assembled using two light emitting diodes with peak emission wavelengths of 535 nm and 593 nm, a photodiode, and a microcontroller. The proposed sensor measures the transmitted intensity in the form of an output voltage. We devise an approach to estimate the percentage of HbA1c in hemoglobin for a given solution. This estimation is based on the relative change in absorbance due to change in path length and molar absorption coefficients of hemoglobin and HbA1c, at the two wavelengths. We calculate the molar absorption coefficient of HbA1c at 535 nm and 593 nm wavelengths using the sensor, which is performed by a multiple variable regression analysis algorithm fed through the microcontroller. Specifically, the sensor output voltage with respect to the sample concentration is fitted to an exponentially decaying equation model. We used a commercial chemical assay called Control FD Glycohemoglobin A1c with known percentage HbA1c levels to verify our device measurements.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 7
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1083: The Use of a Decision Support System for Sustainable Urbanization and Thermal Comfort in Adaptation to Climate Change Actions—The Case of the Wrocław Larger Urban Zone (Poland) Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041083 Authors: Jan Kazak The increasing level of antropopression has a negative impact on environmental resources and has reached the level of our planetary boundaries. One limitation is land use change caused by urbanization. Global policies prove the need to undertake action in order to develop more sustainable human settlements, which would be adapted better to potential future climate change effects. Among such changes are the increase of average temperatures and extreme events like heat waves. Those changes are more severe in urban areas due to land use development, and result in the urban heat island effect (UHI), which has a negative impact on the thermal comfort of citizens. The paper presents a decision support system that can be used for the assessment of areas to the potential exposure to the UHI effect. The system integrates scenario analysis, land use modelling in cellular automata (Metronamica), and an indicator-based assessment in a geographic information system (ArcGIS). The applicability of the model is illustrated through developing scenarios for the future land use allocation of the Wrocław Larger Urban Zone (Poland). The results of the calculations show which scenario is the least vulnerable to UHI effects. Moreover, for each scenario, cores of urban areas were identified, in which certain urban design patterns accounting for adaptation to climate change could be implemented. The study provides a guideline for local authorities on where to focus actions in order to create more sustainable urban structures and to better adapt to climate change and environmental extremes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 8
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1081: Fine-Scale Evaluation of Giant Panda Habitats and Countermeasures against the Future Impacts of Climate Change and Human Disturbance (2015–2050): A Case Study in Ya’an, China Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041081 Authors: Jing Zhen Xinyuan Wang Qingkai Meng Jingwei Song Ying Liao Bo Xiang Huadong Guo Chuansheng Liu Ruixia Yang Lei Luo The accelerating impact of climate change on giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitats have become an international research topic. Recently, many studies have also focused on medium-sized mountain ranges or entire giant panda habitats to predict how habitats will change as the climate warms, but few say in detail what to do or where to focus efforts. To fill this gap, this paper presents a new method to take comprehensive, fine-scale evaluations incorporating climate change, human disturbance, and current conservation networks and translate them into practical countermeasures in order to help decision-makers set priority regions for conservation. This study looked at the core area of the Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) World Natural Heritage site, namely Ya’an Prefecture, as a case study. The research employs the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling algorithm to analyze how climate change will affect the habitats by 2050 under two scenarios: only considering the influence of climate change, and thinking about the coupled influence of climate change and human disturbance together. The results showed the following: (1) only considering climate change, the overall habitat that can be used by giant pandas in this region will increase, which differs from most of the previous results showing a decrease; (2) the new suitable habitat will shift westward, northward and eastward in this region; (3) conversely, the suitable habitat will be significantly reduced (about 58.56%) and fragmentized when taking into account human disturbance factors; (4) at present, the three small nature reserves are far from each other and cannot cover the present habitat well nor protect the potentially suitable habitats. Based on the comprehensive analysis of habitat shifts and our two field investigations, we suggest two regions that can be expanded into the conservation network to contain more potentially suitable habitats in the future. Furthermore, we used a geographical information system to incorporate high-resolution remote-sensing images from the GF-1 satellite, land-cover maps, and a digital elevation model (DEM) to verify the possibility of our two suggested regions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 9
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1077: System Dynamic Analysis of Impacts of Government Charges on Disposal of Construction and Demolition Waste: A Hong Kong Case Study Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041077 Authors: Lai Sheung Au Seungjun Ahn Tae Wan Kim With the purpose of reducing the amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste disposed to landfills, many countries and municipalities have introduced increasingly stringent C&D waste disposal charges (CDWDC) but the level of CDWDC is often determined without a clear understanding of its broad and complex impacts. Against this background, this paper aims to propose a system dynamics (SD) model that can help predict CDWDC’s environmental implications as well as its financial implications. Specifically, the proposed model explains complex causal relationships between variables such as the level of CDWDC, the amount of C&D waste disposed to landfills, the government’s revenues from CDWDC as well as the costs of supplying and operating landfills over time. For a case study, the developed model is customized and calibrated with actual data from Hong Kong, where the remaining capacities of existing landfills are limited and the need for supplying more landfills is imminent. The simulation analysis with the model predicts that the current charging levels may not be high enough to effectively control the amount of C&D waste disposed to landfills or to compensate for the costs to the government of supplying additional landfills. The analysis also predicts how much illegal dumping may increase as the level of CDWDC increases. This case study illustrates that the proposed SD model can help policy makers to see the potential impacts of increased CDWDC on the amount of C&D waste disposed to landfills, government costs and the amount of illegal dumping of C&D waste; and can therefore help them to determine the most appropriate level of CDWDC.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 10
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1074: Virtual Reality Learning Activities for Multimedia Students to Enhance Spatial Ability Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041074 Authors: Rafael Molina-Carmona María Luisa Pertegal-Felices Antonio Jimeno-Morenilla Higinio Mora-Mora Virtual Reality is an incipient technology that is proving very useful for training different skills. Our hypothesis is that it is possible to design virtual reality learning activities that can help students to develop their spatial ability. To prove the hypothesis, we have conducted an experiment consisting of training the students using an on-purpose learning activity based on a virtual reality application and assessing the possible improvement of the students’ spatial ability through a widely accepted spatial visualization test. The learning activity consists of a virtual environment where some simple polyhedral shapes are shown and manipulated by moving, rotating and scaling them. The students participating in the experiment are divided into a control and an experimental group, carrying out the same learning activity with the only difference of the device used for the interaction: a traditional computer with screen, keyboard and mouse for the control group, and virtual reality goggles with a smartphone for the experimental group. To assess the experience, all the students have completed a spatial visualization test twice: just before performing the activities and four weeks later, once all the activities were performed. Specifically, we have used the well-known and widely used Purdue Spatial Visualization Test—Rotation (PSVT-R), designed to test rotational visualization ability. The results of the test show that there is an improvement in the test results for both groups, but the improvement is significantly higher in the case of the experimental group. The conclusion is that the virtual reality learning activities have shown to improve the spatial ability of the experimental group.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 11
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1071: Long-Term Impacts of China’s New Commercial Harvest Exclusion Policy on Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity in the Temperate Forests of Northeast China Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041071 Authors: Kai Liu Yu Liang Hong He Wen Wang Chao Huang Shengwei Zong Lei Wang Jiangtao Xiao Haibo Du Temperate forests in Northeast China have been severely exploited by timber harvesting in the last century. To reverse this trend, China implemented the Classified Forest Management policy in the Natural Forest Conservation Program in 1998 to protect forests from excessive harvesting. However, the policy was unable to meet the 2020 commitment of increasing growing stock (set in the Kyoto Protocol) because of high-intensity harvesting. Accordingly, China banned all commercial harvesting in Northeast China in 2014. In this study, we investigated the long-term impacts of the no commercial harvest (NCH) policy on ecosystem services and biodiversity using a forest landscape model, LANDIS PRO 7.0, in the temperate forests of the Small Khingan Mountains, Northeast China. We designed three management scenarios: The H scenario (the Classified Forest Management policy used in the past), the NCH scenario (the current Commercial Harvest Exclusion policy), and the LT scenario (mitigation management, i.e., light thinning). We compared total aboveground forest biomass, biomass by tree species, abundance of old-growth forests, and diversity of tree species and age class in three scenarios from 2010 to 2100. We found that compared with the H scenario, the NCH scenario increased aboveground forest biomass, abundance of old-growth forests, and biomass of most timber species over time; however, it decreased the biomass of rare and protected tree species and biodiversity. We found that the LT scenario increased the biomass of rare and protected tree species and biodiversity in comparison with the NCH scenario, while it maintained aboveground forest biomass and abundance of old-growth forests at a high level (slightly less than the NCH scenario). We concluded there was trade-off between carbon storage and biodiversity. We also concluded that light thinning treatment was able to regulate the trade-off and alleviate the negative effects associated with the NCH policy. Our results highlighted limitations of the NCH policy and provided new insights into sustainable forest management and the interdependence between human society and the forest ecosystem.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 12
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1067: Understanding Shanghai Residents’ Perception of Leisure Impact and Experience Satisfaction of Urban Community Parks: An Integrated and IPA Method Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041067 Authors: Bingqin Yu Shengquan Che Changkun Xie Shu Tian This exploratory study employed an integrated methodological approach to examine the relationship among several factors for residents in Shanghai when it came to the use of urban park spaces. The study was conducted using two sample groups of 1200 residents each, and around three community parks that contained a variety of recreation-related impacts. Open-ended and closed-ended questionnaires and correspondence analysis were used to reflect residents’ basic attitudes, recreational perception, and satisfaction evaluation by Importance Performance Analysis (IPA) method, and mirrored preferences for future development of community parks. The results suggest that for residents, high levels of satisfaction with landscape and environment were advantages, but recreation space and facility were critical for the perception of the community parks. In comparison, management was found to be an opportunity factor to improve leisure satisfaction. The findings emphasized landscape, environment, space, facility, and management as elements that enhance recreational perception and avoid passive interference.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 13
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Symmetry, Vol. 10, Pages 95: Cooperative Secret Sharing Using QR Codes and Symmetric Keys Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10040095 Authors: Yang-Wai Chow Willy Susilo Joseph Tonien Elena Vlahu-Gjorgievska Guomin Yang Secret sharing is an information security technique where a dealer divides a secret into a collection of shares and distributes these to members of a group. The secret will only be revealed when a predefined number of group members cooperate to recover the secret. The purpose of this study is to investigate a method of distributing shares by embedding them into cover Quick Response (QR) codes in a secure manner using cryptographic keys. The advantage of this approach is that the shares can be disseminated over public channels, as anyone who scans the QR codes will only obtain public information. Only authorized individuals who are in possession of the required keys will be able to recover the shares. This also means that when group members cooperate to recover a secret, the group can determine the presence of an illegitimate participant if the person does not produce a valid share. This study proposes a protocol for accomplishing this and discusses the underlying security of the protocol.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-8994
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 14
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 431: The Temporal and Spatial Variations in Lake Surface Areas in Xinjiang, China Water doi: 10.3390/w10040431 Authors: Yuting Liu Jing Yang Yaning Chen Gonghuan Fang Weihong Li In arid areas, lakes play important roles in sustaining the local ecology, mitigating flood hazard, and restricting economic activity of society. In this study, we used multi-temporal satellite data to study annual variations in 16 natural lakes with individual surface areas over 10 km2, categorized into six regions based on their geographical and climatic information and on their relations with climate variables. Results indicated that annual variations in lake surface areas are different across these six regions. The surface area of Kanas Lake has not obviously changed due to its typical U-shape cross section; the areas of Ulungur Lake and Jili Lake increased sharply in the 1980s and then slightly decreased; the areas of Sayram Lake, Ebinur Lake, and Bosten Lake increased and then decreased, with peaks detected in the early 2000s; the areas of Barkol Lake and Toale Culler decreased, while those of the lakes located in the Kunlun Mountains steadily increased. Lake areas also show various relationships with climate variables. There is no obvious relationship between area and climate variables in Kanas Lake due to the specific lake morphology; the areas of most lakes showed positive correlations with annual precipitation (except Sayram Lake). A negative correlation between area and temperature were detected in Ulungur Lake, Jili Lake, Barkol Lake, and Toale Culler, while positive correlations were suggested in Bosten Lake and the lakes in the Kunlun Mountains (e.g., Saligil Kollakan Lake, Aksai Chin Lake, and Urukkule Lake).
