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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (504,048)
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  • 1
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-30
    Description: Collecting information on bat prey availability usually involves the use of light traps to capture moths and flies that constitute the main prey items of most insectivorous bats. However, despite the recent awareness on the adverse effects of light on bats, little is known regarding the potential impacts of light trapping on the bat sampling outcomes when passive acoustic sampling and light trapping are implemented simultaneously. Using a before–after experimental design that involved the installation of a 6 W actinic light trap 1 m away from the bat detector, we tested the predictions that (1) slow-flying bat species will be less active when the light trap is present, while the opposite will be true for fast-flying species; and (2) bat species richness will be lower at lit conditions compared to dark ones. Our results suggest that the use of light traps in combination with bat detectors may considerably influence the outcomes of acoustic sampling. Although the activity of fast-flying bat species did not differ between the two treatments, we found that the activity of slow-flying ones such as Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Rhinolophus hipposideros decreased significantly at lit conditions. Furthermore, we recorded fewer bat species when the light trap was deployed. To overcome this issue, we strongly recommend either (1) placing light traps at a considerable distance from bat detectors; or (2) using light traps during the night that follows the bat sampling if sampling needs to be at the same position; or (3) deploying non-attractant insect traps such as Malaise traps if Lepidoptera is not the main order targeted. Passive acoustic sampling has become an increasingly popular method to study the ecology of echolocating bats. However, the outcomes may be considerably biased if the acoustic sampling is not implemented correctly. We demonstrate that when collecting information on bat activity and prey availability, the use of light traps in concomitance with bat detectors significantly affects the acoustic outcomes. We provide alternative sampling strategies to overcome this issue.
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-3485
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Biology
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  • 2
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-28
    Description: Hybridization between wild species and their domestic congeners is considered a major threat for wildlife conservation. Genetic integrity of the European wildcat, for instance, is a concern as they are outnumbered by domestic cats by several orders of magnitude throughout its range. We genotyped 1,071 individual wildcat samples obtained from hair traps and roadkills collected across the highly fragmented forests of western Central Europe, in Germany and Luxembourg, to assess domestic cat introgression in wildcats in human-dominated landscapes. Analyses using a panel of 75 autosomal SNPs suggested a low hybridization rate, with 3.5% of wildcat individuals being categorized as F1, F2, or backcrosses to either parental taxon. We report that results based on a set of SNPs were more consistent than on a set of 14 microsatellite markers, showed higher accuracy to detect hybrids and their class in simulation analyses, and were less affected by underlying population structure. Our results strongly suggest that very high hybridization rates previously reported for Central Europe may be partly due to inadequate choice of markers and/or sampling design. Our study documents that an adequately selected SNP panel for hybrid detection may be used as an alternative to commonly applied microsatellite markers, including studies relying on noninvasively collected samples. In addition, our finding of overall low hybridization rates in Central European wildcats provides an example of successful wildlife coexistence in human-dominated, fragmented landscapes. ”We assess hyribization between wildcats and domestic cats in Germany and Luxembourg, and offer an explanation for greatly differing previous estimates, contrasting with those reported in our and other studies. We use microsatellites, SNPs and control region mtDNA sequences, as well as different sampling strategies (hair trapping and roadkill specimen collection) of 1.071 individuals. Our results showed that study setup concerning the choice of markers and sampling affect inferred hybridization rates. Our study documents very low hybridization rates between a wild and a domestic taxon despite close coexistence and widespread anthropogenic disturbance.”
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 3
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-28
    Description: s Cannibalism is induced in larval-stage populations of the Hokkaido salamander, Hynobius retardatus , under the control of a cannibalism reaction norm. Here, I examined phenotypic expression under the cannibalism reaction norm, and how the induction of a cannibalistic morph under the norm leads to populational morphological diversification. I conducted a set of experiments in which density was manipulated to be either low or high. In the high-density treatment, the populations become dimorphic with some individuals developing into the cannibal morph type. I performed an exploratory analysis based on geometric morphometrics and showed that shape characteristics differed between not only cannibal and noncannibal morph types in the high-density treatment but also between those morph types and the solitary morph type in the low-density treatment. Size and shape of cannibal and noncannibal individuals were found to be located at either end of a continuum of expression following a unique size–shape integration rule that was different from the rule governing the size and shape variations of the solitary morph type. This result implies that the high-density-driven inducible morphology of an individual is governed by a common integration rule during the development of dimorphism under the control of the cannibalism reaction norm. Phenotypic expression under the cannibalism reaction norm is driven not only by population density but also by social interactions among the members of a population: variation in the populational expression of dimorphism is associated with contingent social interaction events among population members. The induced cannibalistic morph thus reflects not only by contest-type exploitative competition but also interference competition. I clarified how the cannibalism induction reaction norm of the Hokkaido salamander Hynobius retardatus makes populational morphological diversification. The reaction norm is driven not only by the density of conspecifics but also by the contingent social interactions with the population.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 4
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-30
    Description: A recent global study reported a net difference between areas of forest cover loss and of forest cover gain of about 3.6% of total forest area across the boreal biome, and of 5.6% for Canada, over a 12-yr period. Net losses of this magnitude should be of concern given the importance of this biome in global biogeochemical cycles linked to climate change. Our analysis for Canada fails to support these results and suggests that post-harvest recovery of tree cover is generally strong, while post-fire recovery of tree cover is weaker but nevertheless prevalent. We find that current large area remote sensing methodologies can fail to properly recognize post-disturbance recovery from non-forest to forest status in low-productivity boreal forests when using short time series. With climate change and human impacts intensifying around the world, it is urgently important to be able to reliably distinguish temporary forest cover loss followed by naturally slow recovery from forest decline requiring policy action. The analysis was in large part based on the new Canada Landsat Disturbance product in which fires and harvest since 1984 are mapped at 30-m resolution ( https://doi.org/10.23687/add1346b-f632-4eb9-a83d-a662b38655ad ).
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 5
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-30
    Description: In the earth and environmental sciences, many fundamental processes are explained through conceptual illustrations—a powerful medium for scientific communication. The processes depicted are generally highly complex, spatially and temporally variable, subject to high degrees of uncertainty, and non-linearly impacted by anthropogenic actions. Conceptual illustrations necessarily simplify these processes, but also often suffer from a preventable lack of visual clarity, and/or are based on implicit assumptions that are mismatched to key conclusions in published literature. In this Innovative Viewpoint paper, we highlight considerations of conceptual and visual clarity relevant to illustrations in earth and environmental sciences. Using the water cycle as an example, we examine a range of conceptual illustrations of this process to assess what ideas they convey. An exploratory survey of 32 water cycle diagrams shows that they tend to depict generalized, well-defined processes. Anthropogenic influences are included and/or implied in only half the diagrams, and none depict uncertainty in any form. The concept of the water cycle conveyed by these diagrams is therefore not quite the same as the concept of the water cycle as understood by hydrologists. This mismatch may negatively impact decision-making related to water resources management, because the parties involved may unknowingly hold significantly different conceptual models of the processes at work. Other concepts in the earth and environmental sciences may be susceptible to similar issues. Our analysis highlights the importance of carefully assessing the assumptions and simplifying choices inherent in the process of translating a concept into an illustration. We conclude with an example of how these issues can be remedied by presenting a modified water cycle diagram designed to address common misconceptions associated with dryland systems, account for uncertainty in fluxes, and include key anthropogenic effects. A general list of best practices, many of which were used to develop this diagram, is included to help increase awareness among environmental researchers of strategies for increasing the conceptual and visual clarity of illustrations.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 6
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-30
    Description: Occupancy models are increasingly applied to data from wildlife camera-trap (CT) surveys to estimate distribution, habitat use, or relative abundance of unmarked animals. Fundamental to the occupancy modeling framework is the temporal pattern of detections at camera stations, which is influenced by animal population density and the speed and scale of animal movement. How these factors interact with CT sampling designs to affect the interpretation of occupancy parameter estimates is unclear. We developed a simple yet ecologically relevant animal movement simulation to create CT detections for animal populations varying in movement rate, home range area, and population density. We also varied CT sampling design by the duration of sampling and the density of CTs in our simulated domain. A single-species occupancy model was fitted to simulated detection histories, and model-estimated probabilities of occupancy were compared to the asymptotic proportion of area occupied (PAO), calculated as the union of all simulated home ranges. Occupancy model parameter estimates were sensitive to simulated movement and sampling scenarios. Occupancy models overestimated asymptotic PAO when a low population density of simulated animals moved quickly over large home ranges and this positive bias was insensitive to sampling duration. Conversely, asymptotic PAO was underestimated when simulated animals moved slowly in large- or intermediately sized home ranges. This negative bias decreased with increasing sampling duration and a lower density of CTs. Our results emphasize that the interpretation of occupancy models depends on the underlying processes driving CT detections, specifically animal movement and population density, and that model estimates may not reliably reflect variation in these processes. We recommend carefully defining occupancy if it is applied to CT data in order to better match sampling and analytical frameworks to the ecology of sampled wildlife species.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 7
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-01
    Description: The continuing high prevalence of cigarette smoking among specific subpopulations, many of them vulnerable, is one of the most pressing challenges facing the tobacco control community. These populations include individuals in lower education and/or socioeconomic groups; from certain racial/ethnic groups; in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community; with mental illness; and in the military, particularly among those in the lowest pay grades. Although traditional tobacco control measures are having positive health effects for most groups, the effects are not sufficient for others. More attention to and support for promising novel interventions, in addition to new attempts at reaching these populations through conventional interventions that have proven to be effective, are crucial going forward to find new ways to address these disparities. CA Cancer J Clin 2018 . © 2018 American Cancer Society .
    Print ISSN: 0007-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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  • 8
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: Understanding introduction routes for wildlife pathogens is vital for the development of threat abatement plans. The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) has recently emerged in Europe, where it is considered to be a serious threat for urodelan conservation. If the highly diverse Chinese urodelans were to constitute a Bsal reservoir, then the significant international trade in these species may vector Bsal into naïve urodelan communities. Here, we analyzed a total of 1,143 samples, representing 36 Chinese salamander species from 51 localities across southern China for the presence of Bsal. We found Bsal was present across a wide taxonomic, geographical, and environmental range. In particular, Bsal DNA was detected in 33 samples from the genera Cynops , Pachytriton , Paramesotriton , Tylototriton , and Andrias , including the heavily traded species Paramesotriton hongkongensis and Cynops orientalis . The true Bsal prevalence across our data set was estimated between 2% and 4%, with a maximum of 50% in a population of P. hongkongensis . Even at this overall relatively low Bsal prevalence, the exportation of millions of animals renders Bsal introduction in naïve, importing countries a near certainty, which calls for the urgent implementation of proper biosecurity in the international wildlife trade.
