WILBERT

Wildauer Bücher+E-Medien Recherche-Tool

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Springer  (2,354,573)
Collection
Language
Years
  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: To improve the catalytic efficiency of Ni/carbon fibers (CF), La 2 O 3 was added to CFs to prepare a dual-support catalyst. The catalyst, Ni/CF-La 2 O 3 , was synthesized using an ultrasound-assisted method. The catalytic properties were investigated by dry reforming CH 4 at temperatures ranging from 700 to 800 °C, at a CH 4 /CO 2 feed ratio of 1, at atmospheric pressure, and at a GHSV of 14000 ml/g min. The results show that the activity of the as-prepared catalyst could be enhanced by adding La 2 O 3 and the catalyst prepared by the ultrasound-assisted method showed better catalytic activity than that obtained by impregnation. In addition, all the catalysts used in the experiment were characterized by the BET specific surface area method, atomic absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, H 2 temperature-programmed reduction and CO 2 temperature-programmed desorption analyses. The results indicate that the as-prepared catalyst exhibited better interactions between the support and metal as well as a higher dispersion of the Ni nanoclusters. Consequently, the Ni/CF-La 2 O 3 catalyst made by the ultrasound-assisted method possesses the greatest catalytic performance, showing potential as a novel alternative in the dry reforming of methane.
    Print ISSN: 1877-2641
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-265X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Production of liquid biofuels derived from vegetable oils in recent years significantly increased which causes surplus of by-product (waste glycerol) from this process. Therefore it is of great importance to find cheap and fast method of use its utilization. In this study, a possibility of the utilization of technical purity glycerin as an addition to wood pellets intended for heating purposes has been investigated. Usefulness of pellets contained glycerol additions has been compared in terms of applicable quality standards for wood pellets. Effects of waste glycerol addition on concentration of combustion products as well as temperature in heat exchanger have also been examined. The experimental results show that co-combustion of waste glycerol with wood sawdust does not worsen heating efficiency in a standard boiler. Moreover, 4.5 and 7% presence of glycerol in wood pellets correlated to a nearly twofold decrease of NO x concentration in flue gas. Therefore, the use of the waste glycerol as a binder for the production of pellets can be a simple and cost-effective solution of its utilization.
    Print ISSN: 1877-2641
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-265X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: South East Asia dominates the production of palm oil worldwide. During the traditional wet processing, palm oil mill effluent (POME) wastewater is generated which poses serious environmental problems. Wastewater treatment using microalgae was initiated recently because of the advantages to lower nutrient content efficiently while the biomass can be utilized as bulk biomass or value added product. In the present review the utilization of wastewater for microalgal cultivation is discussed with particular attention to the feasibility of utilizing POME as microalgal growth medium. Whereas much recent research was focused on the production of bulk biomass, the potential for the production of value-added compounds has not often been addressed. Various strategies of obtaining high-value products are discussed. These include cultivation systems, algal species selection as well as and their growth strategies (autotrophic, heterotrophic, mixotrophic). In addition, potential problems associated with microalgal cultivation on POME will be evaluated. Finally, the concept of using stepwise strategies to obtain high value added product will be proposed.
    Print ISSN: 1877-2641
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-265X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: In the present work, Pistacia lentiscus (PL) biodiesel was produced by converting PL oil with a single-step homogenous alkali catalyzed transesterification process. Several ethanol/vegetable oil molar ratio values (6–12:1), temperatures from 40 to 70 °C and KOH catalyst amounts in the range 0.6–1.8 wt% were considered. The response surface methodology combined with central composite design was used to optimize the process. The results showed that the optimum conditions were obtained for an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 9:1, a reaction temperature of 40 °C and catalyst amount of 1.2 wt%. Under these conditions, the predicted PL oil ethyl ester conversion was around 88%. The characterization of PL biodiesel according to the standard methods showed that the physicochemical properties were similar to those of conventional diesel fuel and in agreement with European requirements.
    Print ISSN: 1877-2641
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-265X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The present work reports significant improvement in the performance of keratin based hydrogels. These hydrogels were synthesized by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid monomers on the hydrolyzed keratin proteins’ backbones in the presence of a crosslinker ( N , N -methylenebis (acrylamide)) and initiators (sodium bisulfite and potassium persulfate). The grafting was confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The contributions of the crosslinker, initiator and neutralization degree to the hydrogels were investigated through differential scanning calorimetry, swelling tests, and scanning electron microscopy. The highest equilibrium swelling of hydrogel in distilled water reached 501 g/g of hydrogel in 48 h. The swelling properties of the optimized hydrogel formulation were also studied at various pH and saline concentrations. Graphical Abstract
    Print ISSN: 1877-2641
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-265X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Since the 1990s, several archaeological teams have been investigating the link between Iron Age settlements in the Oman Peninsula and qanat systems. It is assumed that the development of water-draining galleries, such as qanat , or falaj as they are called in Oman, allowed for the settlement of populations on the desert fringes and the growth of villages at this time. Fieldwork undertaken by a Spanish archaeological team working at al Madam has provided evidence for the existence of wells and water-draining galleries ( falaj / aflāj ) in contemporaneous use at the beginning of First Millennium BC. The excavation of an underground gallery, the course of which forms a zig-zag pattern, has revealed a system that would have permitted the collection of a significant amount of groundwater. This proves the existence in Antiquity of a large shallow water table in the area of al Madam. The water that was brought to the surface by this system was diverted into secondary channels, tree-pits, ponds and pools, corresponding to the ancient cultivated fields. This unprecedented network of irrigation channels was dug into the natural rock. The archaeological record of al Madam shows that this cultivated area was situated to the east of the village in the Iron Age, and included a palm grove of significant size (at least 15 ha).
    Print ISSN: 1877-7236
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-7244
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: With few exceptions in which dating is implied by indirect association with adjacent settlements or incorporation of diagnostic artefacts in upcast sediment, individual qanats have proven very difficult to date. This absence of a chronological framework hampers both our understanding of technology transfer, as well as the study of local settlement and landscape evolution and the temporal correlation of land use with climatic and palaeoenvironmental data. However, surface shaft mounds potentially contain a sequence of upcast deposits collected periodically from the tunnel, starting with initial construction and persisting until the last maintenance episode, less any material lost by surface erosion. The sedimentary nature of the upcast lends itself to the application of luminescence dating to determine the burial age, in particular, using the techniques based on optically stimulated luminescence. We examine the results produced by two recent dating studies where luminescence techniques were applied to two qanat systems with the aim of building a chronostratigraphy for the deposits within their upcast mounds. These studies show that the extent to which a complete record of the deposition since initial construction survives may differ between qanat systems, and even shaft mounds within the same system. Providing there is a close coupling of luminescence and sedimentological analysis in the testing of qanat mounds, these formative studies suggest that there are good prospects for introducing a valuable tool in the study of various types of hydraulic feature where upcast has been preserved and guidance regarding further fieldwork is provided.
    Print ISSN: 1877-7236
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-7244
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The article explores how Russia’s governmental authorities, scientists, engineers, and industrialists engaged with the problem of factory waste and water pollution. It argues that industrial pollution of rivers emerged as a subject of considerable public debate in Russia in the 1880s and the enforcement of water protection laws grew stricter towards the end of the Empire. However, the vagueness of the legislation and the lack of clear quality standards opened the way for contingency and arbitrariness in the persecution of violators. This persecution did not lead to the reduction of pollution in the imperial period, but it raised awareness of the dangers of industrial discharge for riverine environments.
    Print ISSN: 1877-7236
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-7244
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Print ISSN: 1877-7236
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-7244
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The name of the project director and the funding source were in part incorrectly reflected in the Acknowledgments section and are hereby corrected as follows: The research leading to these results forms part of the project ‘Time in Intercultural Context’ directed by Prof. Dr. Maarten E.R.G.N. Jansen (Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University) and has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC grant agreement no. 295434.
    Print ISSN: 1877-7236
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-7244
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This article examines the discourses on water pollution and protection in the Soviet Union in the 1950s–1960s. It explores discursive practices related to two paper and pulp plants, one located on the shore of Lake Baikal and another production unit in Svetogorsk on the border with Finland. These two discourses provide deep insight to pro-industry and nature protection positions, which characterized Soviet water pollution and protection discourses in the 1950s–1960s. The paper contends that discussions about pulp production near Baikal influenced other regions to improve the engineering of water treatment facilities. The development of such facilities became a compromise between supporters and defenders of increasing pulp production, but did not result in solving the problem of water pollution. In analyzing this issue, I consider discussions around the Baikal pulp plant and the first attempts to introduce advanced water treatment in an industrial city of Svetogorsk and beyond. I will also discuss contacts with the West, in particular with Finland, and their effects on Soviet water management.
    Print ISSN: 1877-7236
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-7244
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: In this paper, we model the function of rainwater harvesting cisterns in ancient Greece. The model calculates on a monthly basis: (1) the collected and stored volume of water; (2) the amount of water extracted for individual use; and (3) the potential accumulated surplus available by the end of a month. The potential of the model is explored through two case studies based on material from Olynthos in Thessaly and Dystos on ancient Euboia by running 26 consecutive annual cycles utilizing modern precipitation data from meteorological stations as a proxy for ancient precipitation and precipitation variability. Our results show that cisterns can provide ample amounts of freshwater to households and function as buffers for water stress in shorter (monthly), and longer terms (seasonally, yearly and between years). The two cisterns in this paper yield between 10.7 and 86.6 m 3 per annum with a strong variability in collected water volumes within and between years. Yet, this variability is, largely predictable and thus the use of cisterns in ancient Greece should be viewed in the light of predictable variability that required active participation from members of the household to be efficient.
