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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin : Springer Vieweg | Springer
    Keywords: Kraftfahrzeugmotor ; Dieselmotor ; Abgasrückführung ; Regelung ; Temperaturabhängigkeit ; Emissionsverringerung ; Abgasanlage ; Verschmutzung ; Betriebsverhalten ; Engines ; Machinery ; Automotive engineering ; Engine Technology ; Automotive Engineering ; Kraftfahrzeugmotor ; Dieselmotor ; Abgasrückführung ; Regelung ; Temperaturabhängigkeit ; Emissionsverringerung ; Abgasanlage ; Verschmutzung ; Betriebsverhalten
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (VI, 65 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783662618776
    DDC: 629
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH | Springer
    Keywords: Immaterialgut ; Rechtsverletzung ; Wettbewerbsverstoß ; Verkehrssicherungspflicht ; Dritthaftung ; Beseitigungsanspruch ; Unterlassungsanspruch ; LA ; Gefahrengeneigte Geschäftsmodelle ; Intermediär ; Störerhaftung ; Teilnehmerhaftung ; Verkehrspflichten aus Ingerenz ; LA ; Hochschulschrift ; Immaterialgut ; Rechtsverletzung ; Wettbewerbsverstoß ; Verkehrssicherungspflicht ; Dritthaftung ; Beseitigungsanspruch ; Unterlassungsanspruch
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XIII, 255 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783658251062
    Series Statement: Juridicum - Schriften zum Unternehmens- und Wirtschaftsrecht
    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Dissertation Universität Konstanz 2018
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin : Springer Berlin | Springer
    Part of "Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrech ..."
    Keywords: Europäischer Gerichtshof für Menschenrechte ; Rechtsprechung ; Beweisführung ; Hochschulschrift ; Europäischer Gerichtshof für Menschenrechte ; Rechtsprechung ; Beweisführung
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Edition: 1. Auflage 2019
    ISBN: 9783662602645
    Series Statement: Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrecht Band 288
    Language: German , English
    Dissertation note: Dissertation Bucerius Law School 2019
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  • 4
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Print ISSN: 0949-1775
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0517
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 5
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In the penultimate paragraph of the original publication, a confidence interval of 93 mg/kg to 971 mg/kg was reported. These values should be 114.5 mg/kg to 786.2 mg/kg.
    Print ISSN: 0949-1775
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Print ISSN: 0949-1775
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0517
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 7
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Based on the Brazilian test results of 23 kinds of transversely isotropic rocks, five trends are obtained for the variation of normalized failure strength (NFS) as a function of the weak plane-loading angles. For each angle, three kinds of fracture patterns are obtained. Furthermore, a new numerical approach based on the particle discrete element method is put forward to systematically investigate the influence of the micro-structure of rock matrix and strength of weak plane on NFS and fracture patterns. The results reveal that the trend of NFS and fracture patterns are slightly influenced by coordination number of rock particles and tensile strength of weak plane, but greatly influenced by percentage of pre-existing cracks and shear strength of weak plane. Micro-parameters of the numerical approach are calibrated to reproduce behaviours of transversely isotropic rocks with different trends, and the simulation results are well matched with experimental results in terms of NFS and fracture patterns. Finally, the numerical approach is applied to study the failure process of layered surrounding rock after tunnel excavation. The simulation results also agree well with observation results of engineering projects.
    Print ISSN: 1861-1125
    Electronic ISSN: 1861-1133
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Wettability is a fundamental property controlling the extent of wetting in flat and granular solids. In natural soils, wettability affects a wide variety of processes including infiltration, preferential flow and surface runoff. In mineral processing, wettability is paramount in enhancing the efficiency of separation of minerals from gangue. The manipulation of surface wettability is equally crucial in many industrial applications. For instance, superhydrophobic surfaces are those on which water drops roll off easily and as such are used for self-cleaning applications. Therefore, while wettability is strongly cross-disciplinary, its evolution has been discipline-specific with a direct extrapolation or transfer of concepts, approaches, and methods to ground engineering unlikely to remain valid. This paper synthesizes relevant aspects from surface chemistry, materials science, mining engineering, and soil science, and discusses their implications within the context of new granular materials that resist wetting, for use in barriers or ground improvement and, in unsaturated soils, where the effects of wettability have been documented.
    Print ISSN: 1861-1125
    Electronic ISSN: 1861-1133
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: It has been widely accepted in scientific communities that water confined in porous materials gradually freezes from large pores to small pores at subfreezing temperatures (〈 0 °C), though we still describe a soil as frozen or unfrozen in engineering practice and daily life. Therefore, it is more accurate to say “how frozen” instead of “whether frozen.” This gradual freezing process is temperature-dependent because water in pores of different sizes has different energy levels, which requires different temperatures for its phase transition, leading to a relationship between unfrozen water content and temperature in soils. However, the understanding of this relationship, i.e., the Phase Composition Curves (PCC), is still incomplete, especially in the low-temperature range. We still lack answers to even the most fundamental questions for frozen soils and their PCCs: (1) How much pore water could be frozen? (2) How do capillarity and adsorption control the freezing of pore water? This study investigates two basic physical mechanisms, i.e., unfreezable threshold and adsorption, for their dominant roles in the low-temperature range of the PCC. To quantify the effects of the unfreezable threshold, molecular dynamics simulation was employed to identify the unfreezable threshold of cylindrical pores. The simulation results, for the first time, revealed that the unfreezable threshold corresponds to a pore diameter of 2.3 ± 0.1 nm and is independent of the wettability of the solid substrates. Combining this unfreezable threshold with a modified Gibbs–Thomson equation, a mathematical model was proposed to predict the melting temperature in pores of different sizes, which considers both unfreezable threshold and adsorption. Comparisons of the results calculated with the new model and other two conventional equations against experimental results indicated that the model can improve conventional equations which have been used for centuries by including the two mechanisms, which significantly improved our understanding of frozen soils.
    Print ISSN: 1861-1125
    Electronic ISSN: 1861-1133
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Numerical modelling of a field soil desiccation test is performed using a hybrid continuum-discrete element method with a mix-mode cohesive fracture model and Voronoi tessellation grain assemblages. The fracture model considers material strength and contact stiffness degradation in both normal and tangential directions of an interface. It is found that the model can reasonably reproduce the special features of the field soil desiccation, such as curling and sub-horizontal crack. In addition, three significant factors controlling field desiccation cracking, fracture energy, grain heterogeneity and grain size are identified.
    Print ISSN: 1861-1125
    Electronic ISSN: 1861-1133
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 11
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Representing transitions between saturated and unsaturated conditions, during drying, wetting and loading paths, is a necessary step for a consistent unification between saturated and unsaturated soil mechanics. Transitions from saturated to unsaturated conditions during drying will occur at a nonzero air-entry value of suction, whereas transitions from unsaturated to saturated conditions during wetting or loading will occur at a lower nonzero air-exclusion value of suction. Air-entry and air-exclusion values of suction for a given soil will differ (representing hysteresis in the retention behaviour) and both are affected by changes in the dry density of the soil or by the occurrence of plastic volumetric strains. The paper demonstrates, through model simulations and comparison with experimental data from the literature (covering drying, wetting and loading tests), that the Glasgow Coupled Model (GCM), a coupled elasto-plastic constitutive model covering both mechanical and retention behaviour, represents transitions between unsaturated and saturated behaviour in a consistent fashion. Key aspects of the GCM are the use of Bishop’s stress tensor for mechanical behaviour, the additional influence of degree of saturation on mechanical yielding, inclusion of hysteresis in the retention behaviour, and the role of plastic volumetric strains (and not total volumetric strains) in the description of the water retention response. The success of the GCM in representing consistently transitions between saturated and unsaturated conditions, together with subsequent mechanical and retention responses, demonstrates the potential of this coupled constitutive model for numerical modelling of boundary value problems involving saturated and unsaturated conditions.
    Print ISSN: 1861-1125
    Electronic ISSN: 1861-1133
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 12
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Unfortunately, Eq. 3 was incorrectly presented in the original publication.
    Print ISSN: 0949-1775
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0517
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 13
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Print ISSN: 0949-1775
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0517
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 14
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Purpose The purpose of the study was to evaluate safety, time to recurrence, and overall survival (OS) in patients with liver metastases (LM), treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) followed by ablation. Materials and methods This retrospective study included all patients with LM treated with combined TACE and ablation from August 1998 to September 2015. Forty-two patients (12 women, 30 men; age 62.9 ± 11.9 years) were treated for 44 LMs. Tumor characteristics, imaging response to treatment, recurrence, and OS data were reviewed. Statistical analysis included Kaplan–Meier estimation, Cox regression and Fisher’s exact, Wilcoxon rank sum, or log rank tests. Results Median follow-up was 10.3 months. Eighteen patients had 1 hepatic lesion, 16 had 2–5, and 8 had 〉 5. Median index lesion size was 4.7 cm (range 1.5–8 .0 cm). Tumor response (mRECIST) was available for 41/44 treated lesions, with CR in 32 (78.0%), PR in 8 (19.5%), and PD in 1 (2.4%). Long-term imaging follow-up was available for 38 patients. Freedom from local recurrence was 61% at 1 year and 50% at 2 years. OS was 55% at 1 year and 30% at 2 years (median OS, 14.5 months). Tumor size and histology were not predictors of time to progression or OS. Complications occurred in 19 patients (45%). Major complications occurred in 19% of patients and included hospitalization for fever (n = 2), hepatic abscess (n = 3) and fall requiring transfusion, portal vein thrombus causing lobar infarct, biliary fistula, and retroperitoneal hematoma (n = 1 each). Conclusions Combined TACE and ablation is effective for local tumor control of liver metastases up to 8 cm when part of a multidisciplinary treatment strategy. Major complications occurred in 19% of patients.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 15
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 16
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Acute pathology in the abdominal aorta is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most feared complication of abdominal aortic disease is acute rupture in the setting of atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Although frank rupture often is easily diagnosed on CT, other findings such as a hyperattenuating crescent, discontinuous intimal calcium, and draping of the aorta are subtle signs of aneurysm instability. A true aneurysm should be distinguished from a rapidly growing, saccular pseudoaneurysm in the setting of infectious aortitis, as treatment strategy differs. Acute aortic syndrome involving the abdominal aorta, such as dissection and intramural hematoma, often is an extension of thoracic aortic disease, whereas penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers occasionally involve only the abdominal aorta. The goal of treating acute aortic pathology is to repair and prevent rupture, as well as restore and maintain perfusion of the lower extremities, kidneys, and mesentery. However, both open and endovascular repair of the abdominal aorta may become acutely complicated, resulting in compromise of these goals. Examples include aortoenteric fistula, endoleak, anastomotic pseudoaneurysm, graft infection, and thrombosis or kinking of a stent graft resulting in ischemia of the limbs and mesentery.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 17
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Purpose The purpose of the study was to provide a systematic evaluation of the computed tomography(CT) findings after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in locally advanced pancreatic cancer(LAPC). Methods Eighteen patients with intra-operative RFA-treated LAPC were included in a prospective case series. All CT-scans performed prior to RFA and 1 week and 3 months of post-RFA, according to standard regimen, were assessed by two radiologists in consensus, using standardized radiological scoring lists. Results 51 CT-scans were assessed. One week after RFA, the ablation zone was visible in all patients as a (partially) sharply defined (83%), heterogeneous area (94%). At 3 months of follow-up, the ablation zone was completely invaded by tumor in 67% of patients and still present, but decreased in 33%. In two patients (11%), local thrombosis and/or occlusion of the superior mesenteric vein occurred. The occlusions persisted without clinical consequences and the thrombosis disappeared. A peripancreatic fluid collection was visible 1 week after RFA in 3 patients, wherein the ablation zone extended ventrally outside of the pancreas. Conclusions Directly after RFA for LAPC, a well-defined ablation zone is visible on CT-imaging. This ablation zone is usually replaced by tumor ingrowth after 3 months. Moreover, the ablation zone regularly included vascular structures, with rare asymptomatic venous occlusion or thrombosis and without adverse effects on arteries.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 18
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In the published article, the author B. Babbitt was cited as affiliation 9, but should have been cited as affiliation 2. In addition, there are 2 errors in the affiliations. The correct affiliations are shown in this erratum.
