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• 1
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The prodigious growth of filamentous algae that has been occurring since 2011 in the littoral zone of Lake Baikal poses an acute ecological problem. Samples of algal biomass and aqueous vegetation were collected from the littoral zone of Lake Baikal and converted by hydrothermal treatment into biofuel in the presence of ammonium heptamolybdate. It was demonstrated that algal biomass from the Baikal littoral zone could be a potential source of feedstock for producing biofuel by thermocatalytic treatment. The addition of heavy-oil resids to algal and aquatic vegetation biomass increased the motor-fuel yield and modified its composition.
Print ISSN: 0009-3092
Electronic ISSN: 1573-8310
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 2
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: This study examines El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related air-sea feedback processes in a coupled general circulation model (CGCM) to gauge model errors and pin down their sources in ENSO simulation. Three horizontal resolutions of the atmospheric component (T42, T63 and T106) of the CGCM are used to investigate how the simulated ENSO behaviors are affected by the resolution. We find that air-sea feedback processes in the three experiments mainly differ in terms of both thermodynamic and dynamic feedbacks. We also find that these processes are simulated more reasonably in the highest resolution version than in the other two lower resolution versions. The difference in the thermodynamic feedback arises from the difference in the shortwave-radiation (SW) feedback. Due to the severely (mildly) excessive cold tongue in the lower (higher) resolution version, the SW feedback is severely (mildly) underestimated. The main difference in the dynamic feedback processes lies in the thermocline feedback and the zonal-advection feedback, both of which are caused by the difference in the anomalous thermocline response to anomalous zonal wind stress. The difference in representing the anomalous thermocline response is attributed to the difference in meridional structure of zonal wind stress anomaly in the three simulations, which is linked to meridional resolution.
Print ISSN: 0930-7575
Electronic ISSN: 1432-0894
Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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• 3
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Print ISSN: 0262-0898
Electronic ISSN: 1573-7276
Topics: Medicine
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• 4
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Print ISSN: 0262-0898
Electronic ISSN: 1573-7276
Topics: Medicine
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• 5
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Beginning in the mid-1990s, re-eutrophication has reemerged as severe problems in Lake Erie. Controlling non-point source (NPS) nutrient pollution from cropland, especially dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), is the key to restore water quality in Lake Erie. To address NPS pollution, previous studies have analyzed the effectiveness of alternative spatially optimal land use and management strategies (represented as agricultural conservation practices (CPs)). However, few studies considered both strategies and have analyzed and compared their sensitivity to expected changes in temperature and precipitation due to climate change and increased greenhouse gas concentrations. In this study, we evaluated impacts of climatic change on the economic efficiency of these strategies for DRP abatement, using an integrated modeling approach that includes a watershed model, an economic valuation component, and a spatial optimization model. A series of climate projections representing relatively high greenhouse gas emission scenarios was developed for the western Lake Erie basin to drive the watershed model. We found that performance of solutions optimized for current climate was degraded significantly under projected future climate conditions. In terms of robustness of individual strategies, CPs alone were more robust to climate change than land use change alone or together with CPs, but relying on CPs alone fails to achieve a high (〉 71%) DRP reduction target. A combination of CPs and land use changes was required to achieve policy goals for DRP reductions (targeted at ~ 78%). Our results point to the need for future spatial optimization studies and planning to consider adaptive capacity of conservation actions under a changing climate.
Print ISSN: 0165-0009
Electronic ISSN: 1573-1480
Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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• 6
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The Humboldt coastal upwelling system in the eastern South Pacific ocean is one of the most productive marine ecosystems in the world. A weakening of the upwelling activity could lead to severe ecological impacts. As coastal upwelling in eastern boundary systems is mainly driven by wind stress, most studies so far have analysed wind patterns change through the 20th and 21st Centuries in order to understand and project the phenomenon under specific forcing scenarios. Mixed results have been reported, and analyses from General Circulation Models have suggested even contradictory trends of wind stress for the Humboldt system. In this study, we analyse the ocean upwelling directly in 13 models contributing to phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) in both the historical simulations and an extreme climate change scenario (RCP8.5). The upwelling is represented by the upward ocean mass flux, a newly-included variable that represents the vertical water transport. Additionally, wind stress, ocean stratification, Ekman layer depth and thermocline depth were also analysed to explore their interactions with coastal upwelling throughout the period studied. The seasonal cycle of coastal upwelling differs between the Northern and Southern Humboldt areas. At lower latitudes, the upwelling season spans most of the autumn, winter and spring. However, in the Southern Humboldt area the upwelling season takes place in spring and the summertime with downwelling activity in winter. This persists throughout the Historical and RCP8.5 simulations. For both the Northern and Southern Humboldt areas an increasing wind stress is projected. However, different trends of upwelling intensity are observed away from the sea surface. Whereas wind stress will continue controlling the decadal variability of coastal upwelling on the whole ocean column analysed (surface to 300 m depth), an increasing disconnect with upwelling intensity is projected below 100 m depth throughout the 21st Century. This relates to an intensification of ocean stratification under global warming as shown by the sea water temperature profiles. Additionally, a divergence between the Ekman layer and thermocline depths is also evidenced. Given the interaction of upwelled nutrients and microscopic organisms essential for fish growth, a potential decline of coastal upwelling at depth could lead to unknown ecological and socio-economical effects.
Print ISSN: 0930-7575
Electronic ISSN: 1432-0894
Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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• 7
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: In this study, ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH) was used as a reducing agent for Co powder synthesis from Co 3 O 4 . It aimed to investigate the effects of temperature (700–900 K), reaction time (0–60 min), and gas flow rate on the reaction behavior of Co 3 O 4 in ethanol flow. Mass measurement, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the products. Single-phase Co powders with mean particle sizes of 0.51  μ m and 0.70  μ m were obtained within ~ 10 min at 800 K and 900 K, respectively. Above 800 K, external mass transfer controlled the reduction process ( Q a  = 0.52 kJ/mole). Below 800 K, the process ( Q a  = 20.17 kJ/mole) was partly controlled by external mass transfer and partly by intrinsic chemical reaction kinetics. Significant C uptake was observed at 700 K and 750 K within 60 min. The reactions were discussed in the light of thermodynamic results, which predicted Co formation from Co 3 O 4 and C 2 H 5 OH.
Print ISSN: 1047-4838
Electronic ISSN: 1543-1851
Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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• 8
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-06
Description: Matrix proteoglycans (PGs) have shown promise as biomarker in malignancies. We employed agarose gel eletrophoresis, quantitative real- time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the content of sulfated glicosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate) and expression of PG (biglycan, glypican, perlecan, syndecan e versican) in patient-matched normal and tumor tissues obtained from resected specimens of lung cancer. A significant increase of heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) concentrations was found in tumor tissue samples when compared to normal lung tissue samples. HS was also significantly increased in adenocarcinomas compared to squamous cell carcinomas. PG gene expression, with exception of syndecan, were significantly decreased in tumor tissue compared to normal lung, coinciding with significant decrease of PG protein levels in tumor cells and stroma compared to normal lung tissue (Kappa coefficient 0.41, 0.42 and 0,28, respectively). Women patients ( p  = 0.02), non smokers ( p  = 0.05), T stage ( p  = 0.009), N stage ( p  = 0.03) and adenocarcinoma (p = 0.05) were associated with improved overall survival (OS). Patients presenting tumors with low concentration of sulfated GAG and high PGs levels presented better OS compared to patients with high concentration of sulfated GAG and low expression of PGs. Cox regression model controlled by gender, tobacco history and histological type, showed that patients with high perlecan and versican expression in tumor presented respectively high probability of life (β risk 11.64; 1.27 to 15.90) and low risk of death (β risk 0.11; 0.02–0.51). The combined approach suggest matrix (PGs) as biomarkers in lung cancer.
Print ISSN: 0282-0080
Electronic ISSN: 1573-4986
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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• 9
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-06
Description: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the author group section. Author A. Bronowicka-Szydełko’s surname was inadvertently interchanged to “Szydełko-Bronowicka”.
Print ISSN: 0282-0080
Electronic ISSN: 1573-4986
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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• 10
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-06
Description: C -Mannosylation, a protein-modification found in various eukaryotes, involves the attachment of a single mannose molecule to selected tryptophan residues of proteins. Since C -mannosyl tryptophan (CMW) was detected in human urine, it is generally thought that CMW is not catabolized inside our body and instead is excreted via the urine. This paper reports enrichment of a bacterial consortium from soil that degrades CMW. The bacteria grew in minimal medium supplemented with CMW as the carbon source. Interestingly, even after successive clonal picks of individual colonies, several species were still present in each colony as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, indicating that a single species may not be responsible for this activity. A next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis was therefore carried out in order to determine which bacteria were responsible for the catabolism of CMW. It was found that a species of Sphingomonadaceae family, but not others, increased with simultaneous decrease of CMW in the media, suggesting that this species is most likely the one that is actively involved in the degradation of CMW.
Print ISSN: 0282-0080
Electronic ISSN: 1573-4986
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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• 11
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-06
Description: Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play an important role in stabilizing the gel state of eye vitreous humour. In this study, the composition of GAGs present in bovine eye vitreous was characterized through disaccharide analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The interaction of GAGs with collagen type II was assessed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The percentage of hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS), of total GAG, were 96.2%, 3.5% and 0.3%, respectively. The disaccharide composition of CS consisted of 4S (49%), 0S (38%) 6S (12%), 2S6S (1.5%) and 2S4S (0.3%). The disaccharide composition of HS consisted of 0S (80%), NS2S (7%), NS (7%), 6S (4%), NS6S (2%), and TriS, 2S and 4S6S (each at 0.1%). The average molecular weights of CS and HS were 148 kDa and 204 kDa, respectively. SPR reveals that collagen type II binds to heparin (primarily composed of TriS) with a binding affinity ( K D ) of 755 nM and interacts with other GAGs, including CSB and CSE. Both bovine vitreous CS and HS interact with collagen type II, with vitreous HS showing a higher binding affinity.
