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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (504,056)
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  • 1
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: Few studies have been published that focus on monitoring and investigating the long-term patterns of recruitment and survival of seedlings in the understories of tropical forests. Studies for mixed dipterocarp forest, the dominant tropical forest type for South and Southeast Asia, demonstrate seedlings in the existing forest understory (advance regeneration) play the most important role in forming a new forest after disturbance (e.g., logging, windstorms). Our study monitors the regeneration dynamic across a topographic gradient (ridge, mid-slope, and valley) of the understory for a mixed dipterocarp forest in the Sinharaja MAB reserve in southwest Sri Lanka. We recorded seedling recruitment, growth, and mortality by species in replicated plots on multiple forest understory sites over a ten-year period. Seedling density ranged from 26 to 31 m 2 with all of it categorized as advance regeneration of canopy tree species. Results show differences in seedling density per species across the topography and over time, with differences driven by changes in species composition from valley to ridge and in recruitment periodicity potentially related to supra-annual variations in climate. Seedling mortality was higher on ridges than valley and mid-slopes; and disproportionately higher seedling mortality occurs of relatively shade-intolerant late-successional trees species (70% mortality after 8 yr) compared with their more shade-tolerant associates (30% mortality after 8 yr). Our results contradict current selective logging prescriptions for tropical forests that comprise a single cutting cycle and minimum diameter felling for all commercial timber trees. Such harvests give no consideration to timing and manipulation of the forest canopy to favor release of advance regeneration. We recommend careful timing of timber harvests to occur in synchrony to the periodicity of seedling recruitment and silvicultural treatments that both insures their release and that accommodates to differences in seedling composition and density across topography.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 2
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Fire regimes have long-term effects on ecosystems which can be subtle, requiring study at a large spatial scale and temporal scale to fully appreciate. The way in which multiple fires interact to create a fire regime is poorly understood, and the relationship between the severities of consecutive fires has not been studied in Australia. By overlaying remotely sensed severity maps, our study investigated how the severity of a fire is influenced by previous fire severity. This was done by sampling points at 500-m spacing across 53 fires in dry eucalypt forests of southeast Australia, over a range of time since fire spanning every major fire season for 30 yr. Generalized additive models were used to determine the influence of previous severity on the probability of crown fire and understory fire, controlling for differences in time since fire, topography, and weather. We found that a crown fire is more than twice as likely after a previous crown fire than previous understory fire, and understory fire is more likely after previous understory fire. Our findings are in line with the results of studies from North America and suggest that severe fire promotes further fire. This may be evidence of a runaway positive feedback, which can drive ecological change, and lead to a mosaic of divergent vegetation, but research into more than two consecutive fires is needed to explore this. Our results also suggest that a low-severity prescribed fire may be a useful management option for breaking a cycle of crown fires.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 3
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Structural habitat complexity (SHC) and functional habitat connectivity (FHC) are the basic components that make up the physical architecture of an ecosystem, and can have substantial impacts on predator–prey interactions. These structural components influence animal behaviors such as inter-patch movement, foraging, and competition, and can impact community structure/dynamics in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The effects of SHC and FHC on predator–prey dynamics within an ecosystem may also have important cascading effects on neighboring ecosystems by altering the movement of individuals across ecosystem boundaries. For example, when aquatic insects emerge as adults, they enter terrestrial ecosystems where they become an important food resource for terrestrial predators. Using a multiple patch, predator enclosure design in ponds, we tested whether altering intra-patch plant stem densities (SHC) and inter-patch distances (FHC) would influence the impact a predatory fish has on the biomass, quality, and trophic composition of emergent insects. As expected, fish significantly reduced emergent insect biomass (33% ± 7.6, mean ± SE). Intra-patch stem densities (SHC) did not significantly alter fish effects; however, inter-patch distance (FHC) did significantly alter the impact of fish on the size of some emergent insects. Damselflies that emerged in treatments with fish present and shorter inter-patch distances were significantly larger, 4.1 ± 0.1 mg/m 2 compared to 3.3 mg/m 2  ± 0.1 in the long/fish treatments. In fish treatments, this effect on damselfly size resulted in greater reductions in total emergent insect biomass in long inter-patch distance treatments (47.3% ± 6.9) compared to short inter-patch distance treatments (20.5% ± 12.4). Our results suggest that physical components of a habitat, such as inter-patch distances, have important impacts on predator–prey dynamics within habitats. These altered predator–prey dynamics can then have cascading effects on adjacent habitats by influencing the abundance, trophic composition, and quality of exported trophic subsidies.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 4
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Plants interact with a variety of soil biota. The accumulation of beneficial or antagonistic biota over time can have strong positive or negative effects on the recruitment of new individuals into the population (i.e., plant–soil feedback, PSF). Despite the potential influence of PSF on plant diversity in terrestrial ecosystems, our understanding of its determinants remains incomplete. Within forests, recent evidence indicates that mycorrhizal type can regulate PSF: Arbuscular mycorrhizal trees typically experience negative PSF, while ectomycorrhizal trees experience positive PSF. Other studies have found that plant traits and the local environment also affect PSF; yet, these studies are based on arbuscular mycorrhizal plants in herbaceous systems. Consequently, the relationship between PSF and plant traits or the environment may depend on the mycorrhizal type of the tree. Using PSF measurements for 520 populations belonging to 52 North American temperate forest tree species, we tested whether mycorrhizal type influences how plant traits and climate relate to PSF. For both mycorrhizal types, species that produced larger seeds and were less drought tolerant had more positive (or less negative) PSF. Precipitation during the dry season was negatively related to PSF, but only for arbuscular mycorrhizal trees. These results suggest that investing more resources in seeds may minimize PSF for tree species, irrespective of mycorrhizal type. Species that have historically been exposed to greater pathogen abundances in wetter environments may also be better defended against attack, minimizing negative PSF. However, for species currently found in wetter environments, PSF may be strongly negative if their mycorrhizas do not defend them against attack, as is common among arbuscular mycorrhizal trees. Combined, these results highlight the importance of mycorrhizal type in determining the relationship between PSF and climate, but indicate that the relationship between PSF and plant traits may be independent of mycorrhizal type. Nevertheless, mycorrhizal type remains an important consideration when studying PSF, and forest dynamics in general.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 5
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Print ISSN: 1757-1693
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-1707
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 6
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Foundation species are locally abundant and uniquely control associated biodiversity, whereas dominant species are locally abundant but are thought to be replaceable in ecological systems. It is important to distinguish foundation from dominant species to direct conservation efforts. Long-term studies that remove abundant species while measuring community dynamics have the potential to (1) aid in the identification of foundation vs. dominant species and, (2) once a foundation species is identified, determine how long its effects persist within a community after its loss. Long-term data on ant assemblages within two canopy-manipulation experiments—the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment (HF-HeRE) and the Black Rock Future of Oak Forests Experiment (BRF-FOFE)—provide insights into how ant assemblages change and reassemble following the loss of Tsuga canadensis or Quercus spp. Previous research documented foundation species effects on ants in the HF-HeRE for up to four years after T. canadensis loss. Six additional years of data at HF-HeRE presented for the first time here show that removal of T. canadensis resulted in taxonomic and some measures of functional shifts in ant assemblages that persisted for ten years, further supporting the hypothesis that T. canadensis is a foundation species at Harvard Forest. In contrast, ant assemblages at BRF-FOFE varied little regardless of whether oaks or other tree species were removed from the canopy, suggesting that Quercus species do not act as foundation species at Black Rock Forest. Deer and moose exclosures within each experiment also allowed for comparisons between effects on ants of foundation or dominant tree species relative to effects of large herbivores. At HF-HeRE, effects of T. canadensis were stronger than effects of large herbivores on taxonomic and functional diversity of ant assemblages. At BRF-FOFE, in contrast, effects of Quercus species were weaker than effects of large herbivores on ant taxonomic diversity and some measures of ant functional diversity. These findings illustrate the importance of distinguishing between the roles of irreplaceable foundation species and replaceable dominant ones in forested ecosystems along with other drivers of biodiversity (e.g., herbivory).
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 7
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: In pediatric cancer, we advocate for trio sequencing of the child and its parents. This method can have substantial implications for cancer prevention in parents and siblings and even in more distant family members. It does not only help to identify a putative classical cancer predisposition syndrome in the index patient, but also detects the combinatorial effect of two independent risk variants in the same signaling pathway. This type of inheritance pattern could contribute to explaining the early occurrence of cancer in children and young adults and thereby inform early diagnosis, screening and preventive measures. From identifying a putative classical cancer predisposition syndrome in the index patient, trio-sequencing can also detect a potential combinatorial effect of two independent risk variants in the same signaling pathway. M. Kuhlen and A. Borkhardt explain here why they advocate for it.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are major precursors of both ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the troposphere and represent a non-negligible portion of the carbon fixed by primary producers, but long-term ecosystem scale measurements of their exchanges with the atmosphere are lacking. In this study the fluxes of 46 ions corresponding to 36 BVOCs were continuously monitored along with the exchanges of mass (carbon dioxide, water vapour) and energy (sensible and latent heat) for an entire year in a poplar ( Populus ) short-rotation crop (SRC), using the eddy covariance methodology. BVOC emissions mainly consisted of isoprene, acetic acid and methanol. Total net BVOC emissions were 19.20 kg C ha −1 yr −1 , which represented 0.63% of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE), resulting from −23.59 Mg C ha −1 yr −1 fixed as CO 2 and 20.55 Mg C ha −1 yr −1 respired as CO 2 from the ecosystem. Isoprene emissions represented 0.293% of NEE, being emitted at a ratio of 1:1709 mol isoprene per mol of CO 2 fixed. Based on annual ecosystem-scale measurements this study quantified for the first time that BVOC carbon emissions were lower than previously estimated in other studies (0.5-2% of NEE) on poplar trees. Furthermore, the seasonal and diurnal emission patterns of isoprene, methanol and other BVOCs provided a better interpretation of the relationships with ecosystem CO 2 and water vapour fluxes, with air temperature, vapour pressure deficit and photosynthetic photon flux density. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 1757-1693
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-1707
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 9
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Chris S Earl, Teh Wooi Keong, Shi-qi An, Sarah Murdoch, Yvonne McCarthy, Junkal Garmendia, Joseph Ward, J Maxwell Dow, Liang Yang, George A O'Toole & Robert P Ryan The above article, published May 20 2015 in EMBO Molecular Medicine , has been retracted by agreement between the authors of the study, CSE, TWK, SQA, SM, YMcC, JG, JW, JMD, LY, RPR, the journal Chief Editor and the EMBO Head of Scientific Publications in accordance with the outcomes of independent investigations conducted by the University of Dundee and University College Cork. GAO'T disagrees with the text of this retraction notice, albeit not with the retraction. The following issues are noted: Table 1 contains clinical data described in the paper as being derived from a cohort of asthma patients. However, the provenance of this data is unclear. Based on the evidence available, the University of Dundee investigation concluded that the majority of the patient cohort is likely to be a subset of a cohort of cystic fibrosis patients reported in PLoS One 8(12): e82432 ( https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082432 ), although in a number of cases the patient's gender is at odds between the two reports. The RNAseq data are unavailable on the European Nucleotide Archive under the reported accession number ERG003569. RNAseq data were uploaded with accession number ERS654066 before publication. The paper describes use of both prednisolone and prednisone, yet only the latter was used in the study.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Biomarkers for α-synuclein are needed for diagnosis and prognosis in Parkinson's disease (PD). Endogenous auto-antibodies to α-synuclein could serve as biomarkers for underlying synucleinopathy, but previous assessments of auto-antibodies have shown variability and inconsistent clinical correlations. We hypothesized that auto-antibodies to α-synuclein could be diagnostic for PD and explain its clinical heterogeneity. To test this hypothesis, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring α-synuclein auto-antibodies in human samples. We evaluated 69 serum samples (16 healthy controls (HC) and 53 PD patients) and 145 CSF samples (52 HC and 93 PD patients) from our Institution. Both serum and CSF were available for 24 participants. Males had higher auto-antibody levels than females in both fluids. CSF auto-antibody levels were significantly higher in PD patients as compared to HC, whereas serum levels were not significantly different. CSF auto-antibody levels did not associate with amyloid-β 1-42 , total tau, or phosphorylated tau. CSF auto-antibody levels correlated with performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, even when controlled for CSF amyloidβ 1-42 . CSF hemoglobin levels, as a proxy for contamination of CSF by blood during lumbar puncture, did not influence these observations. Using recombinant α-synuclein with N- and C-terminal truncations, we found that CSF auto-antibodies target amino acids 100 through 120 of α-synuclein. We conclude that endogenous CSF auto-antibodies are significantly higher in PD patients as compared to HC, suggesting that they could indicate the presence of underlying synucleinopathy. These auto-antibodies associate with poor cognition, independently of CSF amyloidβ 1-42 ., and target a select C-terminal region of α-synuclein. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 11