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-7416
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 19
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Purpose On computed tomography (CT), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICC) are a visibly heterogeneous group of tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between CT imaging phenotypes, patient survival, and known genetic markers. Methods A retrospective study was performed with 66 patients with surgically resected ICC. Pre-surgical CT images of ICC were assessed by radiologists blinded to tumor genetics and patient clinical data. Associations between qualitative imaging features and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were performed with Cox proportional hazards regression and visualized with Kaplan–Meier plots. Associations between radiographic features and genetic pathways (IDH1, Chromatin and RAS-MAPK) were assessed with Fisher’s Exact test and the Wilcoxon Rank sum test where appropriate and corrected for multiple comparisons within each pathway using the False Discovery Rate correction. Results Three imaging features were significantly associated with a higher risk of death: necrosis (hazard ratio (HR) 2.95 95% CI 1.44–6.04, p  = 0.029), satellite nodules (HR 3.29, 95% CI:1.35–8.02, p  = 0.029), and vascular encasement (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.28–5.41, p  = 0.029). Additionally, with each increase in axial size, the risk of death increased (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03–1.26, p  = 0.029). Similar to findings for OS, satellite nodules (HR 3.81, 95% CI 1.88–7.71, p  = 0.002) and vascular encasement (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.24–4.06, p  = 0.019) were associated with increased risk of recurrence/death. No significant associations were found between radiographic features and genes in the IDH1, Chromatin or RAS-MAPK pathways ( p  = 0.63–84). Conclusion This preliminary analysis of resected ICC suggests associations between CT imaging features and OS and DFS. No association was identified between imaging features and currently known genetic pathways.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 20
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Uncertainty in measurement is very important in the process of conformity assessment. As it is generally declared, based on the measured value of a property of an item, there is always the risk of incorrect decisions, which are of two types: an item accepted as “conforming” may actually be “non-conforming”, and an item rejected as “non-conforming” may actually be “conforming”. In order to reduce the risks associated with decision-making, it is required to reduce the measurement uncertainty to an acceptable level termed as “target uncertainty”. In order to reduce the uncertainty of a particular measurement, it would be necessary to focus on decreasing the uncertainties arising from the relevant components. There are always different solutions to reduce the uncertainties arising from each inclusive component. Each of these solutions imposes a different cost on the measurement system. Therefore, a solution should be selected, among several possible alternatives, to reduce the uncertainties arising from each relevant component and to impose the lowest cost to the measurement system to “target uncertainty”. Accordingly, in this paper through a case study, a model is presented that can reduce uncertainty with the lowest possible cost to the optimally needed level using a mathematical optimization technique. The mathematical model presented in this paper can be used in measurement uncertainty optimization in many laboratories, which require a reduction in uncertainty and the risks associated with decision-making based on measurement results. Furthermore, the use of the proposed model will help to reduce the unnecessary costs of analysis in different laboratory centers.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 21
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell membrane-derived compartments that regulate physiology and pathology in the body. Naturally secreted EVs have been well studied in their biogenesis and have been exploited in targeted drug delivery. Due to the limitations on production of EVs, nitrogen cavitation has been utilized to efficiently generate EV-like drug delivery systems used in treating inflammatory disorders. In this short review, we will discuss the production and purification of EVs, and we will summarize what technologies are needed to improve their production for translation. We describe the drug-loading processes in EVs and their applications as drug delivery systems for inflammatory therapies, focusing on a new type of EVs made from neutrophil membrane using nitrogen cavitation.
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-7416
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 22
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper deals with the coupled bending–torsional vibrations of beams carrying an arbitrary number of viscoelastic dampers and attached masses. Exact closed analytical expressions are derived for the frequency response under harmonically varying, arbitrarily placed polynomial loads, making use of coupled bending–torsion theory including warping effects and taking advantage of generalized functions to model response discontinuities at the application points of dampers/masses. In this context, the exact dynamic Green’s functions of the beam are also obtained. The frequency response solutions are the basis to derive the exact dynamic stiffness matrix and load vector of a two-node coupled bending–torsional beam finite element with warping effects, which may include any number of dampers/masses. Remarkably, the size of the dynamic stiffness matrix and load vector is \(8\times 8\) and \(8\times 1\) , respectively, regardless of the number of dampers/masses and loads along the beam finite element.
    Print ISSN: 0001-5970
    Electronic ISSN: 1619-6937
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 23
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In this paper, we study buckling of radially FGM circular plates. In a previous study, a fourth-order polynomial expressing the exact solution of a linear elastic problem was used as buckling mode shape. To generalise such investigation, in this contribution the buckling mode is postulated to take the shape of a fifth-order polynomial function of the radial coordinate. The flexural rigidity is consequently sought as a polynomial of suitable order, expressing the functional grading. New solutions in closed form are then obtained by a semi-inverse method. It is found that suitable choices of functional grading may increase the buckling load up to 246% with respect to the homogeneous and uniform cases.
    Print ISSN: 0001-5970
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    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 24
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The purpose of this study is to analyze the nonlinear dynamic responses of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) beams exposed to axial supersonic airflow in thermal environments. The dynamic model of the FG-CNTRC beam is developed with regard to the first-order shear deformation theory incorporating the von Kármán geometrical nonlinearity. The thermomechanical properties of the constituents are assumed to be temperature dependent. The third-order piston theory is adopted to estimate the nonlinear aerodynamic pressure induced by the supersonic airflow. Harmonic differential quadrature method is implemented to discretize the equations of motion in the spatial domain. A comprehensive parametric study is performed to expatiate on the effect of the distribution type and volume fraction of CNTs, boundary condition, slenderness ratio, and thermal environments on the aerothermoelastic responses of the FG-CNTRC beam. Simulation results indicate that the presence of the aerodynamic pressure not only increases the critical buckling temperature of the FG-CNTRC beam, but also changes the buckling mode shapes of the beam. Furthermore, the results show that aerothermoelastic characteristics of FG-CNTRC beams may be remarkably improved by the selection of a proper distribution of CNTs. Besides, it is found that FG-CNTRC beams with intermediate CNT volume fraction do not have an intermediate critical buckling temperature.
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    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 25
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper presents a smoothed FE-Meshfree (SFE-Meshfree) method for solving solid mechanics problems. The system stiffness matrix is calculated via a strain-smoothing technique with the composite shape function, which is based on the partition of unity-based method, combing the classical isoparametric quadrilateral function and radial-polynomial basis function. The corresponding Gauss integration in the element is replaced by line integration along the edges of the smoothing cells, so no derivatives of the composite shape functions are needed during the field gradient estimation process. Several numerical examples including an automobile mechanical component are employed to examine the presented method. Calculation results indicate that SFE-Meshfree can obtain a high convergence rate and accuracy without introducing additional degrees of freedom to the system. In addition, it is also more tolerant with respect to mesh distortion. The volumetric locking problem is also explored in this paper under a selective smoothing integration scheme.
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    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 26
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The steady-state diagnostic and prognostic simulation for the Xiao Dongkemadi glacier (XD) of the Tibetan Plateau was performed with the thermo-mechanically-coupled-with-Full-Stokes code Elmer ( http://www.csc.fi/elmer/ ). In this paper, some changes of glacial thermodynamic parameters caused by ice thickness and atmospheric temperature variation were simulated in view of different thickness. The purpose of this study was to fill the gap in analyzing the ice dynamic characteristic of a polar continental glacier. The diagnostic simulation revealed the following conclusions: (1) when the thickness change was small, surface velocity, ice temperature, and deviation stress variation in the bedrock showed a tendency to change with thickness, and when the terrain was gentle, the thickness variation dominated the ice velocity. (2) The ice temperature of the bedrock was high in the whole profile and reached the pressure melting point in the terminus, and it was easy to slide at the bottom, which was consistent with the measured ground penetrating radar data near the terminus. (3) The static friction forces decrease with thickness, and they showed a complex nonlinear relationship, which revealed that the deviation stress in the bottom was influenced by thickness and ice temperature at the bedrock. The prognostic simulating from 2007 to 2047 presented: (1) The simulation forecasted a shrinkage of nearly 600 m in the terminus and the longitudinal section, and wound up diminished by nearly 25% by the end of 2047; (2) the change of thickness was small at the region between 5650 and 5700 m.a.s.l, which might be related to lower atmospheric temperature; (3) thickness dominated the deviation stress ( \(\sigma _{xx}\) and \(\sigma _{xz}\) ) in the bottom, and the impact of the terrain was little higher compared to deviation stress ( \(\sigma _{xx}\) ). In other words, the glacial thickness dominated the glacial force and movement to a great extent and the low temperature at high altitude reduced the XD’s sensitivity facing future climate warming.