Print ISSN: 0282-0080
Electronic ISSN: 1573-4986
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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• 12
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-06
Description: Water-soluble polysaccharides from Umbilicaria tornata (UTP) were purified and preliminarily characterized. The antioxidant and antitumor activities of crude UTP and two purified fractions (UTP-1 and UTP-2) were evaluated using in vitro experiments. The results showed that the molecular weights of UTP-1 and UTP-2 were 84.86 and 28.66 kDa, respectively. Both UTP-1 and UTP-2 were composed of glucose and xylose, with their molar ratios being 1.3:0.9 and 0.9:4.6, respectively. In addition, crude UTP, UTP-1 and UTP-2 showed dose-dependent DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging and reducing activities. However, crude UTP exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than UTP-1 and UTP-2, particularly in terms of DPPH radicals. Crude UTP and the two purified fractions inhibited the growth of HeLa, HepG2, A375, MCF-7, SGC7901 and Caco2 cancer cells in vitro . Compared with UTP-1 and UTP-2, crude UTP presented significantly higher antitumor activity in vitro against HeLa and HepG2 cells ( p  〈 0.05). These findings provide a scientific basis for the deeper exploration and resource development of U. tornata .
Print ISSN: 0282-0080
Electronic ISSN: 1573-4986
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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• 13
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-06
Print ISSN: 1618-7849
Electronic ISSN: 1862-2615
Topics: Psychology
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• 14
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-06
Description: Das Thema gesundheitsförderliches Führen steht im Bereich des Betrieblichen Gesundheitsmanagements und der Wissenschaft zunehmend im Fokus. Nach dem gegenwärtigen Stand der Forschung hat eine Vielzahl von Führungsverhaltensweisen einen Einfluss auf die Gesundheit der Mitarbeitenden. Deren Erfassung ist jedoch mit einem hohen Aufwand verbunden. Ziel dieser Studie ist daher, Kern-Faktoren salutogener Führung zu identifizieren und für eine ökonomische Diagnostik zu operationalisieren. Als integrativer, arbeitsbezogener Indikator für Gesundheit der Mitarbeitenden wurde deren Kohärenzerleben am Arbeitsplatz (Work-SoC) gewählt. In einem deduktiv-induktiven Prozess wurde das TIMP-Inventar entwickelt, das eine effiziente Erfassung der drei Führungsdimensionen Vertrauen (Trust), Störungsmanagement (Incident Management) und Druck (Pressure) ermöglicht. Diese Faktoren klären mit weniger Items mehr Work-SoC-Varianz auf als die zum Vergleich herangezogenen etablierten allgemeinen und gesundheitsbezogenen Führungsskalen transformationaler Führung, Mitarbeiterorientierung, sozialen Unterstützung, belastendes Führungsverhalten sowie positives und negatives Gesundheitsverhalten. Sie lassen sich daher im Sinne von Kern-Faktoren gesundheitsförderlicher Führung interpretieren.
Print ISSN: 1618-7849
Electronic ISSN: 1862-2615
Topics: Psychology
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• 15
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-06
Description: In den letzten 15 Jahren hat in Deutschland ein rapider Anstieg der Beschäftigungsrate älterer Arbeitnehmender stattgefunden. Innerhalb dieser Gruppe war der Anstieg am steilsten für die über 65 Jährigen. Die Anzahl dieser arbeitenden Rentnern*innen hat sich zwischen 2000 und 2015 mehr als verdoppelt. Noch sind die älteren Arbeitnehmende, die zusätzlich zur Rente arbeiten, wenig in der arbeitswissenschaftlichen und gerontologischen Forschung untersucht und auch in der Praxis scheinen Betriebe und Personalmanager*innen noch unvorbereitet, da kaum organisationale Karriere- oder Laufbahnmodelle für diese Gruppe existieren. Der vorliegende Beitrag beschäftigt sich daher basierend auf Daten der Studie „Transitions and Old Age Potential: Übergänge und Alternspotenziale (TOP)“ mit den Einstellungen noch nicht verrenteter Arbeitnehmender im Alter von 50–65 hinsichtlich einer potentiellen Erwerbstätigkeit im Ruhestandsalter. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sich etwa die Hälfte der Befragten vorstellen kann, während der Rente zu arbeiten. Allerdings ziehen sie flexiblere Arbeitszeit- und Arbeitsortgestaltung vor. Die Diskussion um die Frage inwieweit die Wünsche der erwerbstätigen Rentner*innen zu existierenden Karrieremodellen passen zeigt, dass es nicht „das Karrieremodel“ für Rentner*innen gibt. Eine Personalpolitik für die Gruppe der arbeitenden Rentnern*innen sollte dies berücksichtigen und flexible Karrieremodelle entwickeln.
Print ISSN: 1618-7849
Electronic ISSN: 1862-2615
Topics: Psychology
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• 16
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-06
Description: Überqualifizierung bezeichnet die Situation, in der Personen mehr Kenntnisse, Erfahrungen und Qualifikationen haben als für ihre Stelle benötigt werden. In den Industrieländern sind ca. 15 bis 20 % der Erwerbstätigen für ihre Stellen überqualifiziert. Es handelt sich somit um ein Phänomen, das Teil des organisationalen Alltags geworden ist. Im vorliegenden Beitrag gehen wir der Frage nach, welche Rolle Überqualifizierung für die Karriere- und Laufbahnentwicklung von Betroffenen spielt. Zuerst fassen wir die wesentlichen einstellungs-, befindens- und verhaltensbezogenen Korrelate von Überqualifizierung zusammen; danach zeigen wir auf, welche Zusammenhänge sich im Hinblick auf karrierebezogene Variablen ergeben. Basierend auf den teils konträren Befunden entwickeln wir ein theoretisches Rahmenmodell. In diesem Modell postulieren wir, dass proaktives Verhalten von Überqualifizierten eine Signalwirkung gegenüber organisationalen Entscheidungsträgern haben kann, wodurch karriereförderliche Entwicklungen angestoßen werden können. Abschließend diskutieren wir praktische Implikationen, die sich aus den berichteten Befunden und dem theoretischen Modell ergeben.
Print ISSN: 1618-7849
Electronic ISSN: 1862-2615
Topics: Psychology
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Print ISSN: 1864-9718
Electronic ISSN: 1864-9726
Topics: Medicine
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• 18
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Das Spektrum dermatoonkologischer Notfälle ist vielgestaltig, und diese werden aufgrund der dominierenden Patientenzahlen und neuer therapiebedingter Überlebensraten fortgeschrittener Erkrankungsstadien vorrangig beim malignen Melanom beobachtet. Dermatoonkologische Patienten kommen mit den Symptomen Übelkeit und Emesis, unerwarteten neurologischen Ausfällen, mit gastrointestinalen Problemen bis hin zum akuten Abdomen und akuter Atemnot oder Hämoptysen in die Klinik. Hinzu kommen hämatologisch notfallmäßige Abklärungen und Versorgung von z. B. Anämie und Leukopenie. Neben einer standardmäßigen notfallmedizinischen Versorgung bedürfen die durch Metastasen und/oder Therapien verursachten akuten Probleme vielfach hinsichtlich des operativen, strahlentherapeutischen und medikamentösen Vorgehens einer interdisziplinären Tumorkonferenz, um so unter Berücksichtigung der Gesamtsituation des Patienten das Vorgehen zu optimieren. Der Beitrag befasst sich mit akuten organspezifischen Notfällen, gibt medikamentöse Empfehlungen und Abwägungen für therapeutische Entscheidungen bis hin zur ganzheitlich supportiven Therapie schwersterkrankter onkologischer Patienten. Neben stadienadaptierter Schmerztherapie werden supportiv ergänzende Maßnahmen wie Nahrungsergänzung, Einsatz von Dronabinol bei Inappetenz und antipruriginöse Therapie umrissen. Ziel des Beitrags ist eine kurze und prägnante Darstellung der häufigsten dermatoonkologischen Notfallsituationen unter Verweis auf die jeweilige ausführliche Literatur der zugehörigen Fachgesellschaften und Leitlinien.
Print ISSN: 0017-8470
Electronic ISSN: 1432-1173
Topics: Medicine
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• 19
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Epidemiologische Daten sprechen für eine überproportionale Zunahme der Inzidenz der Multiplen Sklerose (MS) in den letzten Jahrzehnten, vor allem auch in den Industrienationen. Während diese Zunahme auch mit veränderten Diagnosekriterien und einer verbesserten Sensitivität der bildgebenden Verfahren einhergeht, sprechen aktuelle Daten vor allem für eine wichtige Rolle, die Veränderungen unserer Lebensgewohnheiten spielen. In den letzten Jahren wurde besonders die Bedeutung des Darmes und des intestinalen Mikrobioms für einige neurologische Erkrankungen und insbesondere auch die MS erkannt. Da Ernährungsgewohnheiten einen erheblichen Einfluss auf die Zusammensetzung des Mikrobioms haben und sich unsere Ernährung in den letzten Jahrzehnten erheblich verändert hat, können Nahrungsmittelbestandteile eine wichtige Rolle in der MS-Pathogenese spielen. Im vorliegenden Weiterbildungsartikel fassen wir die aktuellen Erkenntnisse zur Rolle des Darms und zu Effekten von Ernährungsbestandteilen auf das Mikrobiom in der MS-Pathogenese zusammen.
Print ISSN: 0028-2804
Electronic ISSN: 1433-0407
Topics: Medicine
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Print ISSN: 0085-4530
Electronic ISSN: 1433-0431
Topics: Medicine
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Klinisches/methodisches Problem Akquisitionen in der Computertomographie (CT) sollten immer nach dem ALARA-Prinzip („as low as reasonably achievable“) durchgeführt werden, d. h. die Strahlendosis sollte so niedrig wie vernünftig umsetzbar gewählt sein. Radiologische Standardverfahren Nach wie vor ist die Rekonstruktion durch gefilterte Rückprojektion das Standardverfahren in der CT. Methodische Innovationen In den letzten Jahren wurden iterative Rekonstruktionsverfahren praxistauglich, die einen anderen Ansatz der Bildrekonstruktion umsetzen. Ein vergleichbarer Ansatz wird bei der iterativen Metallartefaktreduktion verfolgt. Leistungsfähigkeit Im Vergleich zur gefilterten Rückprojektion liefert die iterative Rekonstruktion eine verbesserte Bildqualität und verringertes Bildrauschen. Bewertung Dadurch ist – in Abhängigkeit vom verwendeten Algorithmus und der klinischen Fragestellung – bei gleichbleibender Bildqualität eine Dosiseinsparung von bis zu 80 % möglich. Mit Hilfe von iterativer Metallartefaktreduktion können trotz Metallimplantaten Bilder von diagnostischer Qualität erstellt werden. Empfehlung für die Praxis Iterative Rekonstruktionsverfahren sollten angepasst an die klinische Fragestellung zur Dosisreduktion eingesetzt werden. Die Verwendung von iterativer Metallartefaktreduktion ist zu empfehlen.