    Print ISSN: 1877-7236
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-7244
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This article uses practice theory to examine changes in middle class water tenure in Kolkata, India, at the household level from the 1960s to present. Surveys ( n  = 34) and focus group discussions ( n  = 4) reveal that the Kolkata urban middle class have transformed not only how they engage water, but their perceptions of water itself. Over the study period, households have: (1) shifted their sources of water; (2) introduced new end uses for water; (3) adopted new water-related technologies; and (4) changed their perceptions of water quality. More specific findings include movement away from public sources towards private sources of water, which are perceived to be of higher quality and greater convenience. Furthermore, all households draw upon multiple water sources and all employ technologies to further harness, process, or transform water (e.g., 100% both filter their water and have a cistern toilet). This influence on the social hydrology of Kolkata ultimately demonstrates their middle class social position and their ability to commodify water. A diversity of water sources, personally treated supplies, and the capital required to secure such a waterscape are increasingly being used to reinforce middle class status, both outwardly and inwardly. These results are distinguishable at the household and society scales, and they can be observed in everyday practices.
    Print ISSN: 1877-7236
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-7244
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Resilience of a city is a measure of its ability to retain or adapt form and function in the possibility of change. This is particularly true of urban water security in a water scarce world. One component of urban water resilience is that provided by historical and traditional water sources such as lakes, ponds, and stepwells. Unfortunately, as cities lose dependence on these formerly important water bodies, they stand neglected and vulnerable to various threats. This paper makes a case for returning to historical reasons for use and disuse of these water bodies in order to conserve them in the contemporary period. We adopt a geospatial–historical–ethnographic approach to understanding these transformations within the south Indian city of Bengaluru and argue that alienation of communities and lack of inclusivity are the main reasons for their decline. This poses serious implications for prevalent notions of ecosystem stewardship and ultimately for the resilience of the landscape.
    Print ISSN: 1877-7236
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-7244
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The heyday of Athens in the fifth century was followed by the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), the defeat of the Athenians and the death of the great visionary Pericles. The powerful city of Athens lost its glamor. From 338 BC, the city is under the rule of the Macedonians and, after the conquest of the city by Sulla, Athens finally passes to the Romans. The Romans awarded Athens a special autonomy status and because of this the city did not lose its cultural glamor. The biggest benefactor of Athens at the time was the emperor Hadrian who extended the city by 2200 acres to the west and built numerous splendid buildings throughout the city, among them the amazing Hadrianic aqueduct which supplied water to Athens for more than 1800 years. In the seventh to ninth centuries known as the ‘Dark Ages’, the area of the Attica Basin was still in decline and water was supplied from springs and wells. After Frankish, Catalan and Florentine occupations from 1204 to 1458, the city was occupied by the Ottomans until it regained its independence in 1830. During all those years, the water supply of Athens came from wells and springs and no significant water projects were undertaken until the end of the nineteenth century. This study presents the development of the water supply infrastructure of Athens and how it aligned with the growth of the city from the Hellenistic period until the beginning of the twentieth century. The study summarizes the research to date and offers new data in relation to the development of the water supply in Athens over the period covered.
    Print ISSN: 1877-7236
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-7244
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Beijing was notorious for its salty water, which was mainly procured from wells. This paper explores the sophisticated water supply in Beijing’s daily life and clarifies two different water carrier systems: the state carriers in the Inner City and the private carriers in Outer City respectively, and argues that the dual water carrier systems in Beijing not only grew out of the environmental arrangement, but was also constructed as a spatial and social dichotomy of the city. To some extent, the scarcity and security of drinking water was employed by the Qing state as a means of social integration in the Inner City but of segregation in the Outer City.
    Print ISSN: 1877-7236
    Electronic ISSN: 1877-7244
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: When a possible hazard is observed, it is essential to monitor the local environment and verify possible worsening of conditions. In a previous study of the São Francisco Verdadeiro River (Paraná, Brazil), we observed increases in micronucleus (MN) frequencies in a resident fish species ( Astyanax paranae ). After our study, the São Francisco Verdadeiro River was included in the Hydrology for the Environment, Life, and Policy (HELP) program, an initiative from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to promote watershed management in degraded environments. Following the inclusion of the river in the HELP program, we aimed to verify whether the river still presented mutagenic potential and possible hazards to the environment and humans. To evaluate potential hazards, the Allium cepa test was used and the mitotic index, MN, and chromosomal aberration (CA) frequencies were analyzed in A. cepa cells exposed to water samples collected from two sites on the São Francisco Verdadeiro River during the winter (the season with the most pronounced effects in our previous study). Distilled water was used as negative control, and methyl methane sulfonate as positive control. We found significantly higher CA and MN frequencies in samples from both sites than in the control samples and a significant induction of early apoptotic cells, an uncommon observation in water samples. Our results demonstrate that despite inclusion in the UNESCO’s HELP program, the São Francisco Verdadeiro River has mutagenic potential, likely because of ongoing contamination by sewage, waste pesticides, and other agents, and thus, continues to present a hazard to humans and the environment.
    Print ISSN: 1876-1658
    Electronic ISSN: 1876-1666
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Mercury (Hg) is a very toxic heavy metal that can permanently damage the brain of a developing fetus, particularly through maternal fish consumption. Being the highest seafood consumers in South East Asia, Malaysian mothers are probably at Hg exposure risk. Hence, this study was undertaken to assess the health risk associated with Hg from marine fish consumption and the types of fish that could possibly increase the exposure dose. Assessment was done among potential mothers ( n  = 311) in the coastal rural and urban parts of Selangor, the most dense and developed state of Malaysia. Coastal rural women consumed significantly higher amounts of fish than their urban counterparts (164.0 vs. 111.7 g/day, p  = 0.03) with Indian mackerel and torpedo scad being the most consumed species. These species also contributed to the highest average daily dose (ADD) of Hg. Consistent with the fish intake rate, coastal rural women were also clearly at higher risk of Hg exposure than their urban counterparts. The fish species that contributed to a significant Hg dose for both respondent groups was Indian mackerel. In addition, torpedo scad, yellow-banded scad, fourfinger threadfin, and golden snapper were the other species that significantly increased the exposure dose among coastal rural women, whereas for urban women, it was Indian scad, Japanese threadfin bream, and pale-edged stingray. Although the HQ calculated based on THg was lower than the unity HQ = 1.0, the identified species should be consumed with caution, especially by sensitive population groups.
    Print ISSN: 1876-1658
    Electronic ISSN: 1876-1666
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A preliminary health risk assessment of 25 chemical pollutants was conducted and corresponding risk control measures were proposed. Evaluation results showed that the mean health risk caused by groundwater consumption was 6.343 × 10 −5 , with 69.9% of the sampling location exceeding the most stringent international standard (10 −6 ). Health risk owing to inorganic pollutants (5.233 × 10 −6 ) was greater than those owing to trace organic pollutants (2.725 × 10 −7 ). The highest risk value due to chemical carcinogenic pollutants was primarily caused by arsenic, while the greatest health risk due to non-carcinogenic pollutants was caused by fluoride. The mean health risk due to chemical carcinogens (6.585 × 10 −5 ) was 2 magnitudes larger than that caused by non-carcinogenic pollutants (4.858 × 10 −7 ), which indicated that carcinogenic risk was the primary health risk in the drinking groundwater. As the major contaminant causing health risk, high-arsenic groundwater is mainly observed in the riparian areas near the Yellow River and the front-edge areas of alluvial plains. The arsenic content is high and unstable in shallow groundwater, but low and stable in deep groundwater which indicates that high-arsenic groundwater can be controlled by improving well completion and sealing off shallow groundwater. Furthermore, the pumping quantity of deep groundwater must be optimised to prevent the intrusion of shallow high-arsenic groundwater while strengthening the management of pollution sources and improving groundwater quality monitoring and warning.
    Print ISSN: 1876-1658
    Electronic ISSN: 1876-1666
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The study aimed at quantifying the levels of three major chemical carcinogens (MCCs): Pb, Cd, and Cr in wells, boreholes, and river water sources using HRCS AAS of Bagega, Sunke, and Dareta villages of Zamfara State, Nigeria; estimating daily MCC intake; and determining the cancer and non-cancer risks associated with MCC exposure. In total, 202 water samples were collected from the three villages and their MCC contents measured. The levels of Pb in the three Wells in Sunke ranged between 21 ± 9.8 and 326 ± 13.1 mg/L. The highest concentrations of Cd and Cr of 15 ± 7.1 and 96 ± 9.7 mg/L, respectively, were obtained in the affected area in Sunke village. A high incremental lifetime cancer risk of 1.59 × 10 3 for children due to Cd was obtained in Bagega village. The computed average Chronic hazard index (CHI) values for adults and children were 2.81 × 10 6 and 2.32 × 10 6 , respectively, in drinking water from the river in Bagega village followed by an average values of 1.62 × 10 6 and 1.35 × 10 6 in drinking water from boreholes in Sunke village. The target hazard quotients and the CHI values were far greater than 1 indicating a high risk of adverse health outcomes.
    Print ISSN: 1876-1658
    Electronic ISSN: 1876-1666
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The aims of this study are to investigate the potential origin of selected heavy metal(loid)s in the Shabestar plain, NW Iran, by means of multivariate statistical techniques (cluster analysis and factor analysis), as well as to determine the dominant factors that affect groundwater quality and to assess the health risk induced by metal(loid)s using the hazard quotients (HQ). Totally, 29 groundwater samples were collected from wells in August 2016, and the values of 23 parameters, namely pH, electrical conductivity, concentration of major elements (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , HCO 3 − , SO 4 2− , Cl − ), minor elements (NO 3 − , F − , B, and Br − ) and heavy metal(loid)s (Fe, Al, Cr, Mn, As, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Ni) were measured. The results indicate that some samples were found with As, Pb, and Zn concentrations exceeding WHO standards for drinking water. Results of correlation coefficients between the measured variables reflect the occurrence of weathering and dissolution of rocks, especially silicates and evaporites, with ion exchange and geochemical characteristics similar to the release of some heavy metal(loid)s. According to hierarchical cluster analysis, samples of cluster 1 are affected by alkalinity and accompanied by elements compatible with alkaline ambience (CO 3 2− and Ni). Samples of subcluster 2-1 demonstrate the effect of salinity, attributed to evaporates, irrigation return flow, and influx of Urmia Lake’s brine, while, samples of sub-cluster 2-2 are influenced by agricultural activities. Factor analysis results illustrate the effects of five factors on the quality of groundwater. The factor analysis accounts for the 71.9% of total variance of groundwater quality for geogenic impacts, while 10% of the groundwater quality variance is controlled by agricultural activities which produce excessive amounts of NO 3 − along with Zn which is contained in fertilizers and agrochemicals. The results of the human health risk assessment show that As is the most dominant metalloid in inducing maximum noncarcinogenic risk among all the heavy metal(loid)s. Based on HI, 45 and 14% of the samples for children and adults, respectively, are found to be in high risk category.