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    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 27
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Molecular mechanics/molecular dynamics (MM/MD) methods are widely used in computer simulations of deformation (including buckling, vibration, and fracture) of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures (single-layer graphene sheets (SLGSs), single-walled nanotubes, fullerenes, etc). In MM/MD simulations, the interactions between carbon atoms in these nanostructures are modeled using force fields (e.g., AIREBO, DREIDING, MM3/MM4). The objective of the present study is to fit the DREIDING force field parameters (see Mayo et al. J Phys Chem 94:8897–8909, 1990 ) to most closely reproduce the mechanical parameters of graphene (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, bending rigidity modulus, and intrinsic strength) known from experimental studies and quantum mechanics simulations since the standard set of the DREIDING force field parameters (see Mayo et al. 1990 ) leads to unsatisfactory values of the mechanical parameters of graphene. The values of these parameters are fitted using primitive unit cells of graphene acted upon by forces that reproduce the homogeneous deformation of this material in tension/compression, bending, and fracture. (Different sets of primitive unit cells are used for different types of deformation, taking into account the anisotropic properties of graphene in states close to failure.) The MM method is used to determine the dependence of the mechanical moduli of graphene (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and bending rigidity modulus) on the scale factor. Computer simulation has shown that for large linear dimensions of SLGSs, the mechanical parameters of these sheets are close to those of graphene. In addition, computer simulation has shown that accounting for in-layer van der Waals forces has a small effect on the value of the mechanical moduli of graphene.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1619-6937
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 28
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We used daily maximum temperature data (1986–2100) from the COSMO-CLM (COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling in CLimate Mode) regional climate model and the population statistics for China in 2010 to determine the frequency, intensity, coverage, and population exposure of extreme maximum temperature events (EMTEs) with the intensity–area–duration method. Between 1986 and 2005 (reference period), the frequency, intensity, and coverage of EMTEs are 1330–1680 times yr –1 , 31.4–33.3°C, and 1.76–3.88 million km 2 , respectively. The center of the most severe EMTEs is located in central China and 179.5–392.8 million people are exposed to EMTEs annually. Relative to 1986–2005, the frequency, intensity, and coverage of EMTEs increase by 1.13–6.84, 0.32–1.50, and 15.98%–30.68%, respectively, under 1.5°C warming; under 2.0°C warming, the increases are 1.73–12.48, 0.64–2.76, and 31.96%–50.00%, respectively. It is possible that both the intensity and coverage of future EMTEs could exceed the most severe EMTEs currently observed. Two new centers of EMTEs are projected to develop under 1.5°C warming, one in North China and the other in Southwest China. Under 2.0°C warming, a fourth EMTE center is projected to develop in Northwest China. Under 1.5 and 2.0°C warming, population exposure is projected to increase by 23.2%–39.2% and 26.6%–48%, respectively. From a regional perspective, population exposure is expected to increase most rapidly in Southwest China. A greater proportion of the population in North, Northeast, and Northwest China will be exposed to EMTEs under 2.0°C warming. The results show that a warming world will lead to increases in the intensity, frequency, and coverage of EMTEs. Warming of 2.0°C will lead to both more severe EMTEs and the exposure of more people to EMTEs. Given the probability of the increased occurrence of more severe EMTEs than in the past, it is vitally important to China that the global temperature increase is limited within 1.5°C.
    Print ISSN: 0894-0525
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer on behalf of The Chinese Meteorological Society.
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  • 29
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Intestinal malrotation is a continuum of congenital anomalies due to lack of rotation or incomplete rotation of the fetal intestine around the superior mesenteric artery axis. The abnormal bowel fixation (by mesenteric bands) or absence of fixation of portions of the bowel increases the risk of bowel obstruction, acute or chronic volvulus, and bowel necrosis. The clinical presentation of patients with malrotation without, with intermittent, or with chronic volvulus can be problematic, with an important minority presenting late or having atypical or chronic symptoms, such as intermittent vomiting, abdominal pain, duodenal obstruction, or failure to thrive. The diagnosis is heavily reliant on imaging. Upper GI series remain the gold standard with the normal position of the duodenojejunal junction lateral to the left-sided pedicles of the vertebral body, at the level of the duodenal bulb on frontal views and posterior (retroperitoneal) on lateral views. However, a variety of conditions might influence the position of the duodenojejunal junction, potentially leading to a misdiagnosis of malrotation. Such conditions include improper technique, gastric over distension, splenomegaly, renal or retroperitoneal tumors, liver transplant, small bowel obstruction, the presence of properly or malpositioned enteric tubes, and scoliosis. All of these may cause the duodenojejunal junction to be displaced. We present a series of cases highlighting conditions that mimic malrotation without volvulus to increase the practicing radiologist awareness and help minimize interpretation errors.
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0509
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 30
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Interest in determining safe and efficacious doses for drug administration in pediatric patients has increased dramatically in recent years. However, published pediatric clinical studies have failed to increase proportionally with adult clinical study publications. In order to assess the current state of pediatric dose determination and the supporting role of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation in determining pediatric dose, the pediatric clinical literature (2006–2016) and case examples of pediatric PBPK modeling efforts were reviewed. The objective of this assessment was to investigate the contribution of PBPK to our understanding of the differences between children and adults, which lead to differences in drug dose. Pediatric and adult dose data were available for 31 small molecule drugs. In general, pediatric dose was well-correlated with adult data, with an apparent tendency for higher body weight- or body surface area-normalized pediatric dose. Overall performance of pediatric PBPK modeling approaches was considered to adequately predict observed data. However, model performance was dependent upon age group simulated, with approximately half of neonatal predictions falling outside of 1.5-fold of observed. In conclusion, there is a clear need for further refinement of starting dose in pediatric phase 1 studies, and utilization of PBPK could lead to reduced numbers of patients required to establish safe and efficacious doses in the pediatric population.
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-7416
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 31
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Under consideration is the finite-size scaling of the elastic properties in two-phase random polycrystals with individual grains belonging to any arbitrary crystal class. These polycrystals are generated by Voronoi Tessellations with varying grain sizes and volume fractions. Any given realization of such a microstructure sampled randomly is highly anisotropic and heterogeneous. Using extremum principles in elasticity, we introduce the notion of a ‘Heterogeneous Anisotropy Index \(\left( A^U_H\right) \) ’ and examine its role in the scaling of elastic properties at finite mesoscales ( \(\delta \) ). The relationship between \(A^U_H\) and the Universal Anisotropy Index \(A^U\) by Ranganathan and Ostoja-Starzewski (Phys Rev Lett 101(5):055504, 2008 ) is established for special cases. The index \(A^U_H\) turns out to be a function of 43 variables—21 independent components for each phase and the volume fraction of either phase. The scale-dependent bounds are then obtained by setting up and solving 9250 Dirichlet and Neumann type boundary value problems consistent with the Hill–Mandel homogenization condition. Subsequently, the concept of an elastic scaling function is introduced that takes a power-law form in terms of \(A^U_H\) and ( \(\delta \) ). Finally, a material scaling diagram is constructed by employing the elastic scaling function which captures the convergence to the effective properties for any two-phase elastic microstructure.
    Print ISSN: 0001-5970
    Electronic ISSN: 1619-6937
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 32
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The barrier between the blood and the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is located at the choroid plexuses. At the interface between two circulating fluids, these richly vascularized veil-like structures display a peculiar morphology explained by their developmental origin, and fulfill several functions essential for CNS homeostasis. They form a neuroprotective barrier preventing the accumulation of noxious compounds into the CSF and brain, and secrete CSF, which participates in the maintenance of a stable CNS internal environment. The CSF circulation plays an important role in volume transmission within the developing and adult brain, and CSF compartments are key to the immune surveillance of the CNS. In these contexts, the choroid plexuses are an important source of biologically active molecules involved in brain development, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and brain repair. By sensing both physiological changes in brain homeostasis and peripheral or central insults such as inflammation, they also act as sentinels for the CNS. Finally, their role in the control of immune cell traffic between the blood and the CSF confers on the choroid plexuses a function in neuroimmune regulation and implicates them in neuroinflammation. The choroid plexuses, therefore, deserve more attention while investigating the pathophysiology of CNS diseases and related comorbidities.
    Print ISSN: 0001-6322
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0533
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 33
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The exact mechanism underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) associated with the GGGGCC repeat expansion in C9orf72 is still unclear. Two gain-of-function mechanisms are possible: repeat RNA toxicity and dipeptide repeat protein (DPR) toxicity. We here dissected both possibilities using a zebrafish model for ALS. Expression of two DPRs, glycine–arginine and proline–arginine, induced a motor axonopathy. Similarly, expanded sense and antisense repeat RNA also induced a motor axonopathy and formed mainly cytoplasmic RNA foci. However, DPRs were not detected in these conditions. Moreover, stop codon-interrupted repeat RNA still induced a motor axonopathy and a synergistic role of low levels of DPRs was excluded. Altogether, these results show that repeat RNA toxicity is independent of DPR formation. This RNA toxicity, but not the DPR toxicity, was attenuated by the RNA-binding protein Pur-alpha and the autophagy-related protein p62. Our findings demonstrate that RNA toxicity, independent of DPR toxicity, can contribute to the pathogenesis of C9orf72 -associated ALS/FTD.
    Print ISSN: 0001-6322
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0533
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 34
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Recent genome-wide association studies of glioma have led to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 25 loci influencing risk. Gliomas are heterogeneous, hence to investigate the relationship between risk SNPs and glioma subtype we analysed 1659 tumours profiled for IDH mutation, TERT promoter mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion. These data allowed definition of five molecular subgroups of glioma: triple-positive (IDH mutated, 1p/19q co-deletion, TERT promoter mutated); TERT -IDH (IDH mutated, TERT promoter mutated, 1p/19q-wild-type); IDH-only (IDH mutated, 1p/19q wild-type, TERT promoter wild-type); triple-negative (IDH wild-type, 1p/19q wild-type, TERT promoter wild-type) and TERT -only ( TERT promoter mutated, IDH wild-type, 1p/19q wild-type). Most glioma risk loci showed subtype specificity: (1) the 8q24.21 SNP for triple-positive glioma; (2) 5p15.33, 9p21.3, 17p13.1 and 20q13.33 SNPs for TERT -only glioma; (3) 1q44, 2q33.3, 3p14.1, 11q21, 11q23.3, 14q12, and 15q24.2 SNPs for IDH mutated glioma. To link risk SNPs to target candidate genes we analysed Hi-C and gene expression data, highlighting the potential role of IDH1 at 2q33.3, MYC at 8q24.21 and STMN3 at 20q13.33. Our observations provide further insight into the nature of susceptibility to glioma.