    Print ISSN: 1755-263X
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-263X
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: Reproduction of external fertilizing vertebrates is typically constrained to either fresh or salt water, not both. For all studied amphibians and fishes, this constraint includes immotile sperm that are activated after ejaculation only by the specific chemistry of the fertilizing medium in which the species evolved (fresh, brackish, or salt water). No amphibians can reproduce in the sea. Although diadromous fishes may migrate between salt and fresh water, they are shackled to their natal environment for spawning in part because of sperm activation. Here, we report for the first time among all documented external fertilizing vertebrates, that in the absence of any external media, sperm are motile at ejaculation in a marine spawning fish (Osmeridae, capelin, Mallotus villosus ). To illuminate why, we evaluated sperm behavior at different salinities in M. villosus as well as the related freshwater spawning anadromous rainbow smelt ( Osmerus mordax ). Surprisingly, sperm performance was superior in fresh water for both species. M. villosus spend their entire life at sea but our results show that their sperm are deactivated by sea water, suggesting a freshwater ancestry. By circumventing constraining water chemistry, we interpret the unique pre-ejaculatory sperm activation in this species as a novel adaptation that enables fertilization in the marine environment. These findings also contribute to understanding the persistence of anadromy, despite great energetic costs to adult fishes. External fertilizing vertebrates are constrained in where they can reproduce by sperm biology. Here, we report a unique observation concerning sperm activation and hypothesize that it is a novel adaptation to allow a freshwater taxon to spawn in the sea.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 10
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: Controlling postharvest pest species is a costly process with insecticide resistance and species-specific control requiring multiple tactics. Mating disruption (MD) can be used to both decrease a female's access to males and delay timing of mating and decreases overall mating success in a population and population growth rate. Development of new commercially available MD products requires an understanding of life history parameters associated with mating delay. These can provide information for targeting proportions of reproducing individuals using MD. After delaying mating for females of two closely related beetle species, Trogoderma variabile and T. inclusum , we surveyed survivorship, number of eggs laid, and number of progeny emerged. With increases in mating age, total number of eggs laid and total number of progeny emerged significantly declined over time. T. inclusum typically had greater numbers of eggs laid and progeny emerged compared to T. variabile as female age at mating increased, suggesting that T. inclusum may be more resistant to long-term delays in mating. Life span showed an increase as mating age increased but life span significantly decreased almost immediately following mating. Simulations depicting multiple distributions of mating within a population suggest that in a closed population, high levels of mating delay significantly reduced reproductive growth rates. Although reproductive growth rates were decreased with increased mating age, they are still large enough to maintain populations. This study highlights the differences in life history between two closely related species, suggesting that T. inclusum outperforms T. variabile over the course of a life span, but T. variabile has better reproductive capabilities early in life. MD may also be a viable component of a pest management system for these two species as it significantly decreased overall reproductive output and population growth. Trogoderma species can be a detrimental insect species to stored commodities and new management tactics such as mating disruption are being developed. Mating disruption leads to a delayed mating which can lower reproductive output and population persistence and we find that with mating delay, two Trogoderma species experience declines in egg production leading to overall declines in net reproductive rates. We also model various levels of mating success within a population and find that we need greater than 80% of females to remain unmated for total population extinction to occur.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 11
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: Despite the obvious importance of roots to agro-ecosystem functioning, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of warming on root biomass and distribution, especially under different tillage systems. In this study, we performed a field warming experiment using infrared heaters on winter wheat, in long-term conventional tillage and no-tillage plots, to determine the responses of root biomass and distribution to warming. Soil monoliths were collected from three soil depths (0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm). Results showed that root biomass was noticeably increased under both till and no-till tillage systems (12.1% and 12.9% in 2011, and 9.9% and 14.5% in 2013, in the two tillage systems, respectively) in the 0–30 cm depth, associated with a similar increase in shoot biomass. However, warming-induced root biomass increases occurred in the deeper soil layers (i.e., 10–20 and 20–30 cm) in till, while the increase in no-till was focused in the surface layer (0–10 cm). Differences in the warming-induced increases in root biomass between till and no-till were positively correlated with the differences in soil total nitrogen ( R 2  = .863, p  〈   .001) and soil bulk density ( R 2  = .853, p  〈   .001). Knowledge of the distribution of wheat root in response to warming should help manage nutrient application and cycling of soil C-N pools under anticipated climate change conditions. Field warming significantly increased wheat root biomass under both till and no-till in 0–30 cm. The increased root biomass distributed in deeper soil layer for till, but in surface layer for no-till. These results would be important to estimate the wheat growth to global warming.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 12
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: Placozoans, flat free-living marine invertebrates, possess an extremely simple bauplan lacking neurons and muscle cells and represent one of the earliest-branching metazoan phyla. They are widely distributed from temperate to tropical oceans. Based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequences, 19 haplotypes forming seven distinct clades have been reported in placozoans to date. In Japan, placozoans have been found at nine locations, but 16S genotyping has been performed at only two of these locations. Here, we propose a new processing protocol, “ethanol-treated substrate sampling,” for collecting placozoans from natural environments. We also report the collection of placozoans from three new locations, the islands of Shikine-jima, Chichi-jima, and Haha-jima, and we present the distribution of the 16S haplotypes of placozoans in Japan. Multiple surveys conducted at multiple locations yielded five haplotypes that were not reported previously, revealing high genetic diversity in Japan, especially at Shimoda and Shikine-jima Island. The observed geographic distribution patterns were different among haplotypes; some were widely distributed, while others were sampled only from a single location. However, samplings conducted on different dates at the same sites yielded different haplotypes, suggesting that placozoans of a given haplotype do not inhabit the same site constantly throughout the year. Continued sampling efforts conducted during all seasons at multiple locations worldwide and the development of molecular markers within the haplotypes are needed to reveal the geographic distribution pattern and dispersal history of placozoans in greater detail. Placozoans, flat free-living invertebrates, have been reported from temperate to tropical oceans worldwide, but their genetic diversity and dispersal history remain unclear. Here, we introduce a new processing protocol for collecting the animal, the “ethanol-treated substrate sampling,” and report the results of 16S genotyping of placozoans collected from various places in Japan, including three new locations. Our continued sampling efforts show the high genetic diversity of placozoans in Japan and the seasonal variability of 16S haplogroup distribution.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 13
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: Understanding the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem productivity has become a central issue in ecology and conservation biology studies, particularly when these relationships are connected with global climate change and species extinction. However, which facets of biodiversity (i.e. taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity) account most for variations in productivity are still not understood very well. This is especially true with regard to temperate forest ecosystems. In this study, we used a dataset from a stem-mapped permanent forest plot in northeastern China exploring the relationships between biodiversity and productivity at different spatial scales (20 × 20 m; 40 × 40 m; and 60 × 60 m). The influence of specific environmental conditions (topographic conditions) and stand maturity (expressed by initial stand volume and biomass) were taken into account using the multivariate approach known as structural equation models. The variable “Biodiversity” includes taxonomic (Shannon), functional (FDis), and phylogenetic diversity (PD). Biodiversity–productivity relationships varied with the spatial scales. At the scale of 20 × 20 m, PD and FDis significantly affected forest biomass productivity, while Shannon had only indirect effects. At the 40 × 40 m and 60 × 60 m scales, biodiversity and productivity were weakly correlated. The initial stand volume and biomass were the most important drivers of forest productivity. The local environmental conditions significantly influenced the stand volume, biomass, biodiversity, and productivity. The results highlight the scale dependency of the relationships between forest biodiversity and productivity. The positive role of biodiversity in facilitating forest productivity was confirmed at the smaller scales. Our findings emphasize the fundamental role of environmental conditions in determining forest ecosystem performances. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the underlying ecological processes that influence specific forest biodiversity and productivity relationships. In this study, we used a dataset from a stem-mapped permanent forest plot in northeastern China exploring the relationships between biodiversity and productivity at different spatial scales (20 × 20 m; 40 × 40 m; and 60 × 60 m). The influence of specific topographical conditions and stand maturity were taken into account using the multivariate approach known as structural equation models. The results highlight the scale dependency of the relationships between forest biodiversity and productivity. The positive role of biodiversity in facilitating forest productivity was confirmed at the smaller scales. Our findings emphasize the fundamental role of environmental conditions in determining forest ecosystem performances. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the underlying ecological processes that influence specific forest biodiversity and productivity relationships.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 14
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: An important and understudied question in sexual selection is how females evaluate information from multiple secondary sexual traits (SSTs), particularly when expression of traits is phenotypically uncorrelated. We performed mate choice experiments on zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata castanotis Gould) to evaluate two hypotheses: preference shifts (obstacles to choice using one trait increase chooser reliance on others) and trait synergisms (choice based on the sum/product of two or more independently varying traits). The first experiment, which employed males raised on diets that impact SST expression, supported the trait synergism hypothesis: overall, male pairing success was best predicted by synergisms involving beak color and cheek patch size. Results did not support the preference shift hypothesis. Results of a follow-up experiment that included males reared on a single diet, and in which male beak color and cheek patch size were manipulated, were also consistent with the trait synergism hypothesis. Results have implications for understanding the long-term persistence of multiple SSTs in populations and for the measurement of repeatability and heritability of mate preferences. Using the zebra finch as a study organism, two experiments were performed to investigate how females make mate choice decisions when males have multiple secondary sexual traits whose expression is phenotypically uncorrelated. Results of both experiments supported the occurrence of trait synergisms (choice based on the sum/product of two or more traits): male success in mate-getting was best predicted by a synergism involving his beak color and cheek patch size. These results have implications for understanding the long-term persistence of multiple SSTs in populations and for the measurement of repeatability and heritability of mate preferences.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 15
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) still lacks objective diagnostic markers independent of clinical criteria. Cerebrospinal fluid ( CSF) samples from 36 PD and 42 age-matched control patients were subjected to inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry and a total of 28 different elements were quantified. Different machine learning algorithms were applied to the dataset to identify a discriminating set of elements yielding a novel biomarker signature. Using 19 stably-detected elements, the extreme gradient tree boosting model showed the best performance in the discrimination of PD and control patients with high specificity and sensitivity (78.6% and 83.3%, respectively), re-classifying the training data to 100%. The 10 times 10-fold cross validation yielded a good AUROC of 0.83. Arsenic, magnesium and selenium all showed significantly higher mean CSF levels in the PD group compared to the control group (p = 0.01, p = 0.04 and p = 0.03). Reducing the number of elements to a discriminating minimum, we identified an elemental cluster (Se, Fe, As, Ni, Mg, Sr), which most importantly contributed to the sample discrimination. Selenium was identified as the element with the highest impact within this cluster directly followed by iron. After prospective validation, this elemental fingerprint in the CSF could have the potential to be used as independent biomarker for the diagnosis of PD. Next to their value as a biomarker, this data also argues for a prominent role of these highly discriminating six elements in the pathogenesis of PD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 16
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-03
    Description: Many ectotherms show a decrease in body size with increasing latitude due to changes in climate, a pattern termed converse Bergmann's rule. Urban conditions—particularly warmer temperatures and fragmented landscapes—may impose stresses on development that could disrupt these body size patterns. To test the impact of urbanization on development and latitudinal trends in body size, we launched a citizen science project to collect periodical cicadas ( Magicicada septendecim ) from across their latitudinal range during the 2013 emergence of Brood II. Periodical cicadas are long-lived insects whose distribution spans a broad latitudinal range covering both urban and rural habitats. We used a geometric morphometric approach to assess body size and developmental stress based on fluctuating asymmetry in wing shape. Body size of rural cicadas followed converse Bergmann's rule, but this pattern was disrupted in urban habitats. In the north, urban cicadas were larger than their rural counterparts, while southern populations showed little variation in body size between habitats. We detected no evidence of differences in developmental stress due to urbanization. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that urbanization disrupts biogeographical trends in body size, and this pattern highlights how the effects of urbanization may differ over a species’ range. To test the impact of urbanization on development and latitudinal trends in body size, we launched a citizen science project to collect periodical cicadas ( Magicicada septendecim ) from across their latitudinal range during the 2013 emergence of Brood II. We used a geometric morphometric approach to assess body size and developmental stress based on fluctuating asymmetry in wing shape.Body size of rural cicadas followed converse Bergmann's rule, but this pattern was disrupted in urban habitats.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 17
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-03
    Description: Because weather and climate models must capture a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales, they rely heavily on parameterizations of sub-grid scale processes. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that the assumptions used to couple these parameterizations have an important effect on the climate of version 0 of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) General Circulation Model (GCM), a close relative of version 1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Like most GCMs, parameterizations in E3SM are sequentially split in the sense that parameterizations are called one after another with each subsequent process feeling the effect of the preceding processes. This coupling strategy is non-commutative in the sense that the order in which processes are called impacts the solution. By examining a suite of 24 simulations with deep convection, shallow convection, macrophysics/microphysics, and radiation parameterizations reordered, process order is shown to have a big impact on predicted climate. In particular, reordering of processes induces differences in net climate feedback that are as big as the inter-model spread in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project. One reason why process ordering has such a large impact is that the effect of each process is influenced by the processes preceding it. Where output is written is therefore an important control on apparent model behavior. Application of K-means clustering demonstrates that the positioning of macro-/micro- physics and shallow convection plays a critical role on the model solution.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 18
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Integrating multiple facets of biodiversity to describe spatial and temporal distribution patterns is one way of revealing the mechanisms driving community assembly. We assessed the species, functional, and phylogenetic composition and structure of passerine bird communities along an elevational gradient both in wintering and breeding seasons in the Ailao Mountains, southwest China, in order to identify the dominant ecological processes structuring the communities and how these processes change with elevation and season. Our research confirms that the highest taxonomic diversity, and distinct community composition, was found in the moist evergreen broadleaf forest at high elevation in both seasons. Environmental filtering was the dominant force at high elevations with relatively cold and wet climatic conditions, while the observed value of mean pairwise functional and phylogenetic distances of low elevation was constantly higher than expectation in two seasons, suggested interspecific competition could play the key role at low elevations, perhaps because of relative rich resource result from complex vegetation structure and human-induced disturbance. Across all elevations, there was a trend of decreasing intensity of environmental filtering whereas increasing interspecific competition from wintering season to breeding season. This was likely due to the increased resource availability but reproduction-associated competition in the summer months. In general, there is a clear justification for conservation efforts to protect entire elevational gradients in the Ailao Mountains, given the distinct taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic compositions and also elevational migration pattern in passerine bird communities. In this study, the species, functional, and phylogenetic composition and structure of passerine bird communities along an elevational gradient both in wintering and breeding seasons in the Ailao Mountains, southwest China, were assessed, in order to identify the dominant ecological processes structuring the communities and how these processes change with elevation and season. Our findings confirmed environmental filtering was the dominant force at high elevations and highlights a tendency of interspecific competition in breeding season as the driving force in shaping community structure of the passerine bird community. In general, there is a clear justification for conservation efforts to protect entire elevational gradients in the Ailao Mountains.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 19