    Print ISSN: 1876-1658
    Electronic ISSN: 1876-1666
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The Olenek Artesian Basin contains in its subsurface huge reserves of hydromineral resources with extremely high concentrations of many useful components. The presented estimates of prospective reserves of brines drained by a large diamond-mining quarry proves the extremely high potential of the use of “liquid ore” as an alternative to solid mineral deposits.
    Print ISSN: 0097-8078
    Electronic ISSN: 1608-344X
    Topics: Biology , Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The article offers a new approach to the selection of a treatment plant, based on the optimization of biogeochemical matter flows. The existing treatment facilities of Bali are analyzed. The authors propose several process schemes for domestic wastewater treatment, depending on the technology of utilization of biogenic elements from the wastewater for agricultural production. These are based on water treatment technologies that have been in use in Moscow for more than 100 years.
    Print ISSN: 0097-8078
    Electronic ISSN: 1608-344X
    Topics: Biology , Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: A finite difference implicit scheme is presented in this paper for solution of the shallow water equations in one dimensional (1D) form. The present model has many advantages like, handling of discontinuous and complex bed topography, satisfying C-property (preservation of motionless water surface over a wet or dry bed) and capability of handling large value of temporal step etc. Another very important feature of the present model is that, no special treatment of the source vector of the governing equations is required here to deal with very less water depth. To investigate the performance of the present model in diverse situations, it is used to replicate four different problems of known analytical solution, and the model is found to be quite capable for varied situations.
    Print ISSN: 0097-8078
    Electronic ISSN: 1608-344X
    Topics: Biology , Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The specific features of formation of maximal water levels in the lower Amur R. are studied. They are correlated with streamflow formation factors in different parts of the Amur Basin and Zeya R. flow regulation. Water level variations in high-water season of the year were analyzed for 1955−2013, including the periods of natural runoff variations (1955−1979) and after the start of Zeya Hydroengineering Structure operation (1980−2013). Five phases of seasonal level rise and water discharge increase in the Lower Amur are identified, and the role of higher discharge, which forms in the river basin in years with different water abundance, is assessed in the absence and presence of the effect of economic activity on the annual streamflow distribution.
    Print ISSN: 0097-8078
    Electronic ISSN: 1608-344X
    Topics: Biology , Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: During preliminary flood risk assessment in Lithuania 54 significant flood areas (SFA) were identified. The detailed flood hazard and risk maps were prepared for these areas in 2014. European Union Floods Directive does not indicate the concrete criteria for SFA delineation. The uncertainty analysis shows that the total length of SFA is not very sensitive to used methodology. In some rivers the uncertainties of 100 year flood peek discharge ( Q 1% ) were large, but the variation of SFA boundary location was relatively small due to properties of hydrological network. The catchment area and Q 1% change rapidly near the junction with large tributaries, so the boundaries of SFA are usually attached to these junctions. The formal criteria are mostly used to evaluate the possibility of significant floods, but the delineation of SFA is usually based on subjective decision.
    Print ISSN: 0097-8078
    Electronic ISSN: 1608-344X
    Topics: Biology , Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The results of hydrophysical studies of the soda Doroninskoe Lake (Uletovskii raion, Zabaikal’skii krai) are presented. Conclusions are presented regarding the character of heat and mass exchange and the causes of formation and stability of the meromictic regime of the water body. The main factors are revealed that affect the character of lake hydrological regime in winter and summer. The seasonal dynamics of the chemocline is shown to be determined by a joint effect of many external and internal factors and to be an integral indicator of physical, chemical, and biochemical processes in the lake.
    Print ISSN: 0097-8078
    Electronic ISSN: 1608-344X
    Topics: Biology , Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Headcut, known as knickpoint migration too, is developed due to sudden change in channel bed followed by bed scour and erosion which progressing upstream. The results are the downstream morphological change and transporting massive sediment to the downstream reservoir. Most of the past studies focus on non-cohesive soils, although many problems occur because of cohesive soils. In this study, 10 different samples of cohesive soils in long term consolidation with different composition of silt and clay were tested under different circumstances of waterfall height and flow velocity to investigate the neck migration rate and the sediment yield. Tests were continued to reach a constant migration rate. One of the effective phenomena in all tests was tensional cracks on soil surface. The size and number of these cracks have inverse relation with percent of clay. Because of these cracks, massive erosion occurs at the beginning of all tests. By reducing percent of clay, headcut, waterfall height and sediment yield were increased and by reducing waterfall height and flow velocity these parameters were reduced. In lower percent of clay, headcut erosion will occur quickly with more slants. Caving phenomenon was not observed in any tests and massive erosion rate was more quickly.
    Print ISSN: 0097-8078
    Electronic ISSN: 1608-344X
    Topics: Biology , Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Examples of the development of monitoring systems are considered for the case of local historical natural–technical systems of various classification levels. The authors’ scheme of classification of local HNTSs is given. The classification is aimed to systematize the diverse data on various HNTSs to form a single interrelated system basing on common principal features. Monitoring systems of local HNTSs of the Borodino Battlefield, Old Ryazan City, and Rostov Kremlin are used as examples to demonstrate their relevancy for solving problems of the complex of protection measures.
    Print ISSN: 0097-8078
    Electronic ISSN: 1608-344X
    Topics: Biology , Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Geochemical processes involving redox reactions and leading to either formation or transformation of geochemical barriers may be largely induced or enhanced by microbial activity. The microbial reduction of uranium is studied as a strategy for rehabilitation of uranium-containing groundwater. The bioremediation mechanism converts dissolved uranium(VI) into low-solubility U(IV). The processes involving dissimilatory reducing bacteria, which facilitate the reduction and retention of U(VI) in soils and rocks, are considered. The diversity of microorganisms involved in anaerobic reduction of uranium is shown. The geochemical conditions that may affect the rate of microbial reduction of U(VI) are specified, i.e., the presence of nitrate ions, phosphate ions, calcium ions, and iron oxides. The mechanisms of their action are examined. Geochemical barriers with the participation of microorganisms are proposed for the rehabilitation of groundwater with uranium removed from groundwater and deposited locally as a result of microbial reduction of U(VI).
    Print ISSN: 0097-8078
    Electronic ISSN: 1608-344X
    Topics: Biology , Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Reservoirs play a strategic role in the rapid monetary growth of the world by providing numerous benefits. However, the reduction in appropriate sites along with environmental and social apprehensions has resulted in curtailment of new reservoirs around the world in twenty-first century. There is a potential of benefits available from existing reservoirs which can be best capitalized through their optimized operation. Reservoirs Operation Optimization considering Sediment Evacuation (RESOOSE), recently developed model which combines multiple reservoirs operation and sediment evacuation with Genetic Algorithm based optimization module, has been used in the study. The objective of the study was to optimize the irrigation deficit through cascade reservoirs with consideration to hydropower, sediment evacuation and flood damages reduction benefits. The RESOOSE model was applied to optimize the irrigation deficits of Tarbela and Diamer Basha Reservoirs in Pakistan using developed objective function. The article computed and compared the benefits of optimized and existing rule curves. The hydropower benefits of 36.92 Billion Kw, sediment evacuation benefits of 21.534 Million m 3 and flood damages of 616.19 Million US$ due to existing rule curves were considered as minimum benefits for achieving the optimized rule curves to minimize irrigation deficits. The developed optimized rule curves reduced the irrigation shortages of case study reservoirs from 6.9 to 5.8 Billion m 3 (16% enhancement) annually as compared to existing rule curves. The optimized rule curves minimized the irrigation deficits by maintaining the existing benefits and without lowering the minimum operating levels of case study reservoirs. The study suggests change in existing rule curves of Tarbela and Diamer Basha Reservoirs due to less irrigation shortages. The RESOOSE model can be applied to other cascade reservoirs for optimizing the rule curves.
    Print ISSN: 0920-4741
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1650
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Seasonal inflow variability, climate non-stationarity and climate change are matters of concern for water system planning and management. This study presents optimization methods for long-term planning of water systems in the context of a non-stationary climate with two levels of inflow variability: seasonal and inter-annual. Deterministic and stochastic optimization models with either one time-step (intra-annual) or two time-steps (intra-annual and inter-annual) were compared by using three water system optimization models. The first model used one time-step sampling stochastic dynamic programming (SSDP). The other models with two time-steps are long-term deterministic dynamic programming (LT-DDP) and long-term sampling stochastic dynamic programming (LT-SSDP). The study area is the Manicouagan water system located in Quebec, Canada. The results show that there will be an increase of inflow to hydropower plants in the future climate with an increase of inflow uncertainty. The stochastic optimization with two time-steps was the most suitable for handling climate non-stationarity. The LT-DDP performed better in terms of reservoir storage, release and system efficiency but with high uncertainty. The SSDP had the lowest performance. The SSDP was not able to deal with the non-stationary climate and seasonal variability at the same time. The LT-SSDP generated operating policies with smaller uncertainty compared to LT-DDP, and it was therefore a more appropriate approach for water system planning and management in a non-stationary climate characterized by high inflow variability.
