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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (504,053)
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  • 1
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: In 2008, a new species for the French bee fauna was recorded in Allauch near Marseille: the giant resin bee, Megachile sculpturalis (Smith, 1853). This was the first European record of this species that is native to East Asia. To our knowledge, it is the first introduced bee species in Europe. Here, we provide an overview of the current distribution of M. sculpturalis in France and we describe the history of its range expansion. Besides our own observations, information was compiled from literature and Internet websites, and by contacting naturalist networks. We collected a total of 117 records ( locality  ×  year combinations) for the 2008–2016 period. The geographical range of M. sculpturalis has extended remarkably, now occupying a third of continental France, with the most northern and western records located 335 and 520 km from Allauch, respectively. Information on its phenology, feeding, and nesting behavior is also provided. We report several events of nest occupation or eviction of Osmia sp. and Xylocopa sp. individuals by M. sculpturalis . Our results show that M. sculpturalis is now well established in France. Given its capacity to adapt and rapidly expand its range, we recommend amplifying the monitoring of this species to better anticipate the changes in its geographical range and its potential impacts on native bees. In 2008, a new species for the French bee fauna was recorded in Allauch near Marseille: the giant resin bee, Megachile sculpturalis (Smith, 1853). This was the first European record of this species native from East Asia. Here, we provide an overview of the current distribution of M. sculpturalis in France and we describe its expansion history.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 2
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Many species are shifting their ranges in response to the changing climate. In cases where such shifts lead to the colonization of a new ecosystem, it is critical to establish how the shifting species itself is impacted by novel environmental and biological interactions. Anthropogenic habitats that are analogous to the historic habitat of a shifting species may play a crucial role in the ability of that species to expand or persist in suboptimal colonized ecosystems. We tested if the anthropogenic habitat of docks, a likely mangrove analog, provides improved conditions for the range-shifting mangrove tree crab Aratus pisonii within the colonized suboptimal salt marsh ecosystem. To test if docks provided an improved habitat, we compared the impact of the salt marsh and dock habitats on ecological and life history traits that influence the ability of this species to persist and expand into the salt marsh and compared these back to baselines in the historic mangrove ecosystem. Specifically, we examined behavior, physiology, foraging, and the thermal conditions of A. pisonii in each habitat. We found that docks provide a more favorable thermal and foraging habitat than the surrounding salt marsh, while their ability to provide conditions which improved behavior and physiology was mixed. Our study shows that anthropogenic habitats can act as analogs to historic ecosystems and enhance the habitat quality for range-shifting species in colonized suboptimal ecosystems. If the patterns that we document are general across systems, then anthropogenic habitats may play an important facilitative role in the range shifts of species with continued climate change. Many species are shifting their ranges in response to the changing climate, and in cases where such shifts lead to the colonization of a new ecosystem, it is critical to establish how the shifting species itself is impacted by novel environmental and biological interactions. We tested if the anthropogenic analogous habitat of docks provides improved conditions for the range-shifting mangrove tree crab Aratus pisonii within the suboptimal colonized salt marsh ecosystem. We found that docks provide a more favorable thermal and foraging habitat than the surrounding salt marsh, while their ability to provide improved behavioral and physiological conditions was mixed.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data, available through 2014, were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data, available through 2015, were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2018, 1,735,350 new cancer cases and 609,640 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. Over the past decade of data, the cancer incidence rate (2005-2014) was stable in women and declined by approximately 2% annually in men, while the cancer death rate (2006-2015) declined by about 1.5% annually in both men and women. The combined cancer death rate dropped continuously from 1991 to 2015 by a total of 26%, translating to approximately 2,378,600 fewer cancer deaths than would have been expected if death rates had remained at their peak. Of the 10 leading causes of death, only cancer declined from 2014 to 2015. In 2015, the cancer death rate was 14% higher in non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) overall (death rate ratio [DRR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.13-1.15), but the racial disparity was much larger for individuals aged 〈65 years (DRR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.29-1.32) compared with those aged ≥65 years (DRR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.09) and varied substantially by state. For example, the cancer death rate was lower in NHBs than NHWs in Massachusetts for all ages and in New York for individuals aged ≥65 years, whereas for those aged 〈65 years, it was 3 times higher in NHBs in the District of Columbia (DRR, 2.89; 95% CI, 2.16-3.91) and about 50% higher in Wisconsin (DRR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.56-2.02), Kansas (DRR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.25-1.81), Louisiana (DRR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.38-1.60), Illinois (DRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.39-1.57), and California (DRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.38-1.54). Larger racial inequalities in young and middle-aged adults probably partly reflect less access to high-quality health care. CA Cancer J Clin 2018 . © 2018 American Cancer Society .
    Print ISSN: 0007-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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  • 4
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Expansion of oil palm agriculture is currently one of the main drivers of habitat modification in Southeast Asia. Habitat modification can have significant effects on biodiversity, ecosystem function, and interactions between species by altering species abundances or the available resources in an ecosystem. Increasing complexity within modified habitats has the potential to maintain biodiversity and preserve species interactions. We investigated trophic interactions between Argyrodes miniaceus, a cleptoparasitic spider, and its Nephila spp . spider hosts in mature oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia. A. miniaceus co-occupy the webs of Nephila spp . females and survive by stealing prey items caught in the web. We examined the effects of experimentally manipulated understory vegetation complexity on the density and abundance of A. miniaceus in Nephila spp . webs. Experimental understory treatments included enhanced complexity, standard complexity, and reduced complexity understory vegetation, which had been established as part of the ongoing Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function in Tropical Agriculture (BEFTA) Project. A. miniaceus density ranged from 14.4 to 31.4 spiders per square meter of web, with significantly lower densities found in reduced vegetation complexity treatments compared with both enhanced and standard treatment plots. A. miniaceus abundance per plot was also significantly lower in reduced complexity than in standard and enhanced complexity plots. Synthesis and applications : Maintenance of understory vegetation complexity contributes to the preservation of spider host–cleptoparasite relationships in oil palm plantations. Understory structural complexity in these simplified agroecosystems therefore helps to support abundant spider populations, a functionally important taxon in agricultural landscapes. In addition, management for more structurally complex agricultural habitats can support more complex trophic interactions in tropical agroecosystems. We examined the effects of experimentally manipulated understory vegetation complexity in oil palm plantations on the density and abundance of the cleptoparasitic spider Argyrodes miniaceus in the webs of Nephila spp. spider hosts. A. miniaceus density per web and abundance per plot were significantly lower in reduced vegetation complexity treatments compared with both enhanced and standard treatment plots. Our results suggest that understory structural complexity in simplified tropical agricultural landscapes can help to support abundant spider populations, a functionally important taxon in agricultural landscapes, and can support more complex trophic interactions in tropical agroecosystems.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 5
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: The early stages of intraspecific diversity are important for the evolution of diversification and speciation. Early stages of diversification can be seen in individual specialization, where individuals consume only a portion of the diet of the population as a whole, and how such specialization is related to phenotypic diversity within populations. Here, we study the strength of the relationship between morphological and dietary distances among individuals in eighteen populations of Icelandic small benthic charr. We furthermore studied if the strength of the relationship could be related to variation in local ecological factors these populations inhabit. In all the populations studied, there was a clear relationship between morphological and dietary distances, indicating that fish that had similar morphology were at the same time-consuming similar food items. Our findings show a systematic variation in the relationship between morphology and diet at early stages of diversification in a highly specialized small benthic charr morph. The results show the importance of fine scale comparisons within populations and furthermore the value that systematic comparisons among populations under parallel evolution can contribute toward our increased understanding of evolutionary and ecological processes. We compared the morphology and diet relationships within a number of populations of small benthic charr and related those with ecological variables. In all populations, there were clear relationships between morphology and diet, but not clear relationships with ecological factors. The results show importance of fine scale comparisons within populations and furthermore the value that systematic comparisons among populations under parallel evolution can contribute toward our increased understanding of evolutionary ecology processes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Shell damage and parasitic infections are frequent in gastropods, influencing key snail host life-history traits such as survival, growth, and reproduction. However, their interactions and potential effects on hosts and parasites have never been tested. Host–parasite interactions are particularly interesting in the context of the recently discovered division of labor in trematodes infecting marine snails. Some species have colonies consisting of two different castes present at varying ratios; reproductive members and nonreproductive soldiers specialized in defending the colony. We assessed snail host survival, growth, and shell regeneration in interaction with infections by two trematode species, Philophthalmu s sp. and Maritrema novaezealandense , following damage to the shell in the New Zealand mud snail Zeacumantus subcarinatus . We concomitantly assessed caste-ratio adjustment between nonreproductive soldiers and reproductive members in colonies of the trematode Philophthalmu s sp. in response to interspecific competition and shell damage to its snail host. Shell damage, but not parasitic infection, significantly increased snail mortality, likely due to secondary infections by pathogens. However, trematode infection and shell damage did not negatively affect shell regeneration or growth in Z. subcarinatus ; infected snails actually produced more new shell than their uninfected counterparts. Both interspecific competition and shell damage to the snail host induced caste-ratio adjustment in Philophthalmu s sp. colonies. The proportion of nonreproductive soldiers increased in response to interspecific competition and host shell damage, likely to defend the parasite colony and potentially the snail host against increasing threats. These results indicate that secondary infections by pathogens following shell damage to snails both significantly increased snail mortality and induced caste-ratio adjustments in parasites. This is the first evidence that parasites with a division of labor may be able to produce nonreproductive soldiers according to environmental factors other than interspecific competition with other parasites. We assessed snail host survival, growth, and shell regeneration in interaction with infections by two trematode species following damage to the shell. We concomitantly assessed caste-ratio adjustment between nonreproductive soldiers and reproductive members in colonies of the trematode Philophthalmus sp. in response to interspecific competition and shell damage to its snail host. Shell damage, but not parasitic infection, significantly increased snail mortality, likely due to secondary infections by pathogens. The proportion of nonreproductive soldiers increased in response to interspecific competition and host shell damage. This is the first evidence that parasites with a division of labor may be able to produce nonreproductive soldiers according to environmental factors other than interspecific competition with other parasites.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Double infections of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma are frequent in natural populations of Tetranychus truncatus , a polyphagous mite species that has been a dominant species in China since 2009. However, little is known about the causes and ecological importance of such coexistences. In this study, we established T. truncatus strains with different infection types and then inferred the impact of the two endosymbionts on host reproduction and fitness. Double infection induced cytoplasmic incompatibility, which was demonstrated by reduction in egg hatchability of incompatible crosses. However, doubly infected females produced more eggs relative to other strains. Wolbachia and Spiroplasma did not affect host survival, whereas doubly infected females and males developed faster than other strains. Such reproduction and fitness benefits provided by double infections may be associated with the lower densities of each symbiont, and the quantitative results also confirmed competition between Wolbachia and Spiroplasma in doubly infected females. These symbiont-conferred beneficial effects maintain stable prevalence of the symbionts and also help drive T. truncatus outbreaks in combination with other environmental factors. The symbiont-conferred beneficial effects on spider mite Tetranychus truncatus maintain stable prevalence of the symbionts and also help drive spider mite outbreaks in combination with other environmental factors.