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Geographic isolation is suggested to be among the most important processes in the generation of cichlid fish diversity in East Africa's Great Lakes, both through isolation by distance and fluctuating connectivity caused by changing lake levels. However, even broad scale phylogeographic patterns are currently unknown in many non-cichlid littoral taxa from these systems. To begin to address this, we generated restriction-site-associated DNA sequence (RADseq) data to investigate phylogeographic structure throughout Lake Tanganyika (LT) in two broadly sympatric rocky shore catfish species from independent evolutionary radiations with differing behaviors: the mouthbrooding claroteine, Lophiobagrus cyclurus , and the brood-parasite mochokid, Synodontis multipunctatus . Our results indicated contrasting patterns between these species, with strong lake-wide phylogeographic signal in L. cyclurus including a deep divergence between the northern and southern lake basins. Further structuring of these populations was observed across a heterogeneous habitat over much smaller distances. Strong population growth was observed in L. cyclurus sampled from shallow shorelines, suggesting population growth associated with the colonization of new habitats following lake-level rises. Conversely, S. multipunctatus , which occupies a broader depth range, showed little phylogeographic structure and lower rates of population growth. Our findings suggest that isolation by distance and/or habitat barriers may play a role in the divergence of non-cichlid fishes in LT, but this effect varies by species. We generated restriction-site-associated DNA sequence (RADseq) data to investigate phylogeographic structure throughout Lake Tanganyika in two broadly sympatric rocky shore catfish species: the mouthbrooding claroteine, Lophiobagrus cyclurus , and the brood-parasite mochokid, Synodontis multipunctatus . Our results indicated contrasting patterns between these species, with strong lake-wide phylogeographic signal in L. cyclurus and further structuring across a heterogeneous habitat over much smaller distances. Strong population growth was observed in L. cyclurus sampled from shallow shorelines, suggesting population growth associated with the colonization of new habitats following lake-level rises. Conversely, S. multipunctatus , which occupies a broader depth range, showed little phylogeographic structure and lower rates of population growth.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 20
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Facultative reproductive strategies that incorporate both sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction should be optimal, yet are rarely observed in animals. Resolving this paradox requires an understanding of the economics of facultative asexuality. Recent work suggests that switching from parthenogenesis to sex can be costly and that females can resist mating to avoid switching. However, it remains unclear whether these costs and resistance behaviors are dependent on female age. We addressed these questions in the Cyclone Larry stick insect, Sipyloidea larryi , by pairing females with males (or with females as a control) in early life prior to the start of parthenogenetic reproduction, or in mid- or late life after a period of parthenogenetic oviposition. Young females were receptive to mating even though mating in early life caused reduced fecundity. Female resistance to mating increased with age, but reproductive switching in mid- or late life did not negatively affect female survival or offspring performance. Overall, mating enhanced female fitness because fertilized eggs had higher hatching success and resulted in more adult offspring than parthenogenetic eggs. However, female fecundity and offspring viability were also enhanced in females paired with other females, suggesting a socially mediated maternal effect. Our results provide little evidence that switching from parthenogenesis to sex at any age is costly for S. larryi females. However, age-dependent effects of switching on some fitness components and female resistance behaviors suggest the possibility of context-dependent effects that may only be apparent in natural populations. In facultatively parthenogenetic animals, individual females can switch from asexual to sexual reproduction by mating. The economics of switching could influence the reproductive potential of facultative parthenogenesis, but the effect of switching on fitness is unclear. Using the facultatively parthenogenetic Cyclone Larry stick insect, Sipyloidea larryi, we show that mating at any age boosts lifetime fitness, suggesting that switching to sex carries few costs in this species.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 21
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: The first few months of life is the most vulnerable period for fish and their optimal hatching time with zooplankton prey is favored by natural selection. Traditionally, however, prey abundance (i.e., zooplankton density) has been considered important, whereas prey nutritional composition has been largely neglected in natural settings. High-quality zooplankton, rich in both essential amino acids (EAAs) and fatty acids (FAs), are required as starting prey to initiate development and fast juvenile growth. Prey quality is dependent on environmental conditions, and, for example, eutrophication and browning are two major factors defining primary producer community structures that will directly determine the nutritional quality of the basal food sources (algae, bacteria, terrestrial matter) for zooplankton. We experimentally tested how eutrophication and browning affect the growth and survival of juvenile rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) by changing the quality of basal resources. We fed the fish on herbivorous zooplankton ( Daphnia ) grown with foods of different nutritional quality (algae, bacteria, terrestrial matter), and used GC-MS, stable isotope labeling as well as bulk and compound-specific stable isotope analyses for detecting the effects of different diets on the nutritional status of fish. The content of EAAs and omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) in basal foods and zooplankton decreased in both eutrophication and browning treatments. The decrease in ω-3 PUFA and especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was reflected to fish juveniles, but they were able to compensate for low availability of EAAs in their food. Therefore, the reduced growth and survival of the juvenile fish was linked to the low availability of DHA. Fish showed very low ability to convert alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to DHA. We conclude that eutrophication and browning decrease the availability of the originally phytoplankton-derived DHA for zooplankton and juvenile fish, suggesting bottom-up regulation of food web quality. Our experiment with three trophic level (seston, zooplankton, and juvenile trout) showed that changes in plankton nutritional quality for zooplankton caused by eutrophication (increase in phosphorus concentration) and browning (increasing terrestrial organic matter input) have intensifying negative effects on aquatic food webs.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 22
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Congeneric species often have similar ecological characteristics and use similar resources. These similarities may make it easier for them to co-occur in a similar habitat but may also lead to strong competitions that limit their coexistence. Hence, how do similarities in congeneric species affect their coexistence exactly? This study mainly used spatial point pattern analysis in two 1 hm 2 plots in the Baotianman National Nature Reserve, Henan, China, to compare the similarities in spatial distributions and interspecific associations of Quercus species. Results revealed that Quercus species were all aggregated under the complete spatial randomness null model, and aggregations were weaker under the heterogeneous Poisson process null model in each plot. The interspecific associations of Quercus species to non- Quercus species were very similar in Plot 1. However, they can be either positive or negative in different plots between the co-occurring Quercus species. The spatial distributions of congeneric species, interspecific associations with non- Quercus species, neighborhood richness around species, and species diversity were all different between the two plots. We found that congeneric species did have some similarities, and the closely related congeneric species can positive or negative associate with each other in different plots. The co-occurring congeneric species may have different survival strategies in different habitats. On the one hand, competition among congenerics may lead to differentiation in resource utilization. On the other hand, their similar interspecific associations can strengthen their competitive ability and promote local exclusion to noncongeneric species to obtain more living space. Our results provide new knowledge for us to better understand the coexistence mechanisms of species. The manuscript focuses on how the similarities in Quercus species affect their coexistence mechanism. We found congeneric species did have some similarities, and the closely related congeneric species can positively or negatively associate with each other in different plots. Although the similarity in the use of resources may lead to competition, similar competition to noncongeneric species can provide an opportunity for congeneric species to strengthen their competitive ability and promote their coexistence.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 23
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Anisotropy of turbulence near the top of the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer (STBL) is studied using large-eddy simulation (LES) and measurements from the POST and DYCOMS-II field campaigns. Focusing on turbulence ∼100°m below the cloud top, we see remarkable similarity between daytime and nocturnal flight data covering different inversion strengths and free-tropospheric conditions. With λ denoting wavelength and z t cloud-top height, we find that turbulence at λ / z t ≃ 0.01 is weakly dominated by horizontal fluctuations, while turbulence at λ / z t  〉 1 becomes strongly dominated by horizontal fluctuations. Between are scales at which vertical fluctuations dominate. Typical-resolution LES of the STBL (based on POST flight 13 and DYCOMS-II flight 1) captures observed characteristics of below-cloud-top turbulence reasonably well. However, using a fixed vertical grid spacing of 5 m, decreasing the horizontal grid spacing and increasing the subgrid-scale mixing length leads to increased dominance of vertical fluctuations, increased entrainment velocity and decreased liquid water path. Our analysis supports the notion that entrainment parametrizations (e.g. in climate models) could potentially be improved by accounting more accurately for anisotropic deformation of turbulence in the cloud-top region. While LES has the potential to facilitate improved understanding of anisotropic cloud-top turbulence, sensitivity to grid spacing, grid-box aspect ratio, and subgrid-scale model needs to be addressed.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Ecology must attract and retain diverse talented people to produce innovative research and relevant solutions to 21st-century environmental problems. Careers and culture form the foundation of scientific advancement, and substantial progress has been made over recent decades in both realms. Yet, important challenges persist in expanding career paths, inclusion of underrepresented groups, and communication with the public. The ESA Student Section organized a horizon scanning exercise to address the following goals: (1) to identify challenges that 21st-century ecologists contend with or expect to contend with in careers and outreach to society, (2) to anticipate opportunities to help ecologists meet challenges, and (3) to identify concrete steps that could be taken by individual laboratories, institutions, and the ESA to foster progress. In spring 2016, the ESA Student Section solicited input from student members and organized a working group to assess the state of the discipline and to envision how we might cultivate a more inclusive and effective community. We identified three major challenges. First, PhDs are produced faster than academic positions become available and disconnects between academia and other sectors may keep early-career ecologists from realizing the breadth of available positions. We propose an online jobs hub to make non-academic sectors more accessible to ecologists. We also suggest students develop skills portfolios to prepare for non-academic positions. Second, the composition of people who are ecologists differs from broader society, partially due to implicit biases and institutional barriers. We propose steps to reduce attrition of diversity in ecology that include countering implicit biases and creating mentorship networks. We offer steps to improve recruitment by increasing awareness of ecology among high school students and undergraduates and providing opportunities to engage in ecological research. Finally, ecology is only relevant if the public perceives it to be. We must improve science communication and begin cultivating trust. We propose that ad hoc communication by all ecologists is insufficient; translational ecologists should be hired in every department and formal training in translational ecology is necessary. We hope this paper catalyzes critical thinking and partnerships among students, professional ecologists, and the ESA to ensure the future of ecology is vibrant.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 25
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Habitat connectivity crucially influences dispersal of organisms. It is especially seen as an important driver of the spatial structuring of biological communities in ecosystems that have intrinsic and general connectivity patterns, such as the universal dendritic structure of fluvial networks. These networks not only define dispersal of native species, but also represent corridors of biological invasions, making understanding network topology effects on invasion dynamics and subsequent diversity patterns of high interest. We studied amphipod community diversity and structure in the upper 27,882-km 2 drainage basin of the river Rhine in Central Europe, focusing on differences between native and non-native species. Overall, species richness increased along the network from headwaters to the outlet nodes. We found, however, contrasting patterns of native and non-native amphipod richness along the network, with headwater nodes representing refugia for native species and more downstream nodes being hotspots of biological invasions. Importantly, while species turnover (β-diversity) of native species increased with distance between nodes in the network, this was not the case for non-native species, indicating a much lower dispersal limitation of the latter. Finally, the overall amphipod community structure closely mirrored the topological modularity of the network, highlighting the network's imprint on community structure. Our results underpin the importance of connectivity for community formation and the significance of rivers for biological invasions and suggest that empirically observed matches of diversity patterns in rivers predicted by null models are the long-term outcome of species invasions and species sorting.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 26
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-02-08
    Description: Metacommunity theory has advanced the understanding of the patterns and processes shaping community structure at multiple scales. Various models have been put forward to explain the relative effects of environmental filtering, dispersal, and species traits on community composition. Here, we focus on complex, three-dimensional webs of two social and two solitary spider species as habitat patches for associated communities of arthropods in a tropical rainforest in Ecuador. We used variance partitioning, constrained ordination, coherence analyses, and a colonization experiment to assess the role of environmental filtering and dispersal in this system. We found that the composition of communities associated with the four host species was mostly differentiated along two ordination axes, with the first axis roughly corresponding to level of sociality (solitary vs. social) and the other to web size. Associate abundance increased, but their density per unit volume decreased with host web size for all host species. Webs of social spider species had more variable communities and proportionally more aggressive (i.e., predatory) associates. After rarefaction to control for larger samples in larger webs, only one of the species showed a significant increase of species richness as a function of web size. The relatively quick colonization of experimentally established webs suggests high dispersal of more generalist species, but their lower proportion in older webs provides some evidence of a colonization–competition trade-off at longer temporal scales. The distinctness of the communities associated with the four host species, and the eventual change in proportion of associates in newly founded vs. old webs, despite high dispersal, is consistent with environmental filtering and species traits playing a major role in determining patterns of species distribution in this system.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 27
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-08
    Description: Cassava residue is the solid waste generated from the production of tapioca starch and has considerable reuse value. In this study, cassava residue was examined as a hydrolysate for ethanol production, and the effects of different liquid phase oxygen transfer coefficients ( k L α ) on the production of ethanol from cassava residue hydrolysates were studied. Based on analyses of dissolved oxygen and a set of optimal experimental schemes, dynamic models of cell growth and product synthesis were optimized, using MATLAB. When k L α was 85, fermentation was optimal; the ethanol titer reached 23.14 g L −1 at 72 h and cell growth reached 6.23 g L −1 at 96 h. Additionally, experiments were performed according to the dissolved oxygen curve obtained under these conditions. The resulting ethanol titer was 24.43 g L −1 (72 h) and the cell mass was 6.45 g L −1 (96 h). This paper considered the liquid vapor oxygen transfer coefficient and dissolved oxygen to simulate and empirically estimate ethanol production, and the fermentation kinetics was performed.
    Electronic ISSN: 2050-0505
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 28
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-11
    Description: Associational effects, that is, the influence of neighboring plants on herbivory suffered by a plant, are an outcome of forage selection. Although forage selection is a hierarchical process, few studies have investigated associational effects at multiple spatial scales. Because the nutritional quality of plants can be spatially structured, it might differently influence associational effects across multiple scales. Our objective was to determine the radius of influence of neighbor density and nutritional quality on balsam fir ( Abies balsamea ) herbivory by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) in winter. We quantified browsing rates on fir and the density and quality of neighboring trees in a series of 10-year-old cutovers on Anticosti Island (Canada). We used cross-correlations to investigate relationships between browsing rates and the density and nutritional quality of neighboring trees at distances up to 1,000 m. Balsam fir and white spruce ( Picea glauca ) fiber content and dry matter in vitro true digestibility were correlated with fir browsing rate at the finest extra-patch scale (across distance of up to 50 m) and between cutover areas (300–400 m). These correlations suggest associational effects, that is, low nutritional quality of neighbors reduces the likelihood of fir herbivory (associational defense). Our results may indicate associational effects mediated by intraspecific variation in plant quality and suggest that these effects could occur at scales from tens to hundreds of meters. Understanding associational effects could inform strategies for restoration or conservation; for example, planting of fir among existing natural regeneration could be concentrated in areas of low nutritional quality. Although forage selection is a hierarchical process, few studies have investigated associational effects at multiple spatial scales. Our objective was to determine the radius of influence of neighbor density and nutritional quality on balsam fir (Abies balsamea) herbivory by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in winter. We found that Balsam fir and white spruce (Picea glauca) fiber content and dry matter in vitro true digestibility were correlated with fir browsing rate at the finest extra-patch scale (up to 50 m) and between cutover areas (300–400 m).
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 29
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-11
    Description: Conceptual design using multi-bed series reactors consisting of catalysts and adsorbent beds was performed for a new SF 6 abatement and utilization technology free of toxic chemicals to reduce SF 6 emissions and produce valuable products like CaF 2 and CaSO 4 simultaneously. With process simulation studies using Aspen HYSYS ® , comparative studies for a single-bed reactor (SR-1), a two-bed series reactor (SR-2), and a three-bed series reactor (SR-3) revealed that more CaF 2 and CaSO 4 were produced in multi-bed series reactors compared to a SR-1 (SR-3 〉 SR-2 〉 SR-1) possibly due to sorption-enhanced hydrolysis. In addition, lower operating temperatures were observed in multi-bed series reactors (T SR 1  〉 T SR 2  〉 T SR 3 ) showing the positive effect of using multi-bed series reactors for a simultaneous SF 6 abatement and utilization technology. Conceptual design using multi-bed series reactors consisting of catalysts and adsorbent beds was performed for a new SF 6 abatement and utilization technology free of toxic chemicals to reduce SF 6 emissions and produce valuable products like CaF 2 and CaSO 4 simultaneously using Aspen HYSYS ® .