    Print ISSN: 0920-4741
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1650
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: An efficiently parameterized and appropriately structured piecewise linear hedging rule is formulated and included within a multi-objective simulation-optimization (S-O) framework that seeks to obtain Pareto-optimal solutions for the long-term hedged operation of a single water supply reservoir. Two conflicting objectives, namely, “minimize the total shortage ratio” and “minimize the maximum shortage” are considered in the S-O framework, while explicit specification of constraints is avoided in the optimization module. Evolutionary search based non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is used as the driver, which is linked to the simulation engine that invokes the piecewise linear hedging rule within the S-O framework. Preconditioning of the multi-objective stochastic search of the time-varying piecewise linear hedging model is effected by feeding initial feasible solutions sampled from the Pareto-optimal front of a simple constant hedging parameter model, which has resulted in significant improvement of the Pareto-optimality and the computational efficiency.
    Print ISSN: 0920-4741
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1650
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Presently, the water resources across the world are being continuously depleted. It is essential to find sustainable solutions for this shortage of water. Rainwater harvesting is one such promising solution to this problem. This paper presents a new GIS-based methodology to identify suitable locations for rainwater harvesting structures using only freely available imageries/remote sensing data and data from other sources. The methodology has been developed for the semi-arid environment of Khushkhera-Bhiwadi-Neemrana Investment Region (KBNIR) in Alwar district of Rajasthan. For identifying locations suitable for rainwater harvesting structures, the layers of surface elevation (ASTER-DEM), landuse/landcover, soil map, drainage map and depression map are used and further analyzed for their depression volume, and availability of surface runoff using Soil Conservation Service - Curve Number (SCS-CN) method. Based on the proposed criteria total seven locations were identified, out of which two locations are excellent; three locations are good, (if provisions of overflow structure are made for them) and two locations are not suitable for rain water harvesting. The total rainwater harvesting potential of the study area is 54.49 million cubic meters which is sufficient to meet the water requirements if harvested and conserved properly. This methodology is time-saving and cost-effective. It can minimize cost of earthwork and can be utilized for the planning of cost effective water resource management.
    Print ISSN: 0920-4741
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1650
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The persistent water shortage in Cyprus has been alleviated by importing freshwater from neighbouring countries, and severe droughts have been met with financial reimbursement from the EU at least twice. The goal of this research is to investigate and perform short-term forecasting of both streamflow and hydrological drought trends over the island. Eleven hydrometric stations with a 34-year common record length of the mean daily discharge from 10/1979 to 09/2013 are used for this purpose, with the relevant upstream catchments considered to represent pristine conditions. The Streamflow Drought Index (SDI) successfully captures the hydrological drought conditions over the island, and the performance of the index is validated based on both the historic drought archives and results from other drought indices for the island. The Mann–Kendall (M-K) test reveals that the annual and seasonal time series of the discharge volumes always illustrate a decreasing but insignificant trend at a significance level of a = 0.05; additionally, the decrease per decade in the average annual streamflow volume based on Sen’s slope statistic is approximately −9.4%. The M-K test on the SDI reveals that drought conditions intensified with time. Ten autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are built and used to forecast the mean monthly streamflow values with moderate accuracy; the best ARIMA forecast model in each catchment is derived by comparing two model-performance statistical measures for the different (p,d,q) model parameters. The predicted discharge values are processed by the SDI-3 index, revealing that non-drought conditions are expected in most catchments in the upcoming three months, although mild-drought conditions are anticipated for catchments 7, 8 and 9.
    Print ISSN: 0920-4741
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1650
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Hydroclimatic drought conditions can affect the hydrological services offered by mountain river basins causing severe impacts on the population, becoming a challenge for water resource managers in Andean river basins. This study proposes an integrated methodological framework for assessing the risk of failure in water supply, incorporating probabilistic drought forecasts, which assists in making decisions regarding the satisfaction of consumptive, non-consumptive and environmental requirements under water scarcity conditions. Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess the risk of failure in multiple stochastic scenarios, which incorporate probabilistic forecasts of drought events based on a Markov chains (MC) model using a recently developed drought index (DI). This methodology was tested in the Machángara river basin located in the south of Ecuador. Results were grouped in integrated satisfaction indexes of the system (DSI G ). They demonstrated that the incorporation of probabilistic drought forecasts could better target the projections of simulation scenarios, with a view of obtaining realistic situations instead of optimistic projections that would lead to riskier decisions. Moreover, they contribute to more effective results in order to propose multiple alternatives for prevention and/or mitigation under drought conditions.
    Print ISSN: 0920-4741
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1650
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: In this study, a simulation-optimization (SO) model is presented by coupling a meshfree based simulator using radial point collocation method (RPCM) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) as optimizer to identify the unknown groundwater contaminant sources from the measured/simulated contaminant concentration data in the aquifer. To demonstrate the approach, two case studies have been presented. The first example is a hypothetical case which simulates the contaminant releases from several disposal sites in an aquifer during four years release period. The second case considered is a field study where leaching of contaminant, during their storage, from disposal sites at several locations in the aquifer leads to contamination of the groundwater. The goal in both cases was to reconstruct the contaminant release history from the disposal sites and their magnitudes from the given historical concentration data at a few observation wells in the aquifer. It was observed that the source identification model could reconstruct the release histories from the waste disposal sites in both the cases accurately. This study demonstrated that PSO based optimization model with a meshfree flow and transport simulator can be effectively used for groundwater contaminant source identification problems.
    Print ISSN: 0920-4741
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1650
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Climate change may have strong impacts on water resources in developing countries. In North Africa, many dams and reservoirs have been built to secure water availability in the context of a strong inter-annual variability of precipitation. The goal of this study is to evaluate climate change impacts on surface water resources for the largest dams in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia using high-resolution (12 km) regional climate models (RCM) simulations. To evaluate the atmospheric demand (evapotranspiration), two approaches are compared: The direct use of actual evaporation simulated by the RCMs, or estimation of reference evapotranspiration computed with the Hargreaves-Samani (HAR) equation, relying on air temperature only, and the FAO-Penman Monteith (PM) equation, computed with temperature, wind, radiation and relative humidity. Results showed a strong convergence of the RCM simulations towards increased temperature and a decrease in precipitation, in particular during spring and the western part of North Africa. A decrease in actual evapotranspiration, highly correlated to the decrease in precipitations, is observed throughout the study area. On the opposite, an increase in reference evapotranspiration is observed, with similar changes between HAR and PM equations, indicating that the main driver of change is the temperature increase. Since the catchments are rather water-limited than energy-limited, despite opposite projections for actual and reference evapotranspiration a decrease of water availability is projected for all basins under all scenarios, with a strong east-to-west gradient. The projected decrease is stronger when considering reference evapotranspiration rather than actual evaporation. These pessimistic future projections are an incentive to adapt the current management of surface water resources to future climatic conditions.
    Print ISSN: 0920-4741
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1650
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Global climate changing and human activities have altered the assumption of stationarity, and intensified the variation of hydrological process in recent decades. It is essential to make progress in accommodating appropriate models to the changing environment where non-stationary models are taken into account. The developing adapted Bayesian inference offers an attractive framework to estimate non-stationary models, when compared with conventional maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). As the inseparable companions of Bayesian inference, an efficient MCMC sampler are expected to be built. However, proper tunings are needed for the sampler to improve the performance by integrating adaptive algorithm and optimization method. A Bayesian approach with the adaptive Metropolis-Hastings optimization (AM-HO) algorithm is adopted to estimate the parameters and quantify the uncertainty in a two-parameter non-stationary Lognormal distribution model. To verify the performance of the developed model, simulation experiments and practical applications are implemented to fit annual maximum flood series of two gauges in Hanjiang River basin. From the point view of parameters estimation, both Bayesian and MLE methods perform similarly. However, Bayesian method is more attractive and reliable than MLE on uncertainty quantification, which provides a relative narrow intervals to be beneficial for risk analysis and water resource management.