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: The Horn of Africa forms one of the two main historical entry points of domestics into the continent and Ethiopia is particularly important in this regard. Through the analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) d -loop region in 309 individuals from 13 populations, we reveal the maternal genetic variation and demographic dynamics of Ethiopian indigenous goats. A total of 174 variable sites that generated 231 haplotypes were observed. They defined two haplogroups that were present in all the 13 study populations. Reference haplotypes from the six globally defined goat mtDNA haplogroups show the two haplogroups present in Ethiopia to be A and G, the former being the most predominant. Although both haplogroups are characterized by an increase in effective population sizes ( N e ) predating domestication, they also have experienced a decline in N e at different time periods, suggesting different demographic histories. We observed seven haplotypes, six were directly linked to the central haplotypes of the two haplogroups and one was central to haplogroup G. The seven haplotypes were common between Ethiopia, Kenya, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia populations, suggesting common maternal history and the introduction of goats into East Africa via Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula, respectively. While providing new mtDNA data from a historically important region, our results suggest extensive intermixing of goats mediated by human socio-cultural and economic interactions. These have led to the coexistence of the two haplogroups in different geographic regions in Ethiopia resulting in a large caprine genetic diversity that can be exploited for genetic improvement. The complete control region analysis of mtDNA of Ethiopian goats uncovers the maternal genetic variation and historical demographic profiles. In the result, we observed high genetic diversity but no clear phylogeographic structure. This suggests extensive past and present gene flow amongst indigenous goats mediated by human socio-cultural and economic interactions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: Understanding what factors drive patterns of genetic diversity is a central aspect of many biological questions, ranging from the inference of historical demography to assessing the evolutionary potential of a species. However, as a larger number of datasets have become available, it is becoming clear that the relationship between the characteristics of a species and its genetic diversity is more complex than previously assumed. This may be particularly true for cetaceans, due to their relatively long lifespans, long generation times, complex social structures, and extensive ranges. In this study, we used microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA data from a systematic literature review to produce estimates of diversity for both markers across 42 cetacean species. Factors relating to demography, distribution, classification, biology, and behavior were then tested using phylogenetic methods and linear models to assess their relative influence on the genetic diversity of both marker types. The results show that while relative nuclear diversity is correlated with population size, mitochondrial diversity is not. This is particularly relevant given the widespread use of mitochondrial DNA to infer historical demography. Instead, mitochondrial diversity was mostly influenced by the range and social structure of the species. In addition to population size, habitat type (neritic vs. oceanic) had a significant correlation with relative nuclear diversity. Combined, these results show that many often-unconsidered factors are likely influencing patterns of genetic diversity in cetaceans, with implications regarding how to interpret, and what can be inferred from, existing patterns of diversity. We compiled data from 42 cetacean species to identify what characteristics have the strongest influence on mitochondrial and microsatellite diversity. We found that while nuclear diversity is correlated with population size, mitochondrial diversity is not. Mitochondrial diversity was mostly influenced by the range and social structure of the species, while population size and habitat type (neritic vs. oceanic) had a significant correlation with nuclear diversity. Combined, these results show that many often-unconsidered factors are driving patterns of genetic diversity in cetaceans, with implications regarding how to interpret, and what can be inferred from, existing patterns of diversity.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: In group-living species, individuals often have preferred affiliative social partners, with whom ties or bonds can confer advantages that correspond with greater fitness. For example, in adult female baboons and juvenile horses, individuals with stronger or more social ties experience greater survival. We used detailed behavioral and life history records to explore the relationship between tie quality and survival in a gregarious monkey ( Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni ), while controlling for dominance rank, group size, and life history strategy. We used Cox proportional hazards regressions to model the cumulative (multi-year) and current (single-year) relationships of social ties and the hazard of mortality in 83 wild adult females of known age, observed 2–8 years each (437 subject-years) in eight social groups. The strength of bonds with close partners was associated with increased mortality risk under certain conditions: Females that had strong bonds with close partners that were inconsistent over multiple years had a higher risk of mortality than females adopting any other social strategy. Within a given year, females had a higher risk of death if they were strongly bonded with partners that changed from the previous year versus with partners that remained consistent. Dominance rank, number of adult female groupmates, and age at first reproduction did not predict the risk of death. This study demonstrates that costs and benefits of strong social bonds can be context-dependent, relating to the consistency of social partners over time. We categorized adult female blue monkeys according to the strength and consistency over time of their closest social ties. Females that had strong but inconsistent ties had a higher risk of death than females in all other categories. Social dominance rank, group size, and life history strategies did not influence mortality.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 11
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Underground community assemblies have not been studied well compared with aboveground communities, despite their importance for our understanding of whole ecosystems. To investigate underground community assembly over evolutionary timescales, we examined terrestrial earthworm communities (Oligochaeta: Haplotaxida) in conserved mountainous primary forests in Japan as a model system. We collected 553 earthworms mostly from two dominant families, the Megascolecidae and the Lumbricidae, from 12 sites. We constructed a molecular taxonomic unit tree based on the analysis of three genes to examine the effects of a biogeographic factor (dispersal ability) and an evolutionary factor (habitat adaptation) on the earthworm community assembly process. The phylogenetic distance of the earthworm communities among sites was positively correlated with geographic distance when intraspecific variation was included, indicating that the divergence within species was affected by biogeographic factors. The community assembly process in the Megascolecidae has also been affected by environmental conditions in relation to an evolutionary relationship between habitat environment and intestinal cecum type, a trait closely related to habitat depth and diet, whereas that in the Lumbricidae has not been affected as such. Intestinal cecum type showed a pattern of niche conservatism in the Megascolecidae lineage. Our results suggest that investigating the evolution of a key trait related to life history can lead to the clear description of community assembly process over a long timescale and that the community assembly process can differ greatly among related lineages even though they live sympatrically. To investigate underground community assembly over evolutionary time scales, we examined terrestrial earthworm communities (Oligochaeta: Haplotaxida) in conserved mountainous primary forests in Japan. Our study shows that the community assembly process in the Megascolecidae, which is one of the two dominant families in Japan, has been affected by environmental factors in relation to an evolutionary relationship between habitat environment and intestinal cecum type, a trait closely related to habitat depth and diet, whereas that in the Lumbricidae has not been affected as such. Our results suggest that investigating the evolution of a key trait related to life history can lead to the clear description of community assembly process and that the community assembly process can differ greatly among related lineages even though they live sympatrically.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 12
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Non-native species may be introduced either intentionally or unintentionally, and their impact can range from benign to highly disruptive. Non-native salmonids were introduced into Lake Ontario, Canada, to provide recreational fishing opportunities; however, the establishment of those species has been proposed as a significant barrier to the reintroduction of native Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) due to intense interspecific competition. In this study, we compared population differences of Atlantic salmon in transcriptome response to interspecific competition. We reared Atlantic salmon from two populations (LaHave River and Sebago Lake) with fish of each of three non-native salmonids (Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha , rainbow trout O. mykiss, and brown trout S. trutta ) in artificial streams. We used RNA-seq to assess transcriptome differences between the Atlantic salmon populations and the responses of these populations to the interspecific competition treatments after 10 months of competition in the stream tanks. We found that population differences in gene expression were generally greater than the effects of interspecific competition. Interestingly, we found that the two Atlantic salmon populations exhibited similar responses to interspecific competition based on functional gene ontologies, but the specific genes within those ontologies were different. Our transcriptome analyses suggest that the most stressful competitor (as measured by the highest number of differentially expressed genes) differs between the two study populations. Our transcriptome characterization highlights the importance of source population selection for conservation applications, as organisms with different evolutionary histories can possess different transcriptional responses to the same biotic stressors. The results also indicate that generalized predictions of the response of native species to interactions with introduced species may not be appropriate without incorporating potential population-specific response to introduced species. We reared Atlantic salmon from two populations (LaHave River and Sebago Lake) with fish of each of three non-native salmonids (Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, rainbow trout O. mykiss , and brown trout S. trutta ) in artificial streams. We found that the two Atlantic salmon populations exhibited similar responses to interspecific competition based on functional gene ontologies, but the specific genes within those ontologies were different. Our transcriptome characterization highlights the importance of source population selection for conservation applications, as organisms with different evolutionary histories can possess different transcriptional responses to the same biotic stressors.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 13
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 14
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Food resources are often not sufficient to satisfy the nutritional and energetic requirements during winter conditions at high latitudes. Dietary analysis is a prerequisite to fully understanding the feeding ecology of a species and the nature of trophic interactions. Previous dietary studies of Asian Great Bustard ( Otis tarda dybowskii ) relied on behavioral observations, resulting in categorization of diet limited to broad taxonomic groupings. Here, we applied a high-throughput sequencing meta-barcoding approach to quantify the diet of resident and migratory Asian Great Bustard in three wintering sites during early winter and late winter. We detected 57 unique plant taxa in the bustard diet, among which 15 species were confirmed by a local plant database we generated. Both agricultural and natural foods were detected, indicating a relatively broad dietary niche. Spatiotemporal dietary changes were discovered, revealing diet differences among wintering sites and a general shift toward lower plant diversity later in winter. For the nonmigratory population, we detected a significantly more diverse array of plant species in their diet. We hypothesize that dietary variation between resident and migratory populations could be involved in the recent transition to partial migration in this species, although climate change can not be excluded. Collectively, these results support protecting unharvested grain fields and naturally unplowed lands to help conserve and promote population growth of Asian Great Bustard. Previous studies on the diet of Asian Great Bustard ( Otis tarda dybowskii ) relied only on behavioral observation, resulting in superficial knowledge of diet limited to broad taxonomic. We applied the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approach to the analysis of the plant component of resident and migratory Asian Great Bustard diet in three wintering sites during early winter and late winter. Spatiotemporal dietary changes were discovered, revealing an interactive effect of wintering site and wintering time on diets of Asian Great Bustards.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 15
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Plant species affect soil bacterial diversity and compositions. However, little is known about the role of dominant plant species in shaping the soil bacterial community during the restoration of sandy grasslands in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China. We established a mesocosm pots experiment to investigate short-term responses of soil bacterial diversity and composition, and the related soil properties in degraded soils without vegetation (bare sand as the control, CK) to restoration with five plant species that dominate across restoration stages: Agriophyllum squarrosum (AS), Artemisia halodendron (AH), Setaria viridis (SV), Chenopodium acuminatum (CA), and Corispermum macrocarpum (CM). We used redundancy analysis (RDA) to analyze the association between soil bacterial composition and soil properties in different plant species. Our results indicated that soil bacterial diversity was significantly lower in vegetated soils independent of plant species than in the CK. Specifically, soil bacterial species richness and diversity were lower under the shrub AH and the herbaceous plants AS, SV, and CA, and soil bacterial abundance was lower under AH compared with the CK. A field investigation confirmed the same trends where soil bacteria diversity was lower under AS and AH than in bare sand. The high-sequence annotation analysis showed that Proteobacteria , Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the most common phyla in sandy land irrespective of soil plant cover. The OTUs (operational taxonomic units) indicated that some bacterial species were specific to the host plants. Relative to bare sand (CK), soils with vegetative cover exhibited lower soil water content and temperature, and higher soil carbon and nitrogen contents. The RDA result indicated that, in addition to plant species, soil water and nitrogen contents were the most important factors shaping soil bacterial composition in semiarid sandy land. Our study from the pot and field investigations clearly demonstrated that planting dominant species in bare sand impacts bacterial diversity. In semiarid ecosystems, changes in the dominant plant species during vegetation restoration efforts can affect the soil bacterial diversity and composition through the direct effects of plants and the indirect effects of soil properties that are driven by plant species. In addition to plant species, soil water and nitrogen contents were the most important factors shaping soil bacterial composition in semiarid sandy land. Our study from the pot and field investigations clearly demonstrated that planting dominant species in bare sand impacts bacterial diversity. In semiarid ecosystems, changes in the dominant plant species during vegetation restoration efforts can affect the soil bacterial diversity and composition through the direct effects of plants and the indirect effects of soil properties that are driven by plant species.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 16
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Despite the advantage of plant clonality in patchy environments, studies focusing on genet demography in relation to spatially heterogeneous environments remain scarce. Regeneration of bamboos in forest understoreys after synchronous die-off provides an opportunity for assessing how they come to proliferate across heterogeneous light environments. In a Japanese forest, we examined genet demography of a population of Sasa kurilensis over a 7-year period starting 10 years after die-off, shortly after which some genets began spreading horizontally by rhizomes. The aboveground biomass was estimated, and genets were discriminated in 9-m 2 plots placed under both canopy gaps and closed canopies. Overall, the results suggest that the survival and spread of more productive genets and the spatial expansion of genets into closed canopies underlie the proliferation of S. kurilensis . Compared to canopy gaps, the recovery rate of biomass was much slower under closed canopies for the first 10 years after the die-off, but became accelerated during the next 7 years. Genet survival was greater for more productive genets (with greater initial number of culms), and the spaces occupied by genets that died were often colonized afterward by clonal growth of surviving genets. The number of genets decreased under canopy gaps due to greater mortality, but increased under closed canopies where greater number of genets colonized clonally from outside the plots than genets died. The colonizing genets were more productive (having larger culms) than those originally germinated within the plots, and the contribution of colonizing genets to the biomass was greater under closed canopies. Our study emphasizes the importance of investigating genet dynamics over relevant spatiotemporal scales to reveal processes underlying the success of clonal plants in heterogeneous habitats. Despite the advantage of plant clonality in patchy environments, studies focusing on genet demography in relation to spatially heterogeneous environments remain scarce. Regeneration of bamboos in forest understoreys after synchronous die-off provides an opportunity for assessing how they come to proliferate across heterogeneous light environments. We studied the long-term genet demography of a dwarf bamboo, Sasa kurilensis , after synchronous flowering and die-off, and found that the survival and spread of more productive genets and the clonal expansion of genets into closed canopies likely underlie the proliferation of S. kurilensis .