    Electronic ISSN: 2050-0505
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 30
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Species often interact indirectly with each other via their traits. There is increasing appreciation of trait-mediated indirect effects linking multiple interactions. Flowers interact with both pollinators and floral herbivores, and the flower-pollinator interaction may be modified by indirect effects of floral herbivores (i.e., florivores) on flower traits such as flower size attracting pollinators. To explore whether flower size affects the flower-pollinator interaction, we used Eurya japonica flowers. We examined whether artificial florivory decreased fruit and seed production, and also whether flower size affected florivory and the number of floral visitors. The petal removal treatment (i.e., artificial florivory) showed approximately 50% reduction in both fruit and seed set in natural pollination but not in artificial pollination. Furthermore, flower size increased the number of floral visitors, although it did not affect the frequency of florivory. Our results demonstrate that petal removal indirectly decreased 75% of female reproductive output via decreased flower visits by pollinators and that flower size mediated indirect interactions between florivory and floral visitors. We experimentally examined whether florivory mediated indirect interactions between flowers and pollinators, using Eurya japonica flowers and their flower visitors. We found that flower damage decreased flower size, which indirectly decreased 75% of female reproductive output via decreased flower visits by pollinators. Furthermore, flower size increased the number of floral visitors suggesting that flower size indirectly mediated interactions between florivory and floral visitors.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 31
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control ectoparasites of livestock, particularly ticks and biting flies. Their use in African livestock systems is increasing, driven by the need to increase productivity and local food security. However, insecticide residues present in the dung after treatment are toxic to dung-inhabiting insects. In a semiarid agricultural habitat in Botswana, dung beetle adult mortality, brood ball production, and larval survival were compared between untreated cattle dung and cattle dung spiked with deltamethrin, to give concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 ppm. Cattle dung-baited pitfall traps were used to measure repellent effects of deltamethrin in dung on Scarabaeidae. Dung decomposition rate was also examined. There was significantly increased mortality of adult dung beetles colonizing pats that contained deltamethrin compared to insecticide-free pats. Brood ball production was significantly reduced at concentrations of 1 ppm; larval survival was significantly reduced in dung containing 0.1 ppm deltamethrin and above. There was no difference in the number of Scarabaeidae attracted to dung containing any of the deltamethrin concentrations. Dung decomposition was significantly reduced even at the lowest concentration (0.01 ppm) compared to insecticide-free dung. The widespread use of deltamethrin in African agricultural ecosystems is a significant cause for concern; sustained use is likely to damage dung beetle populations and their provision of environmentally and economically important ecosystem services. Contaminated dung buried by paracoprid (tunneling) beetles may retain insecticidal effects, with impacts on developing larvae below ground. Lethal and sublethal effects on entire dung beetle (Scarabaeidae) communities could impair ecosystem function in agricultural landscapes. The widespread use of deltamethrin in African agricultural ecosystems is a significant cause for concern; sustained use may damage dung beetle populations and their provision of environmentally and economically important ecosystem services. Contaminated dung buried by paracoprid (tunneling) beetles retains insecticidal effects, with impacts on developing larvae below ground. The lethal and sublethal effects on dung beetle (Scarabaeidae) communities result in delayed dung decomposition on pastures.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Through thousands of years of breeding and strong human selection, the dog ( Canis lupus familiaris ) exists today within hundreds of closed populations throughout the world, each with defined phenotypes. A singular geographic region with broad diversity in dog breeds presents an interesting opportunity to observe potential mechanisms of breed formation. Italy claims 14 internationally recognized dog breeds, with numerous additional local varieties. To determine the relationship among Italian dog populations, we integrated genetic data from 263 dogs representing 23 closed dog populations from Italy, seven Apennine gray wolves, and an established dataset of 161 globally recognized dog breeds, applying multiple genetic methods to characterize the modes by which breeds are formed within a single geographic region. Our consideration of each of five genetic analyses reveals a series of development events that mirror historical modes of breed formation, but with variations unique to the codevelopment of early dog and human populations. Using 142,840 genome-wide SNPs and a dataset of 1,609 canines, representing 182 breeds and 16 wild canids, we identified breed development routes for the Italian breeds that included divergence from common populations for a specific purpose, admixture of regional stock with that from other regions, and isolated selection of local stock with specific attributes. The potential mechanisms of breed formation, given a singular geographic region with broad diversity in dog breeds, and the position of those populations in the array of modern breeds as they exist today, present interesting scenarios. Our simultaneous consideration of each of five genetic analyses reveals a series of breed development events that mirror historical modes of breed formation, but with variations unique to the development of early dog populations upon which humans relied for survival. Using 142,840 genome-wide SNPs and a diverse dataset of 1,609 canines, representing 182 breeds and 16 wild canids, we identified breed development routes for the Italian dog breeds that included divergence from common populations for a specific purpose, admixture of regional stock with that from other regions, and isolated selection of local stock with specific attributes
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 33
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Rapid environmental fluctuations are ubiquitous in the wild, yet majority of experimental studies mostly consider effects of slow fluctuations on organism. To test the evolutionary consequences of fast fluctuations, we conducted nine independent experimental evolution experiments with bacteria. Experimental conditions were same for all species, and we allowed them to evolve either in fluctuating temperature alternating rapidly between 20°C and 40°C or at constant 30°C temperature. After experimental evolution, we tested the performance of the clones in both rapid fluctuation and in constant environments (20°C, 30°C and 40°C). Results from experiments on these nine species were combined meta-analytically. We found that overall the clones evolved in the fluctuating environment had evolved better efficiency in tolerating fluctuations (i.e., they had higher yield in fluctuating conditions) than the clones evolved in the constant environment. However, we did not find any evidence that fluctuation-adapted clones would have evolved better tolerance to any measured constant environments (20°C, 30°C, and 40°C). Our results back up recent empirical findings reporting that it is hard to predict adaptations to fast fluctuations using tolerance curves. Our results indicate that for predicting species or genotype's ability to tolerate fluctuating environments, one should acknowledge the limitations of tolerance curves in capturing adaptations to fluctuating environments and consider also measurements taken at fluctuating environments.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 34
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Plant reproductive success is often the outcome of mutualistic and antagonistic plant–animal interactions, which can be moderated by landscape composition. Studies addressing single plant–animal interactions are common, but studies simultaneously considering multiple plant–animal interactions in a landscape context are still scarce. We selectively excluded flower-visiting insects on phytometer plants and quantified how mutualistic and antagonistic interactions shaped the reproductive success of a common annual plant, wild mustard ( Sinapis arvensis ). Floral herbivory by larvae of rape pollen beetles ( Meligethes spp.) strongly reduced fruit production, but could be minimized by insecticide application. Total seed production (the product of fruit production and seeds per fruit) strongly increased with pollinator visitation. On average, pollinator access to plants enhanced seed numbers by 754%. Insecticide treatment almost redoubled this number. The landscape composition (proportion of semi-natural habitats in 1000 m radius) surrounding phytometer plants did not affect plant–animal interactions, presumably due to the high dispersal ability of both the pollen beetles and the major pollinators (syrphid flies, bumblebees). In conclusion, pest control increased reproductive success only in the case of sufficient pollination.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 35
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Most regional three-dimensional chemical transport models neglect gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) oxidation by bromine (Br) radicals and Br chemistry. In this study the Community Multiscale Air Quality model with its default mercury module (CMAQ-Hg) was modified by implementing a state-of-the-art algorithm depicting Hg reactions coupled with Br chemistry (CMAQ-newHg-Br). Using CMAQ-newHg-Br with initial and boundary concentrations (ICs and BCs) from global model output, we conducted simulations for the northeastern United States over March-November 2010. Simulated GEM mixing ratios were predominantly influenced by BCs and hence reflected significant seasonal variation that was captured in the global model output as opposed to a lack of seasonal variation using CMAQ-Hg's default constant BCs. Observed seasonal percentage changes (i.e. seasonal amplitude (=maximum – minimum) in percentage of the seasonal average) of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and particulate bound mercury (PBM) were 76% and 39%, respectively. CMAQ-newHg-Br significantly improved the simulated seasonal changes in GOM and PBM to 43% and 23%, respectively, from 18% and 16% using CMAQ-Hg. CMAQ-newHg-Br reproduced observed Hg wet deposition with a remarkably low fractional bias (FB) (0.4%) as opposed to a -56% – 19% FB for CMAQ-Hg simulations. Simulated Hg dry deposition using CMAQ-newHg-Br excluding the GEM+OH reaction agreed well with studies using inferential methods and litterfall/throughfall measurements, and the discrepancy varied over 13% - 42%. This study demonstrated the promising capability of CMAQ-newHg-Br to reproduce observed concentrations and seasonal variations of GEM, GOM and PBM, and Hg wet and dry deposition fluxes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 36
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Capture-mark-recapture procedures are a basic tool in population studies and require that individual animals are correctly identified throughout their lifetime. A method that has become more and more popular uses photographic records of natural markings, such as pigmentation pattern and scalation configuration. As with any other marking tool, the validity of the photographic identification technique should be evaluated thoroughly. Here, we report on a large-scale double-marking study in which European adders ( Vipera berus ) were identified by both microsatellite genetic markers and by the pattern of head scalation. Samples that were successfully genotyped for all nine loci yielded 624 unique genotypes, which matched on a one-to-one basis with the individual assignments based on the head scalation pattern. Thus, adders considered as different individuals by their genotypes were also identified as different individuals by their head scalation pattern, and vice versa. Overall, variation in the numbers, shape, and arrangement of the head scales enabled us to distinguish among 3200+ photographed individual snakes. Adders that were repeatedly sequenced genetically over intervals of 2–3 years showed no indication whatsoever for a change in the head scale pattern. Photographic records of 900+ adders that were recaptured over periods of up to 12 years showed a very detailed and precise match of the head scale characteristics. These natural marks are thus robust over time and do not change during an individual's lifetime. With very low frequency (0.3%), we detected small changes in scalation that were readily discernible and could be attributed to physical injury or infection. Our study provides a conclusive validation for the use of photo-identification by head scale patterns in the European adder. We examined whether the enormous variation in head scale patterns can be used as a tool for individual identification in the European adder ( Vipera berus ). A large-scale double-marking study in which individuals were identified by both microsatellite genetic markers and by the pattern of head scalation showed that adders considered as different individuals by their genetic fingerprint ( n  = 624) were also identified as different individuals by their head scalation pattern, and vice versa.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 37
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: The conspecific attraction hypothesis predicts that individuals are attracted to conspecifics because conspecifics may be cues to quality habitat and/or colonists may benefit from living in aggregations. Poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) are aposematic, territorial, and visually oriented—three characteristics which make dendrobatids an appropriate model to test for conspecific attraction. In this study, we tested this hypothesis using an extensive mark-recapture dataset of the strawberry poison frog ( Oophaga pumilio ) from La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Data were collected from replicate populations in a relatively homogenous Theobroma cacao plantation, which provided a unique opportunity to test how conspecifics influence the spatial ecology of migrants in a controlled habitat with homogenous structure. We predicted that (1) individuals entering a population would aggregate with resident adults, (2) migrants would share sites with residents at a greater frequency than expected by chance, and (3) migrant home ranges would have shorter nearest-neighbor distances (NND) to residents than expected by chance. The results were consistent with these three predictions: Relative to random simulations, we observed significant aggregation, home-range overlap, and NND distribution functions in four, five, and six, respectively, of the six migrant–resident groups analyzed. Conspecific attraction may benefit migrant O. pumilio by providing cues to suitable home sites and/or increasing the potential for social interactions with conspecifics; if true, these benefits should outweigh the negative effects of other factors associated with aggregation. The observed aggregation between migrant and resident O. pumilio is consistent with conspecific attraction in dendrobatid frogs, and our study provides rare support from a field setting that conspecific attraction may be a relevant mechanism for models of anuran spatial ecology. We used a two-year mark-recapture study of the strawberry poison frog ( Oophaga pumilio ) in a homogenous cacao plantation in Costa Rica to evaluate whether patterns of spatial ecology are consistent with conspecific attraction. Measures of migrant space use at two temporal scales suggested that migrants were significantly aggregated and exhibited significant home-range overlap with residents. These results are consistent with necessary predictions of conspecific attraction.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 38
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Anthropogenic activities have adversely transformed terrestrial ecosystems consequently limiting many species to more fragmented areas and increasing human–wildlife conflicts. Under some circumstances, this creates a need for management programs to support wildlife populations by subsidizing food resources. Evaluation and improvement of supplementary feeding practices should be implemented to determine dietary importance of supplementary food and identify when to make food resources available, an important consideration for migratory species using seasonal habitats. Large aggregations of greater sandhill cranes ( Antigone canadensis tabida ) wintering in the Middle Rio Grande Valley of central New Mexico have come into conflict with agricultural practices. Resulting crop depredation on private lands has consequently required a mitigation program that subsidizes cranes with cultivated corn to manage their foraging behavior and provide nutritive support. To assess dependency of cranes on corn subsidies and estimate arrival dates of migratory sandhill cranes, we measured stable isotope ratios of liver and muscle tissues of sandhill cranes and their food items during winter. Over 60% of sandhill crane diet in the winter came from corn subsidies. Rates of carbon isotope incorporation in liver and muscle tissues were 0.03 d −1  ± 0.02 (mean ± SE) and 0.02 d −1  ± 0.01, respectively, and differed predictably by metabolic activity of different tissues. Estimated arrival date on wintering grounds derived from rates of carbon isotope incorporation was November 6 ± 3 d (mean ± SE) and was within 17 d of the estimated arrival date on the wintering grounds of sandhill cranes equipped with satellite transmitters (November 23 ± 2 d). Our approach demonstrates a field-based application of intrinsic biomarkers to inform supplementary feeding practices for wildlife populations by identifying dietary response to supplementary food. Additionally, estimating arrival on wintering grounds supports management and conservation decisions by synchronizing availability of supplementary food resources with arrival times.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 39