    Print ISSN: 0920-4741
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1650
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) isotopic analyses in seagrasses have been established as effective environmental tracers to assess the anthropogenic influence on seagrass meadows. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial patterns and seasonal variability in the C and N stable isotopic composition of sediments, leaves and epiphytes at a Zostera noltei meadow in an intertidal complex located at the Ría de Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula) and to explore the mechanisms underlying such variability. Measurements of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, morphological features of Z. noltei and the C:N mass ratios were undertaken monthly during an annual seasonal cycle. N recycling between the seagrass and the sediment under its canopy influenced the spatial and seasonal nitrogen isotopic variability in the Z. noltei meadow. The relative contribution of nitrogen stable isotopes both in Z. noltei and the sediments under its canopy showed significant seasonal differences. The seasonal variability observed in carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and C:N mass ratios of Z. noltei was mainly explained by the physiological mechanisms of carbon and nitrogen uptake and the differential nutrient demand of the plant depending on the growth stage.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Coastal wetland sustainability in the future will likely depend on the extent to which increases in sea level drive flooding duration, plant submergence, and higher salinities, and how wetlands respond to these changes. Coastal wetlands will need to grow vertically to cope with rising seas, and sedimentation, often observed following hurricane passage, could play a role. A greenhouse mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate if the impacts of sea level rise (SLR) and elevated salinity on the productivity and resilience of Spartina alterniflora marshes could be mediated by simulated hurricane sedimentation. Overall, sedimentation ameliorated the negative impacts of moderate SLR on plant productivity and resilience. Sedimentation improved growth conditions at current and moderate increases in sea level by reducing flooding duration, which in-turn, increased soil Eh, and lowered porewater sulfide. This led to greater productivity of vegetation above- and belowground and improved plant resilience. However, at the highest sea levels, inundation stress was too great for the benefits of added sediment to be realized. Thus, it is likely that the sustainability of coastal marshes will be improved by hurricane-generated sedimentation under moderate SLR scenarios, but will see no improvement with more extreme SLR.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The Australian continent spans coastal wetland settings ranging from extensive mangrove forest and sabkha plains occupying in the tropical north, to the southern half of the continent, where high wave energy constrains wetlands within numerous barrier-fronted estuaries, drowned river valleys and coastal embayments. Only on the island of Tasmania are mangroves absent; elsewhere mangroves, Casuarina, Melaleuca and saltmarsh interact in ways illustrative of the effects of ongoing climate, tidal and sea-level change. Observations over several decades have suggested that recent anthropogenic climate change may already be impacting Australian coastal wetlands in important ways. A period of accelerating sea-level rise has been associated with saline intrusion, mangrove encroachment and Melaleuca dieback in the tropical north, punctuated by widespread mangrove mortality in drought periods. The consistent trend of mangrove encroachment and replacement of saltmarsh in the south, is associated with an “accretion deficit” in saltmarsh during contemporary sea-level rise. We review the ecological and cultural implications of these changes, including impacts on habitat provision for migratory birds, fisheries values, carbon sequestration and Indigenous cultural values. Current legislative and policy protections may not be sufficient to meet the increasingly dynamic impacts of climate change in altering wetland boundaries, composition and function.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: We investigated the variation in macroinvertebrate and bird fauna of 12 different freshwater wetlands located in three different climatic zones of southwestern Ethiopia. Data on macroinvertebrates, birds, physico-chemical water quality variables, human disturbance and vegetation cover were collected from 62 sampling sites during the dry and wet season of 2015. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) were used to identify the most important variables explaining the variation in macroinvertebrates and birds. Twenty four percent of the variation in macroinvertebrate richness was explained by a combination of vegetation cover and dissolved oxygen, whereas 34% of the variation in macroinvertebrate abundance was explained by a combination of dissolved oxygen saturation, electric conductivity, total phosphorus and vegetation cover. A combination of water depth, dissolved oxygen, human disturbance and macroinvertebrate abundance explained about 34% and 31% of variation in bird species richness and abundance, respectively. Richness and abundance of macroinvertebrate and wetland dependent birds were significantly ( P  〈 0.05) different between wetlands. When investigating the ecological status of wetlands, local environmental conditions of wetland should be taken into account for the development of wetland conservation strategies.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The wetlands of Central Asia, including many of high ecological value, are poorly studied and poorly represented in international conservation activities. The Sorokaoziorki (“Forty Lakelets”) complex of wetlands, located in the arid Koibalskaya steppe (Republic of Khakassia, Russian Federation), falls into this category. We documented the origin of the complex’s wetlands, patterns of land use and economic activities, and use of the area by multiple bird, mammal, and fish species. The “lakelets” of the Sorokaoziorki originated from a dried river bed that refilled relatively recently with water introduced from irrigation activities. The resultant wetlands and surrounding wet grasslands within the Sorokaoziorki complex represent a refuge for wildlife, while the surrounding steppe has been turned to pasture. Located at a crossroads of bird flyways, at least 140 bird species use the Sorokaoziorki complex to nest or as a stop-over point during migration. Additionally, we documented the occurrence of seven fish, one lamprey, and seven mammal (including three bat) species within the complex. The planting of sea-buckthorn ( Hippophaё rhamnoides ) and the restriction of grazing around the edges of the wetlands in the Sorokaoziorki wetland complex has contributed to the conservation of this ecologically important area.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Invasions by exotic plant species like Phragmites australis can affect wetlands and the services they provide, including denitrification. Native and exotic Phragmites strains were genetically verified in 2002 but few studies have compared their ecosystem effects. We compared relationships between native and exotic Phragmites and environmental attributes, soil nutrient concentrations, and abundance and activity of soil denitrifying bacteria. There were no significant differences for any measured variables between sites with exotic and native strains. However, there were significant positive correlations between native Phragmites stem density and soil nutrient concentrations and denitrification rates. Furthermore, denitrifying bacterial abundance was positively correlated with nitrate concentration and denitrification rates. Additionally, there were significant negative correlations between water levels in native Phragmites sites and native stem density, nutrient concentrations, and denitrification rates. Surprisingly, we found no significant relationships between exotic stem density or water level and measured variables. These results suggest 1) the native strain may have important ecosystem effects that had only been documented for exotic Phragmites , and 2) abiotic drivers such as water level may have mediated this outcome. Further work is needed to determine if the stem density gradients were a consequence, rather than a cause, of pre-existing gradients of abiotic factors.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from natural sources have received a considerable attention for the past decade due to their considerable effects on global warming and climate change. Of many natural GHG sources, wetland plays a crucial role in modulating the atmospheric GHGs. This study aims to continuously monitor the emission/uptake of GHGs from an estuarine mangroves in summer August at Southeastern China (23°53′45.32 N, 117°24′07.61E). A self-designed open dynamic floating chamber was applied to collect air samples for continuously measuring GHG concentration in-situ with a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) monitor. Diurnal emission of GHGs (CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O) from the mangroves, the mudflats, and the river water was characterized by considering tidal and solar radiation effects. This study also investigated the seasonal variation of GHG emission and estimated their overall CO 2 equivalent (CO 2-e ). The GHG emission was further correlated with water quality to identify which water quality parameters dominated GHG emission in the estuarine mangroves. A positive correlation was found between CO 2 emission and water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and total phosphorus (TP) in water. The emission of CH 4 positively correlated with TP, DO, and NH 4 -N. The emission of N 2 O was significantly positively correlated with DO, TP, and total nitrogen (TN) in water. This study revealed that N 2 O was the dominant contributor to the global warming effect in the subtropical estuarine mangroves while compared to CO 2 and CH 4 .
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Climate change is predicted to alter the frequency and intensity of precipitation events, placing stress on freshwater aquatic ecosystems and their associated wildlife. Thus, understanding interspecific variation in drought sensitivity and the repeatability of those responses across heterogeneous landscapes is critical. Semi-aquatic snakes serve important roles within aquatic ecosystems and several species are threatened. Yet, little is known about the effects of drought on semi-aquatic snake populations or assemblages. We systematically trapped 20 isolated wetlands in South Carolina before (2006) and after (2013) a multi-year supra-seasonal drought to determine drought-induced shifts in occupancy and detection for five semi-aquatic snake species. Our results confirm that supra-seasonal drought differentially affects semi-aquatic snake species across landscape scales. Specifically, site occupancy decreased dramatically following drought for banded watersnakes ( Nerodia fasciata ) (0.95 to 0.69) and Florida green watersnakes ( Nerodia floridana ) (0.32 to 0.05), but was relatively unchanged for black swamp snakes ( Seminatrix pygaea ), mudsnakes ( Farancia abacura ) and glossy crayfish snakes ( Regina rigida ). Species lacking adaptations that make them resistant or resilient to drought may become locally extirpated if climate change projections are realized or landscapes are degraded or fragmented in ways that prevent drought recovery.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This study sought to investigate the influence of different land types on soil enzyme activities and identify the driving factors behind it. Three prevalent land cover types and one land use type by Qinghai Lake were selected (original wetland, natural grassland, recovered shrubland, and farmland), and the surface soil at a depth of 0–10 cm was collected for analysis. The results indicated that soil organic carbon, active carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen content, microbial biomass, and soil hydrolase activity decreased, whereas phenol oxidase activity increased after converting the wetland into other land types. However, the differences in microbial biomass and enzyme activities between farmland and recovered shrubland were not significant. Similar trends in β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase activities were detected and these were more sensitive to the changes in land types. Soil carbon and nitrogen contents were shown to be responsible for the variability in hydrolase activity, with active carbon showing the strongest influence. Wetland conversion induces the loss of soil carbon and nitrogen stock, which may further decrease the availability of organic matter for microbes. A decrease in hydrolase activity and an increase in phenol oxidase activity may indicate shifts in organic carbon bioavailability after wetland conversion.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Wetlands are important sources of methane emission. Anaerobic oxidation, aerobic oxidation and production of methane as well as dissolved methane are important processes of methane metabolism. We studied methane metabolism and the soil influencing factors. Potential soil methane production, anaerobic oxidation and aerobic oxidation rates, and dissolved methane in soil porewater changed seasonally and the annual average was 21.1 ± 5.1 μg g −1 d −1 , 11.0 ± 3.9 μg g −1 d −1 , 20.9 ± 5.8 μg g −1 d −1 , and 62.9 ± 20.6 μmol l −1 , respectively. Potential soil methane production and anaerobic and aerobic oxidation were positively correlated among themselves and with soil pH and negatively correlated with soil redox potential (Eh). Potential soil methane production and aerobic and anaerobic oxidation rates were negatively related to pore soil methane concentration. Thus, the more water-saturated the soil (the lower Eh), the higher its capacity to produce methane. The potential soil capacity for methane oxidation was higher both in the same anaerobic circumstances and when the soil was suddenly subjected to aerobic conditions. The results of this study suggested a buffer effect in the methane balance in wetland areas. The environmental circumstances favoring methane production are also favorable for anaerobic methane oxidation.