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 17
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Inherited CTPS1, CD27, and CD70 deficiencies in humans have revealed key factors of T-lymphocyte expansion, a critical prerequisite for an efficient immunity to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. RASGRP1 is a T-lymphocyte-specific nucleotide exchange factor known to activate the pathway of MAP kinases (MAPK). A deleterious homozygous mutation in RASGRP1 leading to the loss RASGRP1 expression was identified in two siblings who both developed a persistent EBV infection leading to Hodgkin lymphoma. RASGRP1-deficient T cells exhibited defective MAPK activation and impaired proliferation that was restored by expression of wild-type RASGRP1. Similar defects were observed in T cells from healthy individuals when RASGRP1 was downregulated. RASGRP1-deficient T cells also exhibited decreased CD27-dependent proliferation toward CD70-expressing EBV-transformed B cells, a crucial pathway required for expansion of antigen-specific T cells during anti-EBV immunity. Furthermore, RASGRP1-deficient T cells failed to upregulate CTPS1, an important enzyme involved in DNA synthesis. These results show that RASGRP1 deficiency leads to susceptibility to EBV infection and demonstrate the key role of RASGRP1 at the crossroad of pathways required for the expansion of activated T lymphocytes. RASGRP1 deficiency is characterized by a high susceptibility to develop Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders such as B-cell lymphoma like Hodgkin lymphoma. This is caused by defective expansion of activated T cells required for an efficient immune response to EBV.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) as senile plaques is one of the pathological hallmarks in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In addition, glial activation has been found in AD brains, although the precise pathological role of astrocytes remains unclear. Here, we identified kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) as an astrocyte-derived Aβ degrading enzyme. Expression of KLK7 mRNA was significantly decreased in the brains of AD patients. Ablation of Klk7 exacerbated the thioflavin S-positive Aβ pathology in AD model mice. The expression of Klk7 was upregulated by Aβ treatment in the primary astrocyte, suggesting that Klk7 is homeostatically modulated by Aβ-induced responses. Finally, we found that the Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-dementia drug memantine can increase the expression of Klk7 and Aβ degradation activity specifically in the astrocytes. These data suggest that KLK7 is an important enzyme in the degradation and clearance of deposited Aβ species by astrocytes involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Decreased clearance of Aβ from the brain is related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) is an astrocyte-derived Aβ degrading enzyme that affects the amyloid pathology. Thus, astrocytes could be an effective cellular target for AD.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
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  • 19
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: The adjoint method is used to calibrate the medium complexity climate model “Planet Simulator” through parameter estimation. Identical twin experiments demonstrate that this method can retrieve default values of the control parameters when using a long assimilation window of the order of 2 months. Chaos synchronization through nudging, required to overcome limits in the temporal assimilation window in the adjoint method, is employed successfully to reach this assimilation window length. When assimilating ERA-Interim reanalysis data, the observations of air temperature and the radiative fluxes are the most important data for adjusting the control parameters. The global mean net longwave fluxes at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere are significantly improved by tuning two model parameters controlling the absorption of clouds and water vapor. The global mean net shortwave radiation at the surface is improved by optimizing three model parameters controlling cloud optical properties. The optimized parameters improve the free model (without nudging terms) simulation in a way similar to that in the assimilation experiments. Results suggest a promising way for tuning uncertain parameters in non-linear coupled climate models.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 20
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is a component of compact myelin in the peripheral nervous system. The amount of PMP22 in myelin is tightly regulated, and PMP22 over or under-expression cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) and Hereditary Neuropathy with Pressure Palsies (HNPP). Despite the importance of PMP22 , its function remains largely unknown. It was reported that PMP22 interacts with the β4 subunit of the laminin receptor α6β4 integrin, suggesting that α6β4 integrin and laminins may contribute to the pathogenesis of CMT1A or HNPP. Here we asked if the lack of α6β4 integrin in Schwann cells influences myelin stability in the HNPP mouse model. Our data indicate that PMP22 and β4 integrin may not interact directly in myelinating Schwann cells, however, ablating β4 integrin delays the formation of tomacula, a characteristic feature of HNPP. In contrast, ablation of integrin β4 worsens nerve conduction velocities and non-compact myelin organization in HNPP animals. This study demonstrates that indirect interactions between an extracellular matrix receptor and a myelin protein influence the stability and function of myelinated fibers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
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  • 21
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Parkinson's disease (PD) is marked clinically by motor dysfunction and pathologically by dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra (SN) and iron accumulation in the substantia nigra. The driver underlying iron accumulation is unknown and could be genetic or environmental. The HFE protein is critical for the regulation of cellular iron uptake. Mutations within this protein are associated with increased iron accumulation including in the brain. We have focused on the commonly occurring H63D variant of the HFE gene as a disease modifier in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. To investigate the role of H63D HFE genotype, we generated a mouse model in which the wild-type (WT) HFE gene is replaced by the H67D gene variant (mouse homolog of the human H63D gene variant). Using paraquat toxicity as the model for Parkinson's disease, we found that WT mice responded as expected with significantly greater motor function, loss of tyrosine hydroxylase staining and increase microglial staining in the substantia nigra, and an increase in R 2 relaxation rate within the substantia nigra of the paraquat-treated mice compared to their saline-treated counterparts. In contrast, the H67D mice showed a remarkable resistance to paraquat treatment; specifically differing from the WT mice with no changes in motor function or changes in R 2 relaxation rates following paraquat exposure. At baseline, there were differences between the H67D HFE mice and WT mice in gut microbiome profile and increased L-ferritin staining in the substantia nigra that could account for the resistance to paraquat. Of particular note, the H67D HFE mice regardless of whether or not they were treated with paraquat had significantly less tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining than WT. Our results clearly demonstrate that the HFE genotype impacts the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra, the gut microbiome and the response to paraquat providing additional support that the HFE genotype is a disease modifier for PD. Moreover, the finding that the HFE mutant mice are resistant to paraquat may provide a model in which to study resistant mechanisms to neurotoxicants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
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  • 22
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Loss of function mutations of DJ-1 ( PARK7 ) have been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Antioxidative stress is one of the multi-protective functions of DJ-1, and oxidation of cysteine 106 (Cys106) has been proposed to regulate the protective activity of DJ-1. Uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4) is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria and functions to protect against oxidative stress. In this study, we used neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells and DJ-1 knockout (KO) mice to elucidate whether DJ-1 regulated oxidative stress via modulating the expression of UCP4, and the underlying mechanism. The downstream products of oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cell viability were also investigated. We found that UCP4 was up regulated upon 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + ) stimulation in SH-SY5Y cells, which was enhanced by wild type DJ-1 and alleviated by DJ-1 knockdown. Expression of UCP4 in DJ-1 KO mice was lower compared with wild type mice. In addition, up-regulation of UCP4 was alleviated by inhibition of oxidized DJ-1, and enhanced by increase of oxidized DJ-1 under conditions of oxidative stress using western blot analysis. Moreover, overexpression of UCP4 in DJ-1 knockdown cells partially reversed the decrease of cell viability, ΔΨm, as well as the increase of products of oxidative stress upon MPP + stimulation. Further analysis showed that DJ-1 regulated transcriptional activity of UCP4 partially via Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in the presence of MPP + . Together, our results suggested DJ-1 might regulate the expression of UCP4 by oxidation of DJ-1 and partially via NF-κB pathway in its protective response to oxidative stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
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  • 23
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Delayed cell death in the penumbra region of acute ischemic stroke occurs through apoptotic mechanisms, making it amenable to therapeutic interventions. Fas/CD95 mediates apoptotic cell death in response to external stimuli. In mature neurons, Fas/CD95 signaling is modulated by Fas-apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (Faim2), which reduces cell death in animal models of stroke, meningitis, and Parkinson disease. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been studied as a therapeutic strategy in ischemic stroke. Erythropoietin stimulates the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, which regulates Faim2 expression. Therefore, upregulation of Faim2 may contribute to neuroprotection by EPO. Male Faim2 deficient mice (Faim2 -/- ) and wild type littermates (WT) were subjected to 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 72 h of reperfusion. EPO was applied before (30 min) and after (24 and 48 h) MCAo. In WT mice application of EPO at a low dose (5,000 U/kg) significantly reduced stroke volume whereas treatment with high dose (90,000 U/kg) did not. In Faim2 -/- animals administration of low dose EPO did not result in a significant reduction of stroke volume. Faim2 expression as measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) increased after low dose EPO but not with high dose. An extensive phenotyping including analysis of cerebral vessel architecture did not reveal confounding differences between the genotypes. In human post mortem brain Faim2 displayed a differential expression in areas of penumbral ischemia. Faim2 upregulation may contribute to the neuroprotective effects of low dose erythropoietin in transient brain ischemia. The dose-dependency may explain mixed effects of erythropoietin observed in clinical stroke trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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  • 24