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Yeast volatiles attract insects, which apparently is of mutual benefit, for both yeasts and insects. However, it is unknown whether biosynthesis of metabolites that attract insects is a basic and general trait, or if it is specific for yeasts that live in close association with insects. Our goal was to study chemical insect attractants produced by yeasts that span more than 250 million years of evolutionary history and vastly differ in their metabolism and lifestyle. We bioassayed attraction of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to odors of phylogenetically and ecologically distinct yeasts grown under controlled conditions. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the insect-associated species Candida californica , Pichia kluyveri and Metschnikowia andauensis , wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis , milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis , the vertebrate pathogens Candida albicans and Candida glabrata , and oleophilic Yarrowia lipolytica were screened for fly attraction in a wind tunnel. Yeast headspace was chemically analyzed, and co-occurrence of insect attractants in yeasts and flowering plants was investigated through a database search. In yeasts with known genomes, we investigated the occurrence of genes involved in the synthesis of key aroma compounds. Flies were attracted to all nine yeasts studied. The behavioral response to baker's yeast was independent of its growth stage. In addition to Drosophila , we tested the basal hexapod Folsomia candida (Collembola) in a Y-tube assay to the most ancient yeast, Y. lipolytica, which proved that early yeast signals also function on clades older than neopteran insects. Behavioral and chemical data and a search for selected genes of volatile metabolites underline that biosynthesis of chemical signals is found throughout the yeast clade and has been conserved during the evolution of yeast lifestyles. Literature and database reviews corroborate that yeast signals mediate mutualistic interactions between insects and yeasts. Moreover, volatiles emitted by yeasts are commonly found also in flowers and attract many insect species. The collective evidence suggests that the release of volatile signals by yeasts is a widespread and phylogenetically ancient trait, and that insect–yeast communication evolved prior to the emergence of flowering plants. Co-occurrence of the same attractant signals in yeast and flowers suggests that yeast-insect communication may have contributed to the evolution of insect-mediated pollination in flowers. Drosophila melanogaster is attracted to odors of yeasts that span more than 250 my of evolutionary history. This suggests that emission of insect attractants is ancient and conserved in yeasts. An overlap between yeast and floral volatiles suggests that insect attraction by yeasts may have influenced the evolution of pollination.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 40
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: There has been increasing interest in algae-based bioassessment, particularly, trait-based approaches are increasingly suggested. However, the main drivers, especially the contribution of hydrological variables, of species composition, trait composition, and beta diversity of algae communities are less studied. To link species and trait composition to multiple factors (i.e., hydrological variables, local environmental variables, and spatial factors) that potentially control species occurrence/abundance and to determine their relative roles in shaping species composition, trait composition, and beta diversities of pelagic algae communities, samples were collected from a German lowland catchment, where a well-proven ecohydrological modeling enabled to predict long-term discharges at each sampling site. Both trait and species composition showed significant correlations with hydrological, environmental, and spatial variables, and variation partitioning revealed that the hydrological and local environmental variables outperformed spatial variables. A higher variation of trait composition (57.0%) than species composition (37.5%) could be explained by abiotic factors. Mantel tests showed that both species and trait-based beta diversities were mostly related to hydrological and environmental heterogeneity with hydrological contributing more than environmental variables, while purely spatial impact was less important. Our findings revealed the relative importance of hydrological variables in shaping pelagic algae community and their spatial patterns of beta diversities, emphasizing the need to include hydrological variables in long-term biomonitoring campaigns and biodiversity conservation or restoration. A key implication for biodiversity conservation was that maintaining the instream flow regime and keeping various habitats among rivers are of vital importance. However, further investigations at multispatial and temporal scales are greatly needed. Our findings revealed the relative importance of hydrological variables in shaping pelagic algae community and their spatial patterns of beta diversities, emphasizing the need to include hydrological variables in long-term biomonitoring campaigns and biodiversity conservation or restoration. A key implication for biodiversity conservation was that maintaining the instream flow regime and keeping various habitats among rivers are of vital importance. However, further investigations at multispatial and temporal scales are greatly needed.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 41
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TK) is a species of dandelion that is of interest commercially for the high-quality rubber produced in its roots; however, TK competes poorly with weeds. In order to overcome this shortcoming, there is interest in developing herbicide-resistant TK germplasm by a variety of means, including selection, transgene insertion, and gene editing. The potential release of such germplasm raises the question of gene flow between TK and its ubiquitous weedy relative, the common dandelion, Taraxacum officinale (TO). The potential for introgression may be influenced by the reproductive biology of TO, which can exist as a diploid sexual or polyploid obligate apomict. In North America, only polyploid, apomictic TO has been described. As weedy TO types exhibit obligate apomixis, they are expected to be unreceptive to TK pollen; however, it may still be possible for them to pollinate TK. To this end, unidirectional crosses were conducted and progeny were evaluated with molecular markers. Taraxacum officinale pollen used to fertilize TK flowers produced low seed set and seeds with a low germination rate. However, 23% of rare viable progeny proved to be the result of true hybridization. Outdoor TK seed production areas heavily contaminated with TO were also screened for naturally occurring hybridization during a three-year period using a combined strategy of both phenotyping (~3.35 million plants) and genotyping. Hybrids were detected during one of these years, at a rate of 1 in 100,000, when pollination was augmented with beehives. Hybrids from controlled crosses exhibited TO characteristics, such as lacerate leaves and apomixis. Some apomictic hybrids were able to produce viable seeds, whereas non-apomicts were sterile. Seeds produced by apomictic hybrids demonstrated the ability to establish and produce apomictic progeny when in competition with perennial ryegrass. The prevalence of apomixis in TO may limit subsequent pollen-mediated gene flow and introgression, but more work is needed to understand the longevity of apomictic hybrids under natural conditions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 42
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: Metabolic reprogramming is widely known as a hallmark of cancer cells to allow adaptation of cells to sustain survival signals. In this report, we describe a novel oncogenic signaling pathway exclusively acting in mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with acquired tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance. Mutated EGFR mediates TKI resistance through regulation of the fatty acid synthase (FASN), which produces 16-C saturated fatty acid palmitate. Our work shows that the persistent signaling by mutated EGFR in TKI-resistant tumor cells relies on EGFR palmitoylation and can be targeted by Orlistat, an FDA-approved anti-obesity drug. Inhibition of FASN with Orlistat induces EGFR ubiquitination and abrogates EGFR mutant signaling, and reduces tumor growths both in culture systems and in vivo . Together, our data provide compelling evidence on the functional interrelationship between mutated EGFR and FASN and that the fatty acid metabolism pathway is a candidate target for acquired TKI-resistant EGFR mutant NSCLC patients. In EGFR mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma with acquired Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors resistance, FASN mediates EGFR palmitoylation and supports tumor growth. With limited effective therapeutics, these data show that FASN is a candidate target for acquired TKI-resistant EGFR mutant NSCLC.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 43
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: While the effects of carcass decomposition on microorganisms have been demonstrated in recent years, little is known of how this impacts necrophagous insects. A common assumption is that insects that exploit carcasses are exposed to a high density of potentially harmful microorganisms, but no field data have so far validated this. Necrophagous beetles such as the Scarabaeinae have complex nesting behaviors with elaborate parental care. So here, we begin to explore whether this conjunction of life history and nesting behavior represents an adaptive response to the threat posed by microbes in these environments, mainly by entomopathogens. We evaluated the density and distribution of fungi and bacteria from soil near the carcasses, and their ability to infect and kill insects that are in contact with this soil during the decomposition process. Our data showed an increase in the density and activity of opportunistic or facultative pathogens during the apex of decomposition, when there is a predominance of necrophagous insects. Meanwhile, the survivorship of bait insects decreased when in contact with soil from this period of decomposition, indicating a potential risk of infection. However, the density and activity of these microorganisms decreased with distance from the carcass, mainly with depth, which would benefit tunneller beetles in particular. We have thus provided the first field data to show that necrophagous insects are indeed exposed to high densities of potentially harmful microorganisms. Furthermore, we propose that some parental care strategies may have arisen not only as a response to competition, but also as adaptations that reduce the risks of disease. Although we have focused on carrion feeders, we suggest that the same occurs with coprophagous beetles, as both carrion and dung are nutrient-rich resources. Carcasses are rich, unpredictable, and ephemeral sources of nutrients for which organisms compete, but we show for the first time that their decomposition also increases local densities of potentially harmful microorganisms, including insect pathogens. We propose that the diversity of nesting strategies among necrophagous insects is largely the result of natural selection to deal with threats from these microorganisms, rather than competition as previously understood.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 44
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: An organism's life history is closely interlinked with its allocation of energy between growth and reproduction at different life stages. Theoretical models have established that diminishing returns from reproductive investment promote strategies with simultaneous investment into growth and reproduction (indeterminate growth) over strategies with distinct phases of growth and reproduction (determinate growth). We extend this traditional, binary classification by showing that allocation-dependent fecundity and mortality rates allow for a large diversity of optimal allocation schedules. By analyzing a model of organisms that allocate energy between growth and reproduction, we find twelve types of optimal allocation schedules, differing qualitatively in how reproductive allocation increases with body mass. These twelve optimal allocation schedules include types with different combinations of continuous and discontinuous increase in reproduction allocation, in which phases of continuous increase can be decelerating or accelerating. We furthermore investigate how this variation influences growth curves and the expected maximum life span and body size. Our study thus reveals new links between eco-physiological constraints and life-history evolution and underscores how allocation-dependent fitness components may underlie biological diversity. Growth patterns are commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate depending on whether growth stops or continues after the onset of reproduction. It has been suggested that the latter strategy is promoted when organisms obtain diminishing returns from reproductive investments. Here, we extend this classic, binary result by demonstrating that a surprising diversity of optimal life histories may arise when varying the shapes of allocation-dependent fecundity and mortality functions. We specifically identify a system of twelve types of optimal allocation schedules, differing qualitatively in how reproductive allocation increases with body mass, and describe how they impact maximum body size and life span.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 45
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: The extent of the effect of projected changes in climate on trees remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of climatic variation on morphological traits of balsam fir [ Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] provenances sourced from locations spanning latitudes from 44° to 51°N and longitudes from 53° to 102°W across North America, growing in a common garden in eastern Canada. Lower latitude provenances performed significantly better than higher latitude provenances ( p 〈 .05) with regard to diameter at breast height (DBH), height (H), and crown width (CW), a distinction indicative of genotypic control of these traits. There was, however, no significant difference among provenances in terms of survival ( p  〉   .05), an indication of a resource allocation strategy directed at survival relative to productivity in higher latitude provenances as seen in their lower DBH, H, and CW compared to the lower latitude provenances. Temperature had a stronger relationship with DBH, H, and CW than precipitation, a reflection of adaptation to local conditions in populations of the species along latitudinal gradients. Both climatic variables had some effect on tree survival. These results suggest that the response of balsam fir to climatic variation will likely not be uniform in the species, but differ based on genetic characteristics between populations located in the northern and southern parts of the species’ range. Population differences in response to climatic variation may be evident earlier in growth traits, compared to survival in balsam fir. The findings of this study will facilitate modeling in the species that is reflective of genetic variation in response to climatic conditions, and guide provenance selection for utilization in terms of productivity or resilience as well as breeding programs directed at obtaining species that possibly combine both traits. This study investigated the effect of climatic variation on balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] provenances growing in a common garden in eastern Canada. Lower latitude provenances performed significantly better than higher latitude provenances in terms of diameter at breast height, height, and crown width ( p 〈 .05), but provenances did not differ in terms of survival ( p 〉 .05). The findings of this study will facilitate modeling for balsam fir that is reflective of genetic variation in response to climatic conditions, and guide provenance selection for utilization and breeding programs.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 46
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: A thorough understanding of the life cycles underlying the demography of wild species is limited by the difficulty of observing hidden life-history traits, such as embryonic development. Major aspects of embryonic development, such as the rate and timing of development, and maternal–fetal interactions can be critical features of early-life fitness and may impact population trends via effects on individual survival. While information on development in wild snakes and lizards is particularly limited, the repeated evolution of viviparity and diversity of reproductive mode in this clade make it a valuable subject of study. We used field-portable ultrasonography to investigate embryonic development in two sympatric garter snake species, Thamnophis sirtalis and Thamnophis elegans in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California. This approach allowed us to examine previously hidden reproductive traits including the timing and annual variation in development and differences in parental investment in young. Both species are viviparous, occupy similar ecological niches, and experience the same annual environmental conditions. We found that T. sirtalis embryos were more developmentally advanced than T. elegans embryos during June of three consecutive years. We also found that eggs increased in volume more substantially across developmental stages in T. elegans than in T. sirtalis , indicating differences in maternal provisioning of embryos via placental transfer of water. These findings shed light on interspecific differences in parental investment and timing of development within the same environmental context and demonstrate the value of field ultrasonography for pursuing questions relating to the evolution of reproductive modes, and the ecology of development. We test for evidence of differences in the dynamics surrounding embryonic development in wild populations of two sympatric species using field-portable ultrasonography. We find that these species differ in both developmental phenology and maternal provisioning to eggs, in spite of strong similarities in diet and habitat use, indicating lineage-specific differences in timing of development and parental investment.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 47