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Landscape alterations can alter fish occurrence and abundance in wetlands. By increasing turbidity in wetland ponds, fishes can induce a shift from a clear- to a turbid-water state, resulting in reduced plant and amphibian abundance. In 2012, a drought reduced water levels and eliminated fishes from many wetlands of the prairie-pothole region (PPR) in the Midwestern United States. Our study objective was to evaluate if fish eliminations were associated with changes in wetland condition. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare the magnitude of change in parameters indicative of wetland condition (turbidity, plant cover and taxon richness, and tiger-salamander ( Ambystoma tigrinum ) biomass and numerical abundance) from 29 Iowa PPR wetlands between 2010 and 2011 (pre-drought) and 2014–2015 (post-drought) among wetlands where 1) all fishes were eliminated 2) large-bodied fishes were eliminated, 3) small-bodied fishes were eliminated, 4) fishes were retained, and 5) fishes were never detected. Turbidity decreased and plant cover increased more where large-bodied fishes were eliminated compared to the other groups. Changes in tiger-salamander biomass and abundance and plant-taxon richness were not different among groups. Results indicate that wetlands can shift from a turbid- to a clear-water state following drought and elimination of large-bodied fishes.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The Wetland Continuum is a conceptual framework that facilitates the interpretation of biological studies of wetland ecosystems. Recently summarized evidence documenting how a multi-decadal wet period has influenced aspects of wetland, lake and stream systems in the southern prairie-pothole region of North America has revealed the potential for wetlands to shift among alternate states. We propose that incorporation of state shifts into the Wetland Continuum, as originally proposed or as modified by Hayashi et al., is a relatively simple matter if one allows for shifts of wetlands along the horizontal, groundwater axis of the framework under conditions of extreme and sustained wet or dry conditions. We suggest that the ease by which state shifts can be accommodated within both the original and modified frameworks of the Wetland Continuum is a testament to the robustness of the concept when it is related to the alternative-stable-state concept.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Methane emission from wetlands is responsible for about 24% of the total CH 4 emissions. The value of emission is a result of the balance between the processes of methane formation (methanogenesis) and sinks (methanotrophy). The methanotrophic activity from well-aerated soil surface layers has been relatively well recognized. On the contrary, the active role of plants in reduction of methane emission is rather not fully known. The association of methanotrophic bacteria with plants of Sphagnum spp., has already been recognized. In our investigations, particular attention was paid to vascular plants from a peatland overgrown by Sphagnum spp. but also Eriophorum vaginatum , Carex nigra , and Vaccinium oxycoccos . The gases emitted from the surface of Moszne peatland were collected using the chamber method from selected sites during growing seasons (spring, summer, autumn). To estimate the contribution of plants in methane emissions from the peatland, in each investigated site gas was sampled from the surface with the native flora cover and after removal thereof. Our results show that the reduction in the CH 4 emission was related to the plant composition, vegetation period, and conditions of the plants. It was confirmed that the endophytes under investigation belonged to type I methanotrophs.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Macroinvertebrates are often excluded from wetland monitoring because samples collected using a conventional 500-μm mesh sieve are time consuming to process. To facilitate increased cost-effectiveness of obtaining macroinvertebrate data, influence of sieve mesh size on relationships between macroinvertebrate and environmental variables was evaluated in 27 prairie pothole wetlands. Benthic and water-column samples were washed through sieves with mesh sizes of 6 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm, and 500 μm, and macroinvertebrate numerical densities and taxon richness were quantified. Influence of particulate matter was evaluated by washing invertebrates through sieves before and after removal of this material from samples, and calculating differences in density and taxon richness. Regardless of sieve mesh size and particulate matter abundance, macroinvertebrate taxon richness exclusive of taxa occurring in all wetlands (planorbid snails, oligochaetes, leeches, chironomids) was positively correlated with plant cover, and negatively correlated with turbidity and fish biomass ( p  ≤ 0.05).Use of a 6-mm mesh sieve reduced sample volume by 35% and processing time by 54% relative to the 500-μm mesh sieve. Results suggest that reliance on taxon richness metrics and a sieve with 6-mm mesh will reduce macroinvertebrate sampling costs while still generating data that reflect wetland condition.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Water exchange in shallow lakes alongside Poyang Lake is weak because of sluggish water flow, and thus these lakes are susceptible to the effects of human activities and nutrient oversupply. Therefore, it is meaningful to study the sources of organic matter in these lakes, which is supposed to provide theoretical basis for the control of eutrophication of the lakes. The sources of organic matter in surface sediment in shallow lakes (Bang, Sha, Dahuchi, and Zhu lakes) alongside Poyang Lake and urban lakes (Qingshan and Xiang lakes) in Nanchang City were investigated by measuring the δ 15 N and δ 13 C values, total organic carbon and total organic nitrogen contents, and C/N ratios of sedimented organic matter (SOM). The δ 15 N, δ 13 C, and C/N ratios indicated that SOM in Sha and Dahuchi lakes mostly originated in phytoplankton, SOM in Bang and Zhu lakes was supplied by phytoplankton and soil organic matter, SOM in Qingshan Lake was strongly affected by sewage organic matter, and SOM in Xiang Lake mainly came from aquatic macrophytes. The results demonstrate that stable isotopes in SOM in lakes can be used to discriminate between different sources of organic material.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Coastal wetland degradation severely affects ecological balance and economic and social sustainability. Ecological restoration of degraded wetlands is crucial in research on wetland degradation. A common problem with previous studies is that they use the same tactics and technologies over the whole study area, taking little account of the spatial heterogeneity of wetland degradation. This study focuses on the spatial heterogeneity of wetland degradation, and proposes the goals and technologies for wetland restoration by examining the main issues and causes of the degradation of coastal wetlands in Jiangsu, China. Habitat loss and absolute loss are the dominant forms of degradation in Jiangsu, followed by the existence of invasive species and gradual loss. Land reclamation and invasive species are the primary causes of the degradation of coastal wetlands. Appropriate technologies and engineering approaches are also proposed for the ecological restoration and reconstruction of degraded coastal wetlands against these degradation characteristics. They include the promotion of siltation in native wetlands, vegetation recovery, functional recovery of constructed wetlands, and prevention of invasive species.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The spatial dynamics and structure of mangrove forests in peri-urban, rural and rural island settings in Mozambique was investigated to test the hypothesis that peri-urban forests are more impacted. LandSat images from 1991, 2002 and 2013 were analysed for changes in area cover and forest structural data were collected in the field. At the peri-urban site, mangrove cover increased by 22.7%, while at the rural site 23.2% were lost. The small area of the rural island was not assessed, but losses are expected given the high density of stumps. All forests are structurally small, with height and diameter of species varying significantly among sites ( p  〈 0.001). The forest complexity index varied from 1.61 (rural island), to 0.90 (peri-urban) and 0.39 (rural). The communities harvested all diameter classes at the rural island, while class 5.1–8 cm was preferred at the peri-urban and rural sites. The proportion of stumps:live trees were 1:11 (peri-urban site); 1:9 (rural) and 1:4 (rural island). The proportions of regenerating classes were 16:4:1 (peri-urban); 76:16:1 (rural) and 8:1:0 (rural island). This study provided important insights to mangrove forest structure and uses in an understudied region and showed that management plans are required at all sites for sustainable use.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Tussocks in sedge meadows may be able to support biodiversity because of their structural complexity. We studied Carex meyeriana tussocks to look at their role in creating micro-heterogeneity and supporting biodiversity in northeastern China. We investigated vegetation in paired plots on and between tussocks of C. meyeriana , and measured water depth, soil water content, soil temperature, soil organic carbon, litter depth, soil total N and P on and between tussocks. We found a total of 75 taxa in the sedge meadows. Species richness was higher on rather than between tussocks. Soil temperature, organic carbon, soil total P, and litter depth were higher on tussocks rather than between tussocks. Water depth, soil water content and soil total N were lower on tussocks compared to between tussocks. Species richness on tussocks increased with increasing tussock basal area, height and surface area. Plant composition was mostly related to the environmental variables based on canonical correspondence analysis. The main gradient is determined, from on tussocks to between tussocks, by an increase in water depth, soil water content and total N and a decrease in soil temperature and soil total P. We conclude that tussocks create different microhabitats in sedge meadows that support different species.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Livestock grazing is an important land use in the western USA and can have positive or negative effects on amphibians. Columbia Spotted Frog ( Rana luteiventris ) often use ponds that provide water for cattle. We conducted a long-term manipulative study on US Forest Service land in northeastern Oregon to determine the effects of full and partial exclosures that limited cattle access to ponds used by frogs. We found weak evidence of a short-term increase in abundance that did not differ between full and partial exclosures and that diminished with continuing exclusion of cattle. The benefit of exclosures was small relative to the overall decline in breeding numbers that we documented. This suggests that some protection can provide a short-term boost to populations.
    Print ISSN: 0923-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9834
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Penaeid shrimp represent an important group of valuable exploited species known to either directly utilise saltmarsh habitat, or utilise saltmarsh-derived productivity. Consequently, both areal coverage and primary productivity of saltmarsh habitat has direct consequences for the productivity of these important fisheries, and they are likely to be key beneficiaries of habitat repair. This study aimed to establish quantitative estimates of abundance of School Prawn, Metapenaeus macleayi , across a recovering wetland system; Hexham wetland in the Hunter River. Six surveys were conducted across the wetland using a specialised benthic sled, and absolute abundance of School Prawn was estimated. School Prawn were consistently more abundant in certain areas of the wetland (the highest abundance site supported 1017 prawns per 100 m 2 ), and the average density across the wetland was 244 prawns per 100 m 2 . All areas of the wetland (except the area closest to the wetland mouth) supported the full range of size classes, and multiple cohorts of prawns moved through the system during the sampling program. The asymmetry observed in the distribution of prawns across the wetland is likely to be due to a combination of water quality and inter-specific interactions. These results show that the recovering wetland is supporting a high abundance of School Prawn. Our estimates of recruitment for School Prawn will also be useful in gauging the potential increases in fisheries productivity arising from habitat repair in this, and other systems.
    Print ISSN: 0923-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9834
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: In vegetated wetland ecosystems, plants can be a dominant pathway in the atmospheric flux of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Although the roles of herbaceous vegetation and live woody vegetation in this flux have been established, the role of dead woody vegetation is not yet known. In a restored wetland of North Carolina’s coastal plain, static flux chambers were deployed at two heights on standing dead trees to determine if these structures acted as a conduit for methane emissions. Methane fluxes to the atmosphere were measured in five of the chambers, with a mean flux of 0.4 ± 0.1 mg m −2  h −1 . Methane consumption was also measured in three of the chambers, with a mean flux of −0.6 ± 0.3 mg m −2  h −1 . Standing dead trees were also a source of the flux of CO 2 (114.6 ± 23.8 mg m −2  h −1 ) to the atmosphere. Results confirm that standing dead trees represent a conduit for the atmospheric flux of carbon gases from wetlands. However, several questions remain regarding the ultimate source of these carbon gases, the controls on the magnitude and direction of this flux, the mechanisms that induce this flux, and the importance of this pathway relative to other sources at the landscape level.