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: With increasing attention being paid to the consequences of global biodiversity losses, several recent studies have demonstrated that realistic species losses can have larger impacts than random species losses on community productivity and resilience. However, little is known about the effects of the order in which species are lost on biodiversity–disease relationships. Using a multiyear nitrogen addition and artificial warming experiment in natural assemblages of alpine meadow vegetation on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, we inferred the sequence of plant species losses under fertilization/warming. Then the sequence of species losses under fertilization/warming was used to simulate the species loss orders (both realistic and random) in an adjacently novel removal experiment manipulating plot-level plant diversity. We explicitly compared the effect sizes of random versus realistic species losses simulated from fertilization/warming on plant foliar fungal diseases. We found that realistic species losses simulated from fertilization had greater effects than random losses on fungal diseases, and that species identity drove the diversity–disease relationship. Moreover, the plant species most prone to foliar fungal diseases were also the least vulnerable to extinction under fertilization, demonstrating the importance of protecting low competence species (the ability to maintain and transmit fungal infections was low) to impede the spread of infectious disease. In contrast, there was no difference between random and realistic species loss scenarios simulated from experimental warming (or the combination of warming and fertilization) on the diversity–disease relationship, indicating that the functional consequences of species losses may vary under different drivers. Most manipulative biodiversity–ecosystem function (BEF) experiments use randomly constructed species assemblages. We took a novel approach to explicitly compare dilution effects on foliar fungal infections for random versus realistic species losses simulated from nitrogen addition and warming treatments. We found that realistic species losses under fertilization had greater effects than random losses on fungal diseases.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 25
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Understanding local adaptation of tree populations to climate allows the development of assisted migration guidelines as a tool for forest managers to address climate change. Here, we study the relationship among climate, a wide range of physiological traits, and field performance of selected white spruce provenances originating from throughout the species range. Tree height, survival, cold hardiness, hydraulic, and wood anatomical traits were measured in a 32-year-old common garden trial, located in the center of the species range. Provenance performance included all combinations of high versus low survival and growth, with the most prevalent population differentiation for adaptive traits observed in cold hardiness. Cold hardiness showed a strong association with survival and was associated with cold winter temperatures at the site of seed origin. Tree height was mostly explained by the length of the growing season at the origin of the seed source. Although population differentiation was generally weak in wood anatomical and hydraulic traits, within-population variation was substantial in some traits, and a boundary analysis revealed that efficient water transport was associated with vulnerable xylem and low wood density, indicating that an optimal combination of high water transport efficiency and high cavitation resistance is not possible. Our results suggest that assisted migration prescriptions may be advantageous under warming climate, but pronounced trade-offs between survival and cold hardiness require a careful consideration of the distances of these transfers. In this study, we study relationships between climate, a wide range of physiological traits, and field performance of selected white spruce provenances in a common garden. We observed a strong influence of fall hardiness in tree mortality while tree growth was mostly explained by growing season length. These results will help develop assisted migration prescriptions to mitigate the climate change impact in our forests.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 26
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Rare species can play important functional roles, but human-induced changes to disturbance regimes, such as fire, can inadvertently affect these species. We examined the influence of prescribed burns on the recruitment and diversity of plant species within a temperate forest in southeastern Australia, with a focus on species that were rare prior to burning. Floristic composition was compared among plots in landscapes before and after treatment with prescribed burns differing in the extent of area burnt and season of burn (before–after, control-impact design). Floristic surveys were conducted before burns, at the end of a decade of drought, and 3 years postburn. We quantified the effect of prescribed burns on species grouped by their frequency within the landscape before burning (common, less common, and rare) and their life-form attributes (woody perennials, perennial herbs or geophytes, and annual herbs). Burn treatment influenced the response of rare species. In spring-burn plots, the recruitment of rare annual herbs was promoted, differentiating this treatment from both autumn-burn and unburnt plots. In autumn-burn plots, richness of rare species increased across all life-form groups, although composition remained statistically similar to control plots. Richness of rare woody perennials increased in control plots. For all other life-form and frequency groups, the floristic composition of landscapes changed between survey years, but there was no effect of burn treatment, suggesting a likely effect of rainfall on species recruitment. A prescribed burn can increase the occurrence of rare species in a landscape, but burn characteristics can affect the promotion of different life-form groups and thus affect functional diversity. Drought-breaking rain likely had an overarching effect on floristic composition during our study, highlighting that weather can play a greater role in influencing recruitment and diversity in plant communities than a prescribed burn. Prescribed burning can inadvertently affect plant rarity. We examined the influence of prescribed fire on plants in a temperate forest and found that prescribed burns can positively influence the presence of rare species. Burn characteristics, such as season and extent, can influence the type of life-form promoted, for example, extensive spring burns favoring rare annual herbs. Managing disturbance to promote heterogeneous landscapes may help maintain rare species diversity on a landscape scale.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 27
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Prions that cause chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids can remain infective for years outside the host. Infectious cervids shed prions for a long time, consequently depositing prions in frequently used areas. These environmental prions are important in CWD epidemiology. Unfortunately, effective tools for quantifying CWD prions in soil, water, and other environmental sources are not currently available. Our goal was to investigate relative differences in visits by mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus hemionus ) to various environmental site types as an indicator of the relative risk of prion contamination and disease transmission. For this, we deployed a system of triggered-by-movement cameras at eight site types in a CWD-endemic area in Saskatchewan, Canada. We first assessed whether the relative differences among site types in the frequency of visits by mule deer of any sex-and-age class, males, and females varied by season and site type. We then assessed whether the rate of behaviors with a high risk of environmental prion transmission (either contamination or acquisition) differed by season and site type. Finally, we assessed whether the intensity of visitation, based on the number of animals per picture, differed by season and site type. We found that grain sources and beds were key attractants for mule deer: (1) The greatest number of pictures with mule deer per camera-day occurred at grain sources across all seasons, except in fawning, when beds were the most visited sites; (2) during pre-rut and early gestation, mule deer visited grain sources at least twice as often as most other sites; (3) females were more likely to visit beds and grain sources, but there was no significant site preferences for males after accounting for season; (4) mule deer were most likely to be pictured contacting the environment at grain sources in early gestation; and (5) beds and grain sources were the most intensively visited sites. We also found that environmental contacts at waterholes were more frequent during spring. We discuss the potential importance of various sites in the transmission of CWD and how their modification could potentially reduce the risk of prion environmental exposure among mule deer.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Proteostasis imbalance is emerging as a major hallmark of cancer, driving tumor aggressiveness. Evidence suggests that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a major site for protein folding and quality control, plays a critical role in cancer development. This concept is valid in glioblastoma multiform (GBM), the most lethal primary brain cancer with no effective treatment. We previously demonstrated that the ER stress sensor IRE1α (referred to as IRE1) contributes to GBM progression, through XBP1 mRNA splicing and regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD) of RNA. Here, we first demonstrated IRE1 signaling significance to human GBM and defined specific IRE1-dependent gene expression signatures that were confronted to human GBM transcriptomes. This approach allowed us to demonstrate the antagonistic roles of XBP1 mRNA splicing and RIDD on tumor outcomes, mainly through selective remodeling of the tumor stroma. This study provides the first demonstration of a dual role of IRE1 downstream signaling in cancer and opens a new therapeutic window to abrogate tumor progression. The IRE1 arm of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) plays a major role in cancer development. Dissecting IRE1 signals in human glioblastoma tumors, primary and established cell lines reveals the dual role of XBP1 mRNA splicing and RIDD in tumor aggressiveness.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
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  • 29
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has emerged as an effective tool for estimating active layer thickness (ALT) and volumetric water content (VWC) within the active layer. In August 2013, we conducted a series of GPR and probing surveys using a 500 MHz antenna and metallic probe around Barrow, Alaska. We collected about 15 km of GPR data and 1.5 km of probing data. Here, we describe the GPR data processing workflow from raw GPR data to the estimated ALT and VWC. We include the corresponding uncertainties for each measured and estimated parameter. The estimated average GPR-derived ALT was 41 cm, with a standard deviation of 9 cm. The average probed ALT was 40 cm, with a standard deviation of 12 cm. The average GPR-derived VWC was 0.65, with a standard deviation of 0.14.
    Electronic ISSN: 2049-6060
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 30
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
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  • 31
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Front cover: Sphingolipids, and particularly the versatile signalling molecule sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are potent mediators regulating vascular functions such as endothelial barrier integrity. We analyzed changes of the sphingolipid metabolism after LPS injection as a model for septic encephalopathy and brain edema and found profound alterations both systemically with a drop in serum S1P as well as at the level of the blood-brain barrier. Our findings point towards a therapeutic potential of drugs interfering with this pathway as novel approach for the detrimental overwhelming immune response in sepsis. Astrocytes (red, GFAP) in the mouse brain cortex (blue: DAPI-labelled nuclei). Read the full article ‘Alteration of sphingolipid metabolism as a putative mechanism underlying LPS-induced BBB disruption’ by R. Vutukuri, R. Brunkhorst, R.-I. Kestner, L. Hansen, N. F. Bouzas, J. Pfeilschifter, K. Devraj and W. Pfeilschifter ( J. Neurochem . 2018, vol. 144(2), pp. 172–185) on doi: 10.1111/jnc.14236 Read the Editorial Highlight ‘Endotoxemia rocks sphingolipid metabolism at the blood–brain barrier’ on doi: 10.1111/jnc.14246
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  • 32
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Key Points The DMP-1 study examined women in the United States who were counseled regarding the use of SERMs as part of their regular care. Patient perceptions regarding drug-based therapy played an important role in the choice of therapy. The findings suggest that HCPs should not only present medical information, but also communicate with patients regarding their beliefs and experiences.