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: Instantaneous mitochondrial introgression events allow the disentangling of the effects of hybridization from those of allospecific mtDNA. Such process frequently occurred in the fish Chrosomus eos , resulting in cybrid individuals composed of a C. eos nuclear genome but with a C. neogaeus mtDNA. This provides a valuable model to address the fundamental question: How well do introgressed individuals perform in their native environment? We infer where de novo production of cybrids occurred to discriminate native environments from those colonized by cybrids in 25 sites from two regions (West-Qc and East-Qc) in Quebec (Canada). We then compared the relative abundance of wild types and cybrids as a measure integrating both fitness and de novo production of cybrids. According to mtDNA variation, 12 introgression events are required to explain the diversity of cybrids. Five cybrid lineages could not be associated with in situ introgression events. This includes one haplotype carried by 93% of the cybrids expected to have colonized West-Qc. These cybrids also displayed a nearly complete allopatric distribution with wild types. We still inferred de novo production of cybrids at seven sites, that accounted for 70% of the cybrids in East-Qc. Wild-type and cybrid individuals coexist in all East-Qc sites while cybrids were less abundant. Allopatry of cybrids restricted to the postglacial expansion suggests the existence of higher fitness for cybrids in specific conditions, allowing for the colonization of different environments and expanding the species’ range. However, allospecific mtDNA does not provide a higher fitness to cybrids in their native environment compared to wild types, making the success of an introgressed lineage uncertain. Instantaneous mitochondrial introgression frequently occurred in the fish Chrosomus eos , providing a valuable model to address the fundamental question: How well do introgressed individuals perform in their native environment? We compared the relative abundance of wild types and introgressed individuals in 25 sites (Quebec, Canada). Allospecific mtDNA does not provide a higher fitness to cybrids in their native environment compared to wild types, making the success of an introgressed lineage uncertain.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 48
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: Floral nectaries are closely associated with biotic pollination, and the nectar produced by corolla nectaries is generally enclosed in floral structures. Although some Swertia spp. (Gentianaceae), including S. bimaculata , evolved a peculiar form of corolla nectaries (known as “gland patches”) arranged in a conspicuous ring on the rotate corolla and that completely expose their nectar, little is known about the pollination of these plants. Two hypotheses were made concerning the possible effects of gland patches: visual attraction and visitor manipulation. The floral traits, mating system, and insect pollination of S. bimaculata were examined, and the pollination effects of gland patches were evaluated. A comparative study was made using Swertia kouitchensis , a species with fimbriate nectaries. Swertia bimaculata flowers were protandrous, with obvious stamen movement leading to herkogamy in the female phase and to a significant reduction in nectary–anther distance. The species is strongly entomophilous and facultatively xenogamous. The daily reward provided per flower decreased significantly after the male phase. The most effective pollinators were large dipterans, and the visiting proportion of Diptera was significantly higher in S. bimaculata than in S. kouitchensis . Most visitors performed “circling behavior” in S. bimaculata flowers. Removing or blocking the nectaries caused no reduction in visiting frequency but a significant reduction in visit duration, interrupting the circling behavior. The circling behavior was encouraged by nectar abundance and promoted pollen dispersal. Visitor species with small body size had little chance to contact the anthers or stigma, revealing a filtration effect exerted by the floral design. These results rejected the “visual attraction” hypothesis and supported the “visitor manipulation” hypothesis. The nectary whorl within a flower acted like a ring-shaped track that urged nectar foragers to circle on the corolla, making pollination in S. bimaculata flowers more orderly and selective than that in classically generalist flowers. A type of specialized nectaries, gland patches, has evolved in Swertia bimaculata . The flat shape and exposed nectar of these nectaries are regarded as an adaptation to dipteran mouthparts. In each monoclinous flower, gland patches are arranged in a circle that acts as a track to manipulate the behavior of pollinators, thereby promoting pollen dispersal.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 49
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: DNA methylation is one of the mechanisms underlying epigenetic modifications. DNA methylations can be environmentally induced and such induced modifications can at times be transmitted to successive generations. However, it remains speculative how common such environmentally induced transgenerational DNA methylation changes are and if they persist for more than one offspring generation. We exposed multiple accessions of two different apomictic dandelion lineages of the Taraxacum officinale group ( Taraxacum alatum and T. hemicyclum ) to drought and salicylic acid (SA) treatment. Using methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (MS-AFLPs) we screened anonymous methylation changes at CCGG restriction sites throughout the genome after stress treatments and assessed the heritability of induced changes for two subsequent unexposed offspring generations. Irrespective of the initial stress treatment, a clear buildup of heritable DNA methylation variation was observed across three generations, indicating a considerable background rate of heritable epimutations. Less evidence was detected for environmental effects. Drought stress showed some evidence for accession-specific methylation changes, but only in the exposed generation and not in their offspring. By contrast, SA treatment caused an increased rate of methylation change in offspring of treated plants. These changes were seemingly undirected resulting in increased transgenerational epigenetic variation between offspring individuals, but not in predictable epigenetic variants. While the functional consequences of these MS-AFLP-detected DNA methylation changes remain to be demonstrated, our study shows that (1) stress-induced transgenerational DNA methylation modification in dandelions is genotype and context-specific; and (2) inherited environmental DNA methylation effects are mostly undirected and not targeted to specific loci. This study aimed to investigate the persistence and the generality of inheritance of stress-induced epigenetic modification in apomictic dandelion lineages. We found supporting evidence that environmental stress can affect DNA methylation patterns not only in the exposed plants but also in their unexposed progeny. While drought stress affected only the exposed generation, salicylic acid stress did not cause a detectable response in the exposed generation but an increased rate of methylation change in their offspring. Additionally, in both stress treatments, a clear buildup of heritable DNA methylation variation was observed across three generations.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 50
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: Habitat orientation has recently been demonstrated to affect the foraging behavior, growth, and production of plankton grazers. Because the orientation effect may vary with species, we hypothesize that habitat orientation may alter interspecific interactions between animal species. We experimentally investigated how habitat orientation (placing cuboid chambers in three orientations with long, medium, and small side as the chamber height) affected the interaction between two common cladoceran species, Daphnia magna and Moina micrura , which competitively exploited green algae of Chlorella pyrenoidosa at two volume scales (64 and 512 ml). Results show that chamber orientation and volume additively affected the behavior and species performance of the grazers. Specifically, both grazer species generally decreased their average swimming velocity, grazing rate (on algal cells), body size, and survival and reproduction rates with increasing chamber height for both chamber volumes and with decreasing chamber volume regardless of chamber orientation. Nevertheless, the decrease magnitude was greater for M. micrura with increasing chamber height but was greater for D. magna with decreasing chamber volume. Correspondingly, when cocultured, the density ratio of D. magna to M. micrura increased with increasing chamber height but decreased with decreasing chamber volume. At the end of the experiment, none of D. magna individuals survived in the small and short (large-based) chambers, and few M. micrura individuals survived in large and tall (small-based) chambers. These results indicate that both habitat orientation and size affect the outcome of interspecific competition between grazer species. We suggest that variation in habitat orientation may improve community coexistence and species diversity in nature. Habitat orientation has recently been demonstrated to affect animal foraging behavior, growth, and production. Because the habitat effects may vary with grazer species, we here hypothesize that the effects may be species-specific and hence habitat orientation may alter interspecific interactions between animal species. Our results indicate that habitat orientation affects the outcome of interspecific competition, suggesting that variation in habitat orientation may improve community coexistence and species diversity.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 51
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: For oviparous species such as birds, conditions experienced while in the egg can have long-lasting effects on the individual. The impact of subtle changes in incubation temperature on nestling development, however, remains poorly understood, especially for open-cup nesting species with altricial young. To investigate how incubation temperature affects nestling development and survival in such species, we artificially incubated American robin ( Turdus migratorius ) eggs at 36.1°C (“Low” treatment) and 37.8°C (“High” treatment). Chicks were fostered to same-age nests upon hatching, and we measured mass, tarsus, and wing length of experimental nestlings and one randomly selected, naturally incubated (“Natural”), foster nest-mate on days 7 and 10 posthatch. We found significant effects of incubation temperature on incubation duration, growth, and survival, in which experimentally incubated nestlings had shorter incubation periods (10.22, 11.50, and 11.95 days for High, Low, and Natural eggs, respectively), and nestlings from the Low treatment were smaller and had reduced survival compared to High and Natural nestlings. These results highlight the importance of incubation conditions during embryonic development for incubation duration, somatic development, and survival. Moreover, these findings indicate that differences in incubation temperature within the natural range of variation can have important carryover effects on growth and survival in species with altricial young. We examined somatic development and survival at seven and 10 days posthatch in nestlings from a “Low” temperature treatment, an “High” temperature treatment, and those naturally incubated. We found a significant effect of incubation temperature on growth and survival, in which nestlings from the “Low” treatment were the smallest at day 7 (and in some respects on day 10) in mass, wing, and tarsus length and had the highest mortality rates throughout the nestling phase compared with both “High” and “Natural” nestlings. To our knowledge, our study is the first to manipulate incubation conditions for the entire duration of the incubation period, and to then assess growth and survival for an open-cup nesting passerine.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 52
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: Structural complexity is known to determine habitat quality for insectivorous bats, but how bats respond to habitat complexity in highly modified areas such as urban green spaces has been little explored. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether a recently developed measure of structural complexity is as effective as field-based surveys when applied to urban environments. We assessed whether image-derived structural complexity (MIG) was as/more effective than field-based descriptors in this environment and evaluated the response of insectivorous bats to structural complexity in urban green spaces. Bat activity and species richness were assessed with ultrasonic devices at 180 locations within green spaces in Vienna, Austria. Vegetation complexity was assessed using 17 field-based descriptors and by calculating the mean information gain (MIG) using digital images. Total bat activity and species richness decreased with increasing structural complexity of canopy cover, suggesting maneuverability and echolocation (sensorial) challenges for bat species using the canopy for flight and foraging. The negative response of functional groups to increased complexity was stronger for open-space foragers than for edge-space foragers. Nyctalus noctula , a species foraging in open space, showed a negative response to structural complexity, whereas Pipistrellus pygmaeus , an edge-space forager, was positively influenced by the number of trees. Our results show that MIG is a useful, time- and cost-effective tool to measure habitat complexity that complemented field-based descriptors. Response of insectivorous bats to structural complexity was group- and species-specific, which highlights the need for manifold management strategies (e.g., increasing or reinstating the extent of ground vegetation cover) to fulfill different species’ requirements and to conserve insectivorous bats in urban green spaces. MIG is a useful, a time- and cost-effective tool for capturing complexity of vegetation and complements field-based descriptors. Response of bats to structural complexity is group- and species-specific, which highlights the need for manifold management strategies in urban green spaces.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 53
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: Heliconius are unpalatable butterflies that exhibit remarkable intra- and interspecific variation in wing color pattern, specifically warning coloration. Species that have converged on the same pattern are often clustered in Müllerian mimicry rings. Overall, wing color patterns are nearly identical among co-mimics. However, fine-scale differences exist, indicating that factors in addition to natural selection may underlie wing phenotype. Here, we investigate differences in shape and size of the forewing and the red band in the Heliconius postman mimicry ring ( H. erato phyllis and the co-mimics H. besckei , H. melpomene burchelli, and H. melpomene nanna ) using a landmark-based approach. If phenotypic evolution is driven entirely by predation pressure, we expect nonsignificant differences among co-mimics in terms of wing shape. Also, a reinforcement of wing pattern (i.e., greater similarity) could occur when co-mimics are in sympatry. We also examined variation in the red forewing band because this trait is critical for both mimicry and sexual communication. Morphometric results revealed significant but small differences among species, particularly in the shape of the forewing of co-mimics. Although we did not observe greater similarity when co-mimics were in sympatry, nearly identical patterns provided evidence of convergence for mimicry. In contrast, mimetic pairs could be distinguished based on the shape (but not the size) of the red band, suggesting an “advergence” process. In addition, sexual dimorphism in the red band shape (but not size) was found for all lineages. Thus, we infer that natural selection due to predation by birds might not be the only mechanism responsible for variation in color patterns, and sexual selection could be an important driver of wing phenotypic evolution in this mimicry ring. Diagnosable and consistent wing shape differences in the postman mimetic-ring traits were found. Sexual dimorphism in the forewing red band shape was found for H. erato , H. besckei , and H. melpomene . Concurrent natural and sexual selection might underlie wing patterns variation in Heliconius postman ring.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 54
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: Domestication is a type of experimental evolution in which humans have artificially selected for specific desired traits. Selected strain animals can be utilized to identify correlated responses by comparing them to the wild strain. In particular, domestic turkeys have been selected for increased body mass and high-growth rate, most significantly over the past 60 years. Yet it remains unclear how artificial selection has affected the morphology and evolution of the musculoskeletal system as a whole. Here, we compare growth rate over 21 weeks, hind limb bone scaling across ontogeny via in vivo CT scanning, and muscle proportions in wild and domestic turkeys to identify differences in structural scaling and the potential contributions of selection and developmental plasticity to whole-organism morphology. The domestic turkeys grew at a higher rate (0.14 kg/day vs. 0.05 kg/day) and reached over 3 times the body mass of wild birds. Comparing the proportional muscle masses in adult turkeys, only the trunk had a greater mass ratio in the domestic turkey, driven solely by M. pectoralis (2.8 times larger). The proportional increase in only breast meat and no other muscles highlights the surgical precision attainable with artificial selection. The domestic turkey femur and tibiotarsus displayed increases in polar moment of area, apparently maintaining torsional strength as body mass increased. The lack of dimensional change in the more vertically held tarsometatarsus is consistent with the pattern expected due to developmental plasticity. These results from the domestic turkey emphasize that there are morphological limits to preserving the balance between growth and function, and varying rates of trait evolution can further complicate this equilibrium. Artificial selection has resulted in domestic turkeys that are three times the body mass of wild turkeys, an interesting example of experimental evolution. While most muscles increase in mass, the pectoralis muscle is a greater proportion of the overall body mass in the domestic birds, highlighting the precision of selection. While the hind limb bones do not increase much in length, dimensional changes maintain torsional strength, likely due to developmental plasticity.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 55