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 15
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 428: Identification of Factors That Influence Energy Performance in Water Distribution System Mains Water doi: 10.3390/w10040428 Authors: Saeed Hashemi Yves Filion Vanessa Speight This paper aims at identifying paramount hydraulic factors in energy dynamics of water mains, using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The proposed method is applied to two large ensembles of leaky and non-leaky pipes comprising over 40,000 pipes selected from 18 North American water distribution systems to guarantee the versatility of pipe characteristics and statistical significance of the explored patterns. PCA mono-plots indicate energy metrics such as Net Energy Efficiency, Energy Lost to Friction and Energy Lost to Leakage serve better in identification of low from high efficiency pipes. In addition, PCA mono-plots and bi-plots reveal relative importance of hydraulic parameters and that average flow rate, hydraulic proximity to major components and average unit headloss can have more tangible effects on energy dynamics of pipes compared to leakage and average pressure. Some factors such as elevation, diameter and CHW are not as influential as expected in distinguishing high-efficiency from low-efficiency pipes. Further, a comparison between the approach used in this paper and a simplified common-practice replacement strategy points out the difference energy considerations can make, if included in a bigger asset management landscape.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 16
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    MDPI Publishing
    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 425: Review of River Basin Water Resource Management in China Water doi: 10.3390/w10040425 Authors: Hong Zhang Gui Jin Yan Yu Water resources are the basis for supporting the entire life system of the Earth. However, with the frequent global water crises—especially in the river basins of China—the issue of water resources has become a bottleneck that limits its development. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out relevant research. In this paper, we systematically analyzed different classification methods of the service functions of water ecosystems as well as factors that affect it. Results showed that climate, land cover, human activities, and their own endowment conditions were the main factors affecting the service functions of water ecosystems. Based on these, water resource management in China river basins was expounded from three aspects: water resources protection, allocation, and utilization. At the same time, the impacts of water resource management on land use in China were also summarized. Finally, the key trends of the next study were summarized as follows: improvement of the classification system of basin water ecosystem service functions, improvement of the mechanism of the basin water market; comprehensive tradeoff of water resource exploitation and protection in basins; and basin water resource management from the perspective of multidisciplinary crossing.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 17
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 856: 3D Simulation of a Loss of Vacuum Accident (LOVA) in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor): Evaluation of Static Pressure, Mach Number, and Friction Velocity Energies doi: 10.3390/en11040856 Authors: Jean-François Ciparisse Riccardo Rossi Andrea Malizia Pasquale Gaudio ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is a magnetically confined plasma nuclear reactor. Inside it, due to plasma disruptions, the formation of neutron-activated powders, which are essentially made out of tungsten and beryllium, occurs. As many windows for diagnostics are present on the reactor, which operates at very low pressure, a LOVA (Loss of Vacuum Accident) could be possible and may lead to dust mobilisation and a toxic and radioactive fallout inside the plant. This study is aimed at reproducing numerically the first seconds of a LOVA in ITER, in order to get information about the dust resuspension risk. This work has been carried out by means of a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation of the beginning of the pressurisation transient inside the whole Tokamak. It has been found that the pressurization transient is extremely slow, and that the friction speed on the walls is very high, and therefore a high mobilization risk of the dust is expected on the entire internal surface of the reactor. It has been observed that a LOVA in a real-scale reactor is more severe than the one reproduced in reduced-scale facilities, as STARDUST-U, because the speeds are higher, and the dust resuspension capacity of the flow is greater.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 18
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 857: Energy Analysis at a Near Zero Energy Building. A Case-Study in Spain Energies doi: 10.3390/en11040857 Authors: Javier Rey-Hernández Eloy Velasco-Gómez Julio San José-Alonso Ana Tejero-González Francisco Rey-Martínez This paper develops an energy analysis for an existing near Zero Energy (nZEB) and Zero Carbon Emissions building called LUCIA, located at the university campus in Valladolid (Spain). It is designed to supply electricity, cooling and heating needs through solar energy (Photovoltaic Systems, PV), biomass and an Earth–Air Heat Exchanger (EAHE), besides a Combined Heat Power (CHP). It is currently among the top three buildings with the highest LEED certification in the World. The building model is simulated with DesignBuilder version 5. The results of the energy analysis illustrate the heating, cooling and lighting consumptions expected, besides other demands and energy uses. From this data, we carried out an energy balance of the nZEB, which will help to plan preventive actions when compared to the actual energy consumptions, improving the management and control of both the building and its systems. The primary energy indicator obtained is 67 kWh/m2 a year, and 121 kWh/m2 a year for renewable energy generation, with respect to 55 kWh/m2 and 45 kWh/m2 set as reference in Europe. The Renewable Energy Ratio (RER) is 0.66. These indicators become a useful tool for the energy analysis of the nZEB according to the requirements in the European regulations and for its comparison with further nZEB.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 19
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Pages 560: A General Approach to Enhance Short Wave Satellite Imagery by Removing Background Atmospheric Effects Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs10040560 Authors: Ronald Scheirer Adam Dybbroe Martin Raspaud Atmospheric interaction distorts the surface signal received by a space-borne instrument. Images derived from visible channels appear often too bright and with reduced contrast. This hampers the use of RGB imagery otherwise useful in ocean color applications and in forecasting or operational disaster monitoring, for example forest fires. In order to correct for the dominant source of atmospheric noise, a simple, fast and flexible algorithm has been developed. The algorithm is implemented in Python and freely available in PySpectral which is part of the PyTroll family of open source packages, allowing easy access to powerful real-time image-processing tools. Pre-calculated look-up tables of top of atmosphere reflectance are derived by off-line calculations with RTM DISORT as part of the LibRadtran package. The approach is independent of platform and sensor bands, and allows it to be applied to any band in the visible spectral range. Due to the use of standard atmospheric profiles and standard aerosol loads, it is possible just to reduce the background disturbance. Thus signals from excess aerosols become more discernible. Examples of uncorrected and corrected satellite images demonstrate that this flexible real-time algorithm is a useful tool for atmospheric correction.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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  • 20
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 683: Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead Exposure and Immunologic Function in Workers in Taiwan International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040683 Authors: Chin-Ching Wu Fung-Chang Sung Yi-Chun Chen There has been growing concern over the impact of environmental exposure to heavy metals and other trace elements on immunologic functions. This study investigated men’s arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) contents in hair samples and their associations with immunological indicators, including white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte and monocyte counts, and the immunoglobulin (Ig) levels including IgA, IgG and IgE. We recruited 133 men from one antimony trioxide manufacturing plant, two glass manufacturing plants and two plastics manufacturing plants. The mean concentration of Cd [0.16 (SD = 0.03) ug/g] was lower than means of As [0.86 (SD = 0.16) ug/g] and Pb [0.91 (SD = 0.22) ug/g] in hair samples, exerting no relationship with immunologic functions for Cd. The Spearman’s correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between monocyte counts and hair Pb levels, but negative relations between As and IgG and between As and IgE. In conclusion, findings from these industry workers suggest that As levels in hair may have a stronger relation with immunologic function than Cd and PB have. Further research is needed to confirm the negative relationship.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 21
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1111: Evaluation for Bearing Wear States Based on Online Oil Multi-Parameters Monitoring Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041111 Authors: Si-Yuan Wang Ding-Xin Yang Hai-Feng Hu As bearings are critical components of a mechanical system, it is important to characterize their wear states and evaluate health conditions. In this paper, a novel approach for analyzing the relationship between online oil multi-parameter monitoring samples and bearing wear states has been proposed based on an improved gray k-means clustering model (G-KCM). First, an online monitoring system with multiple sensors for bearings is established, obtaining oil multi-parameter data and vibration signals for bearings through the whole lifetime. Secondly, a gray correlation degree distance matrix is generated using a gray correlation model (GCM) to express the relationship of oil monitoring samples at different times and then a KCM is applied to cluster the matrix. Analysis and experimental results show that there is an obvious correspondence that state changing coincides basically in time between the lubricants’ multi-parameters and the bearings’ wear states. It also has shown that online oil samples with multi-parameters have early wear failure prediction ability for bearings superior to vibration signals. It is expected to realize online oil monitoring and evaluation for bearing health condition and to provide a novel approach for early identification of bearing-related failure modes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 22
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1106: A Two-Stage Reconstruction Processor for Human Detection in Compressive Sensing CMOS Radar Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041106 Authors: Kuei-Chi Tsao Ling Lee Ta-Shun Chu Yuan-Hao Huang Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) radar has recently gained much research attraction because small and low-power CMOS devices are very suitable for deploying sensing nodes in a low-power wireless sensing system. This study focuses on the signal processing of a wireless CMOS impulse radar system that can detect humans and objects in the home-care internet-of-things sensing system. The challenges of low-power CMOS radar systems are the weakness of human signals and the high computational complexity of the target detection algorithm. The compressive sensing-based detection algorithm can relax the computational costs by avoiding the utilization of matched filters and reducing the analog-to-digital converter bandwidth requirement. The orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is one of the popular signal reconstruction algorithms for compressive sensing radar; however, the complexity is still very high because the high resolution of human respiration leads to high-dimension signal reconstruction. Thus, this paper proposes a two-stage reconstruction algorithm for compressive sensing radar. The proposed algorithm not only has lower complexity than the OMP algorithm by 75% but also achieves better positioning performance than the OMP algorithm especially in noisy environments. This study also designed and implemented the algorithm by using Vertex-7 FPGA chip (Xilinx, San Jose, CA, USA). The proposed reconstruction processor can support the 256 × 13 real-time radar image display with a throughput of 28.2 frames per second.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 23
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1102: Motor Subtypes of Parkinson’s Disease Can Be Identified by Frequency Component of Postural Stability Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041102 Authors: Saba Rezvanian Thurmon Lockhart Christopher Frames Rahul Soangra Abraham Lieberman Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be divided into two subtypes based on clinical features—namely tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD). This categorization is important at the early stage of PD, since identifying the subtypes can help to predict the clinical progression of the disease. Accordingly, correctly diagnosing subtypes is critical in initiating appropriate early interventions and tracking the progression of the disease. However, as the disease progresses, it becomes increasingly difficult to further distinguish those attributes that are relevant to the subtypes. In this study, we investigated whether a method using the standing center of pressure (COP) time series data can separate two subtypes of PD by looking at the frequency component of COP (i.e., COP position and speed). Thirty-six participants diagnosed with PD were evaluated, with their bare feet on the force platform, and were instructed to stand upright with their arms by their sides for 20 s (with their eyes open and closed), which is consistent with the traditional COP measures. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and wavelet transform (WT) were performed to distinguish between the motor subtypes using the COP measures. The TD group exhibited larger amplitudes at the frequency range of 3–7 Hz when compared to the PIGD group. Both the FFT and WT methods were able to differentiate the subtypes. COP time series information can be used to differentiate between the two motor subtypes of PD, using the frequency component of postural stability.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 24