    Print ISSN: 0007-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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  • 33
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Key Points The overall rates of major upper abdominal cancer resections in octogenarians have increased over time. The number of major liver and pancreatic resections for cancer in this demographic has more than doubled from 2001 to 2011. This trend may be the result of an emboldened surgical approach within the context of increasingly favorable inpatient mortality rates from elective surgeries of the pancreas and liver.
    Print ISSN: 0007-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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  • 34
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Evidence-informed health care decisions and recommendations need to be made systematically and transparently. Mediating technology can help manage boundaries between groups making decisions and target audiences, enhancing salience, credibility, and legitimacy for all. This article describes the development of the Evidence to Decision (EtD) framework and an interactive tool to create and use frameworks (iEtD) to support communication in decision making. Methods : Using a human-centered design approach, we created prototypes employing a broad range of methods to iteratively develop EtD framework content and iEtD tool functionality. Results : We developed tailored EtD frameworks for making evidence-informed decisions and recommendations about clinical practice interventions, diagnostic and screening tests, coverage, and health system and public health options. The iEtD tool provides functionality for preparing frameworks, using them in group discussions, and publishing output for implementation or adaption. EtD and iEtD are intuitive and useful for producers and users of frameworks, and flexible for use across different types of topics, decisions, and organizations. They bring valued structure to panel discussions and transparency to published output. Conclusion : EtD and iEtD can resolve some of the challenges inherent in multicriteria, multistakeholder decision systems. They are freely available online for all to use at https://ietd.epistemonikos.org/ and https://gradepro.org . The purpose of Evidence to Decision frameworks is to help groups make systematic, transparent, and adaptable health care recommendations or decisions. This article describes the development of the frameworks and digital tool, revealing key stakeholder perspectives that are relevant for anyone seeking to use the framework, the tool, or develop similar approaches for decisions in other domains.
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 35
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: No abstract is available for this article.
    Electronic ISSN: 2333-5084
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 36
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Plant species are known to adapt locally to their environment, particularly in mountainous areas where conditions can vary drastically over short distances. The climate of such landscapes being largely influenced by topography, using fine-scale models to evaluate environmental heterogeneity may help detecting adaptation to micro-habitats. Here, we applied a multiscale landscape genomic approach to detect evidence of local adaptation in the alpine plant Biscutella laevigata . The two gene pools identified, experiencing limited gene flow along a 1-km ridge, were different in regard to several habitat features derived from a very high resolution (VHR) digital elevation model (DEM). A correlative approach detected signatures of selection along environmental gradients such as altitude, wind exposure, and solar radiation, indicating adaptive pressures likely driven by fine-scale topography. Using a large panel of DEM-derived variables as ecologically relevant proxies, our results highlighted the critical role of spatial resolution. These high-resolution multiscale variables indeed indicate that the robustness of associations between genetic loci and environmental features depends on spatial parameters that are poorly documented. We argue that the scale issue is critical in landscape genomics and that multiscale ecological variables are key to improve our understanding of local adaptation in highly heterogeneous landscapes. Plant species are known to adapt locally to their environment, particularly in mountainous areas where conditions can vary drastically with topography. In this article, we applied a multiscale landscape genomic approach to study local adaptation of the alpine plant Biscutella laevigata using fine-scale digital elevation models (DEMs) as relevant ecological proxies. Our results highlight the relevance of DEM-derived variables and the critical role of spatial resolution to understand local adaptation in alpine landscapes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 37
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Properly designed (randomized and/or balanced) experiments are standard in ecological research. Molecular methods are increasingly used in ecology, but studies generally do not report the detailed design of sample processing in the laboratory. This may strongly influence the interpretability of results if the laboratory procedures do not account for the confounding effects of unexpected laboratory events. We demonstrate this with a simple experiment where unexpected differences in laboratory processing of samples would have biased results if randomization in DNA extraction and PCR steps do not provide safeguards. We emphasize the need for proper experimental design and reporting of the laboratory phase of molecular ecology research to ensure the reliability and interpretability of results. Properly designed (randomized and/or balanced) experiments are standard in ecological research, but laboratory experiments in molecular ecology do not report the detailed design of sample processing in the laboratory. Confounding effects of unexpected laboratory events may strongly influence the interpretability of results, as we demonstrate this with a simple experiment. Only proper experimental design and reporting of the laboratory phase of molecular ecology research ensure the reliability and interpretability of results.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 38
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Fire is a dominant, and well-studied, structuring force in many temperate and semi-arid communities; yet, few studies have investigated the effects of fire on multi-trophic interactions. Here, we ask how fire-induced changes in flowering affect the abundance of bumble bee foragers ( Bombus vosnesenskii ) and whether differences in floral resource availability are due to changes in plant species composition or lengthened bloom of a consistent set of species within burned and unburned grasslands. Following fire, burned and unburned sites had similar early spring bee and floral abundances. However, after the early bloom, forager activity remained high only in burned sites, where floral abundance persisted for longer. Importantly, the increased floral abundance following fire was due to a lengthening of within-species flowering phenology, as burned areas later in the season retained floral abundance and composition similar to that of unburned areas early in the season. Furthermore, density of flower patches chosen by bumble bee foragers was significantly higher at burned sites, suggesting an increase in patch quality for foragers in post-fire communities. Our results suggest positive effects of fire for bumble bee foragers and forb communities in California grassland ecosystems in the year following disturbance, namely through differences in plant phenology and floral density. We conclude that fire-induced changes in flowering phenology can alter interspecific interactions and benefit pollinators.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 39
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Transferring plant material during ecological restoration has inherent risk. The use of seed transfer guidelines minimizes the possibility of introducing maladapted genotypes. We delineated biogeographic regions relevant to the distribution of Cercocarpus montanus for the purpose of creating provisional seed transfer zones for ecological restoration. We also modeled seed transfer guidelines using quantitative estimates of environmental tolerance and thresholds. Analyses identified broadscale environmental patterns relevant for seed transfer success. First, a species distribution model was used to identify the distribution of C. montanus . Next, we used non-metric multidimensional scaling to investigate the structure of environmental data, and hierarchical cluster analysis to delineate biogeographic regions (i.e., environmental discontinuities) using species distribution data. Finally, we calculated measures of environmental tolerance and thresholds for C. montanus to model the probability of seed transfer success with multiple logistic regression. Biogeographic regionalization of C. montanus resulted in four major clusters, which agreed with ordination methods. Logistic regression was implemented using estimates of environmental tolerance and threshold data to model seed transfer success. We compared our species-specific seed transfer zones and guidelines with other provisional seed transfer zone methods and found that our species-specific methods performed better at explaining phenotypic variation of C. montanus in four out of six cases. Seed transfer zones are useful for restoration planning; however, zonal models fail to reflect much of the environmental heterogeneity present across the range of C. montanus . Continuous models for seed transfer success using environmental tolerance and thresholds enhance the development and use of seed transfer guidelines because they reflect landscape heterogeneity at a fine scale, and the results are relative to restoration sites of interest. Herein, we describe a methodology to construct provisional seed transfer zones and continuous seed transfer guidelines using species-specific distribution models and multivariate analyses.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 40
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Compositional changes in Himalayan vegetation in response to the major drivers of biodiversity loss, climate change and land-use change, are barely documented. We quantify temporal changes in the alpine vegetation of central Nepal and attribute these changes to temporally varying climatic and land-use factors. We re-surveyed the alpine vegetation of two locations within Langtang National Park, central Nepal, after 25 yr using 127 plots of 100 m 2 . Using ordination, regression, and weighted average regression and calibration techniques, we analyzed the changes in terms of species abundance, frequency, and elevational shift in relation to changing atmospheric temperature, precipitation, and livestock grazing. We found a significant increase in the frequency and relative abundance of the majority of species, which was significantly related to the temporal trends in climatic factors and grazing intensity. Out of 12 species with unimodal responses along the elevation gradient during both surveys, the optima of eight species decreased over the time period. The observed elevations of 62 out of 92 sample plots (hence, species composition) in 2014 were lower than the elevations calibrated from species composition and elevation of 1990, indicating an overall downward shift of species assemblages. However, an upward shift of assemblages was also observed at higher elevations. These results indicate that the observed temporal changes in alpine vegetation, largely contrasting the expected upslope shift of species due to climate warming, are driven most likely by interactions of contemporary climate and land-use changes, especially reduced grazing. The complex interactions and feedback mechanisms between warmer winters, increased precipitation, reduced grazing pressure, and thereby altered species interactions most likely facilitated the downslope shift of alpine species assemblages. Climatic and land-use responses of plant species assemblages should therefore be studied focusing on the potential interactions between both the climatic and the land-use factors because such interactions and feedback mechanisms have potential to mask or modify the expected climatic or land-use response of biodiversity.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 41
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Most of the global climate models (GCMs) in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) do not include precipitating ice (a.k.a. falling snow) in their radiation calculations. We examine the importance of the radiative effects of precipitating ice on simulated surface wind stress and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in terms of seasonal variation and in the evolution of Central Pacific El Nino (CP-El Nino) events. Using controlled simulations with the CESM1 model, we show that the exclusion of precipitating ice radiative effects generates a persistent excessive upper-level radiative cooling and an increasingly unstable atmosphere over convective regions such as the western Pacific and tropical convergence zones. The invigorated convection leads to persistent anomalous low-level outflows which weaken the easterly trade winds, reducing upper-ocean mixing and leading to a positive SST bias in the model mean state. In CP-El Nino events, this means that outflow from the modeled convection in the central Pacific reduces winds to the east, allowing unrealistic eastward propagation of warm SST anomalies following the peak in CP-El Nino activity. Including the radiative effects of precipitating ice reduces these model biases and improves the simulated life cycle of the CP-El Nino. Improved simulations of present day tropical seasonal variations and CP-El Nino events would increase the confidence in simulating their future behaviour.