    Print ISSN: 0001-6322
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0533
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 35
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Although concussion is now recognized as a major health issue, its non-lethal nature has limited characterization of the underlying pathophysiology. In particular, potential neuropathological changes have typically been inferred from non-invasive techniques or post-mortem examinations of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we used a swine model of head rotational acceleration based on human concussion to examine blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity after injury in association with diffuse axonal injury and glial responses. We then determined the potential clinical relevance of the swine concussion findings through comparisons with pathological changes in human severe TBI, where post-mortem examinations are possible. At 6–72 h post-injury in swine, we observed multifocal disruption of the BBB, demonstrated by extravasation of serum proteins, fibrinogen and immunoglobulin-G, in the absence of hemorrhage or other focal pathology. BBB disruption was observed in a stereotyped distribution consistent with biomechanical insult. Specifically, extravasated serum proteins were frequently observed at interfaces between regions of tissue with differing material properties, including the gray–white boundary, periventricular and subpial regions. In addition, there was substantial overlap of BBB disruption with regions of axonal pathology in the white matter. Acute perivascular cellular uptake of blood-borne proteins was observed to be prominent in astrocytes (GFAP-positive) and neurons (MAP-2-positive), but not microglia (IBA1-positive). Parallel examination of human severe TBI revealed similar patterns of serum extravasation and glial uptake of serum proteins, but to a much greater extent than in the swine model, attributed to the higher injury severity. These data suggest that BBB disruption represents a new and important pathological feature of concussion.
    Print ISSN: 0001-6322
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0533
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 36
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a peptide deposited in the brain parenchyma in Alzheimer’s disease and in cerebral blood vessels, causing cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Aβ pathology is transmissible experimentally in animals and through medical procedures in humans, such as contaminated growth hormone or dura mater transplantation in the context of iatrogenic prion disease. Here, we present four patients who underwent neurosurgical procedures during childhood or teenage years and presented with intracerebral haemorrhage approximately three decades later, caused by severe CAA. None of these patients carried pathogenic mutations associated with early Aβ pathology development. In addition, we identified in the literature four patients with a history of neurosurgical intervention and subsequent development of CAA. These findings raise the possibility that Aβ pathology may be transmissible, as prion disease is, through neurosurgical procedures.
    Print ISSN: 0001-6322
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0533
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 37
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Background There are no uniform guidelines regarding when to operate for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis (LSS). As we apply findings from clinical research from one population to the next, elucidating similarities or differences provides important context for the validity of extrapolating clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the morphological severity of lumbar spinal stenosis on preoperative MRI in patients undergoing decompressive surgery in Boston, USA, and Trondheim, Norway. Methods In this observational retrospective study, we compared morphological severity on MRI before surgical treatment between two propensity score-matched patient populations with single or two-level symptomatic LSS. We assessed the radiographic severity of LSS utilizing the Schizas classification (grade A to D). Results Following propensity score matching, demographics are balanced. In the Trondheim cohort, two levels decompression were present in 36.2% of the patients vs. 41.9% in Boston, ( p  = 0.396). There was no significant difference in grades A to D concerning central stenosis ( p  = 0.075). When dichotomized in mild/moderate (A/B) and severe /extreme (C/D), there were no significant differences in the rate of levels operated for high-grade stenosis (C/D), 67.6% in the Boston group compare to 78.1% in the Trondheim group ( p  = 0.088). Conclusions Trondheim, Norway, and Boston, US, have similar radiographic thresholds of LSS for offering surgery.
    Print ISSN: 0001-6268
    Electronic ISSN: 0942-0940
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 38
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Sediment resuspension is commonly assumed to be eroded from the seabed surface by an excess bottom shear stress and evolves in layers from the top down. Although considerable investigations have argued the importance of wave-induced seabed fluidization in affecting the sediment resuspension, few studies have been able to reliably evaluate its quantitative contribution till now. Attempt is made to preliminarily quantify the contribution of fluidization to resuspension using a series of large-scale wave flume experiments. The experimental results indicated that fluidization of the sandy silts of the Huanghe Delta account for 52.5% and 66.8% of the total resuspension under model scales of 4/20 and 6/20 (i.e., relative water depth: the ratio of wave height to water depth), respectively. Some previously reported results obtained using the same flume and sediments are also summarized for a contrastive analysis, through which not only the positive correlation is confirmed, but also a parametric equation for depicting the relationship between the contribution of fluidization and the model scale is established. Finally, the contribution of fluidization is attributed to two physical mechanisms: (1) an attenuation of the erosion resistance of fluidized sediments in surface layers due to the disappearing of original cohesion and the uplifting effect resulting from upward seepage flows, and (2) seepage pumping of fines from the interior to the surface of fluidized seabed.
    Print ISSN: 0253-505X
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-1099
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Springer on behalf of The Chinese Society of Oceanography.
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  • 39
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly heterogeneous disease with large inter-individual differences in disease course. MS lesion pathology shows considerable heterogeneity in localization, cellular content and degree of demyelination between patients. In this study, we investigated pathological correlates of disease course in MS using the autopsy cohort of the Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB), containing 182 MS brain donors. Using a standardized autopsy procedure including systematic dissection from standard locations, 3188 tissue blocks containing 7562 MS lesions were dissected. Unbiased measurements of lesion load were made using the tissue from standard locations. Lesion demyelinating and innate inflammatory activity were visualized by immunohistochemistry for proteolipid protein and human leukocyte antigen. Lesions were classified into active, mixed active/inactive (also known as chronic active), inactive or remyelinated, while microglia/macrophage morphology was classified as ramified, amoeboid or foamy. The severity score was calculated from the time from first symptoms to EDSS-6. Lesion type prevalence and microglia/macrophage morphology were analyzed in relation to clinical course, disease severity, lesion load and sex, and in relation to each other. This analysis shows for the first time that (1) in progressive MS, with a mean disease duration of 28.6 ± 13.3 years (mean ± SD), there is substantial inflammatory lesion activity at time to death. 57% of all lesions were either active or mixed active/inactive and 78% of all patients had a mixed active/inactive lesion present; (2) patients that had a more severe disease course show a higher proportion of mixed active/inactive lesions ( p  = 6e−06) and a higher lesion load ( p  = 2e−04) at the time of death, (3) patients with a progressive disease course show a higher lesion load ( p  = 0.001), and a lower proportion of remyelinated lesions ( p  = 0.03) compared to patients with a relapsing disease course, (4) males have a higher incidence of cortical grey matter lesions ( p  = 0.027) and a higher proportion of mixed active/inactive lesions compared to females across the whole cohort ( p  = 0.007). We confirm that there is a higher proportion of mixed active/inactive lesions ( p  = 0.006) in progressive MS compared to relapsing disease. Identification of mixed active/inactive lesions on MRI is necessary to determine whether they can be used as a prognostic tool in living MS patients.
    Print ISSN: 0001-6322
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0533
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 40
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The southern Patagonian stock (SPS) of Argentinian shortfin squid, Illex argentinus , is an economically important squid fishery in the Southwest Atlantic. Environmental conditions in the region play an important role in regulating the population dynamics of the I. argentinus population. This study develops an environmentally dependent surplus production (EDSP) model to evaluate the stock abundance of I. argentines during the period of 2000 to 2010. The environmental factors (favorable spawning habitat areas with sea surface temperature of 16–18°C) were assumed to be closely associated with carrying capacity (K) in the EDSP model. Deviance Information Criterion (DIC) values suggest that the estimated EDSP model with environmental factors fits the data better than a Schaefer surplus model without environmental factors under uniform and normal scenarios. The EDSP model estimated a maximum sustainable yield (MSY) from 351 600 t to 685 100 t and a biomass from 1 322 400 t to 1 803 000 t. The fishing mortality coefficient of I. argentinus from 2000 to 2010 was smaller than the values of F0.1 and F MSY . Furthermore, the time series biomass plot of I. argentinus from 2000 to 2010 shows that the biomass of I. argentinus and this fishery were in a good state and not presently experiencing overfishing. This study suggests that the environmental conditions of the habitat should be considered within squid stock assessment and management.
    Print ISSN: 0253-505X
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-1099
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Springer on behalf of The Chinese Society of Oceanography.
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  • 41
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Brain fluids are rigidly regulated to provide stable environments for neuronal function, e.g., low K + , Ca 2+ , and protein to optimise signalling and minimise neurotoxicity. At the same time, neuronal and astroglial waste must be promptly removed. The interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain tissue and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bathing the CNS are integral to this homeostasis and the idea of a glia-lymph or ‘glymphatic’ system for waste clearance from brain has developed over the last 5 years. This links bulk (convective) flow of CSF into brain along the outside of penetrating arteries, glia-mediated convective transport of fluid and solutes through the brain extracellular space (ECS) involving the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, and finally delivery of fluid to venules for clearance along peri-venous spaces. However, recent evidence favours important amendments to the ‘glymphatic’ hypothesis, particularly concerning the role of glia and transfer of solutes within the ECS. This review discusses studies which question the role of AQP4 in ISF flow and the lack of evidence for its ability to transport solutes; summarizes attributes of brain ECS that strongly favour the diffusion of small and large molecules without ISF flow; discusses work on hydraulic conductivity and the nature of the extracellular matrix which may impede fluid movement; and reconsiders the roles of the perivascular space (PVS) in CSF–ISF exchange and drainage. We also consider the extent to which CSF–ISF exchange is possible and desirable, the impact of neuropathology on fluid drainage, and why using CSF as a proxy measure of brain components or drug delivery is problematic. We propose that new work and key historical studies both support the concept of a perivascular fluid system, whereby CSF enters the brain via PVS convective flow or dispersion along larger caliber arteries/arterioles, diffusion predominantly regulates CSF/ISF exchange at the level of the neurovascular unit associated with CNS microvessels, and, finally, a mixture of CSF/ISF/waste products is normally cleared along the PVS of venules/veins as well as other pathways; such a system may or may not constitute a true ‘circulation’, but, at the least, suggests a comprehensive re-evaluation of the previously proposed ‘glymphatic’ concepts in favour of a new system better taking into account basic cerebrovascular physiology and fluid transport considerations.