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE), characterized as diffuse brain dysfunction and neurological manifestations secondary to sepsis, is a common complication in critically ill patients and can give rise to poor outcome, but understanding the molecular basis of this disorder remains a major challenge. Given the emerging role of G protein-coupled receptor 2 (GRK2), first identified as a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulator, in the regulation of non-GPCR-related molecules contributing to diverse cellular functions and pathology, including inflammation, we tested the hypothesis that GRK2 may be linked to the neuropathogenesis of SAE. When mouse MG6 microglial cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), GRK2 cytosolic expression was highly upregulated. The ablation of GRK2 by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) prevented an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species generation in LPS-stimulated MG6 cells. Furthermore, the LPS-induced upregulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression and increase in nitric oxide production were negated by GRK2 inhibitor or siRNAs. However, GRK2 inhibition was without effect on overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated MG cells. In mice with cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis, treatment with GRK2 inhibitor reduced high levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress in the mice brains, where GRK2 expression was upregulated, alleviated neurohistological damage observed in cerebral cortex sections, and conferred a significant survival advantage to CLP mice. Altogether, these results uncover the novel role for GRK2 in regulating cellular oxidative and nitrosative stress during inflammation and suggest that GRK2 may have a potential as an intriguing therapeutic target to prevent or treat SAE. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 12
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Temperature is one of most the important environmental factors that affect the ontogenesis of organisms. In this study, we incubated Chinese soft-shelled turtle eggs at 28°C (control temperature, C treatment), a temperature with a 16°C cold shock and a 36°C heat shock twice per week (S treatment) or a ramp-programmed temperature of 29 ± 9°C (with 12 hr (+) and 12 hr (−) every day) (F treatment). The incubation period, hatching success, hatchling weight, and locomotor performance were significantly different between the controls and the different heat treatment groups. The pathogen challenge results illustrated that hatchlings from the S treatment group were more resistant to bacterial infection, whereas hatchlings from the F treatment group were more vulnerable. We used RNA-seq quantification analysis to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of hatchlings in the S treatment group. Based on the functional annotation results for the DEGs, 9 genes were chosen to verify the RNA-seq results. The background expression of DEGs was also analyzed for the three treatments, as was the regulation of the pathogen challenge. The results showed that 8 DEGs were related to the immune response after pathogen challenge and that temperature was an important factor in differential regulation of the immunity pathways. Hatchling traits and locomotor performance were affected by incubation temperature. Incubation temperature affected immune response of hatchlings after pathogen challenge. RNA-seq quantification analysis was used to obtain DEGs related with temperature and immunity.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 13
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Enchytraeus albidus is a terrestrial earthworm widespread along the coasts of northern Europe and the Arctic. This species tolerates freezing of body fluids and survives winters in a frozen state. Their acclimatory physiological mechanisms behind freeze tolerance involve increased fluidity of membrane lipids during cold exposure and accumulation of cryoprotectants (glucose) during the freezing process. Gene regulatory processes of these physiological responses have not been studied, partly because no gene expression tools were developed. The main aim of this study was to understand whether the freeze tolerance mechanisms have a transcriptomic basis in E. albidus . For that purpose, first the transcriptome of E. albidus was assembled with RNAseq data. Second, two strains from contrasting thermal environments (Germany and Greenland) were compared by mapping barcoded RNAseq data onto the assembled transcriptome. Both of these strains are freeze tolerant, but Greenland is extremely freeze tolerant. Results showed more plastic responses in the Greenland strain as well as higher constitutive expression of particular stress response genes. These altered transcriptional networks are associated with an adapted homeostasis coping with prolonged freezing conditions in Greenland animals. Previously identified physiological alterations in freeze-tolerant strains of E. albidus are underpinned at the transcriptome level. These processes involve anion transport in the hemolymph, fatty acid metabolism, metabolism, and transport of cryoprotective sugars as well as protection against oxidative stress. Pathway analysis supported most of these processes, and identified additional differentially expressed pathways such as peroxisome and Toll-like receptor signaling. We propose that the freeze-tolerant phenotype is the consequence of genetic adaptation to cold stress and may have driven evolutionary divergence of the two strains. We studied transcriptional regulatory networks underlying cold tolerance in a natural Enchytraeus albidus population from Greenland as compared to a freeze-sensitive reference population. Constitutive overexpression of stress response genes as well as increased transcriptional plasticity of genes involved in cold tolerance-associated physiological processes seem to have shaped genetic adaptation to prolonged freezing conditions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 14
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: With wildlife populations in decline, understanding their distributions across the landscape are needed for management and conservation efforts, particularly in remote or hazardous regions. We used indigenous local knowledge to inform species distribution models (SDMs) to predict the distribution of 38 wildlife species historically documented in Somaliland, one of the most isolated, data-poor regions in Africa. We conducted 195 interviews with agro-pastoral men and women in 2016 and 2017 throughout Somaliland based on the environmental range captured by performing a Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface (MESS) analysis. Respondents were asked if each species (1) occurred in the vicinity, and if they did, (2) whether it was common, rare, extirpated, or unknown. We tested two commonly used SDMs, Maxent and boosted regression trees (BRTs), to map the potential distribution of wildlife using interview data. We present detailed case studies of two species of high conservation priority: cheetah ( Acinonyc jubatus ) and African wild ass ( Equus africanus somaliensis ). More than half of the respondents reported the presence of 25 of the wildlife species in the survey. Additionally, we developed Maxent models for all surveyed wildlife known to develop a species richness map. The least reported species known to have inhabited Somaliland in recent decades were lion ( Panthera leo ), African wild ass, and Somali wild dog ( Lycaon pictus somalicus ). Surprisingly, 177 of respondents reported the presence of cheetah, which was presumed by many to be extirpated from Somaliland. Given the high number of reports, coupled with the BRT model results and evaluations, it may be that cheetahs persist throughout Somaliland. Unfortunately, our results also suggest that African wild ass may have been extirpated from Somaliland. Our models carry the uncertainties of the raw data, but provide habitat suitability maps to guide future targeted surveys. Our methods and results demonstrate that integrating indigenous local knowledge with SDMs may be an essential tool for the conservation of wildlife in data-poor regions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 15
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Behavioral responses of prey to predation risk can affect lower trophic levels. White-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ; hereafter deer) increase vigilance in response to coyote ( Canis latrans ) presence, but vigilance responses to spatiotemporal variation in coyote abundance are unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between deer foraging behavior and coyote abundance on two 2000-ha study areas in Georgia, USA, during 2010–2013. We used baited camera traps during fall and winter to quantify deer behavior (i.e., feeding or vigilant) and estimated coyote abundance using fecal genotyping to noninvasively mark and recapture individuals. During 2011 and 2012, coyote removals were implemented on each study area. Coyote abundance (i.e., predation risk) varied spatiotemporally and was a predictor of foraging behavior during at least one season for all sex-age classes of deer except juveniles. Adult males were more sensitive to predation risk in winter, after the breeding season, whereas adult females were sensitive to predation risk during both seasons, but more so during fall when offspring are at greater risk. Yearling males were more sensitive to predation risk than adult males, and juveniles were least sensitive to predation risk, likely because of inexperience and high energetic demands. Reproductive chronology explained sex-specific and seasonal antipredator responses to predation risk, but there was a non-linear relationship between indirect predator effects and direct predation risk for some sex-age classes. Our results suggest deer detect and respond behaviorally to variation in coyote abundance. Due to the widespread distribution of deer and their interactions at multiple trophic levels, the ecological implications of this finding may be wide-reaching.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 16
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Ecologists have been interested in understanding communities through the lens of specialists and generalists to predict species diversity and distribution patterns and to ameliorate worldwide declines in specialist species. Dispersal traits are assumed to be associated with specialization (specialists are weaker dispersers than generalists), but dispersal modes can be variable within groups. Niche-based predictions of occupancy and environmental responses were assessed using invertebrates from California vernal pools that were categorized by specialization (endemic or widespread taxa) and dispersal mode (passive or active dispersal). Data from a latitudinal gradient resulted in widespread taxa with greater percent occupancy than endemic taxa as predicted, but passive dispersers had greater occupancy than active dispersers in contrast to predictions. Endemic species and widespread-active dispersers exhibited similar levels of specialization measured as coefficient of variation among treatments in a mesocosm experiment. This suggested that habitat choice was important, and these differences in specialization were scale dependent (generalists across habitat types and specialists within a habitat type). A negative correlation between latitudinal occupancy and level of specialization demonstrated how local-scale responses and landscape patterns were related and depend on both specialization and dispersal traits. This study underscores how habitat heterogeneity and species traits, including specialization and dispersal, can interact to affect community patterns at different spatial scales.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 17
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Building resilience to natural disturbances is a key to managing forests for adaptation to climate change. To date, most climate adaptation guidance has focused on recommendations for frequent-fire forests, leaving few published guidelines for forests that naturally experience infrequent, stand-replacing wildfires. Because most such forests are inherently resilient to stand-replacing disturbances, and burn severity mosaics are largely indifferent to manipulations of stand structure (i.e., weather-driven, rather than fuel-driven fire regimes), we posit that pre-fire climate adaptation options are generally fewer in these regimes relative to others. Outside of areas of high human value, stand-scale fuel treatments commonly emphasized for other forest types would undermine many of the functions, ecosystem services, and other values for which these forests are known. For stand-replacing disturbance regimes, we propose that (1) managed wildfire use (e.g., allowing natural fires to burn under moderate conditions) can be a useful strategy as in other forest types, but likely confers fewer benefits to long-term forest resilience and climate adaptation, while carrying greater socio-ecological risks; (2) reasoned fire exclusion (i.e., the suppression component of a managed wildfire program) can be an appropriate strategy to maintain certain ecosystem conditions and services in the face of change, being more ecologically justifiable in long-interval fire regimes and producing fewer of the negative consequences than in frequent-fire regimes; (3) low-risk pre-disturbance adaptation options are few, but the most promising approaches emphasize fundamental conservation biology principles to create a safe operating space for the system to respond to change (e.g., maintaining heterogeneity across scales and minimizing stressors); and (4) post-disturbance conditions are the primary opportunity to implement adaptation strategies (such as protecting live tree legacies and testing new regeneration methods), providing crucial learning opportunities. This approach will provide greater context and understanding of these systems for ecologists and resource managers, stimulate future development of adaptation strategies, and illustrate why public expectations for climate adaptation in these forests will differ from those for frequent-fire forests.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 18
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Numerous studies have examined the effect of sediment particle size and distribution on community structure, but few have focused explicitly on how physical habitat characteristics influence biogeochemical functions of freshwater biofilms. In this study, we evaluated the effect of particle size and heterogeneity on rates of biofilm metabolism and nutrient uptake in colonized and native sediments normalized using two different scaling approaches. Coarse, pebble- to cobble-sized sediments were sorted into four homogeneous particle size treatments plus one heterogeneous treatment. Each treatment was deployed, in replicate, within one riffle and one run habitat feature in three different high-latitude stream reaches with contrasting hydrological and physicochemical characteristics. A treatment of native, homogeneous sediment was also evaluated at each deployment location. After incubating for approximately five weeks, metabolism and nutrient uptake of biofilms in all treatments ( n  =   69) were measured in recirculating microcosm chambers. For each treatment, functional rates were normalized by projected surface area and sediment surface area scaling approaches, which account for the surface area in plan view (looking top-down) and the total surface area of all sediment particles, respectively. This comparison was designed to determine whether treatment effects were independent of increased surface area associated with smaller particle sizes or heterogeneous sediments. Community respiration and uptake of ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus by biofilms decreased significantly as the particle size of homogeneous treatments increased when normalized by projected surface area, but significantly increased with increasing particle size when normalized by sediment surface area. Sediment particle size had a limited influence on production rates evaluated across treatments. Heterogeneous and homogeneous treatments with similar median particle sizes did not differ significantly from one another for most biogeochemical functions measured. Our findings indicate that rates of biogeochemical function in heterogeneous habitats were directly related to the total sediment surface area available for biofilm colonization. The significant interactions between sediment surface area and rates of respiration and nutrient uptake suggest that information about the size and distribution of sediment particles could substantially improve our ability to predict and scale measurements of important biogeochemical functions in streams.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 19
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: For regional weather forecasts and climate predictions, it is important to determine the optimal domain size, location, and top height. A wide model domain can be chosen to avoid noises from lateral boundaries but this can include the Tibetan Plateau and areas of northern Manchuria to the Kamchatka Peninsula in Northeast Asia. This study shows that topographic regions around the Tibetan Plateau and warm pool areas over the Manchuria in an extended model domain may have harmful effects on the accuracy of short- to medium-range regional predictions on the downwind side in spring. The inaccuracy is related to model errors due to steep terrain regions in the Tibetan Plateau and cold bias in the lower stratosphere north of Manchuria. Well-designed spectral nudging over the eastern flank of the Tibetan Plateau and the use of a higher model top are found to improve regional predictions for Northeast Asia in spring by effectively eliminating errors associated with steep topography and temperature biases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, respectively. Our findings suggest possible ways to mitigate biases due to steep mountains and upper-level processes in regional modeling. We discuss the role of our method in terms of uncertainties in regional weather forecasts and climate predictions. (Left) Domain configuration overlaid on model topography and (right) enlarged map around the Sichuan Basin. Spectral nudging is only applied to the C-shaped white area in the LD1GB experiment. The C-shaped area is located within the region of 27.5–32.8°N and 102.2–106.3°E.