    Electronic ISSN: 2333-5084
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 42
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: One of the central goals of the field of population ecology is to identify the drivers of population dynamics, particularly in the context of predator–prey relationships. Understanding the relative role of top-down versus bottom-up drivers is of particular interest in understanding ecosystem dynamics. Our goal was to explore predator–prey relationships in a boreal ecosystem in interior Alaska through the use of multispecies long-term monitoring data. We used 29 years of field data and a dynamic multistate site occupancy modeling approach to explore the trophic relationships between an apex predator, the golden eagle, and cyclic populations of the two primary prey species available to eagles early in the breeding season, snowshoe hare and willow ptarmigan. We found that golden eagle reproductive success was reliant on prey numbers, but also responded prior to changes in the phase of the snowshoe hare population cycle and failed to respond to variation in hare cycle amplitude. There was no lagged response to ptarmigan populations, and ptarmigan populations recovered quickly from the low phase. Together, these results suggested that eagle reproduction is largely driven by bottom-up processes, with little evidence of top-down control of either ptarmigan or hare populations. Although the relationship between golden eagle reproductive success and prey abundance had been previously established, here we established prey populations are likely driving eagle dynamics through bottom-up processes. The key to this insight was our focus on golden eagle reproductive parameters rather than overall abundance. Although our inference is limited to the golden eagle–hare–ptarmigan relationships we studied, our results suggest caution in interpreting predator–prey abundance patterns among other species as strong evidence for top-down control. Reproductive success in golden eagles is linked to ptarmigan and snowshoe hare abundance. The characteristics of these linkages strongly suggest bottom-up limitation of eagles by their prey.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 43
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: The freshwater–marine transition that characterizes an estuarine system can provide multiple entry options for invading species, yet the relative importance of this gradient in determining the functional contribution of invading species has received little attention. The ecological consequences of species invasion are routinely evaluated within a freshwater versus marine context, even though many invasive species can inhabit a wide range of salinities. We investigate the functional consequences of different sizes of Corbicula fluminea —an invasive species able to adapt to a wide range of temperatures and salinity—across the freshwater–marine transition in the presence versus absence of warming. Specifically, we characterize how C. fluminea affect fluid and particle transport, important processes in mediating nutrient cycling (NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N, PO 4 -P). Results showed that sediment particle reworking (bioturbation) tends to be influenced by size and to a lesser extent, temperature and salinity; nutrient concentrations are influenced by different interactions between all variables (salinity, temperature, and size class). Our findings demonstrate the highly context-dependent nature of the ecosystem consequences of invasion and highlight the potential for species to simultaneously occupy multiple components of an ecosystem. Recognizing of this aspect of invasibility is fundamental to management and conservation efforts, particularly as freshwater and marine systems tend to be compartmentalized rather than be treated as a contiguous unit. We conclude that more comprehensive appreciation of the distribution of invasive species across adjacent habitats and different seasons is urgently needed to allow the true extent of biological introductions, and their ecological consequences, to be fully realized. The functional consequences of different sizes of Corbicula fluminea —an invasive species able to adapt to a wide range of temperatures and salinity—across the freshwater–marine transition in the presence versus absence of warming were investigated.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 44
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Despite the importance of coral microbiomes for holobiont persistence, the interactions among these are not well understood. In particular, knowledge of the co-occurrence and taxonomic importance of specific members of the microbial core, as well as patterns of specific mobile genetic elements (MGEs), is lacking. We used seawater and mucus samples collected from Mussismilia hispida colonies on two reefs located in Bahia, Brazil, to disentangle their associated bacterial communities, intertaxa correlations, and plasmid patterns. Proxies for two broad-host-range (BHR) plasmid groups, IncP-1β and PromA, were screened. Both groups were significantly (up to 252 and 100%, respectively) more abundant in coral mucus than in seawater. Notably, the PromA plasmid group was detected only in coral mucus samples. The core bacteriome of M. hispida  mucus was composed primarily of members of the Proteobacteria, followed by those of Firmicutes. Significant host specificity and co-occurrences among different groups of the dominant phyla (e.g., Bacillaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the genera Pseudomonas , Bacillus, and Vibrio ) were detected. These relationships were observed for both the most abundant phyla and the bacteriome core, in which most of the operational taxonomic units showed intertaxa correlations. The observed evidence of host-specific bacteriome and co-occurrence (and potential symbioses or niche space co-dominance) among the most dominant members indicates a taxonomic selection of members of the stable bacterial community. In parallel, host-specific plasmid patterns could also be, independently, related to the assembly of members of the coral microbiome. Significant host specificity and co-occurrences among different groups of the dominant phyla (e.g., Bacillaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Vibrio), and host-specific plasmids patterns were detected associated with Mussismilia hispida . This was true considering both the most abundant phyla and the bacteriome core, in which most of the operational taxonomic units presented intertaxa correlations. The observed evidence of host-specific bacteriome and co-occurrence (and potential symbioses or niche space codominance) among the most dominant members indicates a taxonomic selection of members of the stable bacterial community.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 45
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Large regulated rivers often require fisheries and water managers to make management decisions involving resident fish population dynamics that have many ecological drivers. Because of the large scale of the system and often competing interests and demands for water, there is a critical need for decision support tools (DSTs) that allow examination of alternative management scenarios while considering key ecological interactions. Spatially explicit individual-based models (IBMs) can serve as effective DSTs by providing information on fish population dynamics while accounting for, and providing extensive, spatially explicit information on, the numerous ecological drivers. Spatially explicit IBMs are often difficult to implement owing to the numerous and often complex inputs the models require. Here, I demonstrate how a suite of free, graphical user interface equipped programs, along with three custom-built and publicly available plugins, can streamline the modeling process and serve as a IBM-based DST for fisheries management on large regulated rivers. The main program is a spatially explicit IBM of juvenile salmonid dynamics, inSALMO, with two other programs that generate the key input data in the required spatially explicit formats. I then use this proposed DST to simulate a Chinook salmon population on a portion of California's Sacramento River to determine whether an IBM-based DST is appropriate to evaluate management impacts on a large regulated river. The Sacramento is a large river of major concern in California and is representative of many rivers in the United States and worldwide in that it is dammed, has a resident fish population, and is heavily used for water supply. The proposed DTS results compare favorably with the predictive power of a general additive model, while providing a much fuller and richer data set that could significantly aid and inform management decisions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 46
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Over the last 100 yr, anthropogenic stressors have decimated the assemblage of deepwater coregonines that once underpinned the food webs of the Laurentian Great Lakes. As a part of ongoing restoration efforts, fisheries managers are interested in reintroducing deepwater coregonines from remnant populations to reestablish historical food web connections. However, little is known about historical trophic position and niche partitioning among deepwater coregonines in the Great Lakes. We used nitrogen stable isotope analysis of amino acids to compare trophic position of museum-preserved (1920s) and present-day forage fishes in Lakes Michigan and Superior. In the 1920s, deepwater coregonines exhibited clear trophic niche partitioning, with trophic positions spanning a full trophic level. Additionally, species trophic positions were tightly conserved between lakes. In Lake Superior, trophic niche partitioning has been maintained over the last 100 yr, but trophic position has shifted downward by ~0.5 trophic level. The more dramatic species loss in Lake Michigan corresponds with a sharp reduction in trophic niche breadth over time. Our study reveals remarkable trophic niche breadth among deepwater coregonines prior to the major anthropogenic impacts on the Laurentian Great Lakes and provides a food web benchmark for restoring the historical trophic diversity of this iconic species flock.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 47
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Air masses in the convective outflows of four large convective systems near Borneo Island in Malaysia were sampled in the height range 11–13 km within the frame of the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) FP7 European project in November and December 2011. Correlated enhancements of CO, CH 4 and the short-lived halogen species (CH 3 I and CHBr 3 ) were detected when the aircraft crossed the anvils of the four systems. These enhancements were interpreted as the fingerprint of vertical transport from the boundary layer by the convective updraft and then horizontal advection in the outflow. For the four observations, the fraction f of air from the boundary layer ranged between 15 and 67%, showing the variability in transport efficiency depending on the dynamics of the convective system. Convective outflows were sampled in the tropical West Pacific in November and December 2011 during SHIVA project. Correlated enhancements of CO, CH 4 and the short-lived halogen species volume mixing ratios were detected when the aircraft crossed the outflow of the convective systems. Using these observations, the fraction of boundary layer air contained in fresh convective outflow was calculated.
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-261X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 48
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: During the recent 50 years, in response to global warming, nearly all of the rivers in the arid region of northwest China have shown significant increasing trends in runoff. However, runoff in the Hotan River has shown a slight decreasing trend that corresponded to a rate of −0.18 × 10 8  m 3 /decade for the same period. Here, based on an analysis of runoff from mountain pass hydrologic stations and precipitation during 1960–2009, as well as measurements of upper-air temperature (UAT) from the Hotan sounding station (1960–2011) and MODIS land surface temperature (LST) of the mountainous area (2001–2011), we found that the annual runoff in the Hotan River was mainly determined (75%) by summer runoff. We also determined that the summer runoff was strongly associated (correlation coefficient: R  = 0.78, P  〈 0.001) with summer UAT at 500 hPa and mountain LST ( R  = 0.69, P  〈 0.001) during 1960–2009. Because the largest proportion of runoff in the Hotan River stems from glacial meltwater, we suggest that the decreasing trends exhibited by the UAT in the mid-lower troposphere and the LST within the mountainous area in summer are the main reasons why runoff shows a slight decreasing trend over the past half century. Location map in the study and mountainous area of Hotan River.