    Print ISSN: 0001-6322
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0533
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 42
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus is one of the few cultured herbivorous marine teleosts. To better understand the digestive physiology of this fish and provide data for designing formulated feed using macroalgae as an ingredient, the changes of visceral properties and digestive enzyme activities were investigated after the juveniles were fed on different types of food including raw fish (RF), formulated diet (FD) or macroalgae Enteromorpha prolifra (EP) and Gracilaria lemaneiformis (GL) for eight weeks. The results showed that the hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices in the RF and FD groups, as well as the relative intestine length (RIL) in the EP and GL groups, were significantly higher than those in other groups. Additionally, differences in the histological structure of the liver and anterior intestine were also observed among different dietary groups. The hepatic nuclei were displaced to the periphery by lipid inclusions in fish fed RF. The highest levels of mucosal folds were found in the anterior intestines of fish fed macroalgae. Digestive enzyme activity profiles showed obvious fluctuations in the first three weeks, and then leveled off in the following weeks. The levels of protease, lipase and α-amylase in the alimentary tract showed changes related to the levels of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate, respectively. Although macroalgae significantly inhibited the activity of protease in the stomach, it increased RIL and the number of mucosal folds in the anterior intestine so as to compensate for the influences on protease activities in the stomach. This study suggests that the digestive tract of rabbitfish can well adapt to different diets, and needs about three weeks to physiologically acclimatize to the nutritional status, thus implying that rabbitfish are somewhat omnivorous.
    Print ISSN: 0253-505X
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-1099
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Springer on behalf of The Chinese Society of Oceanography.
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  • 43
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: BMP2 plays crucial roles in vertebrate developmental process and acts as a bone inducer during osteogenesis. We present here the molecular cloning of bmp2 cDNA from the marine flatfish Cynoglossus semilaevis , and the analysis of bmp2 expression profiling and promoter function. The full length of bmp2 cDNA sequence is 2 048 bp, which encodes a protein of 422 amino acids. Tissue expression distribution of bmp2 was examined in 14 tissues of mature individuals by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results revealed that bmp2 was expressed ubiquitously, and the highest expression level was detected in the spinal cord. Moreover, bmp2 expression levels were detected at 15 sampling time points of early developmental stages (egg, larva, juvenile and fingerling stages). The highest expression level of bmp2 was observed at the gastrula stage, which was about ten times higher than those at the other three embryo stages. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that the bmp2 signal was strongly detected at the location of the crown-like larval fin, heart and liver, and slightly expressed in the notochord at one day post hatch (dph); then the expression of bmp2 started to be concentrated in notochord at three dph. Subsequently, we characterized the 5′-flanking region of bmp2 by testing the promoter activity by Luciferase reporter assays. Positive regulatory region was detected at the location of–179 to +109. The predicted transcription factor binding sites (E-box binding factors, zinc finger transcription factor, etc.) in this region might participate in the transcriptional regulation of the bmp2 gene.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1869-1099
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 44
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Biological CO 2 sequestration by microalgae is a promising and environmentally friendly technology applied to sequester CO 2 . The characteristics of neutral lipid accumulation by two marine oil-rich microalgal strains, namely, Isochrysis galbana and Nannochloropsis sp., through CO 2 enrichment cultivation were investigated in this study. The optimum culture conditions of the two microalgal strains are 10% CO 2 and f medium. The maximum biomass productivity, total lipid content, maximum lipid productivity, carbon content, and CO 2 fixation ability of the two microalgal strains were obtained. The corresponding parameters of the two strains were as follows: ((142.42±4.58) g/(m 2 ·d), (149.92±1.80) g/(m 2 ·d)), ((39.95±0.77)%, (37.91±0.58)%), ((84.47±1.56) g/(m 2 ·d), (89.90±1.98) g/(m 2 ·d)), ((45.98±1.75)%, (46.88±2.01)%), and ((33.74±1.65) g/(m 2 ·d), (34.08±1.32) g/(m 2 ·d)). Results indicated that the two marine microalgal strains with high CO 2 fixation ability are potential strains for marine biodiesel development coupled with CO 2 emission reduction.
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    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 45
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    Springer
    In: 4OR
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Print ISSN: 1619-4500
    Electronic ISSN: 1614-2411
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 46
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    In: 4OR
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Print ISSN: 1619-4500
    Electronic ISSN: 1614-2411
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 47
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    In: 4OR
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Print ISSN: 1619-4500
    Electronic ISSN: 1614-2411
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 48
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    In: 4OR
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This is the traditional triennial note used by the editors to give the readers of 4OR information on the state of the journal and its future. In the 3 years that have passed since the last editorial note (Liberti et al. in Q J Oper 13:1–13, 2015 ), three volumes (each containing four issues) of the journal have been published: vol. 13 (2015), vol. 14 (2016), and vol. 15 (2017).
    Print ISSN: 1619-4500
    Electronic ISSN: 1614-2411
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 49
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This study aims to detect the primary precursors and impact mechanisms for January surface temperature anomaly (JSTA) events in China against the background of global warming, by comparing the causes of two extreme JSTA events occurring in 2008 and 2011 with the common mechanisms inferred from all typical episodes during 1979–2008. The results show that these two extreme events exhibit atmospheric circulation patterns in the mid–high latitudes of Eurasia, with a positive anomaly center over the Ural Mountains and a negative one to the south of Lake Baikal (UMLB), which is a pattern quite similar to that for all the typical events. However, the Eurasian teleconnection patterns in the 2011 event, which are accompanied by a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation, are different to those of the typical events and the 2008 event. We further find that a common anomalous signal appearing in early summer over the tropical Indian Ocean may be responsible for the following late-winter Eurasian teleconnections and the associated JSTA events in China. We show that sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the preceding summer over the western Indian Ocean (WIO) are intimately related to the UMLB-like circulation pattern in the following January. Positive WIOSSTAs in early summer tend to induce strong UMLB-like circulation anomalies in January, which may result in anomalously or extremely cold events in China, which can also be successfully reproduced in model experiments. Our results suggest that the WIOSSTAs may be a useful precursor for predicting JSTA events in China.
    Print ISSN: 0894-0525
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer on behalf of The Chinese Meteorological Society.
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  • 50
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Based on summer precipitation hindcasts for 1991–2013 produced by the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC_CSM), the relationship between precipitation prediction error in northeastern China (NEC) and global sea surface temperature is analyzed, and dynamic–analogue prediction is carried out to improve the summer precipitation prediction skill of BCC_CSM, through taking care of model historical analogue prediction error in the real-time output. Seven correction schemes such as the systematic bias correction, pure statistical correction, dynamic–analogue correction, and so on, are designed and compared. Independent hindcast results show that the 5-yr average anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) of summer precipitation is respectively improved from –0.13/0.15 to 0.16/0.24 for 2009–13/1991–95 when using the equally weighted dynamic–analogue correction in the BCC_CSM prediction, which takes the arithmetical mean of the correction based on regional average error and that on grid point error. In addition, probabilistic prediction using the results from the multiple correction schemes is also performed and it leads to further improved 5-yr average prediction accuracy.
    Print ISSN: 0894-0525
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer on behalf of The Chinese Meteorological Society.
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  • 51
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The western North Pacific anomalous anticyclone (WNPAC) is an important atmospheric circulation system that conveys El Niño impact on East Asian climate. In this review paper, various theories on the formation and maintenance of the WNPAC, including warm pool atmosphere–ocean interaction, Indian Ocean capacitor, a combination mode that emphasizes nonlinear interaction between ENSO and annual cycle, moist enthalpy advection/Rossby wave modulation, and central Pacific SST forcing, are discussed. It is concluded that local atmosphere–ocean interaction and moist enthalpy advection/Rossby wave modulation mechanisms are essential for the initial development and maintenance of the WNPAC during El Niño mature winter and subsequent spring. The Indian Ocean capacitor mechanism does not contribute to the earlier development but helps maintain the WNPAC in El Niño decaying summer. The cold SST anomaly in the western North Pacific, although damped in the summer, also plays a role. An interbasin atmosphere–ocean interaction across the Indo-Pacific warm pool emerges as a new mechanism in summer. In addition, the central Pacific cold SST anomaly may induce the WNPAC during rapid El Niño decaying/La Niña developing or La Niña persisting summer. The near-annual periods predicted by the combination mode theory are hardly detected from observations and thus do not contribute to the formation of the WNPAC. The tropical Atlantic may have a capacitor effect similar to the tropical Indian Ocean.
    Print ISSN: 0894-0525
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 52
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Urban microclimate peculiarities in two Arctic cities in northwestern Russia—Kirovsk (67.62°N, 33.67°E) and Apatity (67.57°N, 33.38°E)—were investigated by using mobile temperature records. The experiment was carried out in and around Apatity and Kirovsk in February 2014 and December 2016. The DS18B20 digital thermometer was installed on the roof of a car (height: approximately 1.2 m) to measure and record temperature variations automatically. In addition to the digital thermometer, the car was also equipped with an onboard global positioning system, allowing every temperature measurement to be referenced with an altitude and a latitude/longitude position. The possibility of urban heat island formation in these polar cities, above the Arctic Circle, was studied. Our analysis indicated that on 11 February 2014, the temperature varied in accordance with the background environmental lapse rate (–0.0045°C m –1 ), and nearly corresponded to it (–0.0165°C m –1 ) on 12 February 2014. On 6 December 2016, a strong local temperature inversion with a positive value of 0.032°C m –1 was detected, seemingly caused by the formation of a cold air pool in the valley near Kirovsk. It was found that the temperature variations within and outside these cities are strongly influenced by local topographic effects and the physical conditions of the atmospheric boundary layer.
    Print ISSN: 0894-0525
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 53
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Black carbon (BC) is a component of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), associated with climate, weather, air quality, and people’s health. However, studies on temporal variation of atmospheric BC concentration at background stations in China and its source area identification are lacking. In this paper, we use 2-yr BC observations from two background stations, Lin’an (LAN) and Longfengshan (LFS), to perform the investigation. The results show that the mean diurnal variation of BC has two significant peaks at LAN while different characteristics are found in the BC variation at LFS, which are probably caused by the difference in emission source contributions. Seasonal variation of monthly BC shows double peaks at LAN but a single peak at LFS. The annual mean concentrations of BC at LAN and LFS decrease by 1.63 and 0.26 μg m –3 from 2009 to 2010, respectively. The annual background concentration of BC at LAN is twice higher than that at LFS. The major source of the LAN BC is industrial emission while the source of the LFS BC is residential emission. Based on transport climatology on a 7-day timescale, LAN and LFS stations are sensitive to surface emissions respectively in belt or approximately circular area, which are dominated by summer monsoon or colder land air flows in Northwest China. In addition, we statistically analyze the BC source regions by using BC observation and FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model (FLEXPART) simulation. In summer, the source regions of BC are distributed in the northwest and south of LAN and the southwest of LFS. Low BC concentration is closely related to air mass from the sea. In winter, the source regions of BC are concentrated in the west and south of LAN and the northeast of the threshold area of s tot at LFS. The cold air mass in the northwest plays an important role in the purification of atmospheric BC. On a yearly scale, sources of BC are approximately from five provinces in the northwest/southeast of LAN and the west of LFS. These findings are helpful in reducing BC emission and controlling air pollution.