Print ISSN: 0033-832X
Electronic ISSN: 1432-2102
Topics: Medicine
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Vor mehr als 100 Jahren entdeckte Max von Laue in München, dass Röntgenstrahlung nicht nur als Röntgenquanten im Teilchenbild interpretiert werden kann, sondern ebenso einen Wellencharakter aufweist. Diese Eigenschaft wird mittlerweile auch schon lange in der Grundlagenforschung eingesetzt (z. B. in der Kristallographie zur Strukturbestimmung von Proteinen), hatte bisher jedoch keine Anwendung in der medizinischen Bildgebung. In den letzten 10 Jahren allerdings konnten in der vorklinischen Forschung sehr große technologische Fortschritte erzielt werden, die eine Nutzung dieses Wellencharakters von Röntgenlicht auch für die medizinische Bildgebung möglich machen. Diese neuartigen Radiographie-Verfahren, die sog. Phasenkontrast- und Dunkelfeldbildgebung, bergen ein großes Potenzial für eine deutliche Verbesserung der Röntgenbildgebung und somit auch der Diagnose von wichtigen Krankheiten. Dieser Artikel zeigt die Grundprinzipien dieser neuen Verfahren auf, fasst exemplarisch die bereits erreichten vorklinischen Forschungsergebnisse an verschiedenen Organen zusammen und zeigt das Potenzial für die zukünftige klinische Nutzung in Radiographie und Computertomographie auf.
Print ISSN: 0033-832X
Electronic ISSN: 1432-2102
Topics: Medicine
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen sind sporadische und seltene, erblich auftretende Störungen des zentralen Nervensystems, bei denen es zu einem langsam progredienten Funktionsverlust spezifischer Neuronenpopulationen und ihrer Verbindungen kommt. Schwere Behinderungen und Pflegbedürftigkeit können die Folge sein. Neurodegenerative Störungen sind Erkrankungen des älteren Menschen. Entsprechend lässt der demografische Wandel die Zahl der betroffenen Patienten deutlich steigen. Auch den Radiologen werden die Erkrankungen vermehrt beschäftigen. Aus diesem Grund sollen im vorliegenden Beitrag wichtige neurodegenerative Erkrankungen vorgestellt werden: Neben der Alzheimer- und Parkinson-Erkrankung gehören hierzu die frontotemporale Lobärdegeneration, die Lewy-Körperchen-Demenz, vaskuläre Demenzen, die Creutzfeldt-Jakob-Krankheit und die Chorea Huntington. Beschrieben werden das klinische Bild und die Diagnostik, wobei ein Schwerpunkt auf typischen bildmorphologischen Befunden liegt.
Print ISSN: 0033-832X
Electronic ISSN: 1432-2102
Topics: Medicine
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: We have investigated the pattern of apoptosis in the antennal epithelium during embryonic development of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria . The molecular labels lachesin and annulin reveal that the antennal epithelium becomes subdivided into segment-like meristal annuli within which sensory cell clusters later differentiate. To determine whether apoptosis is involved in the development of such sensory cell clusters, we examined the expression pattern of the cell death labels acridine orange and TUNEL in the epithelium. We found stereotypic, age-dependent, wave-like patterns of cell death in the antenna. Early in embryogenesis, apoptosis is restricted to the most basal meristal annuli but subsequently spreads to encompass almost the entire antenna. Cell death then declines in more basal annuli and is only found in the tip region later in embryogenesis. Apoptosis is restricted throughout to the midregion of a given annulus and away from its border with neighboring annuli, arguing against a causal role in annular formation. Double-labeling for cell death and sensory cell differentiation reveals apoptosis occurring within bands of differentiating sensory cell clusters, matching the meristal organization of the apical antenna. Examination of the individual epithelial lineages which generate sensory cells reveals that apoptosis begins peripherally within a lineage and with age expands to encompass the differentiated sensory cell at the base. We conclude that complete lineages can undergo apoptosis and that the youngest cells in these lineages appear to die first, with the sensory neuron dying last. Lineage-based death in combination with cell death patterns in different regions of the antenna may contribute to odor-mediated behaviors in the grasshopper.
Print ISSN: 0949-944X
Electronic ISSN: 1432-041X
Topics: Biology
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The work describes a gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for ractopamine. The ELISA is based on an indirect competitive approach. In the presence of ractopamine, gold(III) ions are oxidized by H 2 O 2 to form red AuNPs. On the other hand, the AuNP in solution are purple-blue due to aggregation if the sample does not contain ractopamine. The absorption, best measured at 560 nm, increases linearly in the 2 to 512 ng·mL −1 ractopamine concentration range, and the detection limit is as low as 0.35 ng·mL −1 in urine. Ractopamine can also be detected visually, even in the presence of other β-agonists and antibiotics. The results obtained by this method are consistent with those obtained by LC-MS/MS as demonstrated by analysis of sheep urine. The ELISA method described here is inexpensive, easy-to-use, and suitable for rapid screening of ractopamine in animal samples. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of a colorimetric indirect competitive immunoassay for ractopamine. It is based on the use of catalase labeled IgG and the measurement of the absorption of red gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that are generated by the reaction of gold ions with H 2 O 2 . In the absence of ractopamine, the solution becomes blue.
Electronic ISSN: 1436-5073
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The authors describe an “off-on” colorimetric and fluorometric assay for the determination of Cu(II). It is based on the use of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) of type NaYF 4 :Yb(III),Er(III) that were functionalized with branched polyethylenimine (BPEI). A color change from colorless to blue occurs within 2 s after addition of Cu(II) to a solution of the modified UCNPs. The color change can be visually detected at Cu(II) concentrations down to 80 μM. The upconversion fluorescence of the modified UCNPs, measured at excitation wavelength of 980 nm, is reduced due to the predominant inner filter effect caused by the formation of the BPEI-Cu(II) complex. Normalized fluorescence intensity drops linearly in the 50 nM to 10 μM Cu(II) concentration range, and the fluorometric detection limit is 45 nM. Both the color and the fluorescence are recovered on addition of EDTA. Excellent selectivity over other metal ions and anions is achieved. Graphical abstract Upconversion nanoparticles of type NaYF4:Yb,Er were functionalized with branched polyethylenimine (UCNP/BPEI) and used in an “off-on” colorimetric and fluorometric assay for Cu(II). The upconversion fluorescence is selectively quenched on addition of Cu(II), and this is accompanied by a rapid colorless-to-blue color switch. The colorimetric changes and quenched fluorescence can be reversed by adding EDTA.
Electronic ISSN: 1436-5073
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Data on the water uptake, proton conductivity, diffusion permeability, cation transport selectivity, and mechanical properties of short side chain Aquivion sulfonated perfluoropolymer membranes with an equivalent weight of 870 and 965 have been described. Properties of the membranes have been compared with those of a long side chain Nafion 212 membrane (equivalent weight of 1100). An increase in the equivalent weight leads to an increase in the sorption exchange capacity and water uptake of the membranes and a decrease in their proton conductivity. The conductivity of the Aquivion membrane with an equivalent weight of 870 is 1.4–1.5 times higher than that of the Nafion 212 membrane; it reaches 13.6 mS/cm in contact with water and 1.0 mS/cm at a relative humidity of 32% at 25°C. Diffusion permeability and cation transport selectivity exhibit a nonmonotonic dependence on the equivalent weight of the material. The lowest diffusion permeability, the highest Na + cation transport selectivity (99.5%), and the best mechanical properties have been found for the Aquivion membrane with an equivalent weight of 965, which is characterized by the highest degree of crystallinity.
Print ISSN: 0965-5441
Electronic ISSN: 1555-6239
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Asymmetric bipolar membranes modified with phosphorylated and carboxylated hyperbranched polymers with different degrees of functionalization have been synthesized and studied. The effect of the nature of ionogenic groups of functionalized polymers on both individual electrochemical characteristics of asymmetric bipolar membranes and their efficiency in adjusting the pH of dilute solutions by electrodialysis has been studied. It has been found that an increase in the degree of functionalization of hyperbranched polymers leads to an increase in the current efficiency and a decrease in the voltage drop across the asymmetric bipolar membranes.
Print ISSN: 0965-5441
Electronic ISSN: 1555-6239
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The features of gravitational convection in electromembrane systems with electrolytes whose ions exhibit amphoteric properties have been studied using voltammetry techniques in the vertical and horizontal positions of a membrane stack. It has been shown that gravitational convection has approximately the same effect on these characteristics as in the case of solutions that do not exhibit amphoteric properties (sodium chloride). The main difference in the behavior of systems containing amphoteric compounds is the influence of gravitational convection on the values of the second limiting current, which is not observed in systems containing ions that are not capable of protonation/deprotonation reactions.
Print ISSN: 0965-5441
Electronic ISSN: 1555-6239
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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• 30
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The results of experimental study and mathematical modeling of a fuel processor for the production of pure hydrogen from diesel fuel with a productivity of 600–700 g (H 2 )/h, consisting of an adiabatic reactor for diesel fuel pre-reforming followed by steam conversion of pre-reforming products in a catalytic Pd–Ag membrane reactor for hydrogen extraction are presented. The membrane reactor consists of 32 membrane modules arranged in 8 sections of 4 modules each. A mathematical model has been developed and two schemes of layout of the modules in the membrane reactor have been simulated. One scheme involves the cross-flow distribution of flue gas and fuel gas reformate to individual modules and leads to overheating of the input modules and cooling of the output modules. The other scheme with the cocurrent distribution of streams, along both the reactant path and the flue gas path, is preferable from the viewpoint of the temperature uniformity of different modules within a section. On the basis of the data obtained, an estimated calculation of the parameters of a power generation unit with a battery of low-temperature fuel cells has been made. For the example considered, the thermal efficiency of the fuel processor is 87%. With an efficiency of the fuel cell battery of 42%, the electrical efficiency of the fuel cell power unit will be 36%.