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1098: Dynamically Rough Boundary Scattering Effect on a Propagating Continuous Acoustical Wave in a Circular Pipe with Flow Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041098 Authors: Anna V. Romanova Kirill V. Horoshenkov Anton Krynkin The pattern of the free surface of the turbulent flow in a partially filled circular pipe contains information on the underlying hydraulic processes. However, the roughness of the free surface of flow and its temporal variation in a pipe is a dynamic and non-stationary process that is difficult to measure directly. This work examines a new acoustic method that is used to study the characteristics of the free surface roughness under controlled laboratory conditions. The acoustic method makes use of a continuous sine wave that is transmitted through the air above the turbulent flow of water over a section of the pipe instrumented with an array of wave probes and microphones. The results obtained for a representative range of flow regimes and variety of pipe bed conditions illustrate that it is possible to unambiguously relate variations in the recorded acoustic field to the standard deviation in the free surface roughness and mean flow depth. These variations are clearly linked to the hydraulic friction factor of the pipe, which is shown to be related to airborne acoustic data obtained non-invasively.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 25
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1095: The Structure and Diversity of Bacterial Communities in Differently Managed Soils Studied by Molecular Fingerprinting Methods Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041095 Authors: Katarína Ondreičková Michaela Piliarová Rastislav Bušo Roman Hašana Ľudovít Schreiber Jozef Gubiš Ján Kraic The soil bacterial community structure is sensitive to different agricultural management practices and changes in the soil community composition can affect ecosystem sustainability and ecosystem stability. The basic idea of reduced and conservation soil tillage technologies is to preserve favorable soil parameters and also to enhance soil fertility and to reduce the negative impacts on the soil. Four soil tillage treatments—conventional, reduced, mulch-till, and no-till—were studied for their bacterial communities at a soil depth of 10 cm in September 2013 and April 2014 using the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) methods. The total microbial biomass was statistically higher in April 2014 than in September 2013 in all tillage treatments. On the other hand, no statistical differences were detected in the bacterial richness between the sampling dates in all tillage treatments. Only one statistical difference regarding the bacterial richness was detected between the conventional and reduced tillage in September 2013 by using ARISA. Bacterial genetic diversity measured by the Gini–Simpson, Shannon, and Pielou indices did not indicate differences among the four types of soil management systems. Additionally, no substantial variation in the composition of bacterial communities under different treatments was observed based on the principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Additionally, the changes in bacterial community composition between both sampling dates have not occurred overall or within the individual agricultural management systems.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 26
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1092: Benefit and Risk Perceptions of Controversial Facilities: A Comparison between Local Officials and the Public in China Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041092 Authors: Qingduo Mao Manli Zhang Ben Ma This article investigates the perception biases of local government officials and the general public by comparing their benefit and risk perceptions towards controversial facilities. The analysis framework of Social Judgement Theory (SJT)—i.e., (a) economic benefits, (b) environmental health, and (c) social and political factors—was used to design the research. SJT is a widely recognized theoretical framework that includes experimental approaches to the study of cognitive conflicts. An experimental survey was conducted to collect data in order to make a comparison of the weight of different elements. Results demonstrate that there are perception differences between the general public and local officials on controversial facilities. Local officials responsible for endorsing and supervising plants attach more significance to environmental factors than the public, while the public focuses more on social and political factors than officials. There is no significant difference in the cognition of economic benefits. Factors such as demolition compensation and legitimacy may provoke these perception gaps. This paper enriches the current understanding of SJT and policy making for controversial facilities by investigating the perception gaps between officials and the general public.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 27
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1088: Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates Using Complementary Experimental Techniques Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041088 Authors: Nasser Hamdan Hussain Alawadhi Najeh Jisrawi Mohamed Shameer Airborne particulate matter (PM) pollutants were sampled from an urban background site in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. The fine fraction (PM2.5) (particulates with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 μm) was collected on 47-mm Teflon filters and analyzed using a combined set of non-destructive techniques in order to provide better understanding of the sources of pollutants and their interaction during transport in the atmosphere. These techniques included gravimetric analysis, equivalent black carbon (EBC), X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Generally, the PM2.5 concentrations are within the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency. The EBC content is in the range of 10–12% of the total PM concentration (2–4 µg m−3), while S (as ammonium sulfate), Ca (as calcite, gypsum, and calcium carbonate), Si (as quartz), Fe, and Al were the major sources of PM pollution. EBC, ammonium sulfate, Zn, V, and Mn originate from anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel burning, traffic, and industrial emissions. Natural elements such as Ca, Fe, Al, Si, and Ti are due to natural sources such as crustal materials (enhanced during dust episodes) and sea salts. The average contribution of natural sources in the total PM2.5 mass concentration over the sampling period is about 40%, and the contribution of the secondary inorganic compounds is about 27% (mainly ammonium sulfate in our case). The remaining 22% is assumed to be secondary organic compounds.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 28
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    In: Entropy
    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 256: Information Geometry for Radar Target Detection with Total Jensen–Bregman Divergence Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20040256 Authors: Xiaoqiang Hua Haiyan Fan Yongqiang Cheng Hongqiang Wang Yuliang Qin This paper proposes a radar target detection algorithm based on information geometry. In particular, the correlation of sample data is modeled as a Hermitian positive-definite (HPD) matrix. Moreover, a class of total Jensen–Bregman divergences, including the total Jensen square loss, the total Jensen log-determinant divergence, and the total Jensen von Neumann divergence, are proposed to be used as the distance-like function on the space of HPD matrices. On basis of these divergences, definitions of their corresponding median matrices are given. Finally, a decision rule of target detection is made by comparing the total Jensen-Bregman divergence between the median of reference cells and the matrix of cell under test with a given threshold. The performance analysis on both simulated and real radar data confirm the superiority of the proposed detection method over its conventional counterparts and existing ones.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 29
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 563: Surface Nanocrystallization and Amorphization of Dual-Phase TC11 Titanium Alloys under Laser Induced Ultrahigh Strain-Rate Plastic Deformation Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11040563 Authors: Sihai Luo Liucheng Zhou Xuede Wang Xin Cao Xiangfan Nie Weifeng He As an innovative surface technology for ultrahigh strain-rate plastic deformation, laser shock peening (LSP) was applied to the dual-phase TC11 titanium alloy to fabricate an amorphous and nanocrystalline surface layer at room temperature. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to investigate the microstructural evolution, and the deformation mechanism was discussed. The results showed that a surface nanostructured surface layer was synthesized after LSP treatment with adequate laser parameters. Simultaneously, the behavior of dislocations was also studied for different laser parameters. The rapid slipping, accumulation, annihilation, and rearrangement of dislocations under the laser-induced shock waves contributed greatly to the surface nanocrystallization. In addition, a 10 nm-thick amorphous structure layer was found through HRTEM in the top surface and the formation mechanism was attributed to the local temperature rising to the melting point, followed by its subsequent fast cooling.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 30
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 858: Stimulating Investments in Energy Efficiency Through Supply Chain Integration Energies doi: 10.3390/en11040858 Authors: Beatrice Marchi Simone Zanoni Ivan Ferretti Lucio Zavanella Attention to energy efficiency is recently experiencing substantial growth. To overcome the several barriers currently existing that represent an obstacle to the successful implementation of the wide set of energy efficiency measures available, the cooperation among members of a supply chain offers a huge potential. In supply chains, in addition to the traditional coordination of the operations, the members may also share financial resources or act jointly on the capital market. This study presents a two-stage supply chain model considering the opportunity to invest in new energy efficient technologies which are affected by learning effects: the member of the supply chain with better energy performance and/or better financial conditions may find it more profitable to invest in the development of the energy efficiency of its partner. The objective of the model is to determine the optimal investment for each supply chain member so as to maximize the Net Present Value of the supply chain. The impacts of the proposed joint decision-making are investigated through some numerical analysis and managerial insights are proposed: the joint decision-making process on the financial flows for the energy efficiency investments results are especially advantageous (up to a 20% increase of the supply chain Net Present Value) when members have different access to capital, which could be the result of different economic conditions in companies’ countries, as well as different credit policies or different credit ratings.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 31
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1121: Energy-Efficient Data Collection Method for Sensor Networks by Integrating Asymmetric Communication and Wake-Up Radio Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041121 Authors: Masanari Iwata Suhua Tang Sadao Obana In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs), nodes close to sink nodes consume energy more quickly than other nodes due to packet forwarding. A mobile sink is a good solution to this issue, although it causes two new problems to nodes: (i) overhead of updating routing information; and (ii) increased operating time due to aperiodic query. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an energy-efficient data collection method, Sink-based Centralized transmission Scheduling (SC-Sched), by integrating asymmetric communication and wake-up radio. Specifically, each node is equipped with a low-power wake-up receiver. The sink node determines transmission scheduling, and transmits a wake-up message using a large transmission power, directly activating a pair of nodes simultaneously which will communicate with a normal transmission power. This paper further investigates how to deal with frame loss caused by fading and how to mitigate the impact of the wake-up latency of communication modules. Simulation evaluations confirm that using multiple channels effectively reduces data collection time and SC-Sched works well with a mobile sink. Compared with the conventional duty-cycling method, SC-Sched greatly reduces total energy consumption and improves the network lifetime by 7.47 times in a WSN with 4 data collection points and 300 sensor nodes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 32
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1116: Soil Water Measurement Using Actively Heated Fiber Optics at Field Scale Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041116 Authors: Duminda Vidana Gamage Asim Biswas Ian Strachan Viacheslav Adamchuk Several studies have demonstrated the potential of actively heated fiber optics (AHFO) to measure soil water content (SWC) at high spatial and temporal resolutions. This study tested the feasibility of the AHFO technique to measure soil water in the surface soil of a crop grown field over a growing season using an in-situ calibration approach. Heat pulses of five minutes duration were applied at a rate of 7.28 W m−1 along eighteen fiber optic cable transects installed at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) at six-hour intervals. Cumulative temperature increase (Tcum) during heat pulses was calculated at locations along the cable. While predicting commercial sensor measurements, the AHFO showed root mean square errors (RMSE) of 2.8, 3.7 and 3.7% for 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m depths, respectively. Further, the coefficients of determination (R2) for depth specific relationships were 0.87 (0.05 m depth), 0.46 (0.10 m depth), 0.86 (0.20 m depth) and 0.66 (all depths combined). This study showed a great potential of the AHFO technique to measure soil water at high spatial resolutions (<1 m) and to monitor soil water dynamics of surface soil in a crop grown field over a cropping season with a reasonable compromise between accuracy and practicality.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 33
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 692: Decision Tree Approach to the Impact of Parents’ Oral Health on Dental Caries Experience in Children: A Cross-Sectional Study International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040692 Authors: Shinechimeg Dima Kung-Jeng Wang Kun-Huang Chen Yung-Kai Huang Wei-Jen Chang Sheng-Yang Lee Nai-Chia Teng Decision tree (DT) analysis was applied in this cross-sectional study to investigate caries experience in children by using clinical and microbiological data obtained from parent–child pairs. Thirty pairs of parents and children were recruited from periodontal and pediatric dental clinics. All participants were clinically examined for caries and periodontitis by a calibrated examiner. Cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria examinations were conducted. The Kendall rank correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between data variables obtained through clinical and microbiological examinations. A classificatory inductive decision tree was generated using the C4.5 algorithm with the top-down approach. The C4.5 DT analysis was applied to classify major influential factors for children dental caries experience. The DT identified parents’ periodontal health classification, decayed, missing, filled permanent teeth (DMFT) index, periodontopathic test (PerioCheck) result, and periodontal pocket depth as the classification factors for children caries experience. 13.3% of children were identified with a low decayed, missing, filled primary teeth (dmft) index (dmft < 3) whose parents had a periodontal pocket depth ≤3.7, PerioCheck score >1, DMFT index <13.5, and periodontal classification >2. The DT model for this study sample had an accuracy of 93.33%. Here, parental periodontal status and parents’ DMFT were the factors forming the DT for children’s caries experience.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 34