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: Global consumption of crops with a yield that is dependent on animal pollinators is growing, with greater areas planted each year. However, the floral traits that influence pollinator visitation are not usually the focus of breeding programmes, and therefore, it is likely that yield improvements may be made by optimizing floral traits to enhance pollinator visitation rates. We investigated the variation present in the floral reward of the bee-pollinated crop Vicia faba (field bean). We examined the genetic potential for breeding flowers with a greater reward into current commercial varieties and used bee behavioral experiments to gain insight into the optimal nectar concentration to maximize bee preference. There was a large range of variation in the amount of pollen and nectar reward of flowers in the genotypes investigated. Bee behavioral experiments using nectar sugar concentrations found in V. faba lines suggest that Bombus terrestris prefers 55% w/w sugar solution over 40% w/w, but has no preference between 55% w/w and 68% w/w sugar solution. We provide a first indication of the force required to open V. faba flowers. Our results provide a valuable starting point toward breeding for varieties with optimized floral reward. Field studies are now needed to verify whether the genetic potential for breeding more rewarding flowers can translate into higher yield and yield stability. This study examines heritable variation in, and pollinator response to, key flower reward traits of an important legume crop. These traits represent potential targets for breeding to improve crop yield by enhancing pollinator visitation and to support pollinator populations in agricultural areas.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 56
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 57
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: Insects are often chemically defended against predators. There is considerable evidence for a group-beneficial element to their defenses, and an associated potential for individuals to curtail their own investment in costly defense while benefitting from the investments of others, termed “automimicry.” Although females in chemically defended taxa often lay their eggs in clusters, leading to siblings living in close proximity, current models of automimicry have neglected kin-selection effects, which may be expected to curb the evolution of such selfishness. Here, we develop a general theory of automimicry that explicitly incorporates kin selection. We investigate how female promiscuity modulates intragroup and intragenomic conflicts overinvestment into chemical defense, finding that individuals are favored to invest less than is optimal for their group, and that maternal-origin genes favor greater investment than do paternal-origin genes. We translate these conflicts into readily testable predictions concerning gene expression patterns and the phenotypic consequences of genomic perturbations, and discuss how our results may inform gene discovery in relation to economically important agricultural products. Insects are often chemically defended against predators. Although females in such taxa often lay their eggs in clusters, leading to siblings living in close proximity, current models have neglected kin-selection effects. Here, we investigate how female promiscuity modulates intragroup and intragenomic conflicts over investment into chemical defense, and translate these conflicts into testable predictions concerning patterns of genomic imprinting.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 58
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: Parasitoid fitness is influenced by the ability to overcome host defense strategies and by the ability of parasitoid females to select high-quality host individuals. When females are unable to differentiate among hosts, their fitness will decrease with an increasing abundance of resistant hosts. To understand the effect of mixed host populations on female fitness, it is therefore necessary to investigate the ability of female parasitoids to select among hosts. Here, we used behavioral assays, headspace volatile collection, and electrophysiology to study the ability of Asecodes parviclava to use olfactory cues to select between a susceptible host ( Galerucella calmariensis ) and a resistant host ( Galerucella pusilla ) from a distance. Our studies show that parasitoid females have the capacity to distinguish the two hosts and that the selection behavior is acquired through experiences during earlier life stages. Further, we identified two volatiles (α-terpinolene and [ E ]-β-ocimene) which amounts differ between the two plant–herbivore systems and that caused behavioral and electrophysiological responses. The consequence of this selection behavior is that females have the capacity to avoid laying eggs in G. pusilla , where the egg mortality is higher due to much stronger immune responses toward A. parviclava than in larvae of G .  calmariensis . Parasitoid fitness is influenced by the ability to overcome host defence strategies and by the ability of parasitoid females to select high quality host individuals. Here, we used behavioural assays, headspace volatile collection and electrophysiology to study the ability of Asecodes parviclava to use olfactory cues to select between a susceptible host ( Galerucella calmariensis ) and a resistant host ( Galerucella pusilla ) from a distance. Our studies show that parasitoid females have the capacity to separate the two hosts and that the selection behaviour is acquired through experiences during earlier life stages.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: In Part II of this two-part paper, documentation is provided of key aspects of a version of the AM4.0/LM4.0 atmosphere/land model that will serve as a base for a new set of climate and Earth system models (CM4 and ESM4) under development at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The quality of the simulation in AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) mode has been provided in Part I. Part II provides documentation of key components and some sensitivities to choices of model formulation and values of parameters, highlighting the convection parameterization and orographic gravity wave drag. The approach taken to tune the model's clouds to observations is a particular focal point. Care is taken to describe the extent to which aerosol effective forcing and Cess sensitivity have been tuned through the model development process, both of which are relevant to the ability of the model to simulate the evolution of temperatures over the last century when coupled to an ocean model.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: In this two-part paper, a description is provided of a version of the AM4.0/LM4.0 atmosphere/land model that will serve as a base for a new set of climate and Earth system models (CM4 and ESM4) under development at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). This version, with roughly 100km horizontal resolution and 33 levels in the vertical, contains an aerosol model that generates aerosol fields from emissions and a “light” chemistry mechanism designed to support the aerosol model but with prescribed ozone. In Part I, the quality of the simulation in AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) mode – with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice distribution – is described and compared with previous GFDL models and with the CMIP5 archive of AMIP simulations. The model's Cess sensitivity (response in the top-of-atmosphere radiative flux to uniform warming of SSTs) and effective radiative forcing are also presented. In Part II, the model formulation is described more fully and key sensitivities to aspects of the model formulation are discussed, along with the approach to model tuning.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: FGFR3 alterations (mutations or translocation) are among the most frequent genetic events in bladder carcinoma. They lead to an aberrant activation of FGFR3 signaling, conferring an oncogenic dependence, which we studied here. We discovered a positive feedback loop, in which the activation of p38 and AKT downstream from the altered FGFR3 upregulates MYC mRNA levels and stabilizes MYC protein, respectively, leading to the accumulation of MYC, which directly upregulates FGFR3 expression by binding to active enhancers upstream from FGFR3 . Disruption of this FGFR3/MYC loop in bladder cancer cell lines by treatment with FGFR3, p38, AKT, or BET bromodomain inhibitors (JQ1) preventing MYC transcription decreased cell viability in vitro and tumor growth in vivo . A relevance of this loop to human bladder tumors was supported by the positive correlation between FGFR3 and MYC levels in tumors bearing FGFR3 mutations, and the decrease in FGFR3 and MYC levels following anti-FGFR treatment in a PDX model bearing an FGFR3 mutation. These findings open up new possibilities for the treatment of bladder tumors displaying aberrant FGFR3 activation. In bladder carcinoma, alterations of FGFR3 receptor are often observed and lead to constitutive activation and oncogene addiction, which can be targeted with a pan-FGFR inhibitor. Our identification and characterization of a FGFR3/MYC positive feedback loop opens new avenues for targeted therapies.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 62
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: Global change-induced litter decomposition strongly affects the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in grassland ecosystems. However, few studies show the interactive effects of global change factors on litter and root decomposition. We conducted a four-year grassland field experiment to examine the quality and decomposition of litter and root in a three-factorial experiment with elevated CO 2 , increased N deposition, and plant species richness. We found that elevated CO 2 decreased the litter N content and root lignin content. N addition increased the root N content and decreased the litter lignin content. Increasing plant richness decreased the N and lignin contents in litter and root. In contrast to the quality changes, elevated CO 2 had no effect on decomposition of litter and root. N addition increased the C loss of the litter by 4.8%, but did not affect C and N loss in root. Increasing plant richness affected the C and N loss in litter and root. ANCOVAs showed that tissue quality and root biomass affected the C and N loss in litter and root, and soil C and N affected the N loss of litter and root. However, changes in tissue quality, biomass, and soil as covariates did not significantly change the effects of CO 2 , N, and plant richness on decomposition. The structural equation model showed that elevated CO 2 indirectly decreased litter N loss and increased root N loss, while N addition indirectly increased the C and N loss in litter and root, via their effects on tissue quality. Increasing plant richness increased litter C and N loss, but indirectly decreased root C and N loss. N deposition can accelerate litter and root decomposition, thus modifying the limitation of elevated CO 2 on soil N availability. Biodiversity loss greatly alters litter and root decomposition, potentially driving any changes in C and N cycling. Our study clearly demonstrates a relative certainty of a predicted increase in the C loss and N release in litter and root decomposition with increased N deposition, whereas the effects of elevated CO 2 and plant diversity changes on decomposition strongly differ between litter and root in grassland ecosystems.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 63
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-19
    Description: Mobile acoustic surveys are a common method of surveying bat communities. However, there is a paucity of empirical studies exploring different methods for conducting mobile road surveys of bats. During 2013, we conducted acoustic mobile surveys on three routes in north-central Indiana, U.S.A., using (1) a standard road survey, (2) a road survey where the vehicle stopped for 1 min at every half mile of the survey route (called a “start-stop method”), and (3) a road survey with an individual using a bicycle. Linear mixed models with multiple comparison procedures revealed that when all bat passes were analyzed, using a bike to conduct mobile surveys detected significantly more bat passes per unit time compared to other methods. However, incorporating genus-level comparisons revealed no advantage to using a bike over vehicle-based methods. We also found that survey method had a significant effect when analyses were limited to those bat passes that could be identified to genus, with the start–stop method generally detecting more identifiable passes than the standard protocol or bike survey. Additionally, we found that significantly more identifiable bat passes (particularly those of the Eptesicus and Lasiurus genera) were detected in surveys conducted immediately following sunset. As governing agencies, particularly in North America, implement vehicle-based bat monitoring programs, it is important for researchers to understand how variations on protocols influence the inference that can be gained from different monitoring schemes. Vehicle-based mobile acoustic surveys of bats have become a common tool for assessing bat communities and population change across the globe. We assessed the impact that both the timing of these surveys as well as modifications to the standard protocol had on the ability of such surveys to effectively sample a bat community. We found that surveys started shortly after sunset recorded more high-quality bat calls than those begun later in the night and that a mobile protocol that implemented periodic stops was more effective per unit time at recording identifiable bat echolocation calls than the standard method or a bike-based protocol.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 64
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: Predators can significantly affect prey by removing prey individuals and by changing prey behavior. The tradeoff between foraging behavior and predation risk may result in a trophic cascade that can have important effects on ecosystem processes. For herbivores that can feed both above- and belowground, it is likely that predation risk affects the location of feeding. We tested whether two species of predatory marsh crabs affected feeding behavior of the herbivorous crab, Sesarma reticulatum . We found that predatory crabs could kill or injure Sesarma and that Sesarma did less damage to its food plant Spartina alterniflora in the presence of the more dangerous predator. Sesarma prefers to feed on and grows better on belowground rhizomes than aboveground leaves; however, the costs of digging burrows to access rhizomes lead to higher mortality if it is the only diet option. The location of feeding did not affect total biomass of S. alterniflora . For Sesarma , a choice in feeding location allows the crabs the behavioral flexibility to balance the risks of predation, the nutritional benefit of feeding belowground, and the survival costs of belowground feeding. Similar tradeoffs are likely to increase the success of other herbivores that can feed both above- and belowground.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 65
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: Biological nitrogen (N 2 ) fixation is one of the main sources of available N for pristine ecosystems such as subarctic and arctic tundra. Although this has been acknowledged more than a decade ago, few attempts have been undertaken to identify the foremost driver of N 2 fixation in the high Arctic. Here, we report results from in situ measurements of N 2 fixation throughout the main growing period (June–August) in high arctic tundra, Greenland, in climate change treatments, shading and warming, and control. Nitrogen fixation was also measured in cores that received additional water prior to the measurements. The climate change field treatments did not lead to significant changes in any measured parameters; however, N 2 fixation was promoted by adding water, and moisture was the most important factor influencing N 2 fixation in all climate change field treatments. Maximum N 2 fixation rates were measured below 14°C soil temperature, which is much lower than the theoretical and previously reported temperature optimum for the nitrogenase enzyme. Diazotroph (N 2 fixing bacteria) communities are adapted to low temperatures in high arctic settings, and increased temperature in a future climate may lead to decreased N 2 fixation rates, or to a shift in diazotroph communities.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 66
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Electronic ISSN: 2050-0505
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 67
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Electronic ISSN: 2050-0505
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 68
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: The world conference (Conference of the Parties (COP23)) under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change took place in Bonn (Germany) from 6 to 17 November. Speakers at the meeting stressed the severity of the threat from global warming and the urgent need to act but what commitments came out of the COP23 meeting? Alexandra Carrick gives a short summary of the meeting and some of the energy outcomes of the conference.
    Electronic ISSN: 2050-0505
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 69
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: This paper presents the main experiences gained and conclusions drawn from the demonstration of a first-of-its-kind wood-based biomethane production plant (20-MW capacity, 150 dry tonnes of biomass/day) and 10 years of operation of the 2–4-MW (10–20 dry tonnes of biomass/day) research gasifier at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. Based on the experience gained, an elaborated outline for commercialization of the technology for a wide spectrum of applications and end products is defined. The main findings are related to the use of biomass ash constituents as a catalyst for the process and the application of coated heat exchangers, such that regular fluidized bed boilers can be retrofitted to become biomass gasifiers. Among the recirculation of the ash streams within the process, presence of the alkali salt in the system is identified as highly important for control of the tar species. Combined with new insights on fuel feeding and reactor design, these two major findings form the basis for a comprehensive process layout that can support a gradual transformation of existing boilers in district heating networks and in pulp, paper and saw mills, and it facilitates the exploitation of existing oil refineries and petrochemical plants for large-scale production of renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials from biomass and wastes. The potential for electrification of those process layouts are also discussed. The commercialization route represents an example of how biomass conversion develops and integrates with existing industrial and energy infrastructures to form highly effective systems that deliver a wide range of end products. Illustrating the potential, the existing fluidized bed boilers in Sweden alone represent a jet fuel production capacity that corresponds to 10% of current global consumption. The article presents a summary of experiences and conclusions drawn from comprehensive work on a first-of-its-kind wood-based biomethane production plant and 10 years of operation of the 2–4-MW research gasifier at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. We highlight key issues and breakthroughs that led to the successful operation of the gasification-based plant of GoBiGas. Based on this valuable and unique experience, we give an outline for the commercialization of the technology for a wide range of applications and end-products.