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Electronic ISSN: 1555-6239
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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• 31
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Springer
In: Planta
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Main conclusion Verticillium colonization does induce a cascade of defense/stress proteins but the Ve1 gene also promotes enhanced root growth, which appears to allow the plant to outgrow the pathogen and avoid symptoms associated with an exaggerated defense response. In tomato, the Ve1 gene provides resistance to the vascular pathogen, Verticillium dahliae , race 1; ve1 plants are susceptible. However, the physiological basis of the resistance is unknown. While developing alternative lines of mutant Ve1 gene transformants to address this question a striking difference was observed in transformation frequency resulting from the inefficient rooting of plantlets from ve1 callus relative to Ve1 callus. Subsequent experiments with resistant and susceptible near-isolines of the cultivar Craigella, as well as Ve1 transformants, showed that in both artificial medium and soil, root growth was significantly enhanced in the resistant cultivar. Parallel studies of Verticillium colonization indicated a significantly lower overall concentration in the resistant plant characteristic of the resistant phenotype, but an almost equal total fungal biomass in both resistant and susceptible roots. Proteomic analyses of the roots of Verticillium -infected plants revealed elevated levels of defense/stress proteins, which correlated with the fungal concentration rather than resistance. Hormone analyses demonstrated a higher cis -ABA level in the resistant isoline consistent with enhanced root growth. Taken together these studies indicate a similar fungal biomass in the roots of both isolines where the Ve1 gene also promotes root production. In the case of the Craigella/Vd1 pathosystem, this appears to allow the host to resist better by outgrowing the pathogen with less wilt rather than reliance only on partial immunity.
Print ISSN: 0032-0935
Electronic ISSN: 1432-2048
Topics: Biology
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Springer
In: Planta
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Main conclusion Overexpression of BnaWGR1 causes ROS accumulation and promotes leaf senescence. BnaWGR1 binds to promoters of RbohD and RbohF and regulates their expression. Manipulation of leaf senescence process affects agricultural traits of crop plants, including biomass, seed yield and stress resistance. Since delayed leaf senescence usually enhances tolerance to multiple stresses, we analyzed the function of specific MAPK–WRKY cascades in abiotic and biotic stress tolerance as well as leaf senescence in oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.), one of the important oil crops. In the present study, we showed that expression of one WRKY gene from oilseed rape, BnaWGR1 , induced an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell death and precocious leaf senescence both in Nicotiana benthamiana and transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). BnaWGR1 regulates the transcription of two genes encoding key enzymes implicated in production of ROS, that is, respiratory burst oxidase homolog ( Rboh ) D and RbohF . A dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed the transcriptional regulation of RbohD and RbohF by BnaWGR1. In vitro electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that BnaWGR1 could bind to W-box cis -elements within promoters of RbohD and RbohF . Moreover, RbohD and RbohF were significantly upregulated in transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing BnaWGR1 . In summary, these results suggest that BnaWGR1 could positively regulate leaf senescence through regulating the expression of RbohD and RbohF genes.
Print ISSN: 0032-0935
Electronic ISSN: 1432-2048
Topics: Biology
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Corrosion-resistant Co−Cr−W coatings are electrolytically deposited onto the surface of low-carbon (0.25 wt.% C) steel samples from a Cr(III) chloride-based water–dimethylformamide (DMF) bath. Polarization measurements show that corrosion current densities in both sodium chloride and Hank’s solutions are about 10 −6  A cm −2 . As the obtained coatings contain a certain amount of cracks, they should be deposited onto the surface of copper underlayer in order to provide better protective ability. An XPS study showed that the surface of Co−Cr−W coatings is enriched with chromium compounds as a result of exposure to the corrosive solution.
Print ISSN: 1432-8488
Electronic ISSN: 1433-0768
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Purpose The effects of different amendment rates (1 and 3%) of Chinese milk vetch ( Astragalus sinicus L.) and bird vetch ( Vicia cracca L.) on the dissipation of extractable pentachlorophenol (PCP) residues were investigated in two flooded paddy soils with contrasting soil organic matter (SOM) contents. Following incorporation of the legume green manures, whether acetate-extractable ferrous iron [Fe(II) NaOAc ] is useful for revealing the reductive dechlorination mechanism of PCP in flooded paddy soils was verified. Materials and methods The kinetic parameters of PCP dissipation and Fe(II) NaOAc accumulation were estimated using logistic curve fitting. Correlation and regression analyses were performed on PCP, Fe(II) NaOAc , water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), pH, and oxidation-reduction potential data. Results and discussion The kinetic parameters of PCP dissipation and Fe(II) NaOAc accumulation varied significantly with the amendment rate of legume green manure. The changes in pH value and WSOC content varied significantly with the level of SOM and with the amendment rate of legume green manure. At a low amendment rate of green manure, the pH increase and WSOC consumption greatly enhanced Fe(II) NaOAc accumulation and contributed to PCP dissipation. The rate of PCP dissipation decreased with decreasing pH and WSOC accumulation, especially in the high-SOM soil amended with the higher rate of green manure. Legume green manure species had no effect on PCP dissipation. Conclusions In terms of soil chemistry, Fe(II) NaOAc was found to be the key variable that could explain the mechanisms involved in the reductive dissipation of PCP in flooded paddy soils with contrasting SOM contents and incorporation of legume green manures.
Print ISSN: 1439-0108
Electronic ISSN: 1614-7480
Topics: Geosciences
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Compositions in the system Cr 2 O 3 -TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 are among the most used ceramic materials for thermally sprayed coating solutions. Cr 2 O 3 coatings present good sliding wear resistance; Al 2 O 3 coatings show excellent insulation behavior and TiO 2 striking corrosion properties. In order to combine these properties, coatings containing more than one oxide are highly interesting. The conventional spraying process is limited to the availability of binary feedstock powders with defined compositions. The use of suspensions offers the opportunity for tailor-made chemical compositions: within the triangle of Cr 2 O 3 -TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 , each mixture of oxides can be created. Criteria for the selection of raw materials as well as the relevant aspects for the development of binary suspensions in the Cr 2 O 3 -TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 system to be used as feedstock for thermal spraying are presented. This formulation of binary suspensions required the development of water-based single-oxide suspensions with suitable behavior; otherwise, the interaction between the particles while mixing could lead up to a formation of agglomerates, which affect both the stability of the spray process and the coating properties. For the validation of this formulation procedure, binary Cr 2 O 3 -TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 suspensions were developed and sprayed using the S-HVOF process. The binary coatings were characterized and discussed in terms of microstructure and microhardness.
Print ISSN: 1059-9630
Electronic ISSN: 1544-1016
Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Object Recent advances have allowed oscillating gradient (OG) diffusion MRI to infer the sizes of micron-scale axon diameters. Here the effects on the precision of the inferred diameters are studied when reducing the number of images collected to reduce imaging time for clinical feasibility. Materials and methods Monte Carlo simulations of cosine OG sequences (50–1000 Hz) using a two-compartment model on a parallel cylinder (diameters 1–5 μm) geometry were conducted. Temporal diffusion spectroscopy was used to infer axon diameters. Three different gradient sets were simulated with different combinations of gradient strengths. Results Five frequencies were adequate for d  = 3–5 μm with single-sized cylinders and for effective mean axon diameters greater than 2 μm for cylinders with a distributions of diameters. There was some improvement in precision for d  = 1–2 μm with 10 frequencies. It is better to repeat measurements at higher gradient strengths than to use a range of gradient strengths. The improvement tended to be greatest when using fewer frequencies and was especially noticeable at very high gradient strengths. Conclusion Images can be collected with fewer gradient strengths and frequencies without sacrificing the precision of the measurements. This could be useful in reducing imaging time so that OG techniques can be used in clinical settings.
Print ISSN: 0968-5243
Electronic ISSN: 1352-8661
Topics: Medicine , Physics
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Originally known as fossils from the Cambrian to the Devonian, the finding of a living monoplacophoran mollusc in 1952 was one of the great zoological discoveries of the twentieth century. Now, over 35 living species have been documented from deep-sea locations around the world, mainly from samples collected with trawls. Encountering these animals is extremely rare, and in situ observations are scant. Here, we report two new sightings and ecological data for a probable undescribed species of Neopilina including the first ever high-definition close-up video of these monoplacophorans in their natural environment, obtained while exploring seamount environments in American Samoa. Extensive trackways, similar to those associated with the monoplacophoran siting, may be evidence of a larger population at both seamounts. Living monoplacophorans are important to understanding the recent evolution of deep-sea fauna, yet their habitat, on polymetallic nodules and ferromanganese crusts, is under rapidly increasing pressure for deep-sea mineral extraction.
Print ISSN: 1867-1616
Electronic ISSN: 1867-1624
Topics: Biology
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: We complete the analysis of the data obtained during the experimental campaign around the semi circular bay of Quiberon, France, during two weeks in June 2006 (see Part 1). A reanalysis of numerical simulations performed with the Advanced Regional Prediction System model is presented. Three nested computational domains with increasing horizontal resolution down to 100 m, and a vertical resolution of 10 m at the lowest level, are used to reproduce the local-scale variations of the breeze close to the water surface of the bay. The Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model is used to assimilate the meteorological data. Comparisons of the simulations with the experimental data obtained at three sites reveal a good agreement of the flow over the bay and around the Quiberon peninsula during the daytime periods of sea-breeze development and weakening. In conditions of offshore synoptic flow, the simulations demonstrate that the semi-circular shape of the bay induces a corresponding circular shape in the offshore zones of stagnant flow preceding the sea-breeze onset, which move further offshore thereafter. The higher-resolution simulations are successful in reproducing the small-scale impacts of the peninsula and local coasts (breeze deviations, wakes, flow divergences), and in demonstrating the complexity of the breeze fields close to the surface over the bay. Our reanalysis also provides guidance for numerical simulation strategies for analyzing the structure and evolution of the near-surface breeze over a semi-circular bay, and for forecasting important flow details for use in upcoming sailing competitions.