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-261X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 20
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: In group-living species, individuals often have preferred affiliative social partners, with whom ties or bonds can confer advantages that correspond with greater fitness. For example, in adult female baboons and juvenile horses, individuals with stronger or more social ties experience greater survival. We used detailed behavioral and life history records to explore the relationship between tie quality and survival in a gregarious monkey ( Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni ), while controlling for dominance rank, group size, and life history strategy. We used Cox proportional hazards regressions to model the cumulative (multi-year) and current (single-year) relationships of social ties and the hazard of mortality in 83 wild adult females of known age, observed 2–8 years each (437 subject-years) in eight social groups. The strength of bonds with close partners was associated with increased mortality risk under certain conditions: Females that had strong bonds with close partners that were inconsistent over multiple years had a higher risk of mortality than females adopting any other social strategy. Within a given year, females had a higher risk of death if they were strongly bonded with partners that changed from the previous year versus with partners that remained consistent. Dominance rank, number of adult female groupmates, and age at first reproduction did not predict the risk of death. This study demonstrates that costs and benefits of strong social bonds can be context-dependent, relating to the consistency of social partners over time. We categorized adult female blue monkeys according to the strength and consistency over time of their closest social ties. Females that had strong but inconsistent ties had a higher risk of death than females in all other categories. Social dominance rank, group size, and life history strategies did not influence mortality.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 21
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Double infections of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma are frequent in natural populations of Tetranychus truncatus , a polyphagous mite species that has been a dominant species in China since 2009. However, little is known about the causes and ecological importance of such coexistences. In this study, we established T. truncatus strains with different infection types and then inferred the impact of the two endosymbionts on host reproduction and fitness. Double infection induced cytoplasmic incompatibility, which was demonstrated by reduction in egg hatchability of incompatible crosses. However, doubly infected females produced more eggs relative to other strains. Wolbachia and Spiroplasma did not affect host survival, whereas doubly infected females and males developed faster than other strains. Such reproduction and fitness benefits provided by double infections may be associated with the lower densities of each symbiont, and the quantitative results also confirmed competition between Wolbachia and Spiroplasma in doubly infected females. These symbiont-conferred beneficial effects maintain stable prevalence of the symbionts and also help drive T. truncatus outbreaks in combination with other environmental factors. The symbiont-conferred beneficial effects on spider mite Tetranychus truncatus maintain stable prevalence of the symbionts and also help drive spider mite outbreaks in combination with other environmental factors.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 22
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: In the southwestern USA, recent large-scale die-offs of conifers raise the question of their resilience and mortality under droughts. To date, little is known about the interannual structural response to droughts. We hypothesized that piñon pines ( Pinus edulis ) respond to drought by reducing the drop of leaf water potential in branches from year to year through needle morphological adjustments. We tested our hypothesis using a 7-year experiment in central New Mexico with three watering treatments (irrigated, normal, and rain exclusion). We analyzed how variation in “evaporative structure” (needle length, stomatal diameter, stomatal density, stomatal conductance) responded to watering treatment and interannual climate variability. We further analyzed annual functional adjustments by comparing yearly addition of needle area (LA) with yearly addition of sapwood area (SA) and distance to tip ( d ), defining the yearly ratios SA:LA and SA:LA/ d . Needle length ( l ) increased with increasing winter and monsoon water supply, and showed more interannual variability when the soil was drier. Stomatal density increased with dryness, while stomatal diameter was reduced. As a result, anatomical maximal stomatal conductance was relatively invariant across treatments. SA:LA and SA:LA/ d showed significant differences across treatments and contrary to our expectation were lower with reduced water input. Within average precipitation ranges, the response of these ratios to soil moisture was similar across treatments. However, when extreme soil drought was combined with high VPD, needle length, SA:LA and SA:LA/ d became highly nonlinear, emphasizing the existence of a response threshold of combined high VPD and dry soil conditions. In new branch tissues, the response of annual functional ratios to water stress was immediate (same year) and does not attempt to reduce the drop of water potential. We suggest that unfavorable evaporative structural response to drought is compensated by dynamic stomatal control to maximize photosynthesis rates. The leaf and sapwood structures determine the design of the hydraulic system of a tree and affect the water exchanges between the plant and the atmosphere. We investigated the effect of drought on the yearly addition of sapwood area, leaf area, and elongation in branches, as well as their interannual variability. Using two functional ratios, we showed that during drought, new tissues added in branches do not support a reduction in the leaf water potential.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 23
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: There are a number of ecogeographical “rules” that describe patterns of geographical variation among organisms. The island rule predicts that populations of larger mammals on islands evolve smaller mean body size than their mainland counterparts, whereas smaller-bodied mammals evolve larger size. Bergmann's rule predicts that populations of a species in colder climates (generally at higher latitudes) have larger mean body sizes than conspecifics in warmer climates (at lower latitudes). These two rules are rarely tested together and neither has been rigorously tested in treeshrews, a clade of small-bodied mammals in their own order (Scandentia) broadly distributed in mainland Southeast Asia and on islands throughout much of the Sunda Shelf. The common treeshrew, Tupaia glis , is an excellent candidate for study and was used to test these two rules simultaneously for the first time in treeshrews. This species is distributed on the Malay Peninsula and several offshore islands east, west, and south of the mainland. Using craniodental dimensions as a proxy for body size, we investigated how island size, distance from the mainland, and maximum sea depth between the mainland and the islands relate to body size of 13 insular T. glis populations while also controlling for latitude and correlation among variables. We found a strong negative effect of latitude on body size in the common treeshrew, indicating the inverse of Bergmann's rule. We did not detect any overall difference in body size between the island and mainland populations. However, there was an effect of island area and maximum sea depth on body size among island populations. Although there is a strong latitudinal effect on body size, neither Bergmann's rule nor the island rule applies to the common treeshrew. The results of our analyses demonstrate the necessity of assessing multiple variables simultaneously in studies of ecogeographical rules. Although there are latitudinal and island effects on body size, neither Bergmann's rule nor the island rule applies to the common treeshrew. The results of our analyses demonstrate the necessity of assessing multiple variables simultaneously in studies of ecogeographical rules.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 24
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: The adjoint method is used to calibrate the medium complexity climate model “Planet Simulator” through parameter estimation. Identical twin experiments demonstrate that this method can retrieve default values of the control parameters when using a long assimilation window of the order of 2 months. Chaos synchronization through nudging, required to overcome limits in the temporal assimilation window in the adjoint method, is employed successfully to reach this assimilation window length. When assimilating ERA-Interim reanalysis data, the observations of air temperature and the radiative fluxes are the most important data for adjusting the control parameters. The global mean net longwave fluxes at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere are significantly improved by tuning two model parameters controlling the absorption of clouds and water vapor. The global mean net shortwave radiation at the surface is improved by optimizing three model parameters controlling cloud optical properties. The optimized parameters improve the free model (without nudging terms) simulation in a way similar to that in the assimilation experiments. Results suggest a promising way for tuning uncertain parameters in non-linear coupled climate models.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 25
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: The attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli has been shown to be associated with substance abuse-like behavior such as increased drug taking. Evidence suggests that glutamate neurotransmission and sequential N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) activation are involved in the attribution of incentive salience. Here we further explore the role of second-by-second glutamate neurotransmission in the attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli by measuring sign-tracking behavior during a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure using ceramic-based microelectrode arrays configured for sensitive measures of extracellular glutamate in awake behaving Sprague Dawley rats. Specifically, we show that there is an increase in extracellular glutamate levels in the prelimbic cortex (PrL) and the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) during sign-tracking behavior to a food-predictive conditioned stimulus (CS+) compared to the presentation of a non-predictive conditioned stimulus (CS-). Further, the results indicate greater increases in extracellular glutamate levels in the PrL compared to NAcC in response to the CS+, including differences in glutamate release and signal decay. Taken together, the present research suggests that there is differential glutamate signaling in the NAcC and PrL during sign-tracking behavior to a food-predictive CS+. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 26
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Front cover: Sphingolipids, and particularly the versatile signalling molecule sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are potent mediators regulating vascular functions such as endothelial barrier integrity. We analyzed changes of the sphingolipid metabolism after LPS injection as a model for septic encephalopathy and brain edema and found profound alterations both systemically with a drop in serum S1P as well as at the level of the blood-brain barrier. Our findings point towards a therapeutic potential of drugs interfering with this pathway as novel approach for the detrimental overwhelming immune response in sepsis. Astrocytes (red, GFAP) in the mouse brain cortex (blue: DAPI-labelled nuclei). Read the full article ‘Alteration of sphingolipid metabolism as a putative mechanism underlying LPS-induced BBB disruption’ by R. Vutukuri, R. Brunkhorst, R.-I. Kestner, L. Hansen, N. F. Bouzas, J. Pfeilschifter, K. Devraj and W. Pfeilschifter ( J. Neurochem . 2018, vol. 144(2), pp. 172–185) on doi: 10.1111/jnc.14236 Read the Editorial Highlight ‘Endotoxemia rocks sphingolipid metabolism at the blood–brain barrier’ on doi: 10.1111/jnc.14246
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
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  • 27
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Key Points The DMP-1 study examined women in the United States who were counseled regarding the use of SERMs as part of their regular care. Patient perceptions regarding drug-based therapy played an important role in the choice of therapy. The findings suggest that HCPs should not only present medical information, but also communicate with patients regarding their beliefs and experiences.
    Print ISSN: 0007-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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  • 28
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Key Points The overall rates of major upper abdominal cancer resections in octogenarians have increased over time. The number of major liver and pancreatic resections for cancer in this demographic has more than doubled from 2001 to 2011. This trend may be the result of an emboldened surgical approach within the context of increasingly favorable inpatient mortality rates from elective surgeries of the pancreas and liver.
    Print ISSN: 0007-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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  • 29
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has emerged as an effective tool for estimating active layer thickness (ALT) and volumetric water content (VWC) within the active layer. In August 2013, we conducted a series of GPR and probing surveys using a 500 MHz antenna and metallic probe around Barrow, Alaska. We collected about 15 km of GPR data and 1.5 km of probing data. Here, we describe the GPR data processing workflow from raw GPR data to the estimated ALT and VWC. We include the corresponding uncertainties for each measured and estimated parameter. The estimated average GPR-derived ALT was 41 cm, with a standard deviation of 9 cm. The average probed ALT was 40 cm, with a standard deviation of 12 cm. The average GPR-derived VWC was 0.65, with a standard deviation of 0.14.
    Electronic ISSN: 2049-6060
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 30
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: The great antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of enzymes makes them prone to be used as active packaging materials to preserve food from contamination or degradation. Major drawbacks are connected to the use of enzymes freely dispersed in solution, due to reduced protein stability. The immobilization of enzymes on solid supports to create biocatalytic interfaces has instead been proven to increase their stability and efficiency. In this work, it is shown that enzymes crystallized on hydrogel composite membranes (HCMs) can exert an effective antimicrobial action, thus making the composite membrane and crystals biofilm a potential active substrate for food packaging applications. The antimicrobial hen egg white lysozyme is crystallized on the surface of the hydrogel layer of HCMs, and its activity is determined by measuring the decrease in absorbance of Micrococcus lysodeikticus culture incubated with the specimen. The overall catalytic efficiency of the antimicrobial HCMs increases by a factor of 2 compared to the pure enzyme dissolved in solution at the same quantity. Because the enzyme in crystalline form is present in higher concentration and purity than in the solution, both its overall catalytic efficiency and antimicrobial action increase. Moreover, the hydrogel environment allows a better protein stabilization and retention during crystals dissolution. Composite membranes supporting a homogeneous hydrogel layer are used as building blocks to develop new biofilms based on lysozyme crystals. Its antimicrobial activity is much bigger than that shown by free lysozyme in solution, or even by films containing lysozyme immobilized in the molecular form. Lysozyme crystals and hydrogel composite membranes represent a promising surface material for food packaging applications.