    Print ISSN: 0894-0525
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 54
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Print ISSN: 0001-6268
    Electronic ISSN: 0942-0940
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 55
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Background This study aims to assess surgical outcome in brain tumor surgery using patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) and to compare their results with traditional clinical outcome measurements. Method Neuro-oncological patients undergoing surgical removal for the lesion were enrolled; MOCA test, PROMs (EUROHIS-QoL, PGWB-S, WHODAS-12), and the clinical scale Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) were administered to evaluate respectively cognitive status, quality of life, well-being, disability, and functional status before surgery and at 3-month follow-up. Wilcoxon test was performed to evaluate the longitudinal change of test scores, the smallest detectable difference to classify the change of patients in PROMs, the Cohen kappa to investigate the concordance between KPS and PROMs in classifying the patients’ change, and Mann-Whitney U test to compare patients with complications and no complications. Results A total of 101 patients were enrolled (54 woman, mean age 50.2 ± 14.1, range 20–85): psychological well-being improved at follow-up; 95 patients (94.1%) were improved/unchanged and 6 (5.9%) were worsened according to PROMs; functional status measured with KPS had a slight agreement with quality of life and disability and no agreement with psychological well-being questionnaires; patients with complications had a greater worsening in KPS. Conclusions According to PROMs measuring QoL, disability, and psychological well-being, most of the patients were improved/unchanged after surgery. Since PROMs and KPS detect different aspects of the patients’ health status, PROMs should be integrated in surgical outcome evaluation. Furthermore, their association with complications and with other clinical and subjective variables that could influence patient’s perception of health status should be investigated.
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    Topics: Medicine
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  • 56
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Print ISSN: 0001-6268
    Electronic ISSN: 0942-0940
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 57
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Print ISSN: 0001-6268
    Electronic ISSN: 0942-0940
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 58
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In previous work, a significant relationship was identified between the meridional displacement of the Asian westerly jet (JMD) and the Silk Road Pattern (SRP) in summer. The present study reveals that this relationship is robust in northward JMD years but absent in southward JMD years. In other words, the amplitude of the SRP increases with northward displacement of the jet but shows little change with southward displacement. Further analysis indicates that, in northward JMD years, the Rossby wave source (RWS) anomalies, which are primarily contributed by the planetary vortex stretching, are significantly stronger around the entrance of the Asian jet, i.e., the Mediterranean Sea–Caspian Sea area, with the spatial distribution being consistent with that related to the SRP. By contrast, in southward JMD years, the RWS anomalies are much weaker. Therefore, this study suggests that the RWS plays a crucial role in inducing the asymmetry of the JMD–SRP relationship. The results imply that climate anomalies may be stronger in strongly northward-displaced JMD years due to the concurrence of the JMD and SRP, and thus more attention should be paid to these years.
    Print ISSN: 0256-1530
    Electronic ISSN: 1861-9533
    Topics: Physics
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  • 59
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Print ISSN: 0256-1530
    Electronic ISSN: 1861-9533
    Topics: Physics
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  • 60
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Few studies have specifically focused on the validation and spatiotemporal distribution of planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and relative humidity (RH) data in China. In this analysis, continuous PBLH and surface-level RH data simulated from GEOS-5 between 2004 and 2012, were validated against ground-based observations. Overall, the simulated RH was consistent with the statistical data from meteorological stations, with a correlation coefficient of 0.78 and a slope of 0.9. However, the simulated PBLH was underestimated compared to LIDAR data by a factor of approximately two, which was primarily because of poor simulation in late summer and early autumn. We further examined the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of two factors in four regions—North China, South China, Northwest China, and the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that the annual PBLH trends in all regions were fairly moderate but sensitive to solar radiation and precipitation, which explains why the PBLH values were ranked in order from largest to smallest as follows: Tibetan Plateau, Northwest China, North China, and South China. Strong seasonal variation of the PBLH exhibited high values in summer and low values in winter, which was also consistent with the turbulent vertical exchange. Not surprisingly, the highest RH in South China and the lowest RH in desert areas of Northwest China (less than 30%). Seasonally, South China exhibited little variation, whereas Northwest China exhibited its highest humidity in winter and lowest humidity in spring, the maximum values in the other regions were obtained from July to September.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1861-9533
    Topics: Physics
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  • 61
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein (aSyn) and neuron loss define several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). However, the precise relationship between pathology and neurotoxicity and why these processes disproportionately affect certain neuron subpopulations are poorly understood. We show here that Math2-expressing neurons in the hippocampal Cornu ammonis (CA), a region significantly affected by aSyn pathology in advanced PD and DLB, are highly susceptible to pathological seeding with pre-formed fibrils (PFFs), in contrast to dentate gyrus neurons, which are relatively spared. Math2 + neurons also exhibited more rapid and severe cell loss in both in vitro and in vivo models of synucleinopathy. Toxicity resulting from PFF exposure was dependent on endogenous aSyn and could be attenuated by N -acetyl-cysteine through a glutathione-dependent process. Moreover, aSyn expression levels strongly correlate with relative vulnerability among hippocampal neuron subtypes of which Math2 + neurons contained the highest amount. Consistent with this, antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-mediated knockdown of aSyn reduced the neuronal pathology in a time-dependent manner. However, significant neuroprotection was observed only with early ASO intervention and a substantial reduction of aSyn pathology, indicating toxicity occurs after a critical threshold of pathological burden is exceeded in vulnerable neurons. Together, our findings reveal considerable heterogeneity in endogenous aSyn levels among hippocampal neurons and suggest that this may contribute to the selective vulnerability observed in the context of synucleinopathies.
    Print ISSN: 0001-6322
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0533
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 62
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) through an anterior dural defect is rare and the cause is uncertain. Recently, through interpreting imaging studies, disc herniation was proposed to be a major cause for ISCH. We describe the case of a 50-year-old woman with progressive myelopathy who was diagnosed with a thoracic spinal cord herniation. Microsurgical exploration revealed an anterior vertical dural defect and a small concomitant disc herniation, occult on the preoperative imaging, which caused the dural defect and led to ISCH. This intraoperative finding corroborates the emerging notion that disc herniation is the underlying cause of ISCH.
    Print ISSN: 0001-6268
    Electronic ISSN: 0942-0940
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 63
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Agroforestry is a sustainable land management system recognized worldwide but not implemented in a extensive form in temperate and developed countries. Agroforestry has been promoted in the last decades at global level as it provides more efficient and sustainable farming systems. This review aims at summarizing the main research findings explaining why agroforestry is a sustainable land management that fulfils and is affected by different Global, Pan-European and European policies as well as how innovation is currently fostered in Europe, therefore linking research, policy and innovation. This review specially targets researchers and policy makers working in integrated land systems. There is a global and European recognition of the role that agroforestry can play to provide products but also to deliver highly important ecosystem services. However, the promotion of agroforestry practices at European level is still not well addressed by the Common Agricultural Policy. The clear identification of agroforestry practices, the link of management plans to establish agroforestry pursuing a final eligible tree density for the Pillar I payments should be addressed as initial steps to foster agroforestry in Europe. There is a lack of knowledge transfer that promotes agroforestry at field level, which should be approached by using stakeholder integration within the policy development as it is currently done by the EIP-Agri.
    Print ISSN: 0167-4366
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9680
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 64
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Light competition by trees is often regarded as a major limiting factor for crops in alley-cropping agroforestry. Northern latitude farmers are usually reluctant to adopt agroforestry as they fear that light competition will be fiercer in their conditions. We questioned the light availability for crops in alley-cropping at different latitudes from the tropic circle to the polar circle with a process-based 3D model of alley-cropping agroforestry. Two tree densities and two tree line orientations were considered. The effect of the latitude was evaluated with same-sized trees. The relative irradiance of the crops was computed for the whole year or at specific times of the year when crops need more light. The heterogeneity of crop irradiance across the alley was also computed. Surprisingly, crop relative irradiance of summer crops at high latitudes is high, at odds with farmers’ fears. Best designs were highlighted for improving the crop irradiance: North–South tree lines are recommended at high latitudes and East–West tree lines at low latitudes. At medium latitudes, North–South tree lines should be preferred to achieve an homogeneous irradiance of the crop in the alley. If we assume that trees at northern latitudes grow slower when compared to southern latitudes, then alley-cropping agroforestry is highly advisable even at high latitudes with summer crops.
    Print ISSN: 0167-4366
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9680
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 65
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The present study is focussed on development of a high-frequency micro-multiplication system in Calamus thwaitesii , through somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 31.68 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The semi-friable calli when cultured in the same medium augmented with 2.22 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1.07 µM α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) induced ~ 12 discrete globular embryoids in 6 weeks. The isolated embryoids in hormone-free media yielded 65% plantlets. Furthermore, embryoids and axenic shoots exhibited maximum shoot induction in medium supplemented with 0.45 µM Thidiazuron (TDZ). The shoot initials after subculture in media supplemented with 1.78 µM BAP and 0.45 µM TDZ produced shoot proliferation followed by elongation in basal medium. The elongated shoots produced roots in media supplemented with 16.11 µM NAA. With this established protocol, ~ 5940 rooted plantlets could be harvested after 40 weeks from a single embryoid. Genetic stability analysis of the plantlets using inter simple sequence repeat markers recorded only 0.05% genetic polymorphism. The plantlets were hardened in a mist house for 8 weeks, and then to 50% shade house for another 16 weeks, and the well-established 6-month-old nursery plants, reintroduced to selected forest segments, exhibited 86% field establishment even after 3 years of observation. Thus, the mass multiplication system developed could be a breakthrough for large-scale multiplication of C. thwaitesii to ensure continuous supply of quality planting material to the cottage industry through the development of agroforestry systems. Furthermore, the in vitro culture system developed here can be replicated for research activities related to the long-term–short-term conservation, micro-multiplication and sustainable utilization of rare, endangered, endemic, monopodial/single stemmed rattan palms.