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1099: Surface Acting and Job-Related Affective Wellbeing: Preventing Resource Loss Spiral and Resource Loss Cycle for Sustainable Workplaces Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041099 Authors: Seongwook Ha This study empirically examines the synergistic negative effect of two kinds of job demand on job-related affective wellbeing (JAW) and the accelerating effects of cynicism in the negative relationships between job demands and JAW using a sample of 299 employees in the Chinese banking industry. Job demands include quantitative role overload and surface acting to represent the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job demands. Cynicism is introduced as a state where one’s energy resource is lost. The results of this study show that surface acting has a negative relationship with JAW, but quantitative role overload has no relationship with JAW. High levels of quantitative role overload exacerbate the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW. Cynicism also exacerbates the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW but does not have any moderating effect in the relationship between quantitative role overload and JAW. These results are consistent with the relationships predicted by resource loss spiral and resource loss cycle. The resource loss spiral means that resource loss, caused by handling with a quantitative role overload, lessens the employee’s ability to cope with surface acting. The resource loss cycle represents a vicious circle that amplifies the resource loss caused by surface acting. Surface acting reduces the level of one’s resources. Furthermore, surface acting reduces JAW and resources more strongly when an individual has low levels of previous energy resources than it reduces JAW and resources when he or she has high levels of previous energy resources.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 35
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1101: Study of the Cooling Effects of Urban Green Space in Harbin in Terms of Reducing the Heat Island Effect Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041101 Authors: Meng Huang Peng Cui Xin He The urban heat island (UHI) effect might cause extreme weather, which would seriously affect people’s health, increase energy consumption and cause other negative impacts. To construct urban green spaces is a feasible strategy to effectively weaken the UHI effect. In this study, the cooling effect of green spaces on the UHI effect was carefully investigated in summer and winter in Harbin city. Specifically, the vegetation index and surface temperature information were extracted by the grid method, and based on this data, the relationship between the urban green space and the UHI effect was analyzed quantitatively. In summer, the cooling effect is more significant. The average cooling extent reached 1.65 °C, the average maximum temperature change was 7.5 °C, and the cooling range was mainly 120 m. The cooling effect can be improved by adjusting the green space area, perimeter and shape. Increasing the green area (within 37 ha) or the green circumference (within 5300 m) can most economically improve its cooling effect. The shape factor would significantly affect the cooling effect within 0.03. The simpler the green space shape, the more obvious the cooling effect. In contrast, in winter the green spaces had a certain cooling effect when there was no snow cover or little snow cover, although this was still less significant compared with the situation in summer. The average cooling extent reached 0.48 °C, the average maximum temperature change was 4.25 °C, and the cooling range was mainly 90 m. However, there is no correlation between urban green space and the UHI effect in areas mainly covered by ice and snow. This work could provide protocols for urban green space design to effectively control the UHI effect of sub-frigid cities.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 36
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    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 433: Analysis of the Long-term Precipitation Trend in Illinois and Its Implications for Agricultural Production Water doi: 10.3390/w10040433 Authors: Vaskar Dahal Sudip Gautam Rabin Bhattarai Climate change is expected to modify the hydrological cycle resulting in a change in the amount, frequency, and intensity of surface precipitation. How the future hydrological pattern will look is uncertain. Climate change is expected to bring about intense periods of dryness and wetness, and such behavior is expected to be difficult to predict. Such uncertainty does not bode well for the agricultural systems of the United States (US) Midwest that are reliant on natural precipitation systems. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the behavior of precipitation during the cropping period. The manifestation of global-warming-related changes has already been reported for the last couple of decades and more so in the current decade. Thus, precipitation data from the recent past can provide vital information on what is about to come. In this study, the precipitation data of Illinois, a Midwestern state of the US with rain-fed agriculture, was analyzed with a focus on the climate dynamics during the cropping period. It was observed that even though there has been some increase in the annual precipitation amount (+1.84 mm/year) due to the increase in precipitation frequency and intensity, such change happened outside of the cropping period, thereby ensuring that climate change has not manifested itself during the cropping period.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 37
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    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 434: An Alternative Approach to Overcome the Limitation of HRUs in Analyzing Hydrological Processes Based on Land Use/Cover Change Water doi: 10.3390/w10040434 Authors: Fanhao Meng Tie Liu Hui Wang Min Luo Yongchao Duan Anming Bao Since the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs) is used widely in hydrological modeling, the land use change scenarios analysis based on HRU may have direct influence on hydrological processes due to its simplified flow routing and HRU spatial distribution. This paper intends to overcome this issue based on a new analysis approach to explain what impacts for the impact of land use/cover change on hydrological processes (LUCCIHP), and compare whether differences exist between the conventional approach and the improved approach. Therefore, we proposed a sub-basin segmentation approach to obtain more reasonable impact assessment of LUCC scenario by re-discretizing the HRUs and prolonging the flow path in which the LUCC occurs. As a scenario study, the SWAT model is used in the Aksu River Basin, China, to simulate the response of hydrological processes to LUCC over ten years. Moreover, the impacts of LUCC on hydrological processes before and after model modification are compared and analyzed at three levels (catchment scale, sub-basin scale and HRU scale). Comparative analysis of Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE), RSR and Pbias, model simulations before and after model improvement shows that NSE increased by up to 2%, RSR decreased from 0.73 to 0.72, and Pbias decreased from 0.13 to 0.05. The major LUCCs affecting hydrological elements in this basin are related to the degradation of grassland and snow/ice and expansion of farmland and bare land. Model simulations before and after model improvement show that the average variation of flow components in typical sub-basins (surface runoff, lateral flow and groundwater flow) are changed by +11.09%, −4.51%, and −6.58%, and +10.53%, −1.55%, and −8.98% from the base period model scenario, respectively. Moreover, the spatial response of surface runoff at the HRU level reveals clear spatial differences between before and after model improvement. This alternative approach illustrates the potential bias caused by the conventional configuration and offers the possible application.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 38
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    In: Entropy
    Publication Date: 2018-04-08
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 257: Sparse Power-Law Network Model for Reliable Statistical Predictions Based on Sampled Data Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20040257 Authors: Alexander P. Kartun-Giles Dimtri Krioukov James P. Gleeson Yamir Moreno Ginestra Bianconi A projective network model is a model that enables predictions to be made based on a subsample of the network data, with the predictions remaining unchanged if a larger sample is taken into consideration. An exchangeable model is a model that does not depend on the order in which nodes are sampled. Despite a large variety of non-equilibrium (growing) and equilibrium (static) sparse complex network models that are widely used in network science, how to reconcile sparseness (constant average degree) with the desired statistical properties of projectivity and exchangeability is currently an outstanding scientific problem. Here we propose a network process with hidden variables which is projective and can generate sparse power-law networks. Despite the model not being exchangeable, it can be closely related to exchangeable uncorrelated networks as indicated by its information theory characterization and its network entropy. The use of the proposed network process as a null model is here tested on real data, indicating that the model offers a promising avenue for statistical network modelling.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 39
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    In: Forests
    Publication Date: 2018-04-08
    Description: Forests, Vol. 9, Pages 192: Can Land Management Buffer Impacts of Climate Changes and Altered Fire Regimes on Ecosystems of the Southwestern United States? Forests doi: 10.3390/f9040192 Authors: Rachel Loehman Will Flatley Lisa Holsinger Andrea Thode Climate changes and associated shifts in ecosystems and fire regimes present enormous challenges for the management of landscapes in the Southwestern US. A central question is whether management strategies can maintain or promote desired ecological conditions under projected future climates. We modeled wildfire and forest responses to climate changes and management activities using two ecosystem process models: FireBGCv2, simulated for the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, and LANDIS-II, simulated for the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona. We modeled contemporary and two future climates—“Warm-Dry” (CCSM4 RCP 4.5) and “Hot-Arid” (HadGEM2ES RCP 8.5)—and four levels of management including fire suppression alone, a current treatment strategy, and two intensified treatment strategies. We found that Hot-Arid future climate resulted in a fundamental, persistent reorganization of ecosystems in both study areas, including biomass reduction, compositional shifts, and altered forest structure. Climate changes increased the potential for high-severity fire in the Jemez study area, but did not impact fire regime characteristics in the Kaibab. Intensified management treatments somewhat reduced wildfire frequency and severity; however, management strategies did not prevent the reorganization of forest ecosystems in either landscape. Our results suggest that novel approaches may be required to manage future forests for desired conditions.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4907
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 40
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1097: The Coexistence of Multiple Worldviews in Livestock Farming Drives Agroecological Transition. A Case Study in French Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Cheese Mountain Areas Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041097 Authors: Patrice Cayre Audrey Michaud Jean-Pierre Theau Cyrille Rigolot Livestock systems contribute significantly to environmental issues and need to undergo an agroecological transition. This transition is not only technical, but also involves an evolution of farmers’ ways of seeing and interpreting the world, i.e., worldviews. We investigate livestock farmers’ worldviews and their relationships with farming practices (grazing and mowing management) in three Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese areas in the French mountains. The study is based on quantitative and comprehensive qualitative surveys in 37 farms. We identify entities typically considered by farmers and the kind of relations they have with these entities, as well as the ontological background, sources of knowledge, and worlds of justifications. Four ideal-typical worldviews emerge: Modern; Traditional; Ecological Intensive; Holist. These four worldviews coexist in each area and also at the farm scale. Three selected farmer monographs illustrate this complexity in detail. The four worldviews are consistent with other typologies in literature. Both Ecological Intensive and Holist worldviews can be considered as “agroecological”; however, they correspond to very different conceptions of agroecology. Different worldviews imply different sustainability indicators and pathways, as well as alternative knowledge-management systems. Finally, the coexistence of multiple worldviews is a key driver of the agroecological transition, which can be enhanced by facilitating confrontation and exchanges between worldviews.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 41
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-08
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 571: A Novel Approach for Evaluating the Contraction of Hypo-Peritectic Steels during Initial Solidification by Surface Roughness Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11040571 Authors: Junli Guo Guanghua Wen Dazhi Pu Ping Tang The contraction of peritectic steels in the initial solidification has an important influence on the formation of surface defects of continuously cast slabs. In order to understand the contraction behavior of the initial solidification of steels in the mold, the solidification process and surface roughness in a commercial hypo-peritectic and several non-peritectic steels were investigated using Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CSLM). The massive transformation of delta-Fe (δ) to austenite (γ) was documented in the hypo-peritectic steel, which caused surface wrinkles and greatly increases the surface roughness of samples in the experiments. Surface roughness (Ra(δ→γ)) was calculated to evaluate the contraction level of the hypo-peritectic steel due to δ–γ transformation. The result shows that the surface roughness method can facilitate the estimation of the contraction level of peritectic transformation over a wide range of cooling rates.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 42
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-08