    Print ISSN: 0277-5212
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-6246
    Topics: Biology
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Chilika, a Ramsar site and the largest brackish water lagoon in Asia, is situated in East Coast of India, endowed with rich fisheries resources. In this study, SARIMAX fisheries forecasting model was developed by using seasonal ARIMA (Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average) model with three external physicochemical factors (factor 1 was dominated by the combined effect of salinity and temperature and factor 2 and factor 3 were dominated by alkalinity and transparency) in Chilika. Monthly fish catch data and physico-chemical parameters of water from 2001–2002 to 2015–2016 was used to develop model. The results showed SARIMAX model; SARIMA (1,0,0)(2,0,0) 12 with factor 1, factor 2 and factor 3 was the best fitted model for the fish catch in Chilika. The factor 1 was found to be positive influence on catch at 10% level of significance ( p  = 0.089) while, factor 2 and factor 3 were found to be insignificant. The developed SARIMAX model was validated with actual annual fish catch for the years 2011–2015 with prediction error 3–7%. Further, the developed SARIMAX model was used to forecast fish catch for the period April 2016 to March 2018 indicating increasing 10% present catch in the lagoon. The developed SARIMAX model in the present case study is of the first time to forecast and visualise the positive influence of salinity and temperature on the fish catch in the Chilika lagoon.
    Print ISSN: 0923-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9834
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 37 surface sediments and a sediment core from the Dongzhai National Nature Reserve in Hainan island of China were analysed. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs ranged from 15.7 to 464.0 ng g −1 (mean value of 76.7 ng g −1 ) in the surface sediments, and 8.6–115.9 ng g −1 (average 39.3 ng g −1 ) in the sediment core. Combustions of petroleum, biomass, coal, and grass were the major pyrogenic sources in surface sediments, and some areas had petrogenic sources (mainly petroleum spills). Results of the ecological risk assessment show little negative effect of most of the PAHs in the study area. The depositional flux of PAHs generally increased from the deeper layers toward the upper layers of the sediments. The flux rate rapidly increased after the 1980s, in contrast to that of some developed countries.
    Print ISSN: 0923-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9834
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The lagg is an integral part of the hydrological system of a raised bog and can add significantly to the biological diversity of the ecosystem. Conservation and restoration of raised bogs should therefore involve this transition zone. The ideal situation for conservation is to protect or restore the natural lagg at the outside margin of the bog. However, it is not always possible to restore the lagg where it was historically situated. An analysis of historic maps of a raised bog in British Columbia, Canada, shows that in areas where the outflow of water from the bog has been impeded, lagg plant communities have naturally colonized parts of the bog that were historically open bog. This suggests that it is possible to create the ecohydrological conditions of a lagg in areas that are currently occupied by bog species. Based on this knowledge and the hydrochemical, hydrological, and vegetative characteristics of a regionally-specific lagg reference ecosystem, we describe several lagg restoration options for locations where it is not possible to restore the lagg at the outside margin of the bog.
    Print ISSN: 0923-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9834
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Mangroves provide valuable ecosystem services for the wellbeing of coastal communities. Assessment and valuation of these mangroves services are increasingly advocated in development and conservation decision-making. Translating the values of services into more explicit monetary terms requires understanding of stakeholder activities, socio-economic context and local organizational structure to effectively support decision-making. Based on a survey of 100 households of three villages of Sundarban in Bangladesh, mangroves services to local communities were identified and their economic values estimated. The households perceived 18 mangroves services, of which capture fisheries, fuel energy, storm protection, habitat for fish breeding and nursery grounds and aesthetic enjoyment were ranked the most important. For provisioning services, households obtained important monetary benefits annually from capture fishery (US$ 976 per ha), fuel energy (US$ 80 per ha), honey (US$ 53 per ha) and fodder (US$ 26 per ha). The average annual willingness to pay for storm protection, erosion control and habitat for fish breeding and nursery services were estimated, respectively, as US$ 13 per ha, US$ 2 per ha and US$ 9 per ha. However, unsustainable exploitation and salinity intrusion impacted the services provided by mangroves. This study provides an important insight into the services and values of mangroves for local welfare, and thus can inform policy for protection and better use of mangrove resources.
    Print ISSN: 0923-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9834
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Wetlands are highly productive ecosystems that can sequester large quantities of carbon. However, variation in physiological potential can alter their capacity to sequester carbon. To examine variation in ecosystem physiological capacity, we established three coastal marsh sites in Mississippi and Alabama spanning a productivity gradient. Over 1 year, we measured ecophysiological activity and spectral indices in two vegetation zones within each marsh to develop a better understanding of variation in ecosystem responses and health. Gross ecosystem exchange of carbon and ecosystem respiration rates (R eco ) differed significantly among sites, with the highest activity at Grand Bay, Mississippi and Point Aux Pines, Alabama and lower ecophysiological activity at Dauphin Island, Alabama. Net ecosystem exchange was similar for all three study areas because greater carbon assimilation was negated by higher levels of respiration. Spectral indices and leaf area were significantly different by marsh vegetation zone, suggesting that alterations in species composition and plant productivity can have important implications for carbon sequestration. While limited to 1 year, this study establishes a foundation by which to evaluate future research conducted over greater temporal and spatial scales, thereby enhancing our understanding of marsh physiological activity.
    Print ISSN: 0923-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9834
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: The research was designed to assess benefits of passive restoration, consisting of blocking from drainage ditches and in effect raise the groundwater level, its influence on properties of soil, water, species of plants and mesofauna in the fen Caltho - Alnetum community. The research was carried out in Outer Flysh Carpathians, the area of the Babiogórski National Park (Poland) in 2011–2014. It was established that the degraded communities showed positive reaction to an attempt to restore the original groundwater level. The increase in the groundwater level changed chemical properties of soil and water of the community such as: pH, sorption properties and the ionic composition of groundwater. Changes in habitat conditions resulted in different species composition of soil mesofauna and plants growing in the restorative community.
    Print ISSN: 0923-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9834
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) are common in the roots of most plants and provide benefits such as enhanced uptake of soil nutrients and water when the environment limits these resources. Two primary factors proposed in the literature as limiting the extent of mycorrhizal colonization of wetland plants are: (1) the low oxygen environment; and (2) the level of available phosphorus. The present study evaluated AM colonization of maple ( Acer ) roots and the fungal community structure in paired upland/wetland locations in the Virginia Coastal Plain to determine if wetland conditions affected the root fungal community. The range of observed AM colonization, based on 60 samples collected on 11 dates covering 3 years, was from 4 to 55%. Overall, soil redox potential and available phosphorus concentration were not significant in explaining the difference in AM colonization of Acer roots. In fact, the site with the greatest percent colonization in this study was a wetland site. A comparison of fungal diversity between the pooled wetland site communities and the pooled upland site communities was conducted and the difference was significant (p = 0.003), but the upland sites exhibited the lower diversity. Communities from all sites were dissimilar. Geographic location exerted a greater effect over community structure than did upland versus wetland status. This study concludes that the forested wetland environments studied here neither limited AM colonization nor reduced the overall fungal community and in fact may present a more favorable environment for fungal diversity.
    Print ISSN: 0923-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9834
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This research examines the problems of public participation in conserving a Ramsar site at the Tana Delta in southeastern Kenya. Given no participation of the public in government initiatives so far, we attempted to find out what had prevented local people from cooperating with responsible government bodies. Using empirical evidence that we obtained from fieldworks, questionnaire surveys, and workshops, we found that the low participation was not mainly due to local people’s unwillingness to conserve natural resources. Instead, we found that they were strongly interested in wetland resources conservation as long as their customary rights to governing resources are sufficiently recognized. We also documented how these local people managed their resources. The Kenya Wildlife Service and the National Museum of Kenya are the main government bodies to promote public participation, but we found that these agencies had not done effective communication works among local people. Our survey then clarified what sources of information can be most effective in communicating with local people in the Tana Delta. Finally, we discuss how the problems of public participation can be solved or reduced.
    Print ISSN: 0923-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9834
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Microbial respiration (R m ) and ecoenzyme activities (EEA) related to microbial carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus acquisition were measured in 792 freshwater and estuarine wetlands (representing a cumulative area of 217,480 km 2 ) across the continental United States as part of the US EPA’s 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment. EEA stoichiometry was used to construct models for and assess nutrient limitation, carbon use efficiency (CUE), and organic matter decomposition (−  k ). The wetlands were classified into ten groups based on aggregated ecoregion and wetland type. The wetlands were also assigned to least, intermediate, and most disturbed classes, based on the extent of human influences. Ecoenzyme activity related to C, N and P acquisition, R m , CUE, and −  k differed among ecoregion–wetland types and, with the exception of C acquisition and −  k , among disturbance classes. R m and EEA were positively correlated with soil C, N and P content (r = 0.15–0.64) and stoichiometry (r = 0.15–0.48), and negatively correlated with an index of carbon quality (r = − 0.22 to − 0.39). EEA stoichiometry revealed that wetlands were more often P- than N-limited, and that P-limitation increases with increasing disturbance. Our enzyme-based approach for modeling C, N, and P acquisition, and organic matter decomposition, all rooted in stoichiometric theory, provides a mechanism for modeling resource limitations of microbial metabolism and biogeochemical cycling in wetlands. Given the ease of collecting and analyzing soil EEA and their response to wetland disturbance gradients, enzyme stoichiometry models are a cost-effective tool for monitoring ecosystem responses to resource availability and the environmental drivers of microbial metabolism, including those related to global climate changes.
    Print ISSN: 0923-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9834
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Pig disturbances are recognized as key factors influencing the structure of ecosystems. Cage-free domestic pig ( Sus   scrofa   domestica ) searching for food by uprooting vegetation is emerging as a threat to wetlands located in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. As a unique and fragile ecosystem, the ecological impacts of pig uprooting (PR) here remain unclear. Here, we examined vegetation and soil properties under PR in the meadows of a plateau wetland, Napahai. Quadrat surveys and sampling were taken during the late growing season (September) of 2014 at three sites: one was seasonally flooded (wet meadow) and the other two were unflooded (dry meadows). Compared to controls (pig-undisturbed patches), plant biomass and density decreased ( p  〈 0.001), while soil bulk density increased ( p  〈 0.05) for all sites under PR. In addition, divergent responses to pig disturbances were observed in different sites. In the wet meadow, PR caused a shift in vegetation from Blysmus sinocompyessus , a dominant perennial herb towards the annual hydrophyte Polygonum hydropiper . In the two dry meadows, the dominant species remained unchanged, but nutrients stored in soils were severely reduced by PR, accelerating the soil impoverishment when compared to the wet meadow. Overall, PR impacts on local ecosystems are largely dependent on the moisture characteristics of micro-habitats, and proper management should be taken to counteract ecosystem degradation, especially in dry meadows.