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    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 66
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Spatial pattern (SP) and neighbourhood distance (ND) of trees are crucial for pollination services, in particular for dioecious species. However, land use types through human disturbances may affect the natural SP and ND and possibly have a negative effect on pollination services. Though several studies have focused on the effect of land use types on SP of trees, few have reported on ND. In this study, we compared SP and ND of the dioecious Borassus aethiopum Mart. between two land use types (protected areas vs farmlands) in two contrasting climatic regions (semi-arid vs sub-humid) in Benin. Trees were mapped in twelve plots from six populations. Pair-correlation function was used to generate univariate and bivariate SP and ND. Next, ANOVA was used to compare ND. While supporting the overall trend towards a less aggregated pattern along plant life-cycle, the study showed that the SP of B. aethiopum was altered from aggregated and spatial association in protected areas toward random and independence patterns in farmlands with increased ND among individuals, particularly between adult males and females. In addition, differences in ND between land use types varied across climatic regions, the differences being higher in the drier semi-arid region, thus suggesting more intense human activities in this region and climatic region-specific management. Management actions should mainly aim at reducing or not further increasing ND, particularly between female and male adult populations in farmlands in the semi-arid region through planting new individuals of B. aethiopum trees or limiting their removal but at the same time account for other tree species to maximise diversity of farmlands’ functions and services. Further studies should examine whether the observed increased ND due to human-disturbances in farmlands is detrimental for the species pollination services, fruit production and whether it affects the species spatio-temporal population genetic structuring.
    Print ISSN: 0167-4366
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9680
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 67
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: In temperate tree-based intercropping (TBI) systems, good survival and early growth of selected tree species without wood defects is critical, when taking into account both economic considerations and rapidly accruing environmental benefits that are provided by the trees. The establishment success of different tree species that have contrasting growth strategies in Northeastern American TBI systems have not been assessed in a well-documented manner, which is an important influential barrier limiting their adoption by farmers. We analyzed establishment success after five growing seasons of six hardwood species and four hybrid poplar clones in a 50 stems ha −1 , tree-based intercropping system. The hardwood species being evaluated were Carya ovata , Juglans nigra , Quercus bicolor , Quercus macrocarpa , Quercus rubra , and Acer saccharum . The hybrid poplar clones being evaluated were four clones of Populus deltoides  ×  P. nigra  ×  P. maximowiczii . We also compared 3-year-old bareroot (165 cm in height) with tree shelter versus 6-year-old root-balled transplants (370 cm in height) without tree shelter for two hardwood species ( Quercus rubra and Acer saccharum ). Mean survival rate of the six hardwood species originating from 3-year-old transplants was 70% after 5 years. Acer saccharum (33%) and Carya ovata (57%) had the lowest survival rates. Tree height of Quercus bicolor and Quercus macrocarpa was taller than that of Carya ovata, Juglans nigra and Quercus rubra . Tree height of Acer saccharum was intermediate among species. Mean survival rate of hybrid poplar after five growing seasons was 82% and did not differ among the clones. Growth of DN 4813 was lower than that of DN×M 915508, DN 3570 and DN 3585. Tree external defects (forks, frost cracks, trunk inclinations, trunk wind bends, and physical injuries) were observed in 63% of the hardwoods and 55% of the hybrid poplars. Red oak and sugar maple originating from 6-year-old transplants had survival rates of 100%. Over 5 years, height increment of 6-year-old transplants was higher than that of 3-year-old transplants. The 6-year-old transplants of Quercus rubra and Acer saccharum were the most cost-effective stock type. We conclude that tree survival, tree growth and tree external defects in establishment phase of TBI systems may vary considerably across hardwood species, hybrid poplar clones and planting stock type.
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    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 68
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Relationships between meteorological factors and airborne pollen concentrations at high altitudes are virtually unknown. We used cross-correlation analyses to test the relationships between daily variation in meteorological factors (i.e. temperature, humidity and wind speed) and airborne pollen concentration, diversity (number of families and Shannon and Simpson diversity indices) and evenness (Pielou index) in an Apennine high-altitude site (Gran Sasso Massif, 2117 m elevation). In contrast to patterns observed at low altitudes, the temperature had a negative correlation with pollen abundance and diversity, whereas humidity had a positive correlation. The unexpected negative correlations with temperature can be explained with the particular position of our sampling site. Wind speed was positively correlated with pollen diversity and abundance in the short term, which can be explained by the fact that higher wind speed promotes both primary emission of pollen from the anthers and subsequent re-suspension. Evenness and wind speed were negatively correlated in the short term because of the different response of different species to meteorological conditions. In the longer term, the average concentrations of the various taxa tend to reach similar values, leading to increased values of diversity. Our finding of a decrease in pollen emission with increasing temperature has important implications for the study of the impacts of global change on high-altitude plant communities. We also detected a high abundance of Cupressaceae/Taxaceae pollen, a reflection of the expansion of thermophilic species, such as Juniperus, due to climate change.
    Print ISSN: 0393-5965
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-3025
    Topics: Biology
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  • 69
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Numerous studies have focused on occupational and indoor environments because people spend more than 90% of their time in them. Nevertheless, air is the main source of bacteria in indoors, and outdoor exposure is also crucial. Worldwide studies have indicated that bacterial concentrations vary among different types of outdoor environments, with considerable seasonal variations as well. Conducting comprehensive monitoring of atmospheric aerosol concentrations is very important not only for environmental management but also for the assessment of the health impacts of air pollution. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present outdoor and seasonal changes of bioaerosol data regarding an urban area of Poland. This study aimed to characterize culturable bacteria populations present in outdoor air in Gliwice, Upper Silesia Region, Poland, over the course of four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) through quantification and identification procedures. In this study, the samples of bioaerosol were collected using a six-stage Andersen cascade impactor (with aerodynamic cut-off diameters of 7.0, 4.7, 3.3, 2.1, 1.1 and 0.65 μm). Results showed that the concentration of airborne bacteria ranged from 4 CFU m −3 , measured on one winter day, to a maximum equal to 669 CFU m −3 on a spring day. The average size of culturable bacterial aerosol over the study period was 199 CFU m −3 . The maximal seasonally averaged concentration was found in the spring season and reached 306 CFU m −3 , and the minimal seasonally averaged concentration was found in the winter 49 CFU m −3 . The most prevalent bacteria found outdoors were gram-positive rods that form endospores. Statistically, the most important meteorological factors related to the viability of airborne bacteria were temperature and UV radiation. These results may contribute to the promotion and implementation of preventative public health programmes and the formulation of recommendations aimed at providing healthier outdoor environments.
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    Topics: Biology
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  • 70
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    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Current organic agriculture performs well in several sustainability domains, like animal welfare, farm profitability and low pesticide use, but yields are commonly lower than in conventional farming. There is now a re-vitalized interest in increasing yields in organic agriculture to provide more organic food for a growing, more affluent population and reduce negative impacts per unit produced. However, past yield increases have been accompanied by several negative side-effects. Here, we review risks and opportunities related to a broad range of sustainability domains associated with increasing yields in organic agriculture in the Northern European context. We identify increased N input, weed, disease and pest control, improved livestock feeding, breeding for higher yields and reduced losses as the main measures for yield increases. We review the implications of their implementation for biodiversity, greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient losses, soil fertility, animal health and welfare, human nutrition and health and farm profitability. Our findings from this first-of-its-kind integrated analysis reveal which strategies for increasing yields are unlikely to produce negative side-effects and therefore should be a high priority, and which strategies need to be implemented with great attention to trade-offs. For example, increased N inputs in cropping carry many risks and few opportunities, whereas there are many risk-free opportunities for improved pest control through the management of ecosystem services. For most yield increasing strategies, both risks and opportunities arise, and the actual effect depends on management including active mitigation of side-effects. Our review shows that, to be a driving force for increased food system sustainability, organic agriculture may need to reconsider certain fundamental principles. Novel plant nutrient sources, including increased nutrient recycling in society, and in some cases mineral nitrogen fertilisers from renewable sources, and truly alternative animal production systems may need to be developed and accepted.
    Print ISSN: 1774-0746
    Electronic ISSN: 1773-0155
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 71
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Grape is a major crop, covering 7.5 M ha worldwide, that is currently being confronted with three main challenges: intensive pesticide use that must be reduced, invasion by new pests/diseases, and climate change. The biological control of pests and vectors would help address these challenges. Here, we review the scientific literature on the biological control of grape moths by macroorganisms (excluding nematodes). Two components, biological control with an active human role, mainly using biocontrol agents through inundation or inoculation, and conservation biological control, are considered. The major points are the following. (1) Tortricid grape moths seriously damage grapes worldwide, causing yield losses and quality reduction. The more geographically widespread species, Lobesia botrana , continues to extend its range, invading South American and, more recently, North American vineyards. (2) Parasitoids and predators (including arthropods, birds, and bats) that can control grape pests are very diverse. (3) Different methods exist to assess pest control efficiency in the field but some of them remain to be developed. (4) Environmental factors, including host plants, landscape, grass or floral covers, and organic practices, affect the natural control of grape moths. (5) Pest resistance to parasitoids strongly depends on their immune system, which is controlled by the host plant. Future climate changes may modify this tritrophic interaction and thus affect biological control strategies. We conclude that biological control has a great deal of potential in viticulture and that addressing these key factors would improve the efficiency levels of biological control strategies. This would help growers and stakeholders to significantly reduce insecticide use in vineyards.
    Print ISSN: 1774-0746
    Electronic ISSN: 1773-0155
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 72
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Urban agriculture is characterized by fast rotation of cropping cycles and high inputs and outputs on relatively small areas of land. Depletion of soil organic carbon and low nutrient use efficiency are severe agricultural constraints in the sandy soils of West Africa. We hypothesized that such an intensive system would provide ideal preconditions for the use of biochar, that biochar would enhance yields in urban horticulture, and that farmers would be able to produce biochar for on-farm use in Tamale, Ghana. Therefore, we studied the opportunities and challenges of biochar using a semi-participatory research approach. Working with 12 participant farmers, we defined research questions which were relevant to their livelihoods and collected qualitative and observational data, which determined the selection of variables to measure quantitatively. Different quality parameters such as leaf color and stiffness of lettuce were important to farmers and marketers when assessing the agronomic benefits of biochar. By adding biochar to their normal agricultural practice farmers were able to increase lettuce yields by 93%. This remarkable increase might be partially caused by farmers’ improved management of biochar plots: they concentrated their resources where they expected to yield the largest returns. Using a simple top-lit updraft gasifier, a special chimney for rice husk carbonization, it was relatively simple for farmers to produce biochar in the field, with an efficiency of 15–33%. These stoves’ payback times were between 1 and 2 months. Yet, rather than the efficiency of the carbonization technology, often emphasized in biochar research, the availability of feedstock and labor considerations determine the technology selected by farmers for biochar production. This is a novel approach to considering the economic realities of farmers in a semi-participatory appraisal where farmers both produce and apply biochar. This is crucial in order to understand and identify meaningful and economically viable uses of biochar.