Print ISSN: 0006-8314
Electronic ISSN: 1573-1472
Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: The Quiberon 2006 experiment was launched to document the onset and development of land and sea breezes over a semi-circular coastal bay propitious to inshore sailing competitions. The measurements were taken during the 2 weeks of 16–28 June 2006. Micrometeorological variables were recorded at three shore sites around the bay using turbulence sensors on 10–30-m high masts, on four instrumented catamarans at selected sites within the bay, and at a fourth shore site with a Sodar. Synoptic data and local measurements are analyzed here from the point of view of both micrometeorologists and competition skippers, testing in particular the empirical rules of breeze veering and backing according to the wind direction with respect to the coastline orientation at the mesoscale (the quadrant theory). Our analysis focuses on the patterns of lower-altitude wind direction and speed around the bay and over the water basin, and the temporal variations during the periods of the breeze onset, establishment and thermal reinforcement. In offshore synoptic-flow conditions (quadrants 1 and 2), the clockwise rotation of the surface flow had a very large amplitude, reaching up to 360 $$^{\circ }$$ . The breeze strength was negatively correlated to that of the synoptic wind speed. In conditions of onshore synoptic flow from the west (quadrant 3) at an angle to the mainland coast but perpendicular to the Quiberon peninsula, the rotation of the flow was backwards in the early morning and clockwise during the day with a moderate amplitude (40 $$^{\circ }$$ –50 $$^{\circ }$$ ) around the synoptic wind direction. As the surface wind speed was much larger than the synoptic wind speed, such a case we have designated as a “synoptic breeze”. The breeze onset was shown to fail several times under the influence of weak non-thermal events, e.g., the passage of an occluded front or clouds or an excess of convection. Finally, several local-scale influences of the complex coastal shape appeared in our measurements, e.g., wind fanning in the lee of the isthmus and airflow skirting around the peninsula forehand.
Print ISSN: 0006-8314
Electronic ISSN: 1573-1472
Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Sub- and supercritical freons can be successfully used in the bone matrix cleaning process. In the case of freon R22 the duration of bone matrix cleaning significantly decreases as compared to the same procedure with supercritical carbon dioxide. Freons R23, R134 and R407c which do not contain chlorine atoms are almost ineffective in this process.
Print ISSN: 1990-7931
Electronic ISSN: 1990-7923
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Catalytic hydrogenation of nitrobenzene in the medium of isopropanol and supercritical (SC) carbon dioxide using hypercrosslinked polystyrene-based ruthenium catalysts was studied. Carrying out this process in a SC-CO 2 medium allows higher reaction rates and selectivity for the target product, aniline.
Print ISSN: 1990-7931
Electronic ISSN: 1990-7923
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Results are presented concerning the studies on obtaining a heavy oil residue, its deasphalting and the impregnation of crushed carbonate stone with deasphaltizate. The heavy oil residue is obtained via the separation of extra-heavy crude oil using a steam thermal method. The deasphalting of the oil residue and the impregnation of crushed carbonate stone are carried out using a propane-butane solvent in the liquid and supercritical fluid state, respectively.
Print ISSN: 1990-7931
Electronic ISSN: 1990-7923
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 43
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The features and mechanisms of microcrater formation in optical silicate glass by laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) are determined in a wide range of energy densities (Φ) from 4 to 10 3 J/cm 2 for laser pulses of 5 ns length and 1 kHz repetition rate. The existence of two different mechanisms of laserinduced microcrater formation is revealed: (i) chemical etching in supercritical water (SCW), and (ii) cavitation. At Φ 〉 10 2 J/cm 2 irregular craters of 1–20 μm in depth with rough walls and distinct cracks around microcrater are formed testifying that in such mode (“hard”) laser induced cavitation plays a dominant role in glass removal. At Φ 〈 J/cm 2 neat glass craters with smooth walls are formed, their size and shape are easily reproducible, cracks are not formed, and the processing area is limited to the laser spot area. In this mode (“soft mode with active cavitation”), a microcirculation of water is stimulated by cavitation without causing undesirable shock breakage. The latter is achieved thanks to the fast removal of glass etching products by microcirculation, and the inflow of “fresh” etchant (SCW) to the glass surface in the vicinity of the formed microcraters. Such mode is optimal for highly controlled laser microstructuring of glass and other optically transparent materials.
Print ISSN: 1990-7931
Electronic ISSN: 1990-7923
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 44
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The interaction of pyrite (FeS 2 ) with water at the uniform heating (1.5 K/min) of the reaction mixture to 923 K and its subsequent cooling (about 3 K/min) to 423 K is studied. The reaction products are analyzed using the methods of mass-spectrometry, elemental and X-ray diffraction analyses, and scanning electron microscopy. It is established that H 2 S, SO 2 , and rhombic and hexagonal pyrrhotite (FeS) are formed while heating, and the subsequent cooling of the reaction system gives rise to the formation of H 2 S, H 2 , cubic pyrite, and monoclinic pyrrhotite exhibiting ferromagnetic properties. It is shown that the transformations FeS 2 → FeS → FeS x (1 〈 x ≤ 2) are accompanied by changes in the morphology and size of particles.
Print ISSN: 1990-7931
Electronic ISSN: 1990-7923
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 45
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The Himalayan region is not only threatened by rapid changes in anthropogenic activities but also by global climate change. Given the uncertainties of magnitude and characteristics of climate change, prior knowledge of long-term changing distribution pattern of forests is of crucial importance. Owing to the heterogeneity of the Himalayan mountain system, knowledge on potential impacts on forests makes it a paramount concern in this region. Therefore, to understand vulnerability as a prerequisite for forest management, we systematically review and synthesize peer-reviewed literature on climate change impacts of the Himalayan forests ( n  = 118). Of the reviewed articles, 91.5% were published after 2009. Our findings emphasize that due to a wide variety of disciplinary domains, the conceptual, methodological, and subsequent findings (observed and predicted) vary greatly given the complexity of the theme of the review. Most assessments addressing climate change vulnerability of forests and forest-dependent people fail to acknowledge the importance of scalar and temporal aspects of vulnerability. In addition, despite the brevity of the phenomena, much lesser is known about adaptation potentials, planning and policy initiatives, and coordinated multi-disciplinary decision making for managing forest resources and dependent livelihood options under different climate change scenarios. This insufficiency of knowledge requires identification of more prioritized focused research efforts. Given the substantial debate surrounding research management and policy-making, we highlight the urgent need to deal with ecological and societal implications of climate change impacts on the Himalayan forests.
Print ISSN: 1436-3798
Electronic ISSN: 1436-378X
Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: In this paper, the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with the adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) algorithm is introduced into the complexity research of precipitation systems to improve the traditional complexity measure method specific to the mode mixing of the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and incomplete decomposition of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). We combined the CEEMDAN with the wavelet packet transform (WPT) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) to create the CEEMDAN-WPT-MFDFA, and used it to measure the complexity of the monthly precipitation sequence of 12 sub-regions in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China. The results show that there are significant differences in the monthly precipitation complexity of each sub-region in Harbin. The complexity of the northwest area of Harbin is the lowest and its predictability is the best. The complexity and predictability of the middle and Midwest areas of Harbin are about average. The complexity of the southeast area of Harbin is higher than that of the northwest, middle, and Midwest areas of Harbin and its predictability is worse. The complexity of Shuangcheng is the highest and its predictability is the worst of all the studied sub-regions. We used terrain and human activity as factors to analyze the causes of the complexity of the local precipitation. The results showed that the correlations between the precipitation complexity and terrain are obvious, and the correlations between the precipitation complexity and human influence factors vary. The distribution of the precipitation complexity in this area may be generated by the superposition effect of human activities and natural factors such as terrain, general atmospheric circulation, land and sea location, and ocean currents. To evaluate the stability of the algorithm, the CEEMDAN-WPT-MFDFA was compared with the equal probability coarse graining LZC algorithm, fuzzy entropy, and wavelet entropy. The results show that the CEEMDAN-WPT-MFDFA was more stable than 3 contrast methods under the influence of white noise and colored noise, which proves that the CEEMDAN-WPT-MFDFA has a strong robustness under the influence of noise.
Print ISSN: 0033-4553
Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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• 47
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The sorption of triangular silver nanoplates on polyurethane foam is investigated as a procedure for creating a nanocomposite sensing material for subsequent use in optical means of chemical analysis. Triangular silver nanoplates are synthesized and characterized, and a simple sorption technique for the formation of a composite material based on these nanoplates is proposed.
Print ISSN: 0036-0244
Electronic ISSN: 1531-863X
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 48
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The list of authors and their affiliations should read: N. V. Root a, b , D. Yu. Kultin a , L. M. Kustov a, b , I. K. Kudryavtsev a , and O. K. Lebedeva a, * a Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 Russia b N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Russia *e-mail: lebedeva@general.chem.msu.ru
Print ISSN: 0036-0244
Electronic ISSN: 1531-863X
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 49
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The enthalpies of dissolution of 3,4β-epoxyarglabin C 15 H 18 O 4 are measured via isothermal calorimetry at lactone: 96% ethanol molar ratios of 1: 6000, 1: 12000, 1: 24000 at 298.15 K. The standard enthalpy of dissolution of C 15 H 18 O 4 in 96% ethanol is calculated from the obtained data; the value is 40.1 ± 0.4 kJ/mol. The enthalpies of combustion, melting, and formation of 3,4β-epoxyarglabin C 15 H 18 O 4 are estimated by approximate means.
Print ISSN: 0036-0244
Electronic ISSN: 1531-863X
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 50
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The n -decane– n -hexadecane–cyclododecane, n -decane–cyclododecane, and n -hexadecane–cyclododecane systems are studied by means of low-temperature differential thermal analysis using a differential scanning heat flow calorimeter. It is noted that all studied systems belong to the eutectic type. It is concluded that in the n -decane– n -hexadecane–cyclododecane system, the eutectic composition contains 85.0 wt % n -С 10 Н 22 , 4.0 wt % n -С 16 Н 34 , and 11.0 wt % С 12 Н 24 . It has a melting point of −35.0°C.
Print ISSN: 0036-0244
Electronic ISSN: 1531-863X
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 51
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: Chestnut shells are solid residues generated by the food industry and are mostly discarded as waste. However, chestnut shells are attracting much attention at present because they have many health-promoting compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Therefore, an attempt is made here to use chestnut shells as a means of fabric finishing to add functionality to fabrics. Chestnut-shell finishing solutions were extracted using three different solvent systems: a mixture of distilled water and 1,2-hexansdiol (97.5/2.5 wt%), a mixture of distilled water and 1,3-butanediol (50/50 wt%), and a mixture of distilled water and 1,3-butanediol (20/80 wt%). The three extracts were applied to wool and cotton fabrics using a pad-dry-cure process. It was found that the wool and cotton fabrics finished using the extract based on distilled water and 1,3-butanediol (50/50 wt%) showed the most significant antioxidant and antibacterial results from among the three extracts. This is presumed to have occurred because this extract contained a significant number of bioactive components, such as phenolic compounds (ca. 1.89 mg/mL) and tannins (ca. 22.04 mg/mL).