    Electronic ISSN: 2050-0505
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 70
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Community assembly may not follow predictable successional stages, with a large fraction of the species pool constituted by potential pioneering species and successful founders defined through lottery. In such systems, priority effects may be relevant in the determination of trajectories of developing communities and hence diversity and assemblage structure at later advanced states. In order to assess how different founder species may trigger variable community trajectories and structures, we conducted an experimental study using subtidal sessile assemblages as model. We manipulated the identity of functionally different founders and initial colony size (a proxy of the time lag before the arrival of later species), and followed trajectories. We did not observe any effects of colony size on response variables, suggesting that priority effects take place even when the time lag between the establishment of pioneering species and late colonizers is very short. Late community structure at experimental panels that started either with the colonial ascidian Botrylloides nigrum , or the arborescent bryozoan Bugula neritina , was similar to control panels allowed natural assembling. In spite of high potential for fast space domination, and hence negative priority effects, B. nigrum suffered high mortality and did not persist throughout succession. Bugula neritina provided complex physical microhabitats through conspecific clustering that have enhanced larval settlement of late species arrivals, but no apparent facilitation was observed. Differently, panels founded by the encrusting bryozoan Schizoporella errata led to different and less diverse communities compared to naturally assembled panels, evidencing strong negative priority effects through higher persistence and space preemption. Schizoporella errata founder colonies inhibited further conspecific settlement, which may greatly relax intraspecific competition, allowing resource allocation to colony growth and space domination, thus reducing the chances for the establishment of other species. Community assembly may not always follow predictable trajectories and instead may be affected by priority effects. In order to investigate how founder species with different traits affect community trajectory and structure, we conducted a manipulative approach using sessile communities from shallow subtidal. We observed that communities founded by a colonial ascidian and an arborescent bryozoan that do not persist longer became similar to nonmanipulated natural communities. However, when founded by a encrusting bryozoan that is a good space monopolizing and resistant to predation, communities were different from nonmanipulated ones, holding a lower number of species and being dominated by such founder species.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 71
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    Unknown
    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Climate change alters the abiotic constraints faced by plants, including increasing temperature and water stress. These changes may affect flower development and production of flower rewards, thus altering plant–pollinator interactions. Here, we investigated the consequences of increased temperature and water stress on plant growth, floral biology, flower-reward production, and insect visitation of a widespread bee-visited species, Borago officinalis . Plants were grown for 5 weeks under three temperature regimes (21, 24, and 27°C) and two watering regimes (well-watered and water-stressed). Plant growth was more affected by temperature rise than water stress, and the reproductive growth was affected by both stresses. Vegetative traits were stimulated at 24°C, but impaired at 27°C. Flower development was mainly affected by water stress, which decreased flower number (15 ± 2 flowers/plant in well-watered plants vs. 8 ± 1 flowers/plant under water stress). Flowers had a reduced corolla surface under temperature rise and water stress (3.8 ± 0.5 cm 2 in well-watered plants at 21°C vs. 2.2 ± 0.1 cm 2 in water-stressed plants at 27°C). Both constraints reduced flower-reward production. Nectar sugar content decreased from 3.9 ± 0.3 mg/flower in the well-watered plants at 21°C to 1.3 ± 0.4 mg/flower in the water-stressed plants at 27°C. Total pollen quantity was not affected, but pollen viability decreased from 79 ± 4% in the well-watered plants at 21°C to 25 ± 9% in the water-stressed plants at 27°C. Flowers in the well-watered plants at 21°C received at least twice as many bumblebee visits compared with the other treatments. In conclusion, floral modifications induced by abiotic stresses related to climate change affect insect behavior and alter plant–pollinator interactions. Modifications on flower-reward production are considered as an indirect impact of climate changes which can disrupt the interactions between plants and pollinators. We investigated the consequences of temperature rise and water stress on plant growth, floral biology, flower-reward production, and insect visitation of a widespread bee-visited species, Borago officinalis . Reproductive traits were more affected than vegetative traits; particularly, flower-reward production decreased for stressed plants, and floral traits were modified, thus altering pollinator visitation behavior as stressed plants were two times less visited than non-stressed plants.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 72
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    Unknown
    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: There is little direct evidence for effects of soil heterogeneity and root plasticity on the competitive interactions among plants. In this study, we experimentally examined the impacts of temporal nutrient heterogeneity on root growth and interactions between two plant species with very different rooting strategies: Liquidambar styraciflua (sweet gum), which shows high root plasticity in response to soil nutrient heterogeneity, and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine), a species with less plastic roots. Seedlings of the two species were grown in sandboxes in inter- and intraspecific combinations. Nutrients were applied in a patch either in a stable (slow-release) or in a variable (pulse) manner. Plant aboveground biomass, fine root mass, root allocation between nutrient patch and outside the patch, and root vertical distribution were measured. L. styraciflua grew more aboveground (40% and 27% in stable and variable nutrient treatment, respectively) and fine roots (41% and 8% in stable and variable nutrient treatment, respectively) when competing with P. taeda than when competing with a conspecific individual, but the growth of P. taeda was not changed by competition from L. styraciflua . Temporal variation in patch nutrient level had little effect on the species’ competitive interactions. The more flexible L. styraciflua changed its vertical distribution of fine roots in response to competition from P. taeda , growing more roots in deeper soil layers compared to its roots in conspecific competition, leading to niche differentiation between the species, while the fine root distribution of P. taeda remained unchanged across all treatments. Synthesis . L. styraciflua showed greater flexibility in root growth by changing its root vertical distribution and occupying space of not occupied by P. taeda . This flexibility gave L. styraciflua an advantage in interspecific competition. Liquidambar styraciflua showed greater flexibility in root growth by changing its root vertical distribution and occupying space not occupied by Pinus taeda . This flexibility gave L. styraciflua an advantage in interspecific competition.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 73
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    Unknown
    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Animal signals are inherently complex phenotypes with many interacting parts combining to elicit responses from receivers. The pattern of interrelationships between signal components reflects the extent to which each component is expressed, and responds to selection, either in concert with or independently of others. Furthermore, many species have complex repertoires consisting of multiple signal types used in different contexts, and common morphological and physiological constraints may result in interrelationships extending across the multiple signals in species’ repertoires. The evolutionary significance of interrelationships between signal traits can be explored within the framework of phenotypic integration, which offers a suite of quantitative techniques to characterize complex phenotypes. In particular, these techniques allow for the assessment of modularity and integration, which describe, respectively, the extent to which sets of traits covary either independently or jointly. Although signal and repertoire complexity are thought to be major drivers of diversification and social evolution, few studies have explicitly measured the phenotypic integration of signals to investigate the evolution of diverse communication systems. We applied methods from phenotypic integration studies to quantify integration in the two primary vocalization types (advertisement and aggressive calls) in the treefrogs Hyla versicolor , Hyla cinerea, and Dendropsophus ebraccatus . We recorded male calls and calculated standardized phenotypic variance–covariance ( P ) matrices for characteristics within and across call types. We found significant integration across call types, but the strength of integration varied by species and corresponded with the acoustic similarity of the call types within each species. H. versicolor had the most modular advertisement and aggressive calls and the least acoustically similar call types. Additionally, P was robust to changing social competition levels in H. versicolor . Our findings suggest new directions in animal communication research in which the complex relationships among the traits of multiple signals are a key consideration for understanding signal evolution. Signals, such as body parts, are complex structures that must be integrated to function properly, yet this integration also may limit the independent evolution of signal traits. We investigated how different signal traits were integrated across the repertoires of three treefrog species and found evidence for variation between species in the strength of integration that seemed to correspond with the similarity of different signal types.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 74
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    Unknown
    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Global change has the potential to affect river flow conditions which are fundamental determinants of physical habitats. Predictions of the effects of flow alterations on aquatic biota have mostly been assessed based on species ecological traits (e.g., current preferences), which are difficult to link to quantitative discharge data. Alternatively, we used empirically derived predictive relationships for species’ response to flow to assess the effect of flow alterations due to climate change in two contrasting central European river catchments. Predictive relationships were set up for 294 individual species based on (1) abundance data from 223 sampling sites in the Kinzig lower-mountainous catchment and 67 sites in the Treene lowland catchment, and (2) flow conditions at these sites described by five flow metrics quantifying the duration, frequency, magnitude, timing and rate of flow events using present-day gauging data. Species’ abundances were predicted for three periods: (1) baseline (1998–2017), (2) horizon 2050 (2046–2065) and (3) horizon 2090 (2080–2099) based on these empirical relationships and using high-resolution modeled discharge data for the present and future climate conditions. We compared the differences in predicted abundances among periods for individual species at each site, where the percent change served as a proxy to assess the potential species responses to flow alterations. Climate change was predicted to most strongly affect the low-flow conditions, leading to decreased abundances of species up to −42%. Finally combining the response of all species over all metrics indicated increasing overall species assemblage responses in 98% of the studied river reaches in both projected horizons and were significantly larger in the lower-mountainous Kinzig compared to the lowland Treene catchment. Such quantitative analyses of freshwater taxa responses to flow alterations provide valuable tools for predicting potential climate-change impacts on species abundances and can be applied to any stressor, species, or region. Our multidisciplinary study deals with the effects of climate-change-induced flow alterations on stream macroinvertebrates. Our approach links biological (i.e., macroinvertebrate sample data) and flow data (i.e., discharge) together and predicts potential changes in species abundances caused by flow alterations in two case-study catchments in Germany.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 75
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    Unknown
    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-25
    Description: The effectiveness of conservation plans depends on environmental, ecological, and socioeconomic factors. Global change makes conservation decisions even more challenging. Among others, the components of most concern in modern-day conservation assessments are as follows: the magnitude of climate and land-use changes; species dispersal abilities; competition with harmful socioeconomic activities for land use; the number of threatened species to consider; and, relatedly, the available budget to act. Here, we provide a unified framework that quantifies the relative effects of those factors on conservation. We conducted an area-scheduling work plan in order to identify sets of areas along time in which the persistence expectancies of species are optimized. The approach was illustrated using data of potential distribution of ten nonvolant mammal species in Iberia Peninsula from current time up to 2080. Analyses were conducted considering possible setups among the factors that are likely to critically impact conservation success: three climate/land-use scenarios; four species’ dispersal kernel curves; six land-use layer types; and two planning designs, in which assessments were made independently for each species, or joining all species in a single plan. We identified areas for an array of investments levels capable to circumvent the spatial conflicts with socioeconomic activities. The effect of each factor on the estimated species persistence scores was assessed using linear mixed models. Our results evidence that conservation success is highly reliant on the resources available to abate land-use conflicts. Nonetheless, under the same investment levels, planning design and climate change were the factors that most shaped species persistence scores. The persistence of five species was especially affected by the sole effect of planning design and consequently, larger conservation investments may retard climatic debts. For three species, the negative effects of a changing climate and of multiple-species planning designs added up, making these species especially at risk. Integrated assessments of the factors most likely to limit species persistence are pivotal to achieve effectiveness. There are several factors impinging the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation. In this analysis, we made a contrasting whole-integrated evaluation on the individual effects of planning design, climate, species dispersal ability, land use, and budget available for area acquisition over the persistence of ten conservation-concerning mammal species in Iberia Peninsula up to 2080 within optimal sets of areas enabling species to rearrange their distributions when following their changing suitable climate locations in future times. The effect of budget and planning designs presented the largest effects. The synergestic effects of climate with these ones are detrimental to maintain the persistence of some of the species at a secure level against extinction debts.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by inflammatory neurodegeneration, with axonal injury and neuronal cell death occurring in parallel to demyelination. Regarding the molecular mechanisms responsible for demyelination and axonopathy, energy failure, aberrant expression of ion channels and excitotoxicity have been suggested to lead to Ca 2+ overload and subsequent activation of calcium-dependent damage pathways. Thus, the inhibition of Ca 2+ influx by pharmacological modulation of Ca 2+ channels may represent a novel neuroprotective strategy in the treatment of secondary axonopathy. We therefore investigated the effects of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blocker nimodipine in two different models of mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established experimental paradigm for MS. We show that preventive application of nimodipine (10 mg/kg per day) starting on the day of induction had ameliorating effects on EAE in SJL/J mice immunized with encephalitic myelin peptide PLP 139-151 , specifically in late-stage disease. Furthermore, supporting these data, administration of nimodipine to MOG 35-55 -immunized C57BL/6 mice starting at the peak of pre-established disease, also led to a significant decrease in disease score, indicating a protective effect on secondary CNS damage. Histological analysis confirmed that nimodipine attenuated demyelination, axonal loss and pathological axonal β-APP accumulation in cerebellum and spinal cord in the chronic phase of disease. Of note, we observed no effects of nimodipine on the peripheral immune response in EAE mice with regard to distribution, antigen-specific proliferation or activation patterns of lymphocytes. Taken together, our data suggest a CNS-specific effect of L-type VGCC blockade to inflammation-induced neurodegeneration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 77
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    Unknown
    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: The Shank proteins are crucial scaffolding elements of the post-synaptic density (PSD). One of the best-characterized domains in Shank is the PDZ domain, which binds to C-terminal segments of several other PSD proteins. We carried out a detailed structural analysis of Shank3 PDZ domain-peptide complexes, in order to understand determinants of binding affinity towards different ligand proteins. Ligand peptides from four different proteins were cocrystallized with the Shank3 PDZ domain, and binding affinities were determined calorimetrically. In addition, to conserve class I interactions between the first and third C-terminal peptide residue and Shank3, side chain interactions of other residues in the peptide with the PDZ domain are important factors in defining affinity. Structural conservation suggests that the binding specificities of the PDZ domains from different Shanks are similar. Two conserved buried water molecules in PDZ domains may affect correct local folding of ligand recognition determinants. The solution structure of a tandem Shank3 construct containing the SH3 and PDZ domains showed that the two domains are close to each other, which could be of relevance, when recognizing and binding full target proteins. The SH3 domain did not affect the affinity of the PDZ domain towards short target peptides, and the schizophrenia-linked Shank3 mutation R536W in the linker between the domains had no effect on the structure or peptide interactions of the Shank3 SH3-PDZ unit. Our data show the spatial arrangement of two adjacent Shank domains and pinpoint affinity determinants for short PDZ domain ligands with limited sequence homology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 78
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    Unknown
    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-26
    Description: Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis of water samples is on the brink of becoming a standard monitoring method for aquatic species. This method has improved detection rates over conventional survey methods and thus has demonstrated effectiveness for estimation of site occupancy and species distribution. The frontier of eDNA applications, however, is to infer species density. Building upon previous studies, we present and assess a modeling approach that aims at inferring animal density from eDNA. The modeling combines eDNA and animal count data from a subset of sites to estimate species density (and associated uncertainties) at other sites where only eDNA data are available. As a proof of concept, we first perform a cross-validation study using experimental data on carp in mesocosms. In these data, fish densities are known without error, which allows us to test the performance of the method with known data. We then evaluate the model using field data from a study on a stream salamander species to assess the potential of this method to work in natural settings, where density can never be known with absolute certainty. Two alternative distributions (Normal and Negative Binomial) to model variability in eDNA concentration data are assessed. Assessment based on the proof of concept data (carp) revealed that the Negative Binomial model provided much more accurate estimates than the model based on a Normal distribution, likely because eDNA data tend to be overdispersed. Greater imprecision was found when we applied the method to the field data, but the Negative Binomial model still provided useful density estimates. We call for further model development in this direction, as well as further research targeted at sampling design optimization. It will be important to assess these approaches on a broad range of study systems. We present an analytical framework to estimate species density in aquatic systems using eDNA and monitoring data. We tested the performance with carp eDNA data obtained in an experimental setting. We also assessed the method in a natural setting, using stream salamander data collected in the field.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 79
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    Unknown
    Wiley-Blackwell