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-261X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 49
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Harvesting corn stover for biofuel production may decrease soil organic carbon (SOC) and increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Adding additional organic matter into soil or reducing tillage intensity, however, could potentially offset this SOC loss. Here, by using SOC and life cycle analysis (LCA) models, we evaluated the impacts of land management change (LMC), i.e., stover removal, organic matter addition, and tillage on spatially explicit SOC level and biofuels’ overall life-cycle GHG emissions in U.S. corn-soybean production systems. Results indicate that under conventional tillage (CT), 30% stover removal (dry weight) may reduce SOC by 0.04 t C ha −1 yr −1 over a 30-year simulation period. Growing a cover crop during the fallow season or applying manure, on the other hand, could add to SOC and further reduce biofuels’ life-cycle GHG emissions. With 30% stover removal in a CT system, cover crop and manure application can increase SOC at the national level by about 0.06 and 0.02 t C ha −1 yr −1 , respectively, compared to cases without such measures. With contributions from this SOC increase, the life-cycle GHG emissions for stover ethanol are more than 80% lower than those of gasoline, exceeding the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard mandate of 60% emissions reduction for cellulosic biofuels. Reducing tillage intensity while removing stover could also limit SOC loss or lead to SOC gain, which would lower stover ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions to near or under the mandated 60% reduction. Without these organic matter inputs or reduced tillage intensity, however, the emissions will not meet this mandate. More efforts are still required to further identify key practical LMCs, improve SOC modeling, and accounting for LMCs in biofuel LCAs that incorporate stover removal. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 1757-1693
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-1707
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 50
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-13
    Print ISSN: 0007-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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  • 51
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-13
    Print ISSN: 0007-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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  • 52
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-14
    Description: Mating systems have broad impacts on how sexual selection and mate choice operate within a species, but studies of mating behavior in the laboratory may not reflect how these processes occur in the wild. Here, we examined the mating behavior of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato in the field by releasing larvae and virgin females and observing how they mated. H. erato is considered a pupal-mating species (i.e., males mate with females as they emerge from the pupal case). However, we observed only two teneral mating events, and experimentally released virgins were almost all mated upon recapture. Our study confirms the presence of some pupal-mating behavior in H. erato , but suggests that adult mating is likely the prevalent mating strategy in this species. These findings have important implications for the role of color pattern and female mate choice in the generation of reproductive isolation in this diverse genus. Heliconius erato is thought to be one of a few species of butterfly which display an unusual mating system known as pupal mating: males wait on the developing pupae of females and mate with them upon emergence. Using experiments and observations with natural populations, we find that while H. erato do engage in pupal mating in the wild, it is rare: adult-mating is likely the prevalent mode of mating. Our finding that most couplings occur between adults suggests that color pattern is likely an important factor driving assortative mating and speciation in this adaptively radiating species.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 53
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-16
    Description: Bioenergetic failure and oxidative stress are common pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but whether these could be targeted effectively for novel therapeutic intervention needs to be determined. One of the reported contributors to ALS pathology is mitochondrial dysfunction associated with excessive mitochondrial fission and fragmentation, which is predominantly mediated by Drp1 hyperactivation. Here, we determined whether inhibition of excessive fission by inhibiting Drp1/Fis1 interaction affects disease progression. We observed mitochondrial excessive fragmentation and dysfunction in several familial forms of ALS patient-derived fibroblasts as well as in cultured motor neurons expressing SOD1 mutant. In both cell models, inhibition of Drp1/Fis1 interaction by a selective peptide inhibitor, P110, led to a significant reduction in reactive oxygen species levels, and to improvement in mitochondrial structure and functions. Sustained treatment of mice expressing G93A SOD1 mutation with P110, beginning at the onset of disease symptoms at day 90, produced an improvement in motor performance and survival, suggesting that Drp1 hyperactivation may be an attractive target in the treatment of ALS patients. Drp1 hyperactivation has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases, like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). P110, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, is shown to reduce the detrimental effects of mitochondrial dysfunction and ameliorate symptoms in an ALS mouse model.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 54
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-16
    Description: Salivary gland acinar cells are routinely destroyed during radiation treatment for head and neck cancer that results in a lifetime of hyposalivation and co-morbidities. A potential regenerative strategy for replacing injured tissue is the reactivation of endogenous stem cells by targeted therapeutics. However, the identity of these cells, whether they are capable of regenerating the tissue, and the mechanisms by which they are regulated are unknown. Using in vivo and ex vivo models, in combination with genetic lineage tracing and human tissue, we discover a SOX2 + stem cell population essential to acinar cell maintenance that is capable of replenishing acini after radiation. Furthermore, we show that acinar cell replacement is nerve dependent and that addition of a muscarinic mimetic is sufficient to drive regeneration. Moreover, we show that SOX2 is diminished in irradiated human salivary gland, along with parasympathetic nerves, suggesting that tissue degeneration is due to loss of progenitors and their regulators. Thus, we establish a new paradigm that salivary glands can regenerate after genotoxic shock and do so through a SOX2 nerve-dependent mechanism. Salivary glands regenerate after radiation injury through SOX2-mediated secretory acinar cell replacement as shown using genetic lineage tracing and ablation methods, in combination with in vivo and ex vivo gamma radiation-induced damage models.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 55
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: Plant ecologists require spatial information on functional soil properties but are often faced with soil classifications that are not directly interpretable or useful for statistical models. Sand and clay content are important soil properties because they indicate soil water-holding capacity and nutrient content, yet these data are not available for much of the landscape. Remotely sensed soil radiometric data offer promise for developing statistical models of functional soil properties applicable over large areas. Here, we build models linking radiometric data for an area of 40,000 km 2 with soil physicochemical data collected over a period of 30 years and demonstrate a strong relationship between gamma radiometric potassium ( 40 K), thorium (²³²Th), and soil sand and clay content. Our models showed predictive performance of 43% with internal cross-validation (to held-out data) and ~30% for external validation to an independent test dataset. This work contributes to broader availability and uptake of remote sensing products for explaining patterns in plant distribution and performance across landscapes. Soil texture and chemistry significantly explained deviation in remote-sensed gamma-radiometric Th and K. Percent sand and clay particles in A Horizon were the most influential variables. Gamma-radiometric Th and and K, with environmental data, moderately predicted sand and clay %.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 56
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia infects a wide range of arthropods and their relatives. It is an intracellular parasite transmitted through the egg from mother to offspring. Wolbachia can spread and persist through various means of host reproductive manipulation. How these different mechanisms of host manipulation evolved in Wolbachia is unclear. Which host reproductive phenotype is most likely to be ancestral and whether evolutionary transitions between some host phenotypes are more common than others remain unanswered questions. Recent studies have revealed multiple cases where the same Wolbachia strain can induce different reproductive phenotypes in different hosts, raising the question to what degree the induced host phenotype should be regarded as a trait of Wolbachia . In this study, we constructed a phylogenetic tree of Wolbachia and analyzed the patterns of host phenotypes along that tree. We were able to detect a phylogenetic signal of host phenotypes on the Wolbachia tree, indicating that the induced host phenotype can be regarded as a Wolbachia trait. However, we found no clear support for the previously stated hypothesis that cytoplasmic incompatibility is ancestral to Wolbachia in arthropods. Our analysis provides evidence for heterogeneous transition rates between host phenotypes. This study uses comparative methods to analyze the evolution of Wolbachia -induced host reproductive phenotypes along the phylogenetic tree of Wolbachia . Our results show that Wolbachia -induced host reproductive phenotypes can be regarded as a Wolbachia trait and provide novel insights into ancestral states and evolutionary transition rates of Wolbachia 's host manipulation.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 57
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: Understanding the origins and introduction pathways of invasive species is a fundamental issue for invasion biology, which is necessary for predicting and preventing future invasion. Once an invasive species is established in a new location, this location could serve as a stepping-stone for further invasions. However, such “stepping-stone” effect has not been widely investigated. Using the published literature and records, we compiled the first found locations of 127 top invasive species in China. Our study showed that the most common landing spots of these invasive species were Hong Kong (22 species) and Taiwan (20 species), which accounted for one-third of the invasive species in China. Our analysis revealed that the invasive species in mainland China were more likely to transport from Hong Kong than Macau, a neighboring region with a similar area and colonial history. Similarly, more invasive species were also first landed on Taiwan than Hainan, a nearby island sharing similar climate conditions. Together, our findings indicate that Hong Kong and Taiwan are the most important stepping-stones for invasive species to the mainland of China and suggesting that the increasing trade exchange of China's coastal ports constitutes a potential risk for the spread of more invasive species. We suppose that they would be the future stepping-stones for invasive species to the mainland of China and these coastal ports regions where improved biosecurity is needed now. It can be concluded that Taiwan and Hong Kong are stepping-stones for invasive species to the mainland of China. Then group comparisons between Taiwan and Hainan, and between Hong Kong and Macao are conducted to find out that colonial rule and economical and trade activities are the driving forces for alien species invasion and that islands are more susceptible to species invasion than continents.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 58
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: The importance and prevalence of phylogenetic tracking between hosts and dependent organisms caused by co-evolution and shifting between closely related host species have been debated for decades. Most studies of phylogenetic tracking among phytophagous insects and their host plants have been limited to insects feeding on a narrow range of host species. However, narrow host ranges can confound phylogenetic tracking (phylogenetic tracking hypothesis) with host shifting between hosts of intermediate relationship (intermediate hypothesis). Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of the Enchenopa binotata complex of treehoppers. Each species in this complex has high host fidelity, but the entire complex uses hosts across eight plant orders. The phylogenies of E. binotata were reconstructed to evaluate whether (1) tracking host phylogeny; or (2) shifting between intermediately related host plants better explains the evolutionary history of E. binotata . Our results suggest that E. binotata primarily shifted between both distant and intermediate host plants regardless of host phylogeny and less frequently tracked the phylogeny of their hosts. These findings indicate that phytophagous insects with high host fidelity, such as E. binotata , are capable of adaptation not only to closely related host plants but also to novel hosts, likely with diverse phenology and defense mechanisms. Although with high host fidelity and a wide range of host usage (across eight host orders), we found that host shifting, regardless of the host plant relationship, played a more important role than coevolution with hosts in the evolutionary history of Enchenopa binotata treehoppers. This result is fascinating it is not only unsupportive to coevolution between plant–insect relationship, but is also unsupportive to intermediate hypothesis for host shifting.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 59
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: Translocations have become an increasingly valuable tool for conservation in recent years, but assessing the successfulness of translocations and identifying factors that contribute to their success continue to challenge biologists. As a unique class of translocation, population reinforcements have received relatively little attention despite representing a substantial portion of translocation programs. Here, we conducted population viability analyses to quantify the effects of 216 reinforcement scenarios on the long-term viability of four populations of Greater Prairie-Chickens ( Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus ) in Wisconsin, USA, and used multiple linear regression to identify factors that had the greatest relative influence on population viability. We considered reinforcements from outside of the study area in addition to translocations among Wisconsin populations. We observed the largest decreases in site-specific extinction probability and the largest increases in the number of sites persisting for 50 years when more vulnerable populations were targeted for reinforcement. Conversely, reinforcing the most stable sites caused the greatest reduction in regional extinction probability. We found that the number of translocated hens was a comparatively poor predictor of changes in long-term population viability, whereas the earlier onset of reinforcement was consistently associated with the greatest increases in viability. Our results highlight the value of evaluating alternative reinforcement strategies a priori and considering the effects of reinforcement on metrics of long-term population persistence. We used a combination of population viability analysis and linear regression techniques to compare 216 reinforcement scenarios for four populations of the threatened Greater Prairie-Chicken ( Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus ) in central Wisconsin, USA. We considered three different metrics of long-term population viability and identified factors that were most strongly associated with population persistence. Early onset of reinforcement efforts was a much stronger predictor of long-term translocation success than release cohort size.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 60
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: In the present study, fluoride removal from drinking water is investigated using layer-by-layer (LbL) fabricated poly(sodium 4-styrene-sulfonate) (PSS)/Al 2 O 3 thin films. The surface morphology of the fabricated thin films is characterized using atomic force microscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscopy. Optical profilometry is used to determine the self-assembly of the multilayer thin films. The effect of various parameters such as adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial fluoride content, number of bilayers, surface area, and pH is thoroughly studied. Fluoride removal increases with the number of bilayers and number of slides (total surface area). The amount of fluoride adsorbed increases from 11.32 to 26 mg L −1 when the number of substrates increases from 1 to 5. A 68% removal of fluoride is observed when 20 bilayers of PSS/Al 2 O 3 thin films with three slides at an initial fluoride concentration of 5 mg L −1 are used, thereby bringing down the fluoride concentration level below the World Health Organization permissible limit. Slide reusability studies reveal that the fabricated thin films can be used for ten cycles without affecting the fluoride removal properties of the film. This study demonstrates the potential application of immobilized PSS/Al 2 O 3 thin films as an effective adsorbent for drinking water purification. Multilayer PSS/Al 2 O 3 thin films fabricated using a layer-by-layer (LbL) approach exhibit increased defluoridation capacity. Immobilized thin films can be reused for a number of cycles, making it cost effective. Multilayer LbL Al 2 O 3 thin films offer advantages unlike Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles used as a suspension.