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 31
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Harvesting corn stover for biofuel production may decrease soil organic carbon (SOC) and increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Adding additional organic matter into soil or reducing tillage intensity, however, could potentially offset this SOC loss. Here, by using SOC and life cycle analysis (LCA) models, we evaluated the impacts of land management change (LMC), i.e., stover removal, organic matter addition, and tillage on spatially explicit SOC level and biofuels’ overall life-cycle GHG emissions in U.S. corn-soybean production systems. Results indicate that under conventional tillage (CT), 30% stover removal (dry weight) may reduce SOC by 0.04 t C ha −1 yr −1 over a 30-year simulation period. Growing a cover crop during the fallow season or applying manure, on the other hand, could add to SOC and further reduce biofuels’ life-cycle GHG emissions. With 30% stover removal in a CT system, cover crop and manure application can increase SOC at the national level by about 0.06 and 0.02 t C ha −1 yr −1 , respectively, compared to cases without such measures. With contributions from this SOC increase, the life-cycle GHG emissions for stover ethanol are more than 80% lower than those of gasoline, exceeding the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard mandate of 60% emissions reduction for cellulosic biofuels. Reducing tillage intensity while removing stover could also limit SOC loss or lead to SOC gain, which would lower stover ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions to near or under the mandated 60% reduction. Without these organic matter inputs or reduced tillage intensity, however, the emissions will not meet this mandate. More efforts are still required to further identify key practical LMCs, improve SOC modeling, and accounting for LMCs in biofuel LCAs that incorporate stover removal. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 1757-1693
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-1707
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 32
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-13
    Print ISSN: 0007-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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  • 33
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-13
    Description: Inbreeding is widely hypothesized to shape mating systems and population persistence, but such effects will depend on which traits show inbreeding depression. Population and evolutionary consequences could be substantial if inbreeding decreases sperm performance and hence decreases male fertilization success and female fertility. However, the magnitude of inbreeding depression in sperm performance traits has rarely been estimated in wild populations experiencing natural variation in inbreeding. Further, the hypothesis that inbreeding could increase within-ejaculate variation in sperm traits and thereby further affect male fertilization success has not been explicitly tested. We used a wild pedigreed song sparrow ( Melospiza melodia ) population, where frequent extrapair copulations likely create strong postcopulatory competition for fertilization success, to quantify effects of male coefficient of inbreeding ( f ) on key sperm performance traits. We found no evidence of inbreeding depression in sperm motility, longevity, or velocity, and the within-ejaculate variance in sperm velocity did not increase with male f . Contrary to inferences from highly inbred captive and experimental populations, our results imply that moderate inbreeding will not necessarily constrain sperm performance in wild populations. Consequently, the widely observed individual-level and population-level inbreeding depression in male and female fitness may not stem from reduced sperm performance in inbred males. In a natural population of song sparrows, we detected no deleterious effects of inbreeding on sperm performance. Our study suggests that inbreeding depression in male gametic performance might not be a primary driver of inbreeding depression in male or female fitness in wild populations.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 34
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-16
    Description: Bioenergetic failure and oxidative stress are common pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but whether these could be targeted effectively for novel therapeutic intervention needs to be determined. One of the reported contributors to ALS pathology is mitochondrial dysfunction associated with excessive mitochondrial fission and fragmentation, which is predominantly mediated by Drp1 hyperactivation. Here, we determined whether inhibition of excessive fission by inhibiting Drp1/Fis1 interaction affects disease progression. We observed mitochondrial excessive fragmentation and dysfunction in several familial forms of ALS patient-derived fibroblasts as well as in cultured motor neurons expressing SOD1 mutant. In both cell models, inhibition of Drp1/Fis1 interaction by a selective peptide inhibitor, P110, led to a significant reduction in reactive oxygen species levels, and to improvement in mitochondrial structure and functions. Sustained treatment of mice expressing G93A SOD1 mutation with P110, beginning at the onset of disease symptoms at day 90, produced an improvement in motor performance and survival, suggesting that Drp1 hyperactivation may be an attractive target in the treatment of ALS patients. Drp1 hyperactivation has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases, like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). P110, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, is shown to reduce the detrimental effects of mitochondrial dysfunction and ameliorate symptoms in an ALS mouse model.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
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  • 35
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-16
    Description: Carbon-based sunlight absorbers in solar-driven steam generation have recently attracted much attention due to the possibility of huge applications of low-cost steam for medical sterilization or sanitization, seawater desalination, chemical distillation, and water purification. In this minireview, recent developments in carbon-based sunlight absorbers in solar-driven steam generation systems are reviewed, including graphene, graphite, carbon nanotubes, other carbon materials, and carbon-based composite materials, highlighting important contributions worldwide that promise low-cost, efficient, robust, reusable, chemically stable, and excellent broadband solar absorption. Furthermore, the crucial challenges associated with employing carbon materials in this field are emphasized. Recent developments in carbon-based sunlight absorbers in solar-driven steam generation systems are reviewed, including graphene, graphite, carbon nanotubes, other carbon materials, and carbon-based composites materials. In particular, important contributions worldwide that promise low-cost, efficient, robust, reusable, chemically stable, and excellent broadband solar absorption are highlighted. Furthermore, the crucial challenges associated with employing carbon materials in this field are emphasized.
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 36
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-16
    Description: Salivary gland acinar cells are routinely destroyed during radiation treatment for head and neck cancer that results in a lifetime of hyposalivation and co-morbidities. A potential regenerative strategy for replacing injured tissue is the reactivation of endogenous stem cells by targeted therapeutics. However, the identity of these cells, whether they are capable of regenerating the tissue, and the mechanisms by which they are regulated are unknown. Using in vivo and ex vivo models, in combination with genetic lineage tracing and human tissue, we discover a SOX2 + stem cell population essential to acinar cell maintenance that is capable of replenishing acini after radiation. Furthermore, we show that acinar cell replacement is nerve dependent and that addition of a muscarinic mimetic is sufficient to drive regeneration. Moreover, we show that SOX2 is diminished in irradiated human salivary gland, along with parasympathetic nerves, suggesting that tissue degeneration is due to loss of progenitors and their regulators. Thus, we establish a new paradigm that salivary glands can regenerate after genotoxic shock and do so through a SOX2 nerve-dependent mechanism. Salivary glands regenerate after radiation injury through SOX2-mediated secretory acinar cell replacement as shown using genetic lineage tracing and ablation methods, in combination with in vivo and ex vivo gamma radiation-induced damage models.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
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  • 37
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-16
    Description: Apoptotic death of cardiac myocytes is associated with ischemic heart disease and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. Chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper type 2 cells (CRTH2) is highly expressed in the heart. However, its specific role in ischemic cardiomyopathy is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that CRTH2 disruption markedly improved cardiac recovery in mice postmyocardial infarction and doxorubicin challenge by suppressing cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Mechanistically, CRTH2 activation specifically facilitated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via caspase-12-dependent pathway. Blockage of m-calpain prevented CRTH2-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis under ER stress by suppressing caspase-12 activity. CRTH2 was coupled with G αq to elicit intracellular Ca 2+ flux and activated m-calpain/caspase-12 cascade in cardiomyocytes. Knockdown of caspase-4, an alternative to caspase-12 in humans, markedly alleviated CRHT2 activation-induced apoptosis in human cardiomyocyte response to anoxia. Our findings revealed an unexpected role of CRTH2 in promoting ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, suggesting that CRTH2 inhibition has therapeutic potential for ischemic cardiomyopathy. Chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-helper type-2 cells (CRTH2), which mediates the chemoattractant effect of prostaglandin (PG) D2 in leukocytes, is shown here to promote ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through caspase-12-dependent pathway.
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  • 38
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: “Financial toxicity” has now become a familiar term used in the discussion of cancer drugs, and it is gaining traction in the literature given the high price of newer classes of therapies. However, as a phenomenon in the contemporary treatment and care of people with cancer, financial toxicity is not fully understood, with the discussion on mitigation mainly geared toward interventions at the health system level. Although important, health policy prescriptions take time before their intended results manifest, if they are implemented at all. They require corresponding strategies at the individual patient level. In this review, the authors discuss the nature of financial toxicity, defined as the objective financial burden and subjective financial distress of patients with cancer, as a result of treatments using innovative drugs and concomitant health services. They discuss coping with financial toxicity by patients and how maladaptive coping leads to poor health and nonhealth outcomes. They cover management strategies for oncologists, including having the difficult and urgent conversation about the cost and value of cancer treatment, availability of and access to resources, and assessment of financial toxicity as part of supportive care in the provision of comprehensive cancer care. CA Cancer J Clin 2018 . © 2018 American Cancer Society .
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    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 39
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: The clear evidence of the accumulating impacts of anthropogenic actions on the Earth system is driving researchers to look to historical data as a resource for understanding the present and predicting the future. In the conservation science literature, using historical sources usually refers to data mining ‘the past’ using the scientific methods of historical ecology. This paper considers the often overlooked methodological challenges of sourcing and interpreting historical data. A schema is provided for conservation scientists, summarising the kinds of questions and metadata required to work rigorously with historical data. This will improve the accuracy of the data we use to construct trends to inform our understanding of the conservation status of particular species and ecosystems. It will also deepen our understanding of the interplays of factors influencing policy and management in particular social-ecological contexts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Print ISSN: 1755-263X
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-263X
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: Targeting phylogenetic diversity (PD) in systematic conservation planning is an efficient way to minimize losses across the Tree of Life. Considering representation of genetic diversity below and above species level, also allows robust analyses within systems where taxonomy is in flux. We use dense sampling of phylogeographic diversity for eleven lizard genera, to demonstrate how PD can be applied to a policy-ready conservation planning problem. Our analysis bypasses named taxa, using genetic data directly to inform conservation decisions. We highlight areas that should be prioritised for ecological management, and also areas that would provide the greatest benefit if added to the multi-sector conservation estate. We provide a rigorous and effective approach to represent the spectrum of genetic and species diversity in conservation planning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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  • 41
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: Current methods in conservation planning for promoting the persistence of biodiversity typically focus on either representing species geographic distributions or maintaining connectivity between reserves, but rarely both, and take a focal species, rather than a multi-species, approach. Here, we link prioritisation methods with population models to explore the impact of integrating both representation and connectivity into conservation planning for species persistence. Using data on 288 Mediterranean fish species with varying conservation requirements, we show that: (i) considering both representation and connectivity objectives provides the best strategy for enhanced biodiversity persistence; and (ii) connectivity objectives were fundamental to enhancing persistence of small-ranged species, which are most in need of conservation, while the representation objective benefited only wide-ranging species. Our approach provides a more comprehensive appraisal of planning applications than approaches focusing on either representation or connectivity, and will hopefully contribute to build more effective reserve networks for the persistence of biodiversity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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  • 42
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Global climate simulations rely on parameterizations of physical processes that have scales smaller than the resolved ones. In the atmosphere, these parameterizations represent moist convection, boundary layer turbulence and convection, cloud microphysics, longwave and shortwave radiation, and the interaction with the land and ocean surface. These parameterizations can generate different climates involving a wide range of interactions among parameterizations and between the parameterizations and the resolved dynamics. To gain a simplified understanding of a subset of these interactions we perform aquaplanet simulations with the global version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model employing a range (in terms of properties) of moist convection and boundary layer (BL) parameterizations. Significant differences are noted in the simulated precipitation amounts, its partitioning between convective and large-scale precipitation, as well as in the radiative impacts. These differences arise from the way the sub-cloud physics interacts with convection, both directly and through various pathways involving the large-scale dynamics and the boundary layer, convection and clouds. A detailed analysis of the profiles of the different tendencies (from the different physical processes) for both potential temperature and water vapor is performed. While different combinations of convection and boundary layer parameterizations can lead to different climates, a key conclusion of this study is that similar climates can be simulated with model versions that are different in terms of the partitioning of the tendencies: the vertically distributed energy and water balances in the tropics can be obtained with significantly different profiles of large-scale, convection and cloud microphysics tendencies.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 43
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-20