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 568: Effect of Gypsum on the Early Hydration of Cubic and Na-Doped Orthorhombic Tricalcium Aluminate Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11040568 Authors: Ana Kirchheim Erich Rodríguez Rupert Myers Luciano A. Gobbo Paulo M. Monteiro Denise C. C. Dal Molin Rui de Souza Maria Cincotto The tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and sulfate content in cement influence the hydration chemistry, setting time and rheology of cement paste, mortar and concrete. Here, in situ experiments are performed to better understand the effect of gypsum on the early hydration of cubic (cub-)C3A and Na-doped orthorhombic (orth-)C3A. The isothermal calorimetry data show that the solid-phase assemblage produced by the hydration of C3A is greatly modified as a function of its crystal structure type and gypsum content, the latter of which induces non-linear changes in the heat release rate. These data are consistent with the in situ X-ray diffraction results, which show that a higher gypsum content accelerates the consumption of orth-C3A and the subsequent precipitation of ettringite, which is contrary to the cub-C3A system where gypsum retarded the hydration rate. These in situ results provide new insight into the relationship between the chemistry and early-age properties of cub- and orth-C3A hydration and corroborate the reported ex situ findings of these systems.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 43
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-08
    Description: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Pages 569: Evaluation of SMOS, SMAP, ASCAT and Sentinel-1 Soil Moisture Products at Sites in Southwestern France Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs10040569 Authors: Mohammad El Hajj Nicolas Baghdadi Mehrez Zribi Nemesio Rodríguez-Fernández Jean Wigneron Amen Al-Yaari Ahmad Al Bitar Clément Albergel Jean-Christophe Calvet This study evaluates the accuracy of several recent remote sensing Surface Soil Moisture (SSM) products at sites in southwestern France. The products used are Soil Moisture Active Passive “SMAP” (level 3: 36 km × 36 km, level 3 enhanced: 9 km × 9 km, and Level 2 SMAP/Sentinel-1: 1 km × 1km), Advanced Scatterometer “ASCAT” (level 2 with three spatial resolution 25 km × 25 km, 12.5 km × 12.5 km, and 1 km × 1 km), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity “SMOS” (SMOS INRA-CESBIO “SMOS-IC”, SMOS Near-Real-Time “SMOS-NRT”, SMOS Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS level 3 “SMOS-CATDS”, 25 km × 25 km) and Sentinel-1(S1) (25 km × 25 km, 9 km × 9 km, and 1 km × 1 km). The accuracy of SSM products was computed using in situ measurements of SSM observed at a depth of 5 cm. In situ measurements were obtained from the SMOSMANIA ThetaProbe (Time Domaine reflectometry) network (7 stations between 1 January 2016 and 30 June 2017) and additional field campaigns (near Montpellier city in France, between 1 January 2017 and 31 May 2017) in southwestern France. For our study sites, results showed that (i) the accuracy of the Level 2 SMAP/Sentinel-1 was lower than that of SMAP-36 km and SMAP-9 km; (ii) the SMAP-36 km and SMAP-9 km products provide more precise SSM estimates than SMOS products (SMOS-IC, SMOS-NRT, and SMOS-CATDS), mainly due to higher sensitivity of SMOS to RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) noise; and (iii) the accuracy of SMAP-36 km and SMAP-9 km products was similar to that of ASCAT (ASCAT-25 km, ASCAT-12.5 km and ASCAT-1 km) and S1 (S1-25 km, S1-9 km, and S1-1 km) products. The accuracy of SMAP, Sentinel-1 and ASCAT SSM products calculated using the average of statistics obtained on each site is defined by a bias of about −3.2 vol. %, RMSD (Root Mean Square Difference) about 7.6 vol. %, ubRMSD (unbiased Root Mean Square Difference)about 5.6 vol. %, and R coefficient about 0.57. For SMOS products, the station average bias, RMSD, ubRMSD, and R coefficient were about −10.6 vol. %, 12.7 vol. %, 5.9 vol. %, and 0.49, respectively.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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  • 44
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-08
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1128: Bearing Fault Diagnosis by a Robust Higher-Order Super-Twisting Sliding Mode Observer Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041128 Authors: Farzin Piltan Jong-Myon Kim An effective bearing fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) model is important for ensuring the normal and safe operation of machines. This paper presents a reliable model-reference observer technique for FDD based on modeling of a bearing’s vibration data by analyzing the dynamic properties of the bearing and a higher-order super-twisting sliding mode observation (HOSTSMO) technique for making diagnostic decisions using these data models. The HOSTSMO technique can adaptively improve the performance of estimating nonlinear failures in rolling element bearings (REBs) over a linear approach by modeling 5 degrees of freedom under normal and faulty conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is evaluated using a vibration dataset provided by Case Western Reserve University, which consists of vibration acceleration signals recorded for REBs with inner, outer, ball, and no faults, i.e., normal. Experimental results indicate that the proposed technique outperforms the ARX-Laguerre proportional integral observation (ALPIO) technique, yielding 18.82%, 16.825%, and 17.44% performance improvements for three levels of crack severity of 0.007, 0.014, and 0.021 inches, respectively.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 45
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-08
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1125: Mobile User Connectivity in Relay-Assisted Visible Light Communications Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041125 Authors: Petr Pešek Stanislav Zvanovec Petr Chvojka Manav Bhatnagar Zabih Ghassemlooy Prakriti Saxena In this paper, we investigate relay-assisted visible light communications (VLC) where a mobile user acts as a relay and forwards data from a transmitter to the end mobile user. We analyse the utilization of the amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) relaying schemes. The focus of the paper is on analysis of the behavior of the mobile user acting as a relay while considering a realistic locations of the receivers and transmitters on a standard mobile phone, more specifically with two photodetectors on both sides of a mobile phone and a transmitting LED array located upright. We also investigate dependency of the bit error rate (BER) performance on the azimuth and elevation angles of the mobile relay device within a typical office environment. We provide a new analytical description of BER for AF and DF-based relays in VLC. In addition we compare AF and DF-based systems and show that DF offers a marginal improvement in the coverage area with a BER < 10–3 and a data rate of 100 Mb/s. Numerical results also illustrate that relay-based systems offer a significant improvement in terms of the coverage compared to direct non-line of sight VLC links.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 46
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-08
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1105: Blockchain Enhanced Emission Trading Framework in Fashion Apparel Manufacturing Industry Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041105 Authors: Bailu Fu Zhan Shu Xiaogang Liu Motivated by the recent blockchain technology originally built for bitcoin transactions, various industries are exploring the opportunities to redefine their existing operational systems. In this study, an innovative environmentally sustainable solution is proposed for the fashion apparel manufacturing industry (FAMI), which is energized by blockchain. Incorporating the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS), and a novel “emission link” system, the proposed framework exposes carbon emission to the public and establishes a feature to reduce the emissions for all key steps of clothing making. Fully compatible with Industry 4.0, blockchain provides decentralization, transparency, automation, and immutability characteristics to the proposed framework. Specifically, the blockchain supported ETS framework, the carbon emissions of clothing manufacturing life cycle, and the emission link powered procedures are introduced in detail. A case study is provided to demonstrate the carbon emission evaluation procedure. Finally, a multi-criteria evaluation is performed to demonstrate the benefits and drawbacks of the proposed system.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 47
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-08
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1102: A Low-Cost Immersive Virtual Reality System for Teaching Robotic Manipulators Programming Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041102 Authors: Vicente Román-Ibáñez Francisco Pujol-López Higinio Mora-Mora Maria Pertegal-Felices Antonio Jimeno-Morenilla Laboratory tasks are a powerful pedagogical strategy for developing competences in science and engineering degrees, making students understand in a practical way the theoretical topics explained in the classroom. However, performing experiments in real conditions is usually expensive in terms of time, money and energy, as it requires expensive infrastructures that are generally difficult to maintain in good conditions. To overcome this problem, virtual reality has proven to be a powerful tool to achieve sustainability, making it easy to update laboratories without the need to acquire new equipment. Moreover, the ability to introduce practical knowledge into classrooms without leaving them, makes virtual laboratories capable of simulating typical operating environments as well as extreme situations in the operation of different devices. A typical subject in which students can benefit from the use of virtual laboratories is robotics. In this work we will develop an immersive virtual reality (VR) pedagogical simulator of industrial robotic arms for engineering students. With the proposed system, students will know the effects of their own designed trajectories on several different robotic arms and cell environments without having to buy all of them and being safe of damaging the cell components. The simulation will be checking for collisions of the elements in the scene and alert the student when they happen. This can be achieved with a robotic simulator, but the integration with immersive VR is intended to help students better understand robotics. Moreover, even having a real robotic arm available for students, with this proposed VR method, all the students have the opportunity to manage and learn his own version of the robotic cell, without waiting times generated by having less robotic arms than students in classroom.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 48
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 864: Force Analysis of a Circular Cylinder at Ununiformed Flow in a T Pipe Junction Energies doi: 10.3390/en11040864 Authors: Yantao Yin Shicong Li Liangbi Wang Mei Lin Qiuwang Wang Experimental and numerical investigations of force analysis acted on single circular cylinder in the T pipe junction with the effect of vanes are reported in this paper. Experiments are carried on in a small wind tunnel at five different velocity ratios (R) from 0.117 to 0.614. The mean pressure data acted on the cylinder are obtained and in turn the drag and lift. Vanes are installed at the junction to change the secondary flow in the branch duct and the angle is in the range of 90° ≤ φ ≤ 130°. Numerical studies which are validated by the experimental data help understand the flow structure for the analysis. It is found that in the T shape junction without vanes, the cylinder presents different surface mean pressure distributions at the different positions in the suction duct. As the increase of the distance from the junction to the cylinder center, the surface mean pressure distributions recover to the benchmark gradually which performs in the straight duct beforehand. Four feature points including the front/rear stagnation points and the separation points and the corresponding three divisions of flow region are analyzed in detail with the auxiliary numerical simulation of flow structure. Effect of the vanes with different angle is also discussed. Finally, the drag and lift coefficients acted on the cylinder with or without vanes are performed.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 49
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 861: Phase Change Material Selection for Thermal Energy Storage at High Temperature Range between 210 °C and 270 °C Energies doi: 10.3390/en11040861 Authors: José Maldonado Margalida Fullana-Puig Marc Martín Aran Solé Ángel Fernández Alvaro de Gracia Luisa Cabeza The improvement of thermal energy storage systems implemented in solar technologies increases not only their performance but also their dispatchability and competitiveness in the energy market. Latent heat thermal energy storage systems are one of those storing methods. Therefore, the need of finding the best materials for each application becomes an appealing research subject. The main goal of this paper is to find suitable and economically viable materials able to work as phase change material (PCM) within the temperature range of 210–270 °C and endure daily loading and unloading processes in a system with Fresnel collector and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Twenty-six materials have been tested and characterized in terms of their thermophysical conditions, thermal and cycling stability, and health hazard. Two materials out of the 26 candidates achieved the last stage of the selection process. However, one of the two finalists would require an inert working atmosphere, which would highly increase the cost for the real scale application. This leads to a unique suitable material, solar salt (40 wt % KNO3/60 wt % NaNO3).
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 50
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Geosciences, Vol. 8, Pages 130: A Physical Study of the Effect of Groundwater Salinity on the Compressibility of the Semarang-DemakAquitard, Java Island Geosciences doi: 10.3390/geosciences8040130 Authors: Dwi Sarah Lambok Hutasoit Robert Delinom Imam Sadisun Taufiq Wirabuana Semarang-Demak and other cities along the coast of North Java are vulnerable to land subsidence. The presence of saline groundwater in the coastal region is thought to affect the high subsidence rate, in this case the compressibility of the aquitard layer. We aimed to analyze the effects of groundwater salinity on the compression characteristics of the Semarang-Demak clay using physical analysis. Methods included the determination of groundwater salinity, clay mineralogy and fabrics, and consolidation tests under various salinity conditions. The Semarang-Demak clay is dominated by smectite of high activity, and saline clay exists at the depth of 10 to 35 m. Consolidation tests revealed that the increase insalinity increases the average consolidation rate and hydraulic conductivity up to 42% and 37.5%, respectively. Clay fabric analysis showed that the groundwater salinity modified the interconnectivity of pores by changing the fabric into parallel alignments, facilitating faster porewater dissipation, hence the clay is more readily compressed. These findings are useful for explaining the mechanism of the fast-subsiding coastal plains of North Java.