    Print ISSN: 0923-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9834
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Print ISSN: 0043-6275
    Electronic ISSN: 1613-978X
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 72
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Print ISSN: 0043-6275
    Electronic ISSN: 1613-978X
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 73
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Print ISSN: 0043-6275
    Electronic ISSN: 1613-978X
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 74
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Der typische deutsche Konjunkturzyklus hat eine Länge von etwa vier bis fünf Jahren. Er ist recht ausgeprägt und erklärt allein etwa 27 % der Schwankungen in der BIP-Wachstumsrate. 83 % der Konjunktur geht auf Schwingungen mit einer Länge von über zwei Jahren zurück, nur 17 % können durch kürzere Schwingungen erklärt werden. Die Entwicklung der BIP-Wachstumsrate ist Granger-kausal zu den Investitionen — nicht umgekehrt. Dieser Zusammenhang geht auf Investitionen in die Ausrüstung zurück — nicht auf Investitionen in Bauten. Dabei werden die Investitionen vor allem durch die Auslandsnachfrage (Exporte) und nicht durch die Inlandsnachfrage getrieben.
    Print ISSN: 0043-6275
    Electronic ISSN: 1613-978X
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 75
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Print ISSN: 0043-6275
    Electronic ISSN: 1613-978X
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 76
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Wetlands are important for biodiversity and are critical for human livelihoods, providing ecosystem services such as clean water, food and global climate regulation. Many wetlands are threatened by land-use conversion, but creating protected areas to conserve them can benefit both biodiversity and people. However, protected areas can also have socio-economic costs for local communities. At Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve in Nepal, there has been historical conflict over the creation of the reserve. In light of a recent proposal to expand the protected area, we explored the use of a rapid ecosystem service assessment tool (TESSA) to assess the impact of the reserve on some of the key ecosystem services the site provides. Based on the ecosystem services assessed we estimated that the economic value of KTWR as a protected area is $350,000 y −1 ($20 ha −1 y −1 ) less than the value of the wetland in an unprotected state. However, this difference is relatively small and is affected by the limitations of the approach and sensitivity of the values to market prices and the assumptions made, so we cannot draw clear conclusions on the overall impact of the reserve in relation to local livelihoods. However, we found TESSA to be a useful tool for engaging with the stakeholder community and for highlighting the potential impacts that land use decisions can have on key ecosystem services. In the context of informing the potential expansion of the reserve, it is clear that further intensive socio-economic assessment of the potential costs and benefits is necessary.
    Print ISSN: 0923-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9834
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 77
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Tropical peatlands are currently being rapidly cleared and drained for the establishment of oil palm plantations, which threatens their globally significant carbon sequestration capacity. Large-scale land conversion of tropical peatlands is important in the context of greenhouse gas emission factors and sustainable land management. At present, quantification of carbon dioxide losses from tropical peatlands is limited by our understanding of the relative contribution of heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration to net peat surface CO 2 emissions. In this study we separated heterotrophic and autotrophic components of peat CO 2 losses from two oil palm plantations (one established in ‘2000’ and the other in 1978, then replanted in ‘2006’) using chamber-based emissions sampling along a transect from the rooting to non-rooting zones on a peatland in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia over the course of 3 months (June–August, 2014). Collar CO 2 measurements were compared with soil temperature and moisture at site and also accompanied by depth profiles assessing peat C and bulk density. The soil respiration decreased exponentially with distance from the palm trunks with the sharpest decline found for the plantation with the younger palms with overall fluxes of 1341 and 988 mg CO 2 m −2  h −1 , respectively, at the 2000 and 2006 plantations, respectively. The mean heterotrophic flux was 909 ± SE 136 and 716 ± SE 201 mg m −2  h −1 at the 2000 and 2006 plantations, respectively. Autotrophic emissions adjacent to the palm trunks were 845 ± SE 135 and 1558 ± SE 341 mg m −2  h −1 at the 2000 and 2006 plantations, respectively. Heterotrophic CO 2 flux was positively related to peat soil moisture, but not temperature. Total peat C stocks were 60 kg m −2 (down to 1 m depth) and did not vary among plantations of different ages but SOC concentrations declined significantly with depth at both plantations but the decline was sharper in the second generation 2006 plantation. The CO 2 flux values reported in this study suggest a potential for very high carbon (C) loss from drained tropical peats during the dry season. This is particularly concerning given that more intense dry periods related to climate change are predicted for SE Asia. Taken together, this study highlights the need for careful management of tropical peatlands, and the vulnerability of their carbon storage capability under conditions of drainage.
    Print ISSN: 0923-4861
    Electronic ISSN: 1572-9834
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 78
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Mit der Wahl des US-amerikanischen Präsidenten ist das 1994 in Kraft getretene Nordamerikanische Freihandelsabkommen (NAFTA) zurück auf die Agenda der Handelspolitik gelangt. Auf Druck der USA fanden am 16. August 2017 die ersten Gespräche zwischen den NAFTA-Vertragspartnern USA, Kanada und Mexiko über eine Neugestaltung des Abkommens statt. Noch vor den mexikanischen Präsidentschaftswahlen im Juli 2018 sollen die Gespräche zu einem vorläufigen Abschluss führen, eine Einigung wird aber tatsächlich wohl weitaus mehr Zeit in Anspruch nehmen.
    Print ISSN: 0043-6275
    Electronic ISSN: 1613-978X
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 79
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Entsprechend den Sondierungsvereinbarungen soll die monatliche Einkommens-Freigrenze, ab der der Solidaritätszuschlag erhoben wird, von aktuell 1400 Euro auf rund 5000 Euro angehoben werden. Würde der Solidaritätszuschlag vollständig abgeschafft, würde das höhere Einkommen viel stärker als niedrigere entlasten. Stellt man stattdessen alle gesetzlichen Sozialabgaben steuerfrei, würden mittlere sozialversicherungspflichtige Einkommen, die derzeit besonders stark belastet werden, deutlicher profi tieren. Haushaltsneutral könnte anschließend schrittweise ein Arbeitnehmerfreibetrag für die gesetzlichen Sozialabgaben von monatlich 150 Euro eingeführt werden.
    Print ISSN: 0043-6275
    Electronic ISSN: 1613-978X
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 80
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Das nordamerikanische Freihandelsabkommen NAFTA besteht seit 24 Jahren. Im Rahmen der protektionistischen Wende der USA steht es derzeit auf dem Prüfstand. Die Kritik der USA bezieht sich vor allem auf die bilateralen US-Handelsdefizite. Die Autoren geben einen Überblick über die ökonomische Integration Nordamerikas seit 1993: Der Handel zwischen den USA und Mexiko hat sehr stark zugenommen, seine Bedeutung für die US-Wirtschaft ist dabei nicht zu unterschätzen. Bei einer Kündigung des Abkommens würden grenzüberschreitende Liefer- und Produktionsketten zerschlagen. Die Autoren beurteilen die Vorschläge der USA und gehen auf den Zeithorizont für die möglichen Neuverhandlungen ein.
    Print ISSN: 0043-6275
    Electronic ISSN: 1613-978X
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 81
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: In den Tarifverhandlungen der Metall- und Elektroindustrie forderte die Arbeitgeberseite eine Ausweitung der Tageshöchstarbeitszeit und die Arbeitnehmerseite eine flexible Arbeitszeitverkürzung mit partiellem Lohnausgleich. Allerdings deuten die Arbeitsmarktdaten darauf hin, dass eine Flexibilisierung der Arbeitszeiten in den letzten Jahren bereits stattgefunden hat und weitere Schritte hier nicht dringend geboten sind. Mögliche Ansatzpunkte wären jedoch eine Weiterentwicklung der Regelungen zu Arbeitszeitkonten und zur Heimarbeit.
    Print ISSN: 0043-6275
    Electronic ISSN: 1613-978X
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 82
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Steuerungsrelevante und zukunftsorientierte Aufgabenbereiche der Länder wie die öffentliche Sicherheit, das Schulwesen oder die Infrastrukturausgaben haben in den letzten Jahren deutlich an Gewicht gewonnen. Allerdings gibt es kaum fundierte Analysen, da die statistischen Informationen dazu am aktuellen Rand nicht vorliegen. Um einen besseren Überblick zu erhalten, hat der Autor den Versuch unternommen, mithilfe der Meldungen der Länder zu den Kernhaushalten aktuelle Daten für die wichtigen Aufgabenbereiche aufzubereiten. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sich die Länder in diesen Bereichen mehr engagiert haben als in der Öffentlichkeit wahrgenommen wird.
    Print ISSN: 0043-6275
    Electronic ISSN: 1613-978X
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 83
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Im Zentrum der Europäischen Union stehen seit jeher Frankreich und Deutschland. Derzeit gehen von Frankreichs Präsidenten Macron Impulse für eine Erneuerung der EU und der Eurozone aus. Bisher war die Partnerschaft mit Frankreich durch häufig unterschiedliche Vorstellungen über Governance-Modelle geprägt. Auf die EU bezogen wird die Risikoteilung als französisches Prinzip betrachtet und die Marktdisziplin als deutscher Ansatz. Kürzlich hat eine Gruppe prominenter deutscher und französischer Experten einen Bericht vorgelegt, in dem beide Prinzipien verbunden werden. Die Autoren des Zeitgesprächs vergleichen die deutsche und die französische Wirtschaft und bewerten den Bericht der Ökonomengruppe.
    Print ISSN: 0043-6275
    Electronic ISSN: 1613-978X
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 84
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Print ISSN: 0043-6275
    Electronic ISSN: 1613-978X
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 85
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Print ISSN: 0043-6275
    Electronic ISSN: 1613-978X
    Topics: Economics
    Published by Springer
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...