    Print ISSN: 1774-0746
    Electronic ISSN: 1773-0155
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 73
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    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The intensive use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers over the last century has both increased agricultural productivity and modified biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, causing severe negative environmental impacts. Tea ( Camellia sinensis L.) plantations usually receive high levels of synthetic fertilizers, which strongly affect plant and soil properties. However, there is no quantitative study to assess how synthetic N additions affect soil chemistry and the production and quality of tea shoots. Here, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of experimental synthetic N fertilizers. Our main findings are (1) N additions in tea plantations acidify soils (− 0.41 pH unit in average) and produce soil nutrient imbalance. Soil acidification commonly exacerbates the accumulations of toxic aluminum ions. (2) Synthetic N fertilizer additions may strongly increase tea production by almost 70% but alter tea shoot quality by increasing the concentrations of free amino acids (+ 16%), caffeine (+ 14%), and water extracts (+ 5%) while decreasing those of soluble sugars (− 8%) in the tea shoots. The responses of soil chemistry, tea production, and quality to N additions can vary among experimental conditions, tea tree species, and N fertilizer forms. Because there is statistical limitation in this meta-analysis, our findings recommend performing additional field studies to explore the potential mechanisms of nutrient cycling and ecosystem functioning under synthetic N additions. The development of a sustainable N management strategy in tea plantations is also urgently needed to enhance N use efficiency and reduce environmental risks.
    Print ISSN: 1774-0746
    Electronic ISSN: 1773-0155
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 74
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    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Few scholars have investigated the economic viability of urban farms in industrialized countries. This study focused on urban community microfarms—small-scale organic market gardens committed to social work activities—in London. Our objective was to investigate the extent to which economic viability was (i) possible for urban microfarms in London and (ii) compatible with the other social and ecological aspirations of microfarmers. The simulation model MERLIN was adapted to London, based on 10 case studies. We analyzed the likelihood of viability—that is, the percentage of economically viable simulations (out of 1000 simulations)—of 192 different strategic scenarios of microfarms. Based on the modeling outputs, a collective workshop was organized with 11 urban farmers to discuss the possibility of reconciling socio-ecological aspirations and economic viability in an urban context. This is the first time that modeling and discussions with stakeholders are combined to explore the viability of urban agriculture. Our novel study shows that urban microfarms can be viable and that viability can be increased by focusing on short-cycle and high added-value leaf vegetables grown in high tunnels and sold at high prices to restaurants. Such strategies can lead urban farmers to make trade-offs with their socio-ecological aspirations. Costs can be decreased by taking advantage of community resources such as volunteer labor or agreements with local councils to rent land at a low rate. Social work (training, hosting community events) is a key condition to access these resources but entails more complex farm management.
    Print ISSN: 1774-0746
    Electronic ISSN: 1773-0155
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 75
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Enhancing natural enemies for pest management in agriculture is an expanding approach offering new opportunities for pest control and the potential to reduce insecticide use. Numerous studies in a variety of cropping systems clearly have shown that adequate measures can benefit natural enemies. However, although carry-over effects from an increase in natural enemies and a subsequent decrease in pest populations leading to a reduction in crop damage are always assumed, they are rarely proven. We established an insecticide-free apple orchard optimized for the self-regulation of pests by supporting natural enemies with shelter, nectar, alternative prey/hosts, and pollen. For six growing seasons, we focused on the control of the major apple pest Dysaphis plantaginea . While fruit damage after the second fruit drop was not affected by aphidophagous insect guilds, it was negatively related to spider abundance in the previous autumn, when aphids immigrate back to the orchard to establish the next generation. In detail, we found that an increase in spider web area reduced the number of aphid fundatrices in spring and subsequently fruit damage. Our findings indicate the rarely proven carry-over effect of enhanced natural enemies on decreased crop damage and we show for the first time, how the rosy apple aphid can be managed without the use of insecticides.
    Print ISSN: 1774-0746
    Electronic ISSN: 1773-0155
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 76
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The composition of fungal biota and air quality of five traditional subterranean wine cellars and one store building of a modern wine production facility were examined in the Tokaj wine region (northeastern Hungary). Air samples were collected with SAS IAQ sampler onto PDA, MEA and RBA. Strains representing morphotypes were isolated from colonies formed on agar plates from either air or surface samples. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene cluster was amplified with primers ITS1 and ITS4. Altogether 90 morphotypes were isolated, 48 and 12 strains (43 species) from the air and surfaces, respectively. The number of spore-forming species generated high diversity of indoor fungi and differences between the cellars’ fungal compositions; however, their dominant species were proved to be the same. Among the isolated strains Penicillium spp. were the most frequent. The walls of cellars were covered by colonies of Zasmidium ( Cladosporium ) cellare often referred to as a noble mold. Even so, this mold has been found only at a small concentration in the air samples (10–30 CFU/m 3 ). The walls of the modern store were free of molds. Diversity of fungi of the examined wine cellars was influenced by environmental conditions to a certain degree, such as elevation (height above sea level), age, reconstruction time of cellars, indoor ethanol concentration and the number of chimneys. The location of cellars poorly influenced the concentration of fungi of the air inside cellars, contrary to outdoors where the air of the municipal area contained more CFUs than that of rural spaces.
    Print ISSN: 0393-5965
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-3025
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
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  • 77
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper analyses long-term (1960–2015) onset of flowering in 16 native terrestrial plants (11 of them produce important allergens) recorded in different parts of the Czech Republic (southern, central and northern part) in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the preceding winter and thermal data—growing degree-days (GDD) and soil temperature. Flowering occurred significantly earlier following positive winter NAO phases (causing spring to be warmer than normal in Central Europe) in nearly all early-flowering (February, March, April) species; high Pearson correlation values were recorded in, e.g. wood anemone, common snowdrop, goat willow, common hazel and common alder. There was found a difference between the southern and northern part of the country, e.g. in silver birch and pedunculate oak. Out of the later-flowering (May–July) plant species, black elder and meadow foxtail also significantly correlated with the winter NAO index, lime tree correlated less markedly. The best results of a threshold for calculation of GDD to onset of beginning of flowering were found in lime tree—it was 5 °C at all three stations. Results of other taxa were more variable (e.g. 4–7 °C in goat willow; 6–10 °C in silver birch). Pearson correlation coefficients between NAO index and GDD were negative in lime tree at all thresholds (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 °C), while goat willow and silver birch were not so uniform (both positive and negative values). Correlation coefficients between phenophase onset and soil temperature (10 cm depth) had the highest values in silver birch, European larch and wood anemone. Stations situated at higher elevation showed negative correlation coefficient with soil temperature in common snowdrop, pedunculate oak, meadow foxtail and lime tree; other values were positive.
    Print ISSN: 0393-5965
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-3025
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
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  • 78
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Spatial ecology includes research into factors responsible for observed distribution patterns of organisms. Moreover, the spatial distribution of an animal at a given spatial scale and in a given landscape may provide valuable insight into its host preference, fitness, evolutionary adaptation potential, and response to resource limitations. In agro-ecology, in-depth understanding of spatial distributions of insects is of particular importance when the goals are to (1) promote establishment and persistence of certain food webs, (2) maximize performance of pollinators and natural enemies, and (3) develop precision-targeted monitoring and detection of emerging outbreaks of herbivorous pests. In this article, we review and discuss a spatial phenomenon that is widespread among insect species across agricultural systems and across spatial scales—they tend to show “edge-biased distributions” (spatial distribution patterns show distinct “edge effects”). In the conservation and biodiversity literature, this phenomenon has been studied and reviewed intensively in the context of how landscape fragmentation affects species diversity. However, possible explanations of, and also implications of, edge-biased distributions of insects in agricultural systems have not received the same attention. Our review suggests that (1) mathematical modeling approaches can partially explain edge-biased distributions and (2) abiotic factors, crop vegetation traits, and environmental parameters are factors that are likely responsible for this phenomenon. However, we argue that more research, especially experimental research, is needed to increase the current understanding of how and why edge-biased distributions of insects are so widespread. We argue that the fact that many insect pests show edge-biased distribution patterns may be used to optimize both pest monitoring practices and precision targeting of pesticide applications and releases of natural enemies.
    Print ISSN: 1774-0746
    Electronic ISSN: 1773-0155
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 79
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Environmental mercury (Hg) contamination is an urgent global health threat. The complexity of Hg in the environment can hinder accurate determination of ecological and human health risks, particularly within the context of the rapid global changes that are altering many ecological processes, socioeconomic patterns, and other factors like infectious disease incidence, which can affect Hg exposures and health outcomes. However, the success of global Hg-reduction efforts depends on accurate assessments of their effectiveness in reducing health risks. In this paper, we examine the role that key extrinsic and intrinsic drivers play on several aspects of Hg risk to humans and organisms in the environment. We do so within three key domains of ecological and human health risk. First, we examine how extrinsic global change drivers influence pathways of Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification through food webs. Next, we describe how extrinsic socioeconomic drivers at a global scale, and intrinsic individual-level drivers, influence human Hg exposure. Finally, we address how the adverse health effects of Hg in humans and wildlife are modulated by a range of extrinsic and intrinsic drivers within the context of rapid global change. Incorporating components of these three domains into research and monitoring will facilitate a more holistic understanding of how ecological and societal drivers interact to influence Hg health risks.
    Print ISSN: 0044-7447
    Electronic ISSN: 1654-7209
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Springer on behalf of The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
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  • 80
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    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We review recent progress in our understanding of the global cycling of mercury (Hg), including best estimates of Hg concentrations and pool sizes in major environmental compartments and exchange processes within and between these reservoirs. Recent advances include the availability of new global datasets covering areas of the world where environmental Hg data were previously lacking; integration of these data into global and regional models is continually improving estimates of global Hg cycling. New analytical techniques, such as Hg stable isotope characterization, provide novel constraints of sources and transformation processes. The major global Hg reservoirs that are, and continue to be, affected by anthropogenic activities include the atmosphere (4.4–5.3 Gt), terrestrial environments (particularly soils: 250–1000 Gg), and aquatic ecosystems (e.g., oceans: 270–450 Gg). Declines in anthropogenic Hg emissions between 1990 and 2010 have led to declines in atmospheric Hg 0 co