    Electronic ISSN: 2076-3263
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 51
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 697: Relationship between the Manner of Mobile Phone Use and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in University Students International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040697 Authors: Aleksandar Višnjić Vladica Veličković Dušan Sokolović Miodrag Stanković Kristijan Mijatović Miodrag Stojanović Zoran Milošević Olivera Radulović Objectives: There is insufficient evidence regarding the potential risk of mobile phone use on mental health. Therefore, the aim of this research was to examine the relationship between mobile phone use and mental health by measuring the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among university students in Serbia and Italy. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at two distinguished universities in Serbia and Italy from March to May of the 2015/2016 academic year and included 785 students of both genders. The questionnaire was compiled and developed from different published sources regarding the manner and intensity of mobile phone use, along with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 42) for measuring psychological health. The statistical analysis of the data included the application of binary logistic regression and correlation tests. Results: Statistical analysis indicates that anxiety symptoms are somewhat more present in younger students (odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76–0.96), in those who send more text messages SMSs (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.11–1.31), and in those who browse the internet less frequently (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73–0.95). Stress is more common in students who make fewer calls a day (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64–0.97), as well in those who spend more time talking on the mobile phone per day (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.12–1.56). The strongest predictor of high stress levels was keeping the mobile phone less than 1 m away during sleeping (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.12–2.08). Conclusions: The results indicated that the intensity and modality of mobile phone use could be a factor that can influence causal pathways leading to mental health problems in the university student population.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 52
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Pages 575: Surveying Drifting Icebergs and Ice Islands: Deterioration Detection and Mass Estimation with Aerial Photogrammetry and Laser Scanning Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs10040575 Authors: Anna Crawford Derek Mueller Gabriel Joyal Icebergs and ice islands (large, tabular icebergs) are challenging targets to survey due to their size, mobility, remote locations, and potentially difficult environmental conditions. Here, we assess the precision and utility of aerial photography surveying with structure-from-motion multi-view stereo photogrammetry processing (SfM) and vessel-based terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for iceberg deterioration detection and mass estimation. For both techniques, we determine the minimum amount of change required to reliably resolve iceberg deterioration, the deterioration detection threshold (DDT), using triplicate surveys of two iceberg survey targets. We also calculate their relative uncertainties for iceberg mass estimation. The quality of deployed Global Positioning System (GPS) units that were used for drift correction and scale assignment was a major determinant of point cloud precision. When dual-frequency GPS receivers were deployed, DDT values of 2.5 and 0.40 m were calculated for the TLS and SfM point clouds, respectively. In contrast, values of 6.6 and 3.4 m were calculated when tracking beacons with lower-quality GPS were used. The SfM dataset was also more precise when used for iceberg mass estimation, and we recommend further development of this technique for iceberg-related end-uses.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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  • 53
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    MDPI Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Pages 572: Tracking Human-Induced Landscape Disturbance at the Nasca Lines UNESCO World Heritage Site in Peru with COSMO-SkyMed InSAR Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs10040572 Authors: Francesca Cigna Deodato Tapete The “Lines and Geoglyphs of Nasca and Palpa” in Peru are among the most well-known UNESCO World Heritage Sites globally, and an exemplar of site where heritage assets cannot be separated from their natural and anthropogenic environment. The site is exposed to interactions with natural processes, as well as human presence. In this work, 3-m resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) StripMap HIMAGE HH-polarised scenes acquired by the X-band COSMO-SkyMed constellation are exploited to track two events of human-induced landscape disturbance that occurred in December 2014 and January 2018. Pre-, cross-, and post-event interferometric SAR (InSAR) pairs characterised by small temporal and normal baselines allow the detection of temporal decorrelation associated with the two events, the extent and time reference of which match with online photographic and video evidence, published literature, web news, and press releases by the Ministry of Culture in Peru. Further elements enhancing the understanding of the 2018 event come from 10-m resolution Sentinel-2B satellite data that reveal the occurrence of apparent changes of surface reflectance due to uncovering of the light grey-yellow clay underneath the darker pebble constituting the fragile surface of the Pampa de Jumana. This scientific study confirms that SAR imagery archives, such as those being built by COSMO-SkyMed for Nasca, prove valuable for the retrospective analysis and digital recording of human-induced landscape disturbance events from space. These archives therefore act as essential sources of geospatial information on the conservation history of heritage sites and assets.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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  • 54
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1139: FPGA Based Adaptive Rate and Manifold Pattern Projection for Structured Light 3D Camera System Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041139 Authors: Muhammad Atif Sukhan Lee The quality of the captured point cloud and the scanning speed of a structured light 3D camera system depend upon their capability of handling the object surface of a large reflectance variation in the trade-off of the required number of patterns to be projected. In this paper, we propose and implement a flexible embedded framework that is capable of triggering the camera single or multiple times for capturing single or multiple projections within a single camera exposure setting. This allows the 3D camera system to synchronize the camera and projector even for miss-matched frame rates such that the system is capable of projecting different types of patterns for different scan speed applications. This makes the system capturing a high quality of 3D point cloud even for the surface of a large reflectance variation while achieving a high scan speed. The proposed framework is implemented on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), where the camera trigger is adaptively generated in such a way that the position and the number of triggers are automatically determined according to camera exposure settings. In other words, the projection frequency is adaptive to different scanning applications without altering the architecture. In addition, the proposed framework is unique as it does not require any external memory for storage because pattern pixels are generated in real-time, which minimizes the complexity and size of the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design and implementation.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 55
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1136: Effects of tDCS on Real-Time BCI Detection of Pedaling Motor Imagery Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041136 Authors: Maria Rodriguez-Ugarte Eduardo Iáñez Mario Ortiz-Garcia José Azorín The purpose of this work is to strengthen the cortical excitability over the primary motor cortex (M1) and the cerebro-cerebellar pathway by means of a new transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) configuration to detect lower limb motor imagery (MI) in real time using two different cognitive neural states: relax and pedaling MI. The anode is located over the primary motor cortex in Cz, and the cathode over the right cerebro-cerebellum. The real-time brain–computer interface (BCI) designed is based on finding, for each electrode selected, the power at the particular frequency where the most difference between the two mental tasks is observed. Electroencephalographic (EEG) electrodes are placed over the brain’s premotor area (PM), M1, supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary somatosensory cortex (S1). A single-blind study is carried out, where fourteen healthy subjects are separated into two groups: sham and active tDCS. Each subject is experimented on for five consecutive days. On all days, the results achieved by the active tDCS group were over 60% in real-time detection accuracy, with a five-day average of 62.6%. The sham group eventually reached those levels of accuracy, but it needed three days of training to do so.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 56
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1133: Drawing Inspiration from Human Brain Networks: Construction of Interconnected Virtual Networks Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041133 Authors: Masaya Murakami Daichi Kominami Kenji Leibnitz Masayuki Murata Virtualization of wireless sensor networks (WSN) is widely considered as a foundational block of edge/fog computing, which is a key technology that can help realize next-generation Internet of things (IoT) networks. In such scenarios, multiple IoT devices and service modules will be virtually deployed and interconnected over the Internet. Moreover, application services are expected to be more sophisticated and complex, thereby increasing the number of modifications required for the construction of network topologies. Therefore, it is imperative to establish a method for constructing a virtualized WSN (VWSN) topology that achieves low latency on information transmission and high resilience against network failures, while keeping the topological construction cost low. In this study, we draw inspiration from inter-modular connectivity in human brain networks, which achieves high performance when dealing with large-scale networks composed of a large number of modules (i.e., regions) and nodes (i.e., neurons). We propose a method for assigning inter-modular links based on a connectivity model observed in the cerebral cortex of the brain, known as the exponential distance rule (EDR) model. We then choose endpoint nodes of these links by controlling inter-modular assortativity, which characterizes the topological connectivity of brain networks. We test our proposed methods using simulation experiments. The results show that the proposed method based on the EDR model can construct a VWSN topology with an optimal combination of communication efficiency, robustness, and construction cost. Regarding the selection of endpoint nodes for the inter-modular links, the results also show that high assortativity enhances the robustness and communication efficiency because of the existence of inter-modular links of two high-degree nodes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 57
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1111: Sustainable Development of Regional Power Systems and the Consumption of Electric Energy Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041111 Authors: Evgeny Lisin Daria Shuvalova Irina Volkova Wadim Strielkowski Nowadays, one of the most imminent problems facing power systems in post-industrial countries is the sustainable development of power systems under conditions of increasing power consumption irregularity due to the reduction of the industry’s share in consumers’ demand for electric power. In today’s Russia, this issue is becoming very acute due to the significant share of electric power and heat co-generation that is demonstrating low manoeuvrability and poor adaptation to operations in the daily variation of electric power demand. This paper considers the problem of improving the power system steady-state through the optimization of the production structure of thermal power plants. We propose a combinatorial algorithm that improves the planning of the structural and technological modernization of the power equipment configuration, with a glance at the forecast of the increasing irregularity of power consumption.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 58
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1108: Potential Trade-Offs between the Sustainable Development Goals in Coastal Bangladesh Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041108 Authors: Craig Hutton Robert Nicholls Attila Lázár Alex Chapman Marije Schaafsma Mashfiqus Salehin The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are offered as a comprehensive strategy to guide and encourage sustainable development at multiple scales both nationally and internationally. Furthermore, through the development of indicators associated with each goal and sub-goal, the SDGs support the notion of monitoring, evaluation and adaptive management, underpinned by the aspirations of social justice, equity and transparency. As such, the ethical intention of the SDGs is well founded. However, possible conflicts and trade-offs between individual SDGs have received little attention. For example, SDGs relating to poverty (SDG 1), inequality (SDG 10), food security (SDG2), economic development (SDG 8) and life in water and on land (SDGs 14 and 15), are potentially competing in many circumstances. In a social–ecological context, policy support and formulation are increasingly adopting systems approaches, which analyse the complex interactions of system elements. Adopting such an approach in this work, the above SDGs are analysed for coastal Bangladesh. This demonstrates multiple potential trade-offs between the SDGs, including agricultural farming approaches in the light of poverty reduction, and between economic growth and environmental integrity as well as equity. To develop coherent and policy relevant socio-ecological strategies, appropriate decision frameworks need to be co-developed across the range of stakeholders and decision-makers. Integrated models have great potential to support such a process.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 59
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    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 445: Assessment of the Spatiotemporal Effects of Land Use Changes on Runoff and Nitrate Loads in the Talar River Water doi: 10.3390/w10040445 Authors: Ataollah Kavian Maziar Mohammadi Leila Gholami Jesús Rodrigo-Comino This research surveyed the effects of land use changes on flow nitrate pollution in the Talar River (northern Iran), using Landsat images of 1991 and 2013 and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The results indicated that forest areas decreased by 14.9% and irrigated crops, dry land farming areas, range lands and residential areas increased by 46.8%, 31.1%, 4.7% and 17.5%, respectively. To calibrate and validate the studied period, the Nash Sutcliffe model efficiency (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) were applied, ranging from 0.57 to 0.75 and from 0.62 to 0.76 for flow simulation and 0.84 and 0.63 and 0.75 and 0.83 for nitrate simulation, respectively. The results of land use scenarios indicated that respective water flow and nitrate loads increased by 34.4% and 42.2% in 1991–2013 and may even increase by 42.3% and 55.9% in the simulated period of 2013–2050 in all sub-basins. It is likely that the main reason for these results was due to the increase in agricultural activities and the decrease in forestry areas. Our findings showed the useful combination of modelling techniques (land cover changes and SWAT) to develop valuable maps able to design correct land management plans and nature-based solutions for water quality of runoff water harvesting systems in the future.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 60