Print ISSN: 0969-0239
Electronic ISSN: 1572-882X
Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 52
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: Dissolution, dispersion, and aggregation characteristics of 2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammoniopropyl polysaccharides made from β-1,3-glucan extracted from Euglena (referred to as paramylon) differing in the degree of substitution (DS) of a 2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammoniopropyl group were examined. Freeze-dried solids made from cationic paramylon derivatives with a DS ranging from 0.07 to 0.16 spontaneously formed crystalline nanofibers upon being mechanically stirred in water. Derivatives with a DS greater than 0.31 lacked similar fiber formability. Nevertheless, they formed a distinctly outlined, transparent thin film featuring a nanometer-level flat surface using an aqueous solution casting method in which water is gradually removed from the aqueous homogeneous solution and a methanolic solution casting method featuring rapid removal of methanol from a heterogeneous solution. Those that had a DS less than 0.06 lacked solution solubility and dispersibility; they formed a thin film from a heterogeneous solution. These results demonstrate that cationic paramylon derivatives can be used as a constituent of well-organized polymeric materials.
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Electronic ISSN: 1572-882X
Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 53
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is a technique for evaluating surface properties. The current work emphasizes the use of IGC to evaluate the surface physicochemical changes during different bacterial cellulose (BC) processing methods as well as upon polyaniline (PANi) incorporation. The processing methods (oven-drying, freeze-drying, and regeneration) caused changes in the BC surface group distribution, where upon freeze-drying and regeneration, a more acidic behavior is obtained, compared to oven-drying ( K b / K a decreased up to 24%). Through freeze-drying, the structural pore preservation increases (54%) the BC porosity, whereas through regeneration, the porosity decreases (23%), compared to BC oven-drying. Regarding the nanocomposites, with PANi incorporation, the overall properties evaluated by IGC were significantly changed. The $$\gamma_{\text{s}}^{\text{total}}$$ increases up to 150%, indicating a more reactive surface in the nanocomposites. Also, is observed a sevenfold increase in the K b / K a and a less porous surface (up to 85%). Hence, the current work highlights the use of IGC as a viable technique to evaluate the physicochemical changes upon different BC modifications.
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• 54
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: Herein, we present a new process for the preparation of cellulose-chitosan foams using an aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr) solution. After obtaining hydrogels via dissolution-regeneration from an aqueous LiBr solution and methanol, cellulose-chitosan foams were prepared via solvent exchange (water → ethanol →  t -butyl alcohol) followed by freeze-drying. The amino group content and elemental analysis confirmed the successful preparation of three foam grades by controlling the blend ratio of cellulose and chitosan. The cellulose-chitosan foams possessed three-dimensional porous networks composed of nano-fibrils. The swelling properties of the foams improved due to the presence of amino groups. The cellulose-chitosan foams exhibited a higher adsorption capacity (1170.2 mg/g) of Congo red compared to the cellulose (623.2 mg/g). The adsorption–desorption process of Congo red demonstrated the strong interactions between chitosan and Congo red. The cellulose-chitosan foams could be applied as an adsorbent for the treatment of industrial wastewater, especially for anionic dyes.
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• 55
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: New bio-based packaging materials are highly interesting for replacing conventional fossil based products for a more sustainable society. Water-stable cellulose fiber foams have been produced in a simple one-batch foam-forming process with drying under ambient conditions. The cellulose fiber foams have a low density (33–66 kg/m 3 ) and can inhibit microbial growth; two highly valuable features for insulating packaging materials, especially in combination with stability in water. Cationic chitosan and/or polyvinylamine have been added during the foam-forming process to give the foams water-stability and antimicrobial properties. The structural and mechanical properties of the cellulose fiber foams have been studied and the antimicrobial properties have been evaluated with respect to both Escherichia coli , a common model bacteria and Aspergillus brasiliensis , a sporulating mold. The cellulose foams containing chitosan had both good water-stability and good antibacterial and antifungal properties, while the foams containing PVAm did disintegrate in water and did not inhibit fungal growth when nutrients were added to the foam, showing that it is possible to produce a bio-based foam material with the desired characters. This can be an interesting low-density packaging material for protection from both mechanical and microbial damage without using any toxic compounds.
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Electronic ISSN: 1572-882X
Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 56
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The mechanism and regioselectivity of cycloaddition reaction between diphenyl hydrazonoyl chloride and phenyl triflyl acetylene as an electron-deficient dipolarophyl in acetonitrile at room temperature are theoretically investigated using density functional theory and solvent polarized continuum model. Two general mechanism, concerted and stepwise mechanism, have been proposed for this reaction. Each mechanism has two different paths and two possible products. The activation energies of pathways were calculated using quantum mechanical approach and compared with each other. An excellent agreement was observed between the previously reported experimental work and the theoretical approaches for regioselectivity of this reaction.
Print ISSN: 0036-0244
Electronic ISSN: 1531-863X
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 57
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Water-soluble forms of a hydrophobic dye, zinc tetraphenylporphyrinate, are obtained via its solubilization by polymer particles of the micellar type formed by a copolymer of N -vinylpyrrolidone with triethylene glycol dimethacrylate. Hydrodynamic radii R h and the size distribution of such particles in neutral aqueous buffer solutions are determined via dynamic light scattering. The electrochemical activity of the encapsulated dye is found, and its photochemical properties (absorption and fluorescence) are studied.
Print ISSN: 0036-0244
Electronic ISSN: 1531-863X
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 58
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Zero-point energies (ZPE) and isotope effects, induced by intermolecular, noncovalent vibrations, are computed and tested by experimental data. The ZPE differences of H- and D-complexes of water with hydrogen, methane, and water molecules are about 100–300 cal/mol; they result to isotope effects IE of 1.20–1.70. Semi-ionic bonds between metal ions and water ligands in M(H 2 O) 6 2+ complexes are much stronger; their ZPEs are about 12–14 kcal/mol per molecule and result to IE of 1.9–2.1 at 300 K. Protonated (deuterated) water and biwater exhibit the largest ZPE differences and isotope effects; the latter are 25–28 and 12–13 for water and biwater, respectively. Noncovalent IEs contribute markedly into the experimentally measured effects and explain many anomalous and even magic properties of the effects, such as the dependence of IE on the solvents and on the presence of the third substances, enormously large isotope effects at the mild conditions, the difference between IEs measured in the reactions of individual protiated and deuterated compounds and those measured in their mixture. Noncovalent IEs are not negligible and should be taken into account to make correct and substantiated conclusions on the reaction mechanisms. The kinetic equations are derived for the total isotope effects, which include noncovalent IEs as additive factors.
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Electronic ISSN: 1531-863X
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 59
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The heat capacity of a first-generation carbosilane dendrimer with terminal phenylethyl groups as a function of temperature in the range from 6 to 520 K is studied for the first time via precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Physical transformations, such as low-temperature structural anomaly and glass transition are detected in the above-mentioned range of temperatures, and their standard thermodynamic characteristics are determined and analyzed. The standard thermodynamic functions of the studied dendrimer in the range of T → 0 to 520 K are calculated from the experimental data, as is the standard entropy in the devitrified state at T = 298.15 K. The standard thermodynamic characteristics of the carbosilane dendrimers studied in this work and earlier are compared.
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Electronic ISSN: 1531-863X
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 60
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Experimental results on the solubility of ammonium palmitate as a potential fabric water-repellent agent in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 )—pure and modified with acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide—are presented. The measurements are performed at temperatures 318.2 and 328.2 K in the pressure range from 10.0 to 32.5 MPa in a dynamic regime. The experimental solubility data are described using the Peng–Robinson equation of state. The results of treatment of various types of cotton fabrics by ammonium palmitate in SC-CO 2 are presented. The contact (wetting) angle of the treated samples is determined and the increase in their hydrophobicity is demonstrated.
Print ISSN: 1990-7931
Electronic ISSN: 1990-7923
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 61
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The chromatographic separation of ibuprofen enantiomers on a Nautilus-E chiral stationary phase with a grafted eremomycin antibiotic at high column loading is accompanied by distortion of the shape of chromatographic peaks. A model is proposed to explain this phenomenon. A number of factors are considered in the model: the ionization of ibuprofen in the mobile phase, the pH change in the mass transfer zone caused by ionization, and competitive adsorption involving buffer components. Simulations performed using this model within the theory of nonequilibrium chromatography allow the shape of chromatograms for large amounts of S - and R -ibuprofen samples to be predicted. The adsorption mechanism is found to be mainly ion-exchange. The contribution from the molecular adsorption of ibuprofen to the total retention is shown to be several percent.
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Electronic ISSN: 1531-863X
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 62
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Enthalpies of the protonation of glycine in water‒dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) mixed solvents are determined calorimetrically in the range of DMSO mole fractions of 0.0 to 0.9, at T = 298.15 K and an ionic strength μ = 0.3 (NaClO 4 ). It is established that the protonation of glycine becomes more exothermic with an increasing mole fraction of DMSO, and the enthalpies of resolvation of glycine and glycinium ions in water‒DMSO solvent mixtures are calculated. It is shown that the small changes in the enthalpy of protonation observed at low mole fractions of DMSO are caused by the contributions from the solvation of proton and protonated glycine cancelling each other out. The enthalpy term of the Gibbs energy of the reaction leading to the formation of glycinium ion is estimated along with the enthalpy of resolvation of the reacting species in the water‒DMSO mixed solvent.
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Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: An environmentally friendly method for the static extraction of rutin and quercetin from the flower buds of Sophora japonica L. by subcritical water is developed. Concentrations of target compounds in the extracts are determined by HPLC. The developed method is highly efficient: in comparison with the conventional method, it can produce similar yields in 10-fold shorter extraction time.