    Description: Identifying factors determining the performance of individuals is an essential part of resolving what drives population dynamics. For species undergoing ontogenetic shifts in resource and habitat use, this entails assessing individual performance in all habitats used. Whereas survival and growth of anadromous Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in its juvenile, river habitat are known to depend on size-dependent foraging and food availability, individual performance of salmon in the growth habitat out at sea is commonly explained only by abiotic factors. Still, individuals undergo this habitat shift to grow large, suggesting performance should be food-dependent also in the growth habitat. Because fish communities are highly size-structured, the link between predators and their prey may depend on their respective body sizes. Here, we study whether the performance of Baltic Sea salmon in its growth habitat is food- and size-dependent, by combining extensive diet and body size data of Baltic salmon with spatially resolved monitoring data on abundance and size distribution of their main prey, herring, Clupea harengus L., and sprat, Sprattus sprattus L. We found that both the species and size composition of prey in the diet varied with salmon body size. By accounting for this size-dependent predation and the spatially varying size distribution of prey species, we could explain the variation in salmon diet composition among salmon individuals in different Baltic Sea basins and of different length. The proportion of sprat in diet of salmon was better explained by size-specific prey availability (SSP) than total prey biomass, especially for small salmon. Further, salmon body condition increased with SSP, whereas total prey biomass could not explain variation in the condition of salmon. These findings demonstrate that food- and size-dependent processes indeed can influence the performance of anadromous fish also in large marine systems. Thus, we argue that consideration of these processes, stretching across habitats, is important for understanding performance and dynamics of predatory fish in open aquatic systems, as well as for successful management of species such as Atlantic salmon.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 44
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-22
    Description: Existing dimensionless expressions that represent the incipient motion of sediments are based on studies of non-cohesive sediments. Because of the complex behaviour of cohesive sediments, many simulators also assume non-cohesiveness when simulating the erosion of cohesive sediments. However, studies show that the critical shear force needed for entrainment is much higher for consolidated cohesive sediments than for similarly sized non-cohesive sediments. Treating cohesive sediments as non-cohesive sediments thus will introduce a significant error with regard to quantifying the eroded sediment mass. On the other hand, the existing expressions of non-cohesive sediments require relatively detailed hydraulic calculations to estimate the shear velocity or the bed shear stress and thus cannot be used with simplified simulators. Therefore, it is essential to have a versatile simple explicit method that estimates the incipient motion condition of both the consolidated cohesive and non-cohesive sediments whenever needed. In this paper, explicit analytical expressions are proposed that simulate the incipient motion of consolidated cohesive and non-cohesive sediments, based on the critical erosion curves of the Hjulström-Sundborg-Miedema diagram. The new method reproduces the latter diagram with high precision. It also mimics the critical incipient condition of non-cohesive sediments determined by a well-known analytical method for other experimental data sets and for the East Fork River without the need of an iterative solution. The new approach provides essential information for estimating the entrainment condition of pebbles or finer sediments. Besides, the use of the mean flow velocity and the flow depth as predictors of incipient condition allows for its easy and efficient implementation in conceptual simulators that do not perform detailed hydraulic calculations and for use by modelers that are not familiar with the hydrotechnical literature. It also reduces the computation time required for simulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electronic ISSN: 2055-4877
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 45
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-22
    Description: The bioenergy crop Miscanthus x giganteus has a high water demand to quickly increase biomass with rapid canopy closure and effective rainfall interception, traits that are likely to impact on hydrology in land use change. Evapotranspiration (ET, the combination of plant and ground surface transpiration and evaporation) forms an important part of the water balance and few ET models have been tested with Miscanthus . Therefore this study uses field measurements to determine the most accurate ET model and to establish the interception of precipitation by the canopy (C i ). Daily ET estimates from 2012 to 2016 using the Hargreaves-Samani, Priestley-Taylor, Granger-Gray and Penman-Monteith (short grass) models were calculated using data from a weather station situated in a 6 ha Miscanthus crop. Results from these models were compared to data from on-site eddy covariance (EC) instrumentation to determine accuracy and calculate the crop coefficient (K c ) model parameter. C i was measured from June 2016 to March 2017 using stem-flow and through-flow gauges within the crop and rain gauges outside the crop. The closest estimated ET to the EC data was the Penman-Monteith (short grass) model. The K c values proposed are 0.63 for the early season (March and April), 0.85 for the main growing season (May to September), 1.57 for the late growing season (October and November), and 1.12 over the winter (December to February). These more accurate K c values will enable better ET estimates with the use of the Penman-Monteith (short grass) model improving estimates of potential yields and hydrological impacts of land use change. C i was 24% and remained high during the autumn and winter thereby sustaining significant levels of canopy evaporation and suggesting benefits for winter flood mitigation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 1757-1693
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-1707
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 46
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-23
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 47
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-20
    Description: Detailed, regional climate projections, particularly for precipitation, are critical for many applications. Accurate precipitation downscaling in the United States Great Plains remains a great challenge for most Regional Climate Models, particularly for warm months. Most previous dynamic downscaling simulations significantly underestimate warm-season precipitation in the region. This study aims to achieve a better precipitation downscaling in the Great Plains with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. To this end, WRF simulations with different physics schemes and nudging strategies are first conducted for a representative warm season. Results show that different cumulus schemes lead to more pronounced difference in simulated precipitation than other tested physics schemes. Simply choosing different physics schemes is not enough to alleviate the dry bias over the southern Great Plains, which is related to an anticyclonic circulation anomaly over the central and western parts of continental U.S. in the simulations. Spectral nudging emerges as an effective solution for alleviating the precipitation bias. Spectral nudging ensures that large and synoptic-scale circulations are faithfully reproduced while still allowing WRF to develop small-scale dynamics, thus effectively suppressing the large-scale circulation anomaly in the downscaling. As a result, a better precipitation downscaling is achieved. With the carefully validated configurations, WRF downscaling is conducted for 1980-2015. The downscaling captures well the spatial distribution of monthly climatology precipitation and the monthly/yearly variability, showing improvement over at least two previously published precipitation downscaling studies. With the improved precipitation downscaling, a better hydrological simulation over the trans-state Oologah watershed is also achieved.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 48
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-20
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 49
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-20
    Description: A decadal climate prediction system named as IAP-DecPreS was constructed in the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, based on a fully coupled model FGOALS-s2 and a newly developed initialization scheme, referred to as EnOI-IAU. In this paper, we introduce the design of the EnOI-IAU scheme, assess the accuracies of initialization integrations using the EnOI-IAU and preliminarily evaluate hindcast skill of the IAP-DecPreS. The EnOI-IAU scheme integrates two conventional assimilation approaches, ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) and incremental analysis update (IAU). The EnOI and IAU were applied to calculate analysis increments and incorporate them into the model, respectively. Three continuous initialization (INIT) runs were conducted for the period of 1950-2015, in which observational sea surface temperature (SST) from the HadISST1.1 and subsurface ocean temperature profiles from the EN4.1.1 dataset were assimilated. Then nine-member ten-year-long hindcast runs initiated from the INIT runs were conducted for each year in the period of 1960-2005. The accuracies of the INIT runs are evaluated from the following three aspects: upper-700m ocean temperature, temporal evolution of SST anomalies and dominant interdecadal variability modes, Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). Finally, preliminary evaluation of the ensemble mean of the hindcast runs suggests that the IAP-DecPreS has skill in the prediction of the PDO-related SST anomalies in the mid-latitude North Pacific and AMO-related SST anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 50
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-27
    Description: One of the processes that may play a key role in plant species coexistence and ecosystem functioning is plant–soil feedback, the effect of plants on associated soil communities and the resulting feedback on plant performance. Plant–soil feedback at the interspecific level (comparing growth on own soil with growth on soil from different species) has been studied extensively, while plant–soil feedback at the intraspecific level (comparing growth on own soil with growth on soil from different accessions within a species) has only recently gained attention. Very few studies have investigated the direction and strength of feedback among different taxonomic levels, and initial results have been inconclusive, discussing phylogeny, and morphology as possible determinants. To test our hypotheses that the strength of negative feedback on plant performance increases with increasing taxonomic level and that this relationship is explained by morphological similarities, we conducted a greenhouse experiment using species assigned to three taxonomic levels (intraspecific, interspecific, and functional group level). We measured certain fitness-related aboveground traits and used them along literature-derived traits to determine the influence of morphological similarities on the strength and direction of the feedback. We found that the average strength of negative feedback increased from the intraspecific over the interspecific to the functional group level. However, individual accessions and species differed in the direction and strength of the feedback. None of our results could be explained by morphological dissimilarities or individual traits. Synthesis . Our results indicate that negative plant–soil feedback is stronger if the involved plants belong to more distantly related species. We conclude that the taxonomic level is an important factor in the maintenance of plant coexistence with plant–soil feedback as a potential stabilizing mechanism and should be addressed explicitly in coexistence research, while the traits considered here seem to play a minor role. We tested plant–soil feedback, a suggested mechanism of plant coexistence, at three taxonomic levels within the same experiment. We found that its strength increased from the intraspecific over the interspecific to the functional group level indicating a role in diversity maintenance within and between species.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-01-27
    Description: We investigated the role of microRNAs (miRNA) in endothelial dysfunction in the setting of cardiometabolic disorders represented by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). miR-29 was dysregulated in resistance arterioles obtained by biopsy in T2DM patients. Intraluminal delivery of miR-29a-3p or miR-29b-3p mimics restored normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDVD) in T2DM arterioles that otherwise exhibited impaired EDVD. Intraluminal delivery of anti-miR-29b-3p in arterioles from non-DM human subjects or rats or targeted mutation of Mir29b-1/a gene in rats led to impaired EDVD and exacerbation of hypertension in the rats. miR-29b-3p mimic increased, while anti-miR-29b-3p or Mir29b-1/a gene mutation decreased, nitric oxide levels in arterioles. The mutation of Mir29b-1/a gene led to preferential differential expression of genes related to nitric oxide including Lypla1. Lypla1 was a direct target of miR-29 and could abrogate the effect of miR-29 in promoting nitric oxide production. Treatment with Lypla1 siRNA improved EDVD in arterioles obtained from T2DM patients or Mir29b-1/a mutant rats or treated with anti-miR-29b-3p. These findings indicate miR-29 is required for normal endothelial function in humans and animal models and has therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic disorders. Administration of miR-29 restores endothelium-dependent vasodilation in arterioles from humans with cardiometabolic disorders, and endogenous miR-29 is required for normal endothelial function in human and rat arterioles and blunts the development of hypertension in rats.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 52
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-27
    Description: This Editorial highlights an article in the current issue by Tapia-Rojas and Inestrosa suggesting that attenuation of Wnt signalling may be a triggering factor for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) in the J20 mouse model of AD. Their study utilises Wnt signalling inhibitors that operate at different points in the signalling pathway. The molecular changes of several key Wnt signaling components are examined, along with a thorough analysis of both the amyloid and tau based pathologies in the mouse brain. Studies focusing on inhibition of Wnt signalling in AD mice have the potential to provide much needed information regarding the pathological mechanisms by which attenuated Wnt signalling impacts on AD. This is an Editorial on ‘Wnt signaling loss accelerates the appearance of neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease in J20-APP transgenic and wild-type mice’ in the current issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry . In the highlighted paper, Tapia-Rojas and Inestrosa blocked Wnt signalling at three points as indicated by the red crosses. The agents used to attenuate signalling were administered to J20 Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice and wild-type mice. The Wnt inhibitor promoted the AD phenotype in J20 mice and led to changes that are relevant to AD in the wild-type mice.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 53
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-30
    Description: A recent global study reported a net difference between areas of forest cover loss and of forest cover gain of about 3.6% of total forest area across the boreal biome, and of 5.6% for Canada, over a 12-yr period. Net losses of this magnitude should be of concern given the importance of this biome in global biogeochemical cycles linked to climate change. Our analysis for Canada fails to support these results and suggests that post-harvest recovery of tree cover is generally strong, while post-fire recovery of tree cover is weaker but nevertheless prevalent. We find that current large area remote sensing methodologies can fail to properly recognize post-disturbance recovery from non-forest to forest status in low-productivity boreal forests when using short time series. With climate change and human impacts intensifying around the world, it is urgently important to be able to reliably distinguish temporary forest cover loss followed by naturally slow recovery from forest decline requiring policy action. The analysis was in large part based on the new Canada Landsat Disturbance product in which fires and harvest since 1984 are mapped at 30-m resolution ( https://doi.org/10.23687/add1346b-f632-4eb9-a83d-a662b38655ad ).
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 54
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-28
    Description: Hybridization between wild species and their domestic congeners is considered a major threat for wildlife conservation. Genetic integrity of the European wildcat, for instance, is a concern as they are outnumbered by domestic cats by several orders of magnitude throughout its range. We genotyped 1,071 individual wildcat samples obtained from hair traps and roadkills collected across the highly fragmented forests of western Central Europe, in Germany and Luxembourg, to assess domestic cat introgression in wildcats in human-dominated landscapes. Analyses using a panel of 75 autosomal SNPs suggested a low hybridization rate, with 3.5% of wildcat individuals being categorized as F1, F2, or backcrosses to either parental taxon. We report that results based on a set of SNPs were more consistent than on a set of 14 microsatellite markers, showed higher accuracy to detect hybrids and their class in simulation analyses, and were less affected by underlying population structure. Our results strongly suggest that very high hybridization rates previously reported for Central Europe may be partly due to inadequate choice of markers and/or sampling design. Our study documents that an adequately selected SNP panel for hybrid detection may be used as an alternative to commonly applied microsatellite markers, including studies relying on noninvasively collected samples. In addition, our finding of overall low hybridization rates in Central European wildcats provides an example of successful wildlife coexistence in human-dominated, fragmented landscapes. ”We assess hyribization between wildcats and domestic cats in Germany and Luxembourg, and offer an explanation for greatly differing previous estimates, contrasting with those reported in our and other studies. We use microsatellites, SNPs and control region mtDNA sequences, as well as different sampling strategies (hair trapping and roadkill specimen collection) of 1.071 individuals. Our results showed that study setup concerning the choice of markers and sampling affect inferred hybridization rates. Our study documents very low hybridization rates between a wild and a domestic taxon despite close coexistence and widespread anthropogenic disturbance.”