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 61
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: Purines are metabolic building blocks essential for all living organisms on earth. De novo purine biosynthesis occurs in the brain and appears to play important roles in neural development. Phosphoribosyl formylglycinamidine synthase (FGAMS, also known as PFAS or FGARAT), a core enzyme involved in the de novo synthesis of purines, may play alternative roles in viral pathogenesis. To date, no thorough investigation of the endogenous expression and localization of de novo purine biosynthetic enzymes has been conducted in human neurons or in virally infected cells. In this study, we characterized expression of FGAMS using multiple neuronal models. In differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, primary rat hippocampal neurons, and in whole mouse brain sections, FGAMS immunoreactivity was distributed within the neuronal cytoplasm. FGAMS immunolabeling in vitro demonstrated extensive distribution throughout neuronal processes. To investigate potential changes in FGAMS expression and localization following viral infection, we infected cells with the human pathogen herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In infected fibroblasts, FGAMS immunolabeling shifted from a diffuse cytoplasmic location to a mainly perinuclear localization by 12 hours post infection. In contrast, in infected neurons, FGAMS localization showed no discernable changes in the localization of FGAMS immunoreactivity. There were no changes in total FGAMS protein levels in either cell type. Together, these data provide insight into potential purine biosynthetic mechanisms utilized within neurons during homeostasis as well as viral infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 62
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: Characterization of the molecular signaling pathways underlying protein synthesis-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity, such as late long-term potentiation (L-LTP), can provide insights not only into memory expression/maintenance under physiological conditions but also potential mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of memory disorders. Here, we report in mice that L-LTP failure induced by the mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor rapamycin is reversed by brain-specific genetic deletion of PKR-like ER kinase, PERK (PERK KO), a kinase for eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). In contrast, genetic removal of general control non-derepressible-2, GCN2 (GCN2 KO), another eIF2α kinase, or treatment of hippocampal slices with the PERK inhibitor GSK2606414, does not rescue rapamycin-induced L-LTP failure, suggesting mechanisms independent of eIF2α phosphorylation. Moreover, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) is significantly decreased in PERK KO mice but unaltered in GCN2 KO mice or slices treated with the PERK inhibitor. Reduction of eEF2 phosphorylation results in increased general protein synthesis, and thus could contribute to the mTORC1-independent L-LTP in PERK KO mice. We further performed experiments on mutant mice with genetic removal of eEF2K (eEF2K KO), the only known kinase for eEF2, and found that L-LTP in eEF2K KO mice is insensitive to rapamycin. These data, for the first time, connect reduction of PERK activity with the regulation of translation elongation in enabling L-LTP independent of mTORC1. Thus, our findings indicate previously unrecognized levels of complexity in the regulation of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 63
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: Cellular prion protein (PrP C ) is widely expressed and displays a variety of well-described functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Mutations of the PRNP gene are known to promote genetic human spongiform encephalopathies, but the components of gain- or loss-of-function mutations to PrP C remain a matter for debate. Among the proteins described to interact with PrP C is stress inducible protein 1 (STI1), a co-chaperonin that is secreted from astrocytes and triggers neuroprotection and neuritogenesis through its interaction with PrP C . In this work, we evaluated the impact of different PrP C pathogenic point mutations on signaling pathways induced by the STI1-PrP C interaction. We found that some of the pathogenic mutations evaluated herein induce partial or total disruption of neuritogenesis and neuroprotection mediated by mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling triggered by STI1-PrP C engagement. A pathogenic mutant PrP C that lacked both neuroprotection and neuritogenesis activities fail to promote negative dominance upon wild-type PrP C . Also, a STI1-α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent cellular signaling was present in a PrP C mutant that maintained both neuroprotection and neuritogenesis activities similar to what has been previously observed by wild-type PrP C . These results point to a loss-of-function mechanism underlying the pathogenicity of PrP C mutations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 64
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: We introduce a new method to determine the anisotropy of reflectance of sea ice and snow at spatial scales from 1 m 2 to 80 m 2 using a multispectral circular fish-eye radiance camera (CE600). The CE600 allows measuring radiance simultaneously in all directions of a hemisphere at a 1°angular resolution. The spectral characteristics of the reflectance and its dependency on illumination conditions obtained from the camera are compared to those obtained with a hyperspectral field spectroradiometer manufactured by Analytical Spectral Device, Inc. (ASD). Results confirm the potential of the CE600, with the suggested measurement set-up and data processing, to measure commensurable sea ice and snow Hemispherical Directional Reflectance Factor, HDRF, values. Compared to the ASD, the reflectance anisotropy measured with the CE600 provides much higher resolution in terms of directional reflectance (N=16020). The hyperangular resolution allows detecting features that were overlooked using the ASD due to its limited number of measurement angles (N = 25). This dataset of HDRF further documents variations in the anisotropy of the reflectance of snow and ice with the geometry of observation and illumination conditions and its spectral and spatial scale dependency. Finally, in order to re-produce the hyperangular CE600 reflectance measurements over the entire 400-900 nm spectral range, a regression based method is proposed to combine the ASD and CE600 measurements. Results confirm that both instruments may be used in synergy to construct a hyperangular and -spectral snow and ice reflectance anisotropy dataset.
    Electronic ISSN: 2333-5084
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 65
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: Environmental unpredictability is known to result in the evolution of bet-hedging traits. Variable dormancy enhances survival through harsh conditions, and is widely cited as a diversification bet-hedging trait. The floating aquatic plant, Spirodela polyrhiza (Greater Duckweed), provides an opportunity to study diversification because although partially reliable seasonal cues exist, its growing season is subject to an unpredictable and literally “hard” termination when the surface water freezes, and overwinter survival depends on a switch from production of normal daughter fronds to production of dense, sinking “turions” prior to freeze-over. The problem for S. polyrhiza is that diversified dormancy behavior must be generated among clonally produced, genetically identical offspring. Variation in phenology has been observed in the field, but its sources are unknown. Here, we investigate sources of phenological variation in turion production , and test the hypothesis that diversification in turion phenology is generated within genetic lineages through effects of parental birth order. As expected, phenotypic plasticity to temperature is expressed along a thermal gradient; more interestingly, parental birth order was found to have a significant and strong effect on turion phenology: Turions are produced earlier by late birth-order parents. These results hold regardless of whether turion phenology is measured as first turion birth order, time to first turion, or turion frequency. This study addresses a question of current interest on potential mechanisms generating diversification, and suggests that consistent phenotypic differences across birth orders generate life history variation. There has been considerable recent interest—both from developmental and evolutionary perspectives—in mechanisms that generate differences among genetically identical individuals. Here, we ask how the clonal aquatic plant, Spirodela polyrhiza , generates potentially adaptive behavioural variation among its clonal offspring. This species inhabits ponds susceptible to unpredictable timing of freeze-up events that are fatal to regular offspring. We find that in addition to phenotypic plasticity in response to seasonal cues, phenological diversification in the switch from production of regular offspring to specialized overwintering “turions” is generated by parental birth order.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 66
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: Interspecific variation in life-history traits and physiological limits can be linked to the environmental conditions species experience, including climatic conditions. As alpine environments are particularly vulnerable under climate change, we focus on the montane-alpine fly Drosophila nigrosparsa . Here, we characterized some of its life-history traits and physiological limits and compared these with those of other drosophilids, namely Drosophila hydei , Drosophila melanogaster , and Drosophila obscura . We assayed oviposition rate, longevity, productivity, development time, larval competitiveness, starvation resistance, and heat and cold tolerance. Compared with the other species assayed, D. nigrosparsa is less fecund, relatively long-living, starvation susceptible, cold adapted, and surprisingly well heat adapted. These life-history characteristics provide insights into invertebrate adaptations to alpine conditions which may evolve under ongoing climate change. Life-history traits and physiological limits of the alpine fly Drosophila nigrosparsa were assayed in the laboratory and compared with those of four other Drosophila species. Drosophila nigrosparsa has relatively low fecundity, is long-living, starvation susceptible, cold adapted, and surprisingly heat tolerant.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 67
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: Zooplankton have evolved several mechanisms to deal with environmental threats, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and in order to identify strategies inherent to organisms exposed to different UVR environments, we here examine life-history traits of two lineages of Daphnia pulex . The lineages differed in the UVR dose they had received at their place of origin from extremely high UVR stress at high-altitude Bolivian lakes to low UVR stress near the sea level in temperate Sweden. Nine life-history variables of each lineage were analyzed in laboratory experiments in the presence and the absence of sub-lethal doses of UVR (UV-A band), and we identified trade-offs among variables through structural equation modeling (SEM). The UVR treatment was detrimental to almost all life-history variables of both lineages; however, the Daphnia historically exposed to higher doses of UVR (HighUV) showed a higher overall fecundity than those historically exposed to lower doses of UVR (LowUV). The total offspring and ephippia production, as well as the number of clutches and number of offspring at first reproduction, was directly affected by UVR in both lineages. Main differences between lineages involved indirect effects that affected offspring production as the age at first reproduction. We here show that organisms within the same species have developed different strategies as responses to UVR, although no increased physiological tolerance or plasticity was shown by the HighUV lineage. In addition to known tolerance strategies to UVR, including avoidance, prevention, or repairing of damages, we here propose a population strategy that includes early reproduction and high fertility, which we show compensated for the fitness loss imposed by UVR stress. In order to identify strategies inherent to organisms exposed to different UVR environments, we here examined life-history traits of two lineages of Daphnia pulex through structural equation modeling (SEM). We here show that organisms within the same species have developed different strategies as responses to UVR and propose an evolutionary population strategy that includes early reproduction and high fertility.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 68
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: Invasive alien species (IAS) constitute a major threat to global biological diversity. In order to control their spread, a detailed understanding of the factors influencing their distribution is essential. Although international trade is regarded as a major force structuring spatial patterns of IAS, the role of other social factors remains unclear. Despite studies highlighting the importance of strong governance in slowing drivers of biodiversity loss such as logging, deforestation, and agricultural intensification, no study has yet analyzed its contribution to the issue of IAS. Using estimates of governance quality and comprehensive spatiotemporal IAS data, we performed multiple linear regressions to investigate the effect of governance quality upon the distribution of species listed under “100 of the worst” IAS in 38 Eurasian countries as defined by DASIE. Our model suggested that for countries with higher GDP, stronger governance was associated with a greater number of the worst IAS; in contrast, for the lowest GDP countries under analysis, stronger governance was associated with fewer of these IAS. We elucidate how the quality of governance within a country has implications for trade, tourism, transport, legislation, and economic development, all of which influence the spread of IAS. While our findings support the common assumption that strengthening governance benefits conservation interventions in countries of smaller economy, we find that this effect is not universal. Stronger governance alone cannot adequately address the problem of IAS, and targeted action is required in relatively high-GDP countries in order to stem the influx of IAS associated with high volumes of trade. Multiple linear regressions on data for invasive alien species (IAS) in 38 Eurasian countries have shown that, for countries with higher GDP, stronger governance was associated with a greater number of the worst IAS; in contrast, for the lowest GDP countries under analysis, stronger governance was associated with fewer of these IAS. Accordingly, the assumption that strengthening governance will benefit conservation interventions should not be applied broadly to IAS in all contexts.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 69
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