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    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 442: Climate Change Impacts on Nutrient Losses of Two Watersheds in the Great Lakes Region Water doi: 10.3390/w10040442 Authors: Lili Wang Dennis Flanagan Zhonggen Wang Keith Cherkauer Non-point sources (NPS) of agricultural chemical pollution are one major reason for the water quality degradation of the Great Lakes, which impacts millions of residents in the states and provinces that are bordering them. Future climate change will further impact water quality in both direct and indirect ways by influencing the hydrological cycle and processes of nutrient transportation and transformation, but studies are still rare. This study focuses on quantifying the impacts of climate change on nutrient (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) losses from the two small watersheds (Walworth watershed and Green Lake watershed) within the Great Lakes region. Analysis focused on changes through this century (comparing the nutrient loss prediction of three future periods from 2015 to 2099 with 30 years for each period against the historical nutrient estimation data from 1985 to 2008). The effects on total phosphorus and nitrate-nitrogen losses due to changes in precipitation quantity, intensity, and frequency, as well as air temperature, are evaluated for the two small watersheds, under three special report emission scenarios (SRES A2, A1B, B1). The newly developed Water Erosion Prediction Project-Water Quality (WEPP-WQ) model is utilized to simulate nutrient losses with downscaled and bias corrected future climate forcing from two General Circulation Models (GFDL, HadCM3). For each watershed, the observed runoff and nutrient loads are used to calibrate and validate the model before the application of the WEPP-WQ model to examine potential impacts from future climate change. Total phosphorus loss is projected to increase by 28% to 89% for the Green Lake watershed and 25% to 108% for the Walworth watershed mainly due to the combined effects of increase of precipitation quantity, extreme storm events in intensity and frequency, and air temperature. Nitrate-nitrogen losses are projected to increase by 1.1% to 38% for the Green Lake watershed and 8% to 95% for the Walworth watershed with the different major influencing factors in each future periods.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 61
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Atmosphere, Vol. 9, Pages 139: A Technique for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Exchange Adjacent Cattle Feedlots Atmosphere doi: 10.3390/atmos9040139 Authors: Sean McGinn Thomas Flesch Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) such as open-air beef cattle feedlots are known ‘hot spots’ of emissions of numerous gases including the major greenhouse gases methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide. Some work has documented CAFOs to derive typical emission factors, but few studies have looked beyond the CAFO to the local landscape to derive the net off-farm emissions. To address the net emissions, the exchange of gases downwind of CAFOs is required, determined in part by the air quality of the gas plume from the CAFO and the characteristics of the underlying surface. Our study measured these downwind fluxes at an open-air beef cattle feedlot using an open-path Fourier Transform Infrared detector and a flux-gradient method. The results showed the dynamic response of fluxes to gas concentration (fresh air or feedlot air) and surface condition (actively growing crop and tilled stubble). These results shed light on the pathways of greenhouse gas flow near a CAFO source, and showed that solely measuring source emissions from a CAFO would lead to errors when developing emission factors.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4433
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 62
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 875: Measurement and Modelling of Leakage Current Behaviour in ZnO Surge Arresters under Various Applied Voltage Amplitudes and Pollution Conditions Energies doi: 10.3390/en11040875 Authors: Nurul Latiff Hazlee Illias Ab Bakar Sameh Dabbak In zinc oxide (ZnO) surge arresters, leakage current usually flows across the arrester under normal operating condition. Leakage current is one of the factors which contribute towards degradation of surge arresters and therefore, it is very important to monitor the condition of surge arrester. In this work, the behaviour of leakage current in a ZnO surge arrester during normal operation, under different voltage amplitudes, wetness and pollution conditions was analysed. An 11 kV surge arrester model in three-dimensional space was subjected to finite element analysis (FEA) to determine the leakage current under different conditions. The results from the FEA model were compared with the measurement results to validate the model that has been developed. From comparison between the measurement and simulation results, physical parameters of a surge arrester that influence the leakage current under different conditions of the surge arrester were identified from the model. Through this work, a better understanding of leakage current behaviour can be attained, which may help in condition monitoring analysis on surge arrester in electrical utilities.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 63
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 872: On the Effects of Variation of Thermal Conductivity in Buildings in the Italian Construction Sector Energies doi: 10.3390/en11040872 Authors: Umberto Berardi Lamberto Tronchin Massimiliano Manfren Benedetto Nastasi Stationary and dynamic heat and mass transfer analyses of building components are an essential part of energy efficient design of new and retrofitted buildings. Generally, a single constant thermal conductivity value is assumed for each material layer in construction components. However, the variability of thermal conductivity may depend on many factors; temperature and moisture content are among the most relevant ones. A linear temperature dependence of thermal conductivity has been found experimentally for materials made of inorganic fibers such as rockwool or fiberglass, showing lower thermal conductivities at lower temperatures. On the contrary, a nonlinear temperature dependence has been found for foamed insulation materials like polyisocyanurate, with a significant deviation from linear behavior. For this reason, thermal conductivity assumptions used in thermal calculations of construction components and in whole-building performance simulations have to be critically questioned. This study aims to evaluate how temperature affects thermal conductivity of materials in building components such as exterior walls and flat roofs in different climate conditions. Therefore, experimental conductivities measured for four common insulation materials have been used as a basis to simulate the behavior of typical construction components in three different Italian climate conditions, corresponding to the cities of Turin, Rome, and Palermo.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 64
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 869: Application of a Continuous Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) for the Optimal Coordination of Overcurrent Relays Considering a Penalty Method Energies doi: 10.3390/en11040869 Authors: Abdul Wadood Chang-Hwan Kim Tahir Khurshiad Saeid Farkoush Sang-Bong Rhee In an electrical power system, the coordination of the overcurrent relays plays an important role in protecting the electrical system by providing primary as well as backup protection. To reduce power outages, the coordination between these relays should be kept at the optimum value to minimize the total operating time and ensure that the least damage occurs under fault conditions. It is also imperative to ensure that the relay setting does not create an unintentional operation and consecutive sympathy trips. In a power system protection coordination problem, the objective function to be optimized is the sum of the total operating time of all main relays. In this paper, the coordination of overcurrent relays in a ring fed distribution system is formulated as an optimization problem. Coordination is performed using proposed continuous particle swarm optimization. In order to enhance and improve the quality of this solution a local search algorithm (LSA) is implanted into the original particle swarm algorithm (PSO) and, in addition to the constraints, these are amalgamated into the fitness function via the penalty method. The results achieved from the continuous particle swarm optimization algorithm (CPSO) are compared with other evolutionary optimization algorithms (EA) and this comparison showed that the proposed scheme is competent in dealing with the relevant problems. From further analyzing the obtained results, it was found that the continuous particle swarm approach provides the most globally optimum solution.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 65
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    In: Entropy
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 262: On a Robust MaxEnt Process Regression Model with Sample-Selection Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20040262 Authors: Hea-Jung Kim Mihyang Bae Daehwa Jin In a regression analysis, a sample-selection bias arises when a dependent variable is partially observed as a result of the sample selection. This study introduces a Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) process regression model that assumes a MaxEnt prior distribution for its nonparametric regression function and finds that the MaxEnt process regression model includes the well-known Gaussian process regression (GPR) model as a special case. Then, this special MaxEnt process regression model, i.e., the GPR model, is generalized to obtain a robust sample-selection Gaussian process regression (RSGPR) model that deals with non-normal data in the sample selection. Various properties of the RSGPR model are established, including the stochastic representation, distributional hierarchy, and magnitude of the sample-selection bias. These properties are used in the paper to develop a hierarchical Bayesian methodology to estimate the model. This involves a simple and computationally feasible Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm that avoids analytical or numerical derivatives of the log-likelihood function of the model. The performance of the RSGPR model in terms of the sample-selection bias correction, robustness to non-normality, and prediction, is demonstrated through results in simulations that attest to its good finite-sample performance.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 66
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    In: Entropy
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 259: An Efficient Computational Technique for Fractal Vehicular Traffic Flow Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20040259 Authors: Devendra Kumar Fairouz Tchier Jagdev Singh Dumitru Baleanu In this work, we examine a fractal vehicular traffic flow problem. The partial differential equations describing a fractal vehicular traffic flow are solved with the aid of the local fractional homotopy perturbation Sumudu transform scheme and the local fractional reduced differential transform method. Some illustrative examples are taken to describe the success of the suggested techniques. The results derived with the aid of the suggested schemes reveal that the present schemes are very efficient for obtaining the non-differentiable solution to fractal vehicular traffic flow problem.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 67
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 33: An Intelligent Content Prefix Classification Approach for Quality of Service Optimization in Information-Centric Networking Future Internet doi: 10.3390/fi10040033 Authors: Cutifa Safitri Yoshihide Yamada Sabariah Baharun Shidrokh Goudarzi Quang Ngoc Nguyen Keping Yu Takuro Sato This research proposes an intelligent classification framework for quality of service (QoS) performance improvement in information-centric networking (ICN). The proposal works towards keyword classification techniques to obtain the most valuable information via suitable content prefixes in ICN. In this study, we have achieved the intelligent function using Artificial Intelligence (AI) implementation. Particularly, to find the most suitable and promising intelligent approach for maintaining QoS matrices, we have evaluated various AI algorithms, including evolutionary algorithms (EA), swarm intelligence (SI), and machine learning (ML) by using the cost function to assess their classification performances. With the goal of enabling a complete ICN prefix classification solution, we also propose a hybrid implementation to optimize classification performances by integration of relevant AI algorithms. This hybrid mechanism searches for a final minimum structure to prevent the local optima from happening. By simulation, the evaluation results show that the proposal outperforms EA and ML in terms of network resource utilization and response delay for QoS performance optimization.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-5903
    Topics: Computer Science
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  • 68
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 702: A Novel Pb-Resistant Bacillus subtilis Bacterium Isolate for Co-Biosorption of Hazardous Sb(III) and Pb(II): Thermodynamics and Application Strategy International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040702 Authors: Yue Cai Xiaoping Li Dongying Liu Changlin Xu Yuwei Ai Xuemeng Sun Meng Zhang Yu Gao Yuchao Zhang Tao Yang Jingzhi Wang Lijun Wang Xiaoyun Li Hongtao Yu The present work is the first to study co-biosorption of Pb(II) and Sb(III) by a novel bacterium and its application strategy. The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Sb(III) ions from aqueous solution using B. subtilis were investigated. Optimum pH, biomass dosage, contact time and temperature were determined to be 5.00, 6.00 mg/L, 45 min and 35 °C, respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by B. subtilis. Results showed that Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data of Pb(II) better than others, while biosorption of Sb(III) obeyed the Freundlich model well. The biosorption capacity of B. subtilis biomass for Pb(II) and Sb(III) ions was found to be 17.34 ± 0.14 and 2.32 ± 0.30 mg/g, respectively. Kinetic data showed the biosorption process of Pb(II) and Sb(III) ions both followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with R2 ranging from 0.974 to 0.999 for Pb(II) and from 0.967 to 0.979 for Sb(III). The calculated thermodynamic parameters, negative ∆G and positive ∆H and ∆S values, indicated the biosorption of Pb(II) and Sb(III) ions onto B. subtilis biomass in water was feasible, endothermic, and spontaneous. Bacterial bioleaching experiment revealed B. subtilis can increase the mobility of Pb(II) and Sb(III) in polluted soil when pH was close to 6 at low temperature. Consequently, B. subtilis, as a cheap and original bacterial material, could be a promising biomass to remove Pb or isolate Sb from industrial wastewater and to assist phytoremediation of Pb and Sb from weak acid or near neutral pH polluted soils at low temperature.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 69
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Materials, Vol. 11, Pages 575: Cellulose-Silica Nanocomposites of High Reinforcing Content with Fungi Decay Resistance by One-Pot Synthesis Materials doi: 10.3390/ma11040575 Authors: M. Rodríguez-Robledo M. González-Lozano Patricia Ponce-Peña Patricia Quintana Owen Miguel Aguilar-González Georgina Nieto-Castañeda Elva Bazán-Mora Rubén López-Martínez Guillermo Ramírez-Galicia Martha Poisot Hybrid bionanocomposites based on cellulose matrix, with silica nanoparticles as reinforcers, were prepared by one-pot synthesis of cellulose surface modified by solvent exchange method to keep the biopolymer net void for hosting inorganic nanoparticles. Neither expensive inorganic-particle precursors nor crosslinker agents or catalysts were used for effective dispersion of reinforcer concentration up to 50 wt %. Scanning electron microscopy of the nanocomposites shows homogeneous dispersion of reinforcers in the surface modified cellulose matrix. The FTIR spectra demonstrated the cellulose features even at 50 weight percent content of silica nanoparticles. Such a high content of silica provides high thermal stability to composites, as seen by TGA-DSC. The fungi decay resistance to Trametes versicolor was measured by standard test showing good resistance even with no addition of antifungal agents. This one-pot synthesis of biobased hybrid materials represents an excellent way for industrial production of high performance materials, with a high content of inorganic nanoparticles, for a wide variety of applications.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 70