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 55
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-29
    Description: The gypsy moth— Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus)—is a worldwide forest defoliator and is of two types: the European gypsy moth and the Asian gypsy moth. Because of multiple invasions of the Asian gypsy moth, the North American Plant Protection Organization officially approved Regional Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 33. Accordingly, special quarantine measures have been implemented for 30 special focused ports in the epidemic areas of the Asian gypsy moth, including China, which has imposed great inconvenience on export trade. The Asian gypsy moth and its related species (i.e., Lymantria monocha and Lymantria xylina ) intercepted at ports are usually at different life stages, making their identification difficult. Furthermore, Port quarantine requires speedy clearance. As such, it is difficult to identify the Asian gypsy moth and its related species only by their morphological characteristics in a speedy measure. Therefore, this study aimed to use molecular biology technology to rapidly identify the Asian gypsy moth and its related species based on the consistency of mitochondrial DNA in different life stages. We designed 10 pairs of specific primers from different fragments of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species, and their detection sensitivity met the need for rapid identification. In addition, we determined the optimal polymerase chain reaction amplification temperature of the 10 pairs of specific primers, including three pairs of specific primers for the Asian gypsy moth ( L. dispar asiatic ), four pairs of specific primers for the nun moth ( L. monocha ), and three pairs of specific primers for the casuarina moth ( L. xylina ). In conclusion, using our designed primers, direct rapid identification of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species is possible, and this advancement can help improve export trade in China. This study aimed to use molecular biology technology to rapidly identify the Asian gypsy moth and its related species ( Lymantria monacha and Lymantria xylina ) based on the consistency of mitochondrial DNA in different life stages. We designed 10 specific primers from different fragments of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species, and their detection sensitivity met the needs of rapid identification.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 56
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-29
    Description: Myelin, an insulating membrane that enables rapid action potential propagation, is an essential component of an efficient, functional vertebrate nervous system. Oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glia of the central nervous system (CNS), produce myelin throughout the CNS, which requires continuous proliferation, migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC). Because myelination is essential for efficient neurotransmission, researchers hypothesize that neuronal signals may regulate the cascade of events necessary for this process. The ability of oligodendrocytes and OPCs to detect and respond to neuronal activity is becoming increasingly appreciated, although the specific signals involved are still a matter of debate. Recent evidence from multiple studies points to purinergic signaling as a potential regulator of oligodendrocyte development and differentiation. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and its derivatives are potent signaling ligands with receptors expressed on many populations of cells in the nervous system, including cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Release of ATP into the extracellular space can initiate a multitude of signaling events, and these downstream signals are specific to the particular purinergic receptor (or receptors) expressed, and whether enzymes are present to hydrolyze ATP to its derivatives adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine, each of which can activate their own unique downstream signaling cascades. This review will introduce purinergic signaling in the CNS and discuss evidence for its effects on oligodendrocyte proliferation, differentiation and myelination. We will review sources of extracellular purines in the nervous system and how changes in purinergic receptor expression may be coupled to oligodendrocyte differentiation. We will also briefly discuss purinergic signaling in injury and diseases of the CNS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 57
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: In the Mediterranean Sea, the seagrass Posidonia oceanica plays a key ecological role, and is protected by a range of legislation. Standard Posidonia monitoring programmes generally focus on the plant at different spatial and short temporal scales, without considering the organisms dependent on the ecosystem. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) has a high potential to non-intrusively monitor biological activities and biodiversity at high temporal resolution, and to assess ecosystem health. This is particularly relevant considering that Posidonia meadows host numerous sound-producing fish species. In this study, bottom-moored hydrophones were deployed in nine Western Mediterranean meadows covering a distance of more than 200 km to identify acoustic features potentially relevant to monitor this critical habitat. Among eight identified fish sound categories, we found a single type of sound (that we will refer to as /kwa/ ) dominating the soundscape of Posidonia meadows over a time span of 7 months. Compared to other low-frequency sounds, the /kwa/ presented unique characteristics that suggest it is produced by a fish via fast contracting muscles. The / kwa / was the only sound detectable under anthropogenic noise conditions, and little affected by it. Cluster analyses performed on 13 acoustic features revealed a high degree of call diversity. /kwa/ diversity, combined with its large-scale (all meadows), long-term (7 months) occurrence and low noise interference, make the /Kwa/ a promising candidate for PAM of Posidonia meadows. Furthermore, variability in acoustic features suggests a central role of the /kwa/ in communication. Overall, this work sets the basis for establishing the relevance of the / kwa / in monitoring P. oceanica meadows and developing PAM techniques for this critical habitat. Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica plays a key ecological role. Although hosting numerous sound-producing species, there are no passive acoustics (PA) studies of this critical habitat. PA allows collecting non-intrusive data on the biological activity, biodiversity and quality of a habitat at high spatio-temporal resolution. Our study emphasizes the potential of PA to monitor Posidonia meadows through the study of a single but unique, ubiquitous and abundant fish sound. This sound was present over at least 7 months and in all nine analysed meadows, covering a distance of more than 200 km of the Western Mediterranean coast. It was the only fish sound detectable and not affected by anthropogenic noise. This ubiquitous Posidonia sound meets all requirements to be considered a promising candidate for PAM of Posidonia meadows. This work sets the bases for establishing the relevance of this sound as environmental proxy and in promoting PAM techniques for this critical habitat .
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-3485
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Biology
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  • 58
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: Vultures provide an essential ecosystem service through removal of carrion, but globally, many populations are collapsing and several species are threatened with extinction. Widespread declines in vulture populations could increase the availability of carrion to other organisms, but the ways facultative scavengers might respond to this increase have not been thoroughly explored. We aimed to determine whether facultative scavengers increase carrion consumption in the absence of vulture competition and whether they are capable of functionally replacing vultures in the removal of carrion biomass from the landscape. We experimentally excluded 65 rabbit carcasses from vultures during daylight hours and placed an additional 65 carcasses that were accessible to vultures in forested habitat in South Carolina, USA during summer (June–August). We used motion-activated cameras to compare carrion use by facultative scavenging species between the experimental and control carcasses. Scavenging by facultative scavengers did not increase in the absence of competition with vultures. We found no difference in scavenger presence between control carcasses and those from which vultures were excluded. Eighty percent of carcasses from which vultures were excluded were not scavenged by vertebrates, compared to 5% of carcasses that were accessible to vultures. At the end of the 7-day trials, there was a 10.1-fold increase in the number of experimental carcasses that were not fully scavenged compared to controls. Facultative scavengers did not functionally replace vultures during summer in our study. This finding may have been influenced by the time of the year in which the study took place, the duration of the trials, and the spacing of carcass sites. Our results suggest that under the warm and humid conditions of our study, facultative scavengers would not compensate for loss of vultures. Carcasses would persist longer in the environment and consumption of carrion would likely shift from vertebrates to decomposers. Such changes could have substantial implications for disease transmission, nutrient cycling, and ecosystem functioning. We excluded vultures from carcasses to measure the response of scavenging mammals. Mammals did not increase carrion consumption in the absence of vulture competition. Carcasses persisted longer when vultures were excluded, indicating that mammals would not functionally replace vultures as scavengers under these conditions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 59
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-03
    Description: Many ectotherms show a decrease in body size with increasing latitude due to changes in climate, a pattern termed converse Bergmann's rule. Urban conditions—particularly warmer temperatures and fragmented landscapes—may impose stresses on development that could disrupt these body size patterns. To test the impact of urbanization on development and latitudinal trends in body size, we launched a citizen science project to collect periodical cicadas ( Magicicada septendecim ) from across their latitudinal range during the 2013 emergence of Brood II. Periodical cicadas are long-lived insects whose distribution spans a broad latitudinal range covering both urban and rural habitats. We used a geometric morphometric approach to assess body size and developmental stress based on fluctuating asymmetry in wing shape. Body size of rural cicadas followed converse Bergmann's rule, but this pattern was disrupted in urban habitats. In the north, urban cicadas were larger than their rural counterparts, while southern populations showed little variation in body size between habitats. We detected no evidence of differences in developmental stress due to urbanization. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that urbanization disrupts biogeographical trends in body size, and this pattern highlights how the effects of urbanization may differ over a species’ range. To test the impact of urbanization on development and latitudinal trends in body size, we launched a citizen science project to collect periodical cicadas ( Magicicada septendecim ) from across their latitudinal range during the 2013 emergence of Brood II. We used a geometric morphometric approach to assess body size and developmental stress based on fluctuating asymmetry in wing shape.Body size of rural cicadas followed converse Bergmann's rule, but this pattern was disrupted in urban habitats.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 60
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-03
    Description: Because weather and climate models must capture a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales, they rely heavily on parameterizations of sub-grid scale processes. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that the assumptions used to couple these parameterizations have an important effect on the climate of version 0 of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) General Circulation Model (GCM), a close relative of version 1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Like most GCMs, parameterizations in E3SM are sequentially split in the sense that parameterizations are called one after another with each subsequent process feeling the effect of the preceding processes. This coupling strategy is non-commutative in the sense that the order in which processes are called impacts the solution. By examining a suite of 24 simulations with deep convection, shallow convection, macrophysics/microphysics, and radiation parameterizations reordered, process order is shown to have a big impact on predicted climate. In particular, reordering of processes induces differences in net climate feedback that are as big as the inter-model spread in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project. One reason why process ordering has such a large impact is that the effect of each process is influenced by the processes preceding it. Where output is written is therefore an important control on apparent model behavior. Application of K-means clustering demonstrates that the positioning of macro-/micro- physics and shallow convection plays a critical role on the model solution.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 61
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-03
    Description: A stochastic prognostic framework for modeling the population dynamics of convective clouds and representing them in climate models is proposed. The framework follows the non-equilibrium statistical mechanical approach to constructing a master equation for representing the evolution of the number of convective cells of a specific size and their associated cloud-base mass flux, given a large-scale forcing. In this framework, referred to as STOchastic framework for Modeling Population dynamics of convective clouds (STOMP), the evolution of convective cell size is predicted from three key characteristics of convective cells: (i) the probability of growth, (ii) the probability of decay, and (iii) the cloud-base mass flux. STOMP models are constructed and evaluated against CPOL radar observations at Darwin and convection permitting model (CPM) simulations. Multiple models are constructed under various assumptions regarding these three key parameters and the realisms of these models are evaluated. It is shown that in a model where convective plumes prefer to aggregate spatially and the cloud-base mass flux is a non-linear function of convective cell area, then the mass flux manifests a recharge-discharge behavior under steady forcing. Such a model also produces observed behavior of convective cell populations and CPM simulated cloud-base mass flux variability under diurnally varying forcing. In addition to its use in developing understanding of convection processes and the controls on convective cell size distributions, this modeling framework is also designed to be capable of serving as a non-equilibrium closure formulations for spectral mass flux parameterizations.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 62
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-03
    Description: In mesoscale and global atmospheric simulations with large horizontal domains, strong horizontal flow across the grid is often unavoidable, but its effects on cloud-topped boundary layers has received comparatively little study. Here the effects of cross-grid flow on large-eddy simulations of stratocumulus and trade-cumulus marine boundary layers are studied across a range of grid resolutions (horizontal x vertical) between 500m x 20m and 35m x 5m. Three cases are simulated: DYCOMS nocturnal stratocumulus, BOMEX trade cumulus, and a GCSS stratocumulus-to-trade cumulus case. Simulations are performed with a stationary grid (with 4-8 m/s horizontal winds blowing through the cyclic domain) and a moving grid (equivalent to subtracting off a fixed vertically uniform horizontal wind) approximately matching the mean boundary-layer wind speed. For stratocumulus clouds, cross-grid flow produces two primary effects on stratocumulus clouds: a filtering of fine scale resolved turbulent eddies, which reduces stratocumulus cloud-top entrainment and a vertical broadening of the stratocumulus-top inversion which enhances cloud-top entrainment. With a coarse (20 m) vertical grid, the former effect dominates and leads to strong increases in cloud cover and LWP, especially as horizontal resolution is coarsened. With a finer (5m) vertical grid, the latter effect is stronger and leads to small reductions in cloud cover and LWP. For the BOMEX trade cumulus case, cross grid flow tends to produce fewer and larger clouds with higher LWP, especially for coarser vertical grid spacing. The results presented are robust to choice of advection scheme and Courant number.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 63
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-03