Print ISSN: 1990-7931
Electronic ISSN: 1990-7923
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 64
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: A study of esterification process of dicarboxylic acids with 2-ethylhexanol under supercritical conditions is presented. It was shown that the esterification reaction can be carried out without a catalyst. The esters formed with greater rate and selectivity.
Print ISSN: 1990-7931
Electronic ISSN: 1990-7923
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 65
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Cytotoxicity and in vitro degradation rate of porous matrices based on lactide and ε-caprolactone copolymers formed via supercritical foaming are determined. A high biocompatibility of materials obtained by the above method is demonstrated.
Print ISSN: 1990-7931
Electronic ISSN: 1990-7923
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 66
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The general hydrodynamic equations of a mathematical model for supercritical fluid extraction are derived within the framework of the continuum mechanics approach. The shrinking core concept is used to describe the mass transfer on the solid-liquid interface. The complete system of macroscopic differential mass-balance equations is reduced to a one-dimensional approximation and accounts for the axial dispersion effect. Correlation formulas available in the literature are used to calculate the axial dispersion coefficient for the conditions of supercritical CO 2 filtration. The effect of axial dispersion on the characteristics of the macroscopic process is analyzed for the typical laboratory-scale extraction conditions in the framework of the suggested model. The numerical simulations demonstrate that the difference between the values of the current mass of accumulated extract calculated in terms of the complete approach, which accounts for the axial dispersion, and the one related to the simplified model (in which the axial dispersion is neglected), is less than 10%. The same comparison is made for the outlet concentrations of the target compounds; the difference reaches 200%.
Print ISSN: 1990-7931
Electronic ISSN: 1990-7923
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 67
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The kinetics of inactivation of Escherichia coli under the action of pressurized gases (CO 2 , O 2 and N 2 ) is studied. It is demonstrated that the concentration of surviving cells decreases by seven orders of magnitude in the case of CO 2 and less than by one order in the case of O 2 and N 2 . An assumption about how bacterial cells are inactivated in the presence of CO 2 is proposed.
Print ISSN: 1990-7931
Electronic ISSN: 1990-7923
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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• 68
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: Quartzites are widespread within Earth’s lithosphere, but their highly pure varieties occur quite infrequently. With the development of alternative energy sources, including solar, and with increasing demand for high-purity quartz for optics, interest has risen in high-purity silicon-bearing materials. The quartzites discovered in the southeast part of the Eastern Sayan Mountains are particularly attractive for exploration in terms of their raw material quality and feasibility to be enriched. For this reason, their genesis also merits study. Available geochemical data show that chemogenic (d 18 O 〉 29.2‰) siliceous-carbonate sediments of the Irkut Formation are fairly pure (impurity elements 〈 800 ppm), and that half the impurities are easily removed carbonate components of the rock. Bedded quartzites remote from the intrusive granitoids and near-contact quartzites were recognized based on geochemical and petrographic data. Influenced by the Sumsunur granitoids, the near-contact quartzites originally contained 〉 0.9% impurities, but later, under the action of sliding slabs of ophiolite dynamothermal treatment reduced impurities to 〈 100 ppm, resulting in “superquartzites” (highly pure quartzites). The presence of only minor structural impurities is due to the enrichment capacity of superquartzites to 10.1 ppm (7.2 ppm under special conditions) of 10 elements: Fe, Al, Ti, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Na, K, and Li. Graphical Abstract
Electronic ISSN: 1993-0364
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
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• 69
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: The Fule Pb–Zn deposit is located in the Sichuan–Yunnan–Guizhou Province, and it is an important and giant low temperature metallogenic domain in China. In our research area, the Pb–Zn deposits are mainly hosted in the Permian Yangxin Formation and are composed of dolostone and limestone. The distance between the ore bodies and the Permian Emeishan basalt ranged from 50 to 160 m. In this study, the nickel rich minerals, including vaesite, polydymite and millerite, were reported for the first time in the Fule deposit. These minerals occurred as xenomorphic mineral aggregate and were sporadically distributed in the sphalerite–galena–calcite vein, which is the main ore type in the deposit. Our study indicated that the paragenetic sequence of minerals in the Fule deposit is the following order: polydymite → vaesite → millerite → sphalerite → galena → tetrahedrite (tennantite). The geological occurrence characteristics of those nickeliferous minerals suggested that the Permian Emeishan basalt is a possible barrier layer of Pb–Zn ore-forming fluid, and it is an important source for the Ni and part of the Cu in the deposit. The Sichuan–Yunnan–Guizhou Pb–Zn mineralization province is a world-class production base of Pb and Zn, in which the Permian Emeishan basalt and Pb–Zn deposits have uniformly spatial distribution, but the relationship of mineralization between them is still under debate. This report provides new evidence for understanding the relationship between Pb–Zn mineralization and Permian Emeishan basalt in the Sichuan–Yunnan–Guizhou Pb–Zn mineralization province.
Electronic ISSN: 1993-0364
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
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• 70
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: Dioecious species accounted for 6% of all plant species, including a number of crops and economically important species, such as poplar. However, sex determination and sex chromosome evolution have been studied only in few dioecious species. In poplar, the sex-determining locus was mapped to chromosome 19. Interestingly, this locus was mapped to either a peritelomeric or a centromeric region among different poplar species. We developed an oligonucleotide (oligo)-based chromosome painting probe based on the sequence of chromosome 19 from Populus trichocarpa. We performed chromosome painting in P . tomentosa and P . deltoides . Surprisingly, the distal end on the short arm of chromosome 19, which corresponds to the location of the sex-determining locus reported in several species, was not painted in both species. Thus, the DNA sequences associated with this region have not been anchored to the current chromosome 19 pseudomolecule, which was confirmed by painting of somatic metaphase chromosome 19 of P . trichocarpa . Interestingly, the unpainted distal ends of the two chromosome 19 did not pair at the pachytene stage in 22–24% of the meiotic cells in the two species, suggest that these regions from the sex chromosomes have structurally diverged from each other, resulting in the reduced pairing frequency. These results shed light on divergence of a pair of young sex chromosomes in poplar.
Print ISSN: 0009-5915
Electronic ISSN: 1432-0886
Topics: Biology , Medicine
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• 71
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: Euchroma Dejean, 1833 (Buprestidae: Coleoptera) is a monotypic genus comprising the species Euchroma gigantea , with populations presenting a degree of karyotypic variation/polymorphism rarely found within a single taxonomic (specific) unit, as well as drastically incompatible meiotic configurations in populations from extremes of the species range. To better understand the complex karyotypic evolution of E. gigantea , the karyotypes of specimens from five populations in Brazil were investigated using molecular cytogenetics and phylogenetic approaches. Herein, we used FISH with histone genes as well as sequencing of the COI to determine differential distribution of markers and relationships among populations. The analyses revealed new karyotypes, with variability for chromosome number and morphology of multiple sex chromosome mechanisms, occurrence of B chromosome variants (punctiform and large ones), and high dispersion of histone genes in different karyotypes. These data indicate that chromosomal polymorphism in E. gigantea is greater than previously reported, and that the species can be a valuable model for cytogenetic studies. The COI phylogenetic and haplotype analyses highlighted the formation of three groups with chromosomally polymorphic individuals. Finally, we compared the different karyotypes and proposed a model for the chromosomal evolution of this species. The species E. gigantea includes at least three cytogenetically polymorphic lineages. Moreover, in each of these lineages, different chromosomal rearrangements have been fixed. Dispersion of repetitive sequences may have favored the high frequency of these rearrangements, which could be related to both adaptation of the species to different habitats and the speciation process.
Print ISSN: 0967-3849
Electronic ISSN: 1573-6849
Topics: Biology
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: In this work, a computer-aided molecular design (CAMD)-based approach has been developed to design alternative solvents for extracting palm oil from palm pressed fibre (PPF). PPF is a by-product from palm oil milling process produced during the extraction of crude palm oil from fresh fruit bunches. It is noted that the oil that found in PPF consists of high concentration of carotenoids; therefore, palm oil industries are trying to recover the residual oil in PPF. Hexane is conventionally used as a solvent to extract PPF. However, hexane has high boiling point which leads to significant degradation of carotene during solvent recovery. Besides, hexane is considered as a toxic chemical; thus, the extracted oil cannot be used in food applications. In order to overcome the limitations of hexane, this work presents a systematic approach to generate alternative solvents with desirable attributes for PPF oil extraction via CAMD with the integration of safety and health aspects. In this work, diffusivity is defined as a key parameter to evaluate the solvent functionality because the solvent must diffuse through the fibrous matrix to solubilize trapped oil. The safety and health aspects were assessed by implementing disjunctive programming to discretize the properties for allocation of subindex scores. The developed algorithm can trade-off the process and environmental, health and safety (EHS) performances and identify alternative solvents which improve EHS performance compare with hexane.
Print ISSN: 1618-954X
Electronic ISSN: 1618-9558
Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: This paper aims to validate inflow simulations concerning the present-day climate at Água Vermelha Hydroelectric Plant (AVHP—located on the Grande River Basin) based on the Soil Moisture Accounting Procedure (SMAP) hydrological model. In order to provide rainfall data to the SMAP model, the RegCM regional climate model was also used working with boundary conditions from the MIROC model. Initially, present-day climate simulation performed by RegCM model was analyzed. It was found that, in terms of rainfall, the model was able to simulate the main patterns observed over South America. A bias correction technique was also used and it was essential to reduce mistakes related to rainfall simulation. Comparison between rainfall simulations from RegCM and MIROC showed improvements when the dynamical downscaling was performed. Then, SMAP, a rainfall-runoff hydrological model, was used to simulate inflows at Água Vermelha Hydroelectric Plant. After calibration with observed rainfall, SMAP simulations were evaluated in two different periods from the one used in calibration. During calibration, SMAP captures the inflow variability observed at AVHP. During validation periods, the hydrological model obtained better results and statistics with observed rainfall. However, in spite of some discrepancies, the use of simulated rainfall without bias correction captured the interannual flow variability. However, the use of bias removal in the simulated rainfall performed by RegCM brought significant improvements to the simulation of natural inflows performed by SMAP. Not only the curve of simulated inflow became more similar to the observed inflow, but also the statistics improved their values. Improvements were also noticed in the inflow simulation when the rainfall was provided by the regional climate model compared to the global model. In general, results obtained so far prove that there was an added value in rainfall when regional climate model was compared to global climate model and that data from regional models must be bias-corrected so as to improve their results.