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1107: Landfill Site Selection Using a Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Method: A Case Study of the Salafcheghan Special Economic Zone, Iran Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041107 Authors: Hossein Yousefi Zahra Javadzadeh Younes Noorollahi Amin Yousefi-Sahzabi Sustainable waste management, particularly in industrial areas, is one of the major challenges of developing countries. Among the important issues in the overall process of industrial wastes management is the necessity of suitable site selection for waste disposal. Considering the effects that the disposal sites exert on their surrounding ecosystem and environment, these sites should be located in places with the minimum destructive effects and the lowest environmental impacts. The aim of this research is to outline important criteria for industrial zone waste disposal site selection and to select optimal and proper disposal sites in the Salafchegan special economic zone. This region, as one of the most important industrial areas and closest to the country’s political–economic center, enjoys a privileged and unique position for producing, exporting, and transiting goods and products. There are various parameters involved in the optimal selection of suitable industrial waste disposal sites. In this case study, issues such as the depth of groundwater, distance from surface- and groundwater, access routes, residential areas, industries, power transmission lines, flood-proneness, faults, slope, and distance from gardens and agricultural lands were taken into account. Following selection and preparation of the maps related to the influential parameters, assigning weights was done through the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and using expert comments. At this stage, the maps and weights related to them were introduced into an index overlay model to obtain new maps from combining the influential parameters. Thereafter, the areas with the first and second priorities were selected and out of each one, four sites were suggested for disposing of industrial wastes. The sites with the first and second priorities were specified as A1, A2, A3, and A4 and B1, B2, B3, and B4, respectively. The area, groundwater depth, distance from residential areas, distance from the Salafchegan special economic zone, the direction of the predominant wind, and the land use of the selected sites were also investigated.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 443: A Sensitivity Analysis of Impacts of Conservation Practices on Water Quality in L’Anguille River Watershed, Arkansas Water doi: 10.3390/w10040443 Authors: Gurdeep Singh Dharmendra Saraswat Andrew Sharpley Assessing the performance of appropriate agricultural conservation practices (CPs) frequently relies on the use of simulation models as a cost-effective tool instead of depending solely on the monitoring of water quality at individual field and watershed levels. This study evaluates the predicted impacts of several CPs on nutrient and sediment loss at the hydrological response unit scale in the L’Anguille River Watershed, which is a watershed identified as a “focus watershed” under the Mississippi River Basin healthy watershed Initiative (MRBI) program. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model was calibrated and validated between 1998–2005 and 2006–2012, respectively for flow, sediment, total phosphorus, and nitrate nitrogen. Out of the seven MRBI CPs modeled in this study, the highest reduction in sediment (80%) and nutrient (58% for total phosphorus and 16% for total nitrogen) was predicted for the critical area planting practice, followed by filter strip, irrigation land leveling, grade stabilization structure, irrigation pipeline, nutrient management, and irrigation water management. Some of the predicted impacts conflicted with expected CP performance. The study underscores the importance of the proper formulation of CP algorithms in using simulation models for predicting impacts on water quality.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    In: Water
    Publication Date: 2018-04-09
    Description: Water, Vol. 10, Pages 440: Advanced Hydroinformatic Techniques for the Simulation and Analysis of Water Supply and Distribution Systems Water doi: 10.3390/w10040440 Authors: Manuel Herrera Silvia Meniconi Stefano Alvisi Joaquín Izquierdo This document is intended to be a presentation of the Special Issue “Advanced Hydroinformatic Techniques for the Simulation and Analysis of Water Supply and Distribution Systems”. The final aim of this Special Issue is to propose a suitable framework supporting insightful hydraulic mechanisms to aid the decision-making processes of water utility managers and practitioners. Its 18 peer-reviewed articles present as varied topics as: water distribution system design, optimization of network performance assessment, monitoring and diagnosis of pressure pipe systems, optimal water quality management, and modelling and forecasting water demand. Overall, these articles explore new research avenues on urban hydraulics and hydroinformatics, showing to be of great value for both Academia and those water utility stakeholders.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Algorithms, Vol. 11, Pages 44: Safe Path Planning of Mobile Robot Based on Improved A* Algorithm in Complex Terrains Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a11040044 Authors: Hong-Mei Zhang Ming-Long Li Le Yang The A* algorithm has been widely investigated and applied in path planning problems, but it does not fully consider the safety and smoothness of the path. Therefore, an improved A* algorithm is presented in this paper. Firstly, a new environment modeling method is proposed in which the evaluation function of A* algorithm is improved by taking the safety cost into account. This results in a safer path which can stay farther away from obstacles. Then a new path smoothing method is proposed, which introduces a path evaluation mechanism into the smoothing process. This method is then applied to smoothing the path without safety reduction. Secondly, with respect to path planning problems in complex terrains, a complex terrain environment model is established in which the distance and safety cost of the evaluation function of the A* algorithm are converted into time cost. This results in a unification of units as well as a clarity in their physical meanings. The simulation results show that the improved A* algorithm can greatly improve the safety and smoothness of the planned path and the movement time of the robot in complex terrain is greatly reduced.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4893
    Topics: Computer Science
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Pages 582: Impact of Surface Soil Moisture Variations on Radar Altimetry Echoes at Ku and Ka Bands in Semi-Arid Areas Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs10040582 Authors: Christophe Fatras Pierre Borderies Frédéric Frappart Eric Mougin Denis Blumstein Fernando Niño Radar altimetry provides information on the topography of the Earth surface. It is commonly used for the monitoring not only sea surface height but also ice sheets topography and inland water levels. The radar altimetry backscattering coefficient, which depends on surface roughness and water content, can be related to surface properties such as surface soil moisture content. In this study, the influence of surface soil moisture on the radar altimetry echo and backscattering coefficient is analyzed over semi-arid areas. A semi-empirical model of the soil’s complex dielectric permittivity that takes into account that small-scale roughness and large-scale topography was developed to simulate the radar echoes. It was validated using waveforms acquired at Ku and Ka-bands by ENVISAT RA-2 and SARAL AltiKa respectively over several sites in Mali. Correlation coefficients ranging from 0.66 to 0.94 at Ku-band and from 0.27 to 0.96 at Ka-band were found. The increase in surface soil moisture from 0.02 to 0.4 (i.e., the typical range of variations in semi-arid areas) increase the backscattering from 10 to 15 dB between the core of the dry and the maximum of the rainy seasons.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Pages 579: Geographically Weighted Area-to-Point Regression Kriging for Spatial Downscaling in Remote Sensing Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs10040579 Authors: Yan Jin Yong Ge Jianghao Wang Gerard Heuvelink Le Wang Spatial downscaling of remotely sensed products is one of the main ways to obtain earth observations at fine resolution. Area-to-point (ATP) geostatistical techniques, in which regular fine grids of remote sensing products are regarded as points, have been applied widely for spatial downscaling. In spatial downscaling, it is common to use auxiliary information to explain some of the unknown spatial variation of the target geographic variable. Because of the ubiquitously spatial heterogeneities, the observed variables always exhibit uncontrolled variance. To overcome problems caused by local heterogeneity that cannot meet the stationarity requirement in ATP regression kriging, this paper proposes a hybrid spatial statistical method which incorporates geographically weighted regression and ATP kriging for spatial downscaling. The proposed geographically weighted ATP regression kriging (GWATPRK) combines fine spatial resolution auxiliary information and allows for non-stationarity in a downscaling model. The approach was verified using eight groups of four different 25 km-resolution surface soil moisture (SSM) remote sensing products to obtain 1 km SSM predictions in two experimental regions, in conjunction with the implementation of three benchmark methods. Analyses and comparisons of the different downscaled results showed GWATPRK obtained downscaled fine spatial resolution images with greater quality and an average loss with a root mean square error value of 17.5%. The analysis indicated the proposed method has high potential for spatial downscaling in remote sensing applications.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Pages 577: Improving the Regional Applicability of Satellite Precipitation Products by Ensemble Algorithm Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs10040577 Authors: Waseem Muhammad Hanbo Yang Huimin Lei Ajmal Muhammad Dawen Yang Satellite-based precipitation products (e.g., Integrated Multi-Satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG) and its predecessor, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)) are a critical source of precipitation estimation, particularly for a region with less, or no, hydrometric networking. However, the inconsistency in the performance of these products has been observed in different climatic and topographic diverse regions, timescales, and precipitation intensities and there is still room for improvement. Hence, using a projected ensemble algorithm, the regional precipitation estimate (RP) is introduced here. The RP concept is mainly based on the regional performance weights derived from the Mean Square Error (MSE) and the precipitation estimate from the TRMM product, that is, TRMM 3B42 (TR), real-time (late) (IT) and the research (post-real-time) (IR) products of IMERG. The overall results of the selected contingency table (e.g., Probability of detection (POD)) and statistical indices (e.g., Correlation Coefficient (CC)) signposted that the proposed RP product has shown an overall better potential to capture the gauge observations compared with the TR, IR, and IT in five different climatic regions of Pakistan from January 2015 to December 2016, at a diurnal time scale. The current study could be the first research providing preliminary feedback from Pakistan for global precipitation measurement researchers by highlighting the need for refinement in the IMERG.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Pages 576: Estimating Ocean Vector Winds and Currents Using a Ka-Band Pencil-Beam Doppler Scatterometer Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs10040576 Authors: Ernesto Rodríguez Alexander Wineteer Dragana Perkovic-Martin Tamás Gál Bryan Stiles Noppasin Niamsuwan Raquel Monje Ocean surface currents and winds are tightly coupled essential climate variables, and, given their short time scales, observing them at the same time and resolution is of great interest. DopplerScatt is an airborne Ka-band scatterometer that has been developed under NASA’s Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) to provide a proof of concept of the feasability of measuring these variables using pencil-beam scanning Doppler scatterometry. In the first half of this paper, we present the Doppler scatterometer measurement and processing principles, paying particular attention to deriving a complete measurement error budget. Although Doppler radars have been used for the estimation of surface currents, pencil-beam Doppler Scatterometry offers challenges and opportunities that require separate treatment. The calibration of the Doppler measurement to remove platform and instrument biases has been a traditional challenge for Doppler systems, and we introduce several new techniques to mitigate these errors when conical scanning is used. The use of Ka-band for airborne Doppler scatterometry measurements is also new, and, in the second half of the paper, we examine the phenomenology of the mapping from radar cross section and radial velocity measurements to winds and surface currents. To this end, we present new Ka-band Geophysical Model Functions (GMFs) for winds and surface currents obtained from multiple airborne campaigns. We find that the wind Ka-band GMF exhibits similar dependence on wind speed as that for Ku-band scatterometers, such as QuikSCAT, albeit with much greater upwind-crosswind modulation. The surface current GMF at Ka-band is significantly different from that at C-band, and, above 4.5 m/s has a weak dependence on wind speed, although still dependent on wind direction. We examine the effects of Bragg-wave modulation by long waves through a Modululation Transfer Function (MTF), and show that the observed surface current dependence on winds is consistent with past Ka-band MTF observations. Finally, we provide a preliminary validation of our geophysical retrievals, which will be expanded in subsequent publications. Our results indicate that Ka-band Doppler scatterometry could be a feasible method for wide-swath simultaneous measurements of winds and currents from space.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1147: Maritime over the Horizon Sensor Integration: High Frequency Surface-Wave-Radar and Automatic Identification System Data Integration Algorithm Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041147 Authors: Dejan Nikolic Nikola Stojkovic Nikola Lekic To obtain the complete operational picture of the maritime situation in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) which lies over the horizon (OTH) requires the integration of data obtained from various sensors. These sensors include: high frequency surface-wave-radar (HFSWR), satellite automatic identification system (SAIS) and land automatic identification system (LAIS). The algorithm proposed in this paper utilizes radar tracks obtained from the network of HFSWRs, which are already processed by a multi-target tracking algorithm and associates SAIS and LAIS data to the corresponding radar tracks, thus forming an integrated data pair. During the integration process, all HFSWR targets in the vicinity of AIS data are evaluated and the one which has the highest matching factor is used for data association. On the other hand, if there is multiple AIS data in the vicinity of a single HFSWR track, the algorithm still makes only one data pair which consists of AIS and HFSWR data with the highest mutual matching factor. During the design and testing, special attention is given to the latency of AIS data, which could be very high in the EEZs of developing countries. The algorithm is designed, implemented and tested in a real working environment. The testing environment is located in the Gulf of Guinea and includes a network of HFSWRs consisting of two HFSWRs, several coastal sites with LAIS receivers and SAIS data provided by provider of SAIS data.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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    In: Sensors
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1144: Multi-Objectives Optimization of Ventilation Controllers for Passive Cooling in Residential Buildings Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18041144 Authors: Krzysztof Grygierek Joanna Ferdyn-Grygierek An inappropriate indoor climate, mostly indoor temperature, may cause occupants’ discomfort. There are a great number of air conditioning systems that make it possible to maintain the required thermal comfort. Their installation, however, involves high investment costs and high energy demand. The study analyses the possibilities of limiting too high a temperature in residential buildings using passive cooling by means of ventilation with ambient cool air. A fuzzy logic controller whose aim is to control mechanical ventilation has been proposed and optimized. In order to optimize the controller, the modified Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm, based on the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm, has been adopted. The optimization algorithm has been implemented in MATLAB®, which is coupled by MLE+ with EnergyPlus for performing dynamic co-simulation between the programs. The example of a single detached building shows that the occupants’ thermal comfort in a transitional climate may improve significantly owing to mechanical ventilation controlled by the suggested fuzzy logic controller. When the system is connected to the traditional cooling system, it may further bring about a decrease in cooling demand.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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