    Description: Precipitation changes the physiological characteristics of an ecosystem. Because land-surface models are often used to project changes in the hydrological cycle, modeling the effect of precipitation on the latent heat flux λE is an important aspect of land-surface models. Here, we contrast conditionally-sampled diel composites of the eddy-covariance fluxes from the Niwot Ridge Subalpine Forest AmeriFlux tower with the Community Land Model (CLM, version 4.5). With respect to measured λE during the warm-season: for the day following above-average precipitation, λE was enhanced at mid-day by ≈ 40 W m −2 (relative to dry conditions), and nocturnal λE increased from ≈ 10 W m −2 in dry conditions to over 20 W m −2 in wet conditions. With default settings, CLM4.5 did not successfully model these changes. By increasing the amount of time that rainwater was retained by the canopy/needles, CLM was able to match the observed mid-day increase in λE on a dry day following a wet day. Stable nighttime conditions were problematic for CLM4.5. Nocturnal CLM λE had only a small (≈ 3 W m −2 ) increase during wet conditions, CLM nocturnal friction velocity u * was smaller than observed u * , and CLM canopy air temperature was 2 °C less than those measured at the site. Using observed u * as input to CLM increased λE ; however, this caused CLM λE to be increased during both wet and dry periods. We suggest that sloped topography and the ever-present drainage flow enhanced nocturnal u * and λE . Such phenomena would not be properly captured by topographically blind land-surface models, such as CLM.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 64
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-05
    Description: In the context of expansion of invasive species, survival of invasive plants is conditioned by their ability to adapt. In France, the water primrose Ludwigia grandiflora , an aquatic invasive species, invades yet wet meadows, leading to a depreciation of their fodder value. Understanding its potential adaption is necessary to its management, strong differences between both morphotypes were expected. So morphological and metabolic responses to terrestrial environment were analyzed for aquatic and terrestrial morphotypes. All morphological and biomass variables were greater in the terrestrial morphotype than the aquatic morphotype, independent of conditions. In terrestrial condition, both morphotypes showed a high production of sugars in root tissues, especially in the terrestrial morphotype and both morphotypes produced a low level of amino acids in shoot tissues. All results demonstrate that the terrestrial condition seems a stressful situation for both morphotypes, which activates glycolysis and fermentation pathways to improve their survival under hypoxic stress. But, only the terrestrial morphotype has been able to adjust its metabolism and maintain efficient growth. In the future, a differential transcriptomic analysis will be carried out to confirm this result. In France, the recent invasion of wet meadows by the aquatic invasive plant Ludwigia grandiflora has led the appearance of a terrestrial morphotype. Significant results reveal that this morphotype has shown new morphological and metabolomic capabilities to endure stressful conditions due to terrestrial habitat and surprisingly supplanted the aquatic morphotype in aquatic conditions. All results demonstrated the appearance of a new morphotype having new adaptive capacities.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 65
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-05
    Description: Plant litter decomposition is an essential ecosystem function that contributes to carbon and nutrient cycling in streams. Aquatic shredders, mainly macroinvertebrates, can affect this process in various ways; they consume leaf litter, breaking it down into fragments and creating suitable habitats or resources for other organisms through the production of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). However, measures of litter-feeding traits across a wide range of aquatic macroinvertebrates are still rare. Here, we assessed the contributions of 11 species of freshwater macroinvertebrates to litter decomposition, by measuring consumption rate, FPOM production, and assimilation rate of highly decomposable ( Alnus glutinosa ) or poorly decomposable ( Quercus robur ) leaf litter types. In general, an increase in the quality of litter improved the litter consumption rate, and fungal conditioning of the leaf litter increased both the litter consumption rate and FPOM production. Macroinvertebrates specializing in leaf litter consumption also appeared to be the most sensitive to shifts in litter quality and the conditioning process. Contrary to expectations, the conditioning process did not increase the assimilation of low-quality litter. There was a strong correlation between the relative consumption rate (RCR) of the two litter types, and the relative FPOM production (RFP) was strongly correlated to the RCR. These findings suggest a consistent relationship between RCR and macroinvertebrate identity that is not affected by litter quality, and that the RFP could be inferred from the RCR. The varying responses of the macroinvertebrate feeding traits to litter quality and the conditioning process suggest that the replacement of a shredder invertebrate species by another species could have major consequences for the decomposition process and the detritus-based food web in streams. Further studies onto the importance of invertebrate identity and the effects of litter quality in a variety of freshwater ecosystems are needed to understand the whole ecosystem functioning and to predict its response to environmental changes. We assessed the contributions of 11 species of freshwater macroinvertebrates to litter decomposition, by measuring consumption rate, FPOM production, and assimilation rate of highly decomposable ( Alnus glutinosa ) or poorly decomposable ( Quercus robur ) leaf litter types. We found a strong variation in the responses of the macroinvertebrate feeding traits to the litter quality and to the conditioning process, suggesting that the replacement of a shredder invertebrate species by another species could have major consequences for the decomposition process and the detritus-based food web in streams.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 66
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: Land pollution is a threat to sustainable agricultural development and food security in developing countries. Consumption of farm products from contaminated areas can generate health hazards to the diverse consumers along the food chain through the different pollutants in the products. This study is designed to determine the accumulation of Pb, Cd, and Fe in topsoil, surface water, and maize leaf, stem, grains, and root, cultivated in a garden nearby Ori-Ile battery waste dumpsite, Omilende Area, Olodo, Nigeria. Soil samples, garden maize parts, and surface water samples are collected from the study area using standard procedures. Corresponding reference samples are collected from Moor Plantation, Ibadan. All collected samples are analysed for Pb, Cd, and Fe concentrations. Mean Pb, Cd, and Fe concentrations in topsoil are found to be significantly higher than 157.0 ± 39.8, 2.2 ± 1.2, and 976.3 ± 353.9 mg kg −1 , respectively, which are obtained from reference soil and National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency limits (Pb: 164 mg kg −1 and Cd: 50 mg kg −1 ). The soil contamination factor values obtained are greater than 6, indicating severe pollution. Downstream has the highest Pb, Cd, and Fe concentrations. In maize parts, the root has the highest concentration of Pb (40.95 ± 1.98 mg L −1 ) and Cd (2.84 ± 0.19 mg L −1 ), which are significantly higher ( p ≤ 0.05) than those from the reference site. A high concentration of heavy metals found in topsoil further bio-accumulates in maize parts. Consequently, this garden maize is unfit for consumption. The Pb, Cd, and Fe accumulation in topsoil, surface water, and in the leaf, stem, grains and roots of maize grown in a garden around Ori-Ile battery waste dumpsite, Olodo, Nigeria is determined by using AAS to measure their concentration in different samples obtained. A significant concentration of these metals was found in all samples. Thus, Ori-Ile maize is unfit for consumption by residents.
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 67
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: The geographic ranges of taxa change in response to environmental conditions. Yet whether rates of range movement (biotic velocities) are phylogenetically conserved is not well known. Phylogenetic conservatism of biotic velocities could reflect similarities among related lineages in climatic tolerances and dispersal-associated traits. We assess whether late Quaternary biotic velocities were phylogenetically conserved and whether they correlate with climatic tolerances and dispersal-associated traits. We used phylogenetic regression and nonparametric correlation to evaluate associations between biotic velocities, dispersal-associated traits, and climatic tolerances for 28 woody plant genera and subgenera in North America. The velocities with which woody plant taxa shifted their core geographic range limits were positively correlated from time step to time step between 16 and 7 ka. The strength of this correlation weakened after 7 ka as the pace of climate change slowed. Dispersal-associated traits and climatic tolerances were not associated with biotic velocities. Although the biotic velocities of some genera were consistently fast and others consistently slow, biotic velocities were not phylogenetically conserved. The rapid late Quaternary range shifts of plants lacking traits that facilitate frequent long-distance dispersal has long been noted (i.e., Reid's Paradox). Our results are consistent with this paradox and show that it remains robust when phylogenetic information is taken into account. The lack of association between biotic velocities, dispersal-associated traits, and climatic tolerances may reflect several, nonmutually exclusive processes, including rare long-distance dispersal, biotic interactions, and cryptic refugia. Because late Quaternary biotic velocities were decoupled from dispersal-associated traits, trait data for genera and subgenera cannot be used to predict longer-term (millennial-scale) floristic responses to climate change. We assess whether late Quaternary range movements of woody plants in North America are phylogenetically conserved and whether dispersal-associated life history traits and climatic tolerances are associated with rates of range movement. Although the movements of some genera were consistently fast and others were consistently slow, biotic velocities were not phylogenetically conserved. The lack of an association between dispersal traits, climatic tolerances, and biotic velocities may reflect the influence of several, nonmutually exclusive processes, such as rare long-distance dispersal, biotic interactions, and cryptic refugia.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 68
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity is thought to play an important role in the adaption of plant populations to heterogeneous habitat conditions, and yet the importance of epigenetic variation as a mechanism of adaptive plasticity in natural plant populations still merits further research. In this study, we investigated populations of Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (Chinese chastetree) from adjacent habitat types at seven sampling sites. Using several functional traits, we detected a significant differentiation between habitat types. With amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive AFLP (MSAP), we found relatively high levels of genetic and epigenetic diversity but very low genetic and epigenetic differences between habitats within sites. Bayesian clustering showed a remarkable habitat-related differentiation and more genetic loci associated with the habitat type than epigenetic, suggesting that the adaptation to the habitat is genetically based. However, we did not find any significant correlation between genetic or epigenetic variation and habitat using simple and partial Mantel tests. Moreover, we found no correlation between genetic and ecologically relevant phenotypic variation and a significant correlation between epigenetic and phenotypic variation. Although we did not find any direct relationship between epigenetic variation and habitat environment, our findings suggest that epigenetic variation may complement genetic variation as a source of functional phenotypic diversity associated with adaptation to the heterogeneous habitat in natural plant populations. We investigated several main functional traits in Chinese chastetree populations from various habitats and obtained genetic and epigenetic information using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive AFLP (MSAP). Mantel tests demonstrated the significant correlation between epigenetic and ecologically relevant phenotypic variation but no correlation between genetic and phenotypic variation.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 69
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Alpine treelines are expected to move upward in a warming climate, but downward in response to increases in wildfire. We studied the effects of fire on vegetation structure and composition across four alpine treeline ecotones extending from Abies lasiocarpa/Picea engelmannii forests at lower elevations, through Pinus albicaulis / Larix lyallii parkland, to alpine tundra. We estimated the probabilities of burning and transitions between states following fire among four canopy-cover (structural) classes: non-forest (0% tree cover), sparse woodland (〈10% tree cover), open forest (10–40% tree cover), and closed forest (〉40% tree cover). We also evaluated changes in the size structure and composition of live overstory trees (≥1.4 m height) due to mortality following fire. The severity and resulting effects of fire varied among structural classes: Non-forest was less likely to burn than the landscape as a whole; open forest was more likely to remain forest than to change to non-forest; and closed forest never changed to non-forest, irrespective of burn severity. Higher-severity fires caused greater mortality of larger-diameter trees than of smaller-diameter trees. Our results suggest that structural components of the alpine treeline will not respond unidirectionally to a warming climate nor to an increase in fire. Instead, the ecotone will expand bidirectionally and develop larger, more heterogeneous patches of vegetation.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 70
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: During the night, plant water loss can occur either through the roots, as hydraulic redistribution (HR), or through the leaves via the stoma, as nocturnal transpiration ( E n ), which was methodologically difficult to separate from stem refilling ( R e ). While HR and E n have been reported across a range of species, ecosystem, and climate zone, there is little understanding on the interactions between E n and/or R e and HR. As water movement at night occurs via gradients of water potential, it is expected that during periods of high atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD), water loss via E n will override water loss via HR. To test this hypothesis, sap flow in stems and roots of Populus euphratica Oliv. trees, growing in a riparian zone in a hyperarid climate, was measured once in a year. Nocturnal stem sap flow was separated into E n and R e using the “forecasted refilling” method. Substantial nocturnal sap flow (38% of 24-hr flux on average) was observed and positively correlated with VPD; however, the strength of the correlation was lower ( R 2  = .55) than diurnal sap flow ( E d ) ( R 2  = .72), suggesting that nocturnal stem sap flow was attributed to both water loss through the canopy and replenishment of water in stem tissues. Partitioning of nocturnal sap flow shows that R e constituted approximately 80%, and E n ~20%, of nocturnal sap flow. The amount of root sap flow attributed to redistribution was negatively related to E d ( R 2  = .69) and the amount of acropetally sap flow in stems, R e ( R 2  = .41) and E n ( R 2  = .14). It was suggested that the magnitude of HR is more strongly depressed by R e that was recharge to the water loss via E d than by E n . It was consistent with whole-tree water balance theory, that the nighttime upward sap flow to xylem, stem refilling and transpiration, may depress hydraulic redistribution of roots. Consistent with the whole-tree water balance theory, the nighttime upward sap flow to xylem, stem refilling, and transpiration depress hydraulic redistribution of roots in Populus euphratica trees at the hyperarid zone in NW China.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 71