Print ISSN: 0930-7575
Electronic ISSN: 1432-0894
Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: We have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the climate of the Kerguelen Islands (49° S, 69° E) and investigate its inter-annual variability. Here, we have dynamically downscaled 30 years of the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) over these islands at 3-km horizontal resolution. The model output is found to agree well with the station and radiosonde data at the Port-aux-Français station, the only location in the islands for which observational data is available. An analysis of the seasonal mean WRF data showed a general increase in precipitation and decrease in temperature with elevation. The largest seasonal rainfall amounts occur at the highest elevations of the Cook Ice Cap in winter where the summer mean temperature is around 0 °C. Five modes of variability are considered: conventional and Modoki El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), Subtropical IOD (SIOD) and Southern Annular Mode (SAM). It is concluded that a key mechanism by which these modes impact the local climate is through interaction with the diurnal cycle in particular in the summer season when it has a larger magnitude. One of the most affected regions is the area just to the east of the Cook Ice Cap extending into the lower elevations between the Gallieni and Courbet Peninsulas. The WRF simulation shows that despite the small annual variability, the atmospheric flow in the Kerguelen Islands is rather complex which may also be the case for the other islands located in the Southern Hemisphere at similar latitudes.
Print ISSN: 0177-798X
Electronic ISSN: 1434-4483
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Precipitation in southern China during boreal summer (June to August) shows a substantial interdecadal variability on the timescale longer than 8 years. In this study, based on the analysis of singular value decomposition, we diagnose the leading mode of interdecadal covariability between the observational precipitation in southern China and the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean. Results indicate that there exist a remarkable southern China zonal dipole (SCZD) pattern of interdecadal variability of summer precipitation and an interdecadal Indian Ocean basin mode (ID-IOBM) of SST. It is found that the SCZD is evidently covaried with the ID-IOBM, which may induce anomalous inter-hemispheric vertical circulation and atmospheric Kelvin waves. During the warm phase of the ID-IOBM, an enhanced lower-level convergence and upper-level divergence exist over the tropical Indian Ocean, which is a typical Gill-Matsuno-type response to the SST warming. Meanwhile, the accompanied upper-level outflow anomalies further converge over the Indo-China peninsula, resulting in a lower-level anticyclone that contributes to reduction of the eastward moisture transport from the Bay of Bengal to the west part of southern China. In addition, the Kelvin wave-like pattern, as a response of the warm ID-IOBM phase, further induces the lower-level anticyclonic anomaly over the South China Sea–Philippines. Such an anticyclonic circulation is favorable for more water vapor transport from the East China Sea into the east part of southern China. Therefore, the joint effects of the anomalous inter-hemispheric vertical circulation and the Kelvin wave-like pattern associated with the ID-IOBM may eventually play a key role in generating the SCZD pattern.
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Electronic ISSN: 1434-4483
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: The paper addresses observational aspects of widespread rain associated with the organized convection that forms over the southwest peninsular India during the pre-monsoon season. The evolution of the cloud band over the equatorial region, its northward propagation, development of cross equatorial flow near the Somalia coast, and appearance of equatorial westerly wind resemble closely to that of the monsoon organized convection. Low-level convergence, cyclonic vorticity, and ascending motion are other major characteristics of the cloud bands associated with the pre-monsoon organized convection which exhibits similarity with that of monsoon. The ascending motion plays vital role on the formation of cloud band that produces widespread rainfall persisting for more than a week. The vertical shear of meridional winds is found to co-exist with precipitation over the Arabian Sea off the southwest peninsular India. The velocity potential values derived from the winds at 850 and 200 hPa levels confirm the rising motion on the basis of low-level convergence and upper level divergence. Also, shifting of ascending limb of the local Hadley circulation to the north of the equator is observed during the days of the presence of organized convection over the southwest peninsular region. Noticeable shift in the Walker circulation rising limb is also identified during the same time.
Print ISSN: 0177-798X
Electronic ISSN: 1434-4483
Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: As global climate changes, there is increasing need to understand how changes in the frequencies of environmental variability affect populations. Age-structured populations have recently been shown to filter specific frequencies of environmental variability, favoring generational frequencies, and very low frequencies, a phenomenon known as cohort resonance . However, there has been little exploration of how changes in the spectra of environmental signals will affect the stability and persistence of age-structured populations. To examine this issue, we analyzed a likely example to show how changes in the frequency of an influential climate phenomenon, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), could affect a marine bird population. We used a density-dependent, age-structured population model to calculate the transfer function (i.e., the frequency-dependent sensitivity) of Brandt’s cormorant ( Phalacrocorax penicillatus ), a representative marine bird species known to be influenced by ENSO. We then assessed how the population would be affected by ENSO forcing that was doubled and halved in frequency. The transfer function indicated this population is most sensitive to variance at low frequencies, but does not exhibit the sensitivity to generational frequencies (cohort resonance) observed in shorter-lived species. Doubling the frequency of ENSO unexpectedly resulted in higher mean adult population abundance, lower variance, and lower probability of extinction, compared to forcing with the historical or reduced ENSO frequency. Our results illustrate how long-lived species with environmentally driven variability in recruitment, including many species of marine birds and fish, may respond in counterintuitive ways to anticipated changes in environmental variability.
Print ISSN: 1874-1738
Electronic ISSN: 1874-1746
Topics: Biology
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Understanding the scaling-up process is essential for the application of the electrokinetic remediation at field scale, as the technique is site-specific and dependent on the target contaminants. In this paper, a generalized and easy-to-use model is presented for the prediction of the energy requirements at different scales. The mathematical model includes the definition of a specific energy parameter for each mobilized metal, obtained from the relationship between the amount of metal mobilized and the maximum that can be mobilized. The results indicate that the specific energy requirements for the removal of each target contaminant can be predicted as the process is scaled-up.
Print ISSN: 0169-3913
Topics: Geosciences , Technology
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-07
Description: Micaceous soils are generally known for their high compressibility, low compactability, and low shear strength behavior. Mica particles are flaky, flexible, and resilient nature with low stiffness and hardness due to numerous foliated intact mica flakes, which allows them to undergo deformation upon loading and rebound upon unloading. However, the weak mica particles among strong sand particles are highly susceptible to crushing, which affects the performance of geotechnical structures. The current research is focused on the effect of successive impact loading on crushability, compactability, compressibility, and microstructure of micaceous sand containing 30% mica. Significant increase in MDD, fine content, and compression index of micaceous sand was observed with the increase in successive cycles of impact loading. The reduction in resilient nature of micaceous soil due to crushing of intact mica particles along with the reduced bridging and ordering combination of sand-mica particles could be responsible for altered compactability behavior of micaceous sand. The increased percentage of fines due to crushing of mica particles caused the reduction in stiffness leading to higher compressibility of micaceous soil.
Print ISSN: 2196-7202
Electronic ISSN: 2196-7210
Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: The selection of therapeutic dose for the most effective treatment of tumours is an intricate interplay of factors. Molecular imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or single–photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can address questions central to this selection: Does the drug reach its target? Does the drug engage with the target of interest? Is the drug dose sufficient to elicit the desired pharmacological effect? Does the dose saturate available target sites? Combining functional PET and SPECT imaging with anatomical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) allows drug occupancy at the target to be related directly to anatomical or physiological changes in a tissue resulting from therapy. In vivo competition studies, using a tracer amount of radioligand that binds to the tumour receptor with high specificity, enable direct assessment of the relationship between drug plasma concentration and target occupancy . Including imaging studies in early drug development can aid with dose selection and suggest improvements for patient stratification to obtain higher effective utility from a drug after approval. In this review, the potential value of including translational receptor occupancy studies and molecular imaging strategies early on in drug development is addressed.
Electronic ISSN: 1550-7416
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: The number of new psychoactive substances keeps on rising despite the controlling efforts by law enforcement. Although metabolism of the newly emerging drugs is continuously studied to keep up with the new additions, the exact structures of the metabolites are often not identified due to the insufficient sample quantities for techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The aim of the study was to characterise several metabolites of the synthetic cannabinoid (1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl) (2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl) methanone (UR-144) by NMR spectroscopy after the incubation with the fungus Cunninghamella elegans . UR-144 was incubated with C. elegans for 72 h, and the resulting metabolites were chromatographically separated. Six fractions were collected and analysed by NMR spectroscopy. UR-144 was also incubated with human liver microsomes (HLM), and the liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis was performed on the HLM metabolites with the characterised fungal metabolites as reference standards. Ten metabolites were characterised by NMR analysis including dihydroxy metabolites, carboxy and hydroxy metabolites, a hydroxy and ketone metabolite, and a carboxy and ketone metabolite. Of these metabolites, dihydroxy metabolite, carboxy and hydroxy metabolites, and a hydroxy and ketone metabolite were identified in HLM incubation. The results indicate that the fungus is capable of producing human-relevant metabolites including the exact isomers. The capacity of the fungus C. elegans to allow for NMR structural characterisation by enabling production of large amounts of metabolites makes it an ideal model to complement metabolism studies.
Electronic ISSN: 1550-7416
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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Springer
Publication Date: 2018-03-09
Description: Current cancer diagnostic methods are challenged by low sensitivity, high false positive rate, limited tumor information, uncomfortable or invasive procedures, and high cost. Liquid biopsy that analyzes circulating biomarkers in body fluids represents a promising solution to these challenges. Exosomes are one of the promising cancer biomarkers for liquid biopsy because they are cell-secreted, nano-sized, extracellular vesicles that stably exist in all types of body fluids. Exosomes transfer DNAs, RNAs, proteins, and lipids from parent cells to recipient cells for intercellular communication and play important roles in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. Many liquid biopsy biosensors have been developed to offer non- or minimally-invasive, highly sensitive, simple, rapid, and cost-effective cancer diagnostics. This review summarized recent advances of liquid biopsy biosensors with a focus on the detection of exosomal proteins as biomarkers for cancer screening, diagnosis, and prognosis. We reviewed six major types of liquid biopsy biosensors including immunofluorescence biosensor, colorimetric biosensor, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) biosensor, electrochemical biosensor, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) biosensor. We shared our perspectives on future improvement of exosome-based liquid biopsy biosensors to accelerate their clinical translation.
Electronic ISSN: 1550-7416
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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Springer