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Current taxonomy of western Eurasian trout leaves a number of questions open; it is not clear to what extent some species are distinct genetically and morphologically. The purpose of this paper was to explore phylogeography and species boundaries in freshwater and anadromous trout from the drainages of the Black and the Caspian Seas (Ponto-Caspian). We studied morphology and mitochondrial phylogeny, combining samples from the western Caucasus within the potential range of five nominal species of trout that are thought to inhabit this region, and using the sequences available from GenBank. Our results suggest that the genetic diversity of trout in the Ponto-Caspian region is best explained with the fragmentation of catchments. (1) All trout species from Ponto-Caspian belong to the same mitochondrial clade, separated from the other trout since the Pleistocene; (2) the southeastern Black Sea area is the most likely place of diversification of this clade, which is closely related to the clades from Anatolia; (3) The species from the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea drainages are monophyletic; (4) except for the basal lineage of the Ponto-Caspian clade, Salmo rizeensis , all the lineages produce anadromous forms; (5) genetic diversification within the Ponto-Caspian clade is related to Pleistocene glacial waves; (6) the described morphological differences between the species are not fully diagnostic, and some earlier described differences depend on body size; the differences between freshwater and marine forms exceed those between the different lineages. We suggest a conservative taxonomic approach, using the names S. rizeensis and Salmo labrax for trout from the Black Sea basin and Salmo caspius and Salmo ciscaucasicus for the fish from the Caspian basin. The paper analyses mitochondrial phylogeny/phylogeography of Salmo sp. (both river trout and marine forms, “Black Sea salmon” from the drainages of the Black and Caspian seas) and compares morphology of river and marine forms from different catchments. The results show that all trouts from Ponto-Caspian are monophyletic, and diversified at the southeastern Black Sea area. The most of subclades within the Ponto-Caspian clade independently produce anadromous forms.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Ecology must attract and retain diverse talented people to produce innovative research and relevant solutions to 21st-century environmental problems. Careers and culture form the foundation of scientific advancement, and substantial progress has been made over recent decades in both realms. Yet, important challenges persist in expanding career paths, inclusion of underrepresented groups, and communication with the public. The ESA Student Section organized a horizon scanning exercise to address the following goals: (1) to identify challenges that 21st-century ecologists contend with or expect to contend with in careers and outreach to society, (2) to anticipate opportunities to help ecologists meet challenges, and (3) to identify concrete steps that could be taken by individual laboratories, institutions, and the ESA to foster progress. In spring 2016, the ESA Student Section solicited input from student members and organized a working group to assess the state of the discipline and to envision how we might cultivate a more inclusive and effective community. We identified three major challenges. First, PhDs are produced faster than academic positions become available and disconnects between academia and other sectors may keep early-career ecologists from realizing the breadth of available positions. We propose an online jobs hub to make non-academic sectors more accessible to ecologists. We also suggest students develop skills portfolios to prepare for non-academic positions. Second, the composition of people who are ecologists differs from broader society, partially due to implicit biases and institutional barriers. We propose steps to reduce attrition of diversity in ecology that include countering implicit biases and creating mentorship networks. We offer steps to improve recruitment by increasing awareness of ecology among high school students and undergraduates and providing opportunities to engage in ecological research. Finally, ecology is only relevant if the public perceives it to be. We must improve science communication and begin cultivating trust. We propose that ad hoc communication by all ecologists is insufficient; translational ecologists should be hired in every department and formal training in translational ecology is necessary. We hope this paper catalyzes critical thinking and partnerships among students, professional ecologists, and the ESA to ensure the future of ecology is vibrant.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 73
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Habitat connectivity crucially influences dispersal of organisms. It is especially seen as an important driver of the spatial structuring of biological communities in ecosystems that have intrinsic and general connectivity patterns, such as the universal dendritic structure of fluvial networks. These networks not only define dispersal of native species, but also represent corridors of biological invasions, making understanding network topology effects on invasion dynamics and subsequent diversity patterns of high interest. We studied amphipod community diversity and structure in the upper 27,882-km 2 drainage basin of the river Rhine in Central Europe, focusing on differences between native and non-native species. Overall, species richness increased along the network from headwaters to the outlet nodes. We found, however, contrasting patterns of native and non-native amphipod richness along the network, with headwater nodes representing refugia for native species and more downstream nodes being hotspots of biological invasions. Importantly, while species turnover (β-diversity) of native species increased with distance between nodes in the network, this was not the case for non-native species, indicating a much lower dispersal limitation of the latter. Finally, the overall amphipod community structure closely mirrored the topological modularity of the network, highlighting the network's imprint on community structure. Our results underpin the importance of connectivity for community formation and the significance of rivers for biological invasions and suggest that empirically observed matches of diversity patterns in rivers predicted by null models are the long-term outcome of species invasions and species sorting.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 74
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-08
    Description: Many conventional General Circulation Models (GCMs) in the Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) tend to produce what is now recognized as overly strong Land–Atmosphere (L–A) coupling. We investigate the effects of cloud Superparameterization (SP) on L–A coupling on timescales beyond diurnal where it has been recently shown to have a favorable muting effect hydrologically. Using the Community Atmosphere Model v3.5 (CAM3.5) and its Superparameterized counterpart SPCAM3.5, we conducted soil moisture interference experiments following the GLACE and Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) protocols. The results show that, on weekly-to-subseasonal timescales, SP also mutes hydrologic L–A coupling. This is detectable globally, and happens through the evapotranspiration–precipitation segment. But on seasonal timescales, SP does not exhibit detectable effects on hydrologic L–A coupling. Two robust regional effects of SP on thermal L–A coupling have also been explored. Over the Arabian Peninsula, SP reduces thermal L–A coupling through a straightforward control by mean rainfall reduction. More counterintuitively, over the Southwestern US and Northern Mexico, SP enhances the thermal L–A coupling in a way that is independent of rainfall and soil moisture. This signal is associated with a systematic and previously unrecognized effect of SP that produces an amplified Bowen ratio, and is detectable in multiple SP model versions and experiment designs. In addition to amplifying the present-day Bowen ratio, SP is found to amplify the climate sensitivity of Bowen ratio as well, which likely plays a role in influencing climate change predictions at the L–A interface.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 75
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-08
    Description: Atmospheric water-vapor isotopes have been proposed as a potentially powerful constraint on convection, which plays a critical role in Earth's present and future climate. It is shown here, however, that the mean tropical profile of HDO in the free troposphere does not usefully constrain the mean convective entrainment rate or precipitation efficiency. This is demonstrated using a single-column analytical model of atmospheric water isotopes. The model has three parameters: the entrainment rate, the precipitation efficiency, and the distance that evaporating condensates fall. At a given relative humidity, the possible range of HDO is small: its range is comparable to both the measurement uncertainty in the mean tropical profile and the structural uncertainty of a single-column model. Therefore, the mean tropical HDO profile is unlikely to add information about convective processes in a bulk-plume framework that cannot already be learned from relative humidity alone.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 76
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-08
    Description: A set of idealized experiments are developed using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) to understand the vertical velocity response to reductions in forcing scale that is known to occur when the horizontal resolution of the model is increased. The test consists of a set of rising bubble experiments, in which the horizontal radius of the bubble and the model grid spacing are simultaneously reduced. The test is performed with moisture, through incorporating moist physics routines of varying complexity, although convection schemes are not considered. Results confirm that the vertical velocity in CAM is to first-order, proportional to the inverse of the horizontal forcing scale, which is consistent with a scale-analysis of the dry equations of motion. In contrast, experiments in which the coupling time-step between the moist physics routines and the dynamical core (i.e., the ‘physics' time-step) are relaxed back to more conventional values results in severely damped vertical motion at high resolution, degrading the scaling. A set of aqua-planet simulations using different physics time-steps are found to be consistent with the results of the idealized experiments.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 77
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-09
    Description: Lions have often been discussed under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild flora and fauna (CITES). While CITES decisions on species trade regimes are ostensibly based on science, species data are often inconclusive and political considerations inevitably determine outcomes. We present the context of lion conservation and the technical and political processes of CITES to illuminate how a failed uplisting proposal nonetheless resulted in an unprecedented trade restriction as well as conservation initiatives beyond the CITES trade function. We conclude on the limitations of science to guide future directions of CITES debates, leaving politics and ethics to shape decision making. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Print ISSN: 1755-263X
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-263X
    Topics: Biology
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  • 78
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: One of the central goals of the field of population ecology is to identify the drivers of population dynamics, particularly in the context of predator–prey relationships. Understanding the relative role of top-down versus bottom-up drivers is of particular interest in understanding ecosystem dynamics. Our goal was to explore predator–prey relationships in a boreal ecosystem in interior Alaska through the use of multispecies long-term monitoring data. We used 29 years of field data and a dynamic multistate site occupancy modeling approach to explore the trophic relationships between an apex predator, the golden eagle, and cyclic populations of the two primary prey species available to eagles early in the breeding season, snowshoe hare and willow ptarmigan. We found that golden eagle reproductive success was reliant on prey numbers, but also responded prior to changes in the phase of the snowshoe hare population cycle and failed to respond to variation in hare cycle amplitude. There was no lagged response to ptarmigan populations, and ptarmigan populations recovered quickly from the low phase. Together, these results suggested that eagle reproduction is largely driven by bottom-up processes, with little evidence of top-down control of either ptarmigan or hare populations. Although the relationship between golden eagle reproductive success and prey abundance had been previously established, here we established prey populations are likely driving eagle dynamics through bottom-up processes. The key to this insight was our focus on golden eagle reproductive parameters rather than overall abundance. Although our inference is limited to the golden eagle–hare–ptarmigan relationships we studied, our results suggest caution in interpreting predator–prey abundance patterns among other species as strong evidence for top-down control. Reproductive success in golden eagles is linked to ptarmigan and snowshoe hare abundance. The characteristics of these linkages strongly suggest bottom-up limitation of eagles by their prey.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 79
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Large regulated rivers often require fisheries and water managers to make management decisions involving resident fish population dynamics that have many ecological drivers. Because of the large scale of the system and often competing interests and demands for water, there is a critical need for decision support tools (DSTs) that allow examination of alternative management scenarios while considering key ecological interactions. Spatially explicit individual-based models (IBMs) can serve as effective DSTs by providing information on fish population dynamics while accounting for, and providing extensive, spatially explicit information on, the numerous ecological drivers. Spatially explicit IBMs are often difficult to implement owing to the numerous and often complex inputs the models require. Here, I demonstrate how a suite of free, graphical user interface equipped programs, along with three custom-built and publicly available plugins, can streamline the modeling process and serve as a IBM-based DST for fisheries management on large regulated rivers. The main program is a spatially explicit IBM of juvenile salmonid dynamics, inSALMO, with two other programs that generate the key input data in the required spatially explicit formats. I then use this proposed DST to simulate a Chinook salmon population on a portion of California's Sacramento River to determine whether an IBM-based DST is appropriate to evaluate management impacts on a large regulated river. The Sacramento is a large river of major concern in California and is representative of many rivers in the United States and worldwide in that it is dammed, has a resident fish population, and is heavily used for water supply. The proposed DTS results compare favorably with the predictive power of a general additive model, while providing a much fuller and richer data set that could significantly aid and inform management decisions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: The freshwater–marine transition that characterizes an estuarine system can provide multiple entry options for invading species, yet the relative importance of this gradient in determining the functional contribution of invading species has received little attention. The ecological consequences of species invasion are routinely evaluated within a freshwater versus marine context, even though many invasive species can inhabit a wide range of salinities. We investigate the functional consequences of different sizes of Corbicula fluminea —an invasive species able to adapt to a wide range of temperatures and salinity—across the freshwater–marine transition in the presence versus absence of warming. Specifically, we characterize how C. fluminea affect fluid and particle transport, important processes in mediating nutrient cycling (NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N, PO 4 -P). Results showed that sediment particle reworking (bioturbation) tends to be influenced by size and to a lesser extent, temperature and salinity; nutrient concentrations are influenced by different interactions between all variables (salinity, temperature, and size class). Our findings demonstrate the highly context-dependent nature of the ecosystem consequences of invasion and highlight the potential for species to simultaneously occupy multiple components of an ecosystem. Recognizing of this aspect of invasibility is fundamental to management and conservation efforts, particularly as freshwater and marine systems tend to be compartmentalized rather than be treated as a contiguous unit. We conclude that more comprehensive appreciation of the distribution of invasive species across adjacent habitats and different seasons is urgently needed to allow the true extent of biological introductions, and their ecological consequences, to be fully realized. The functional consequences of different sizes of Corbicula fluminea —an invasive species able to adapt to a wide range of temperatures and salinity—across the freshwater–marine transition in the presence versus absence of warming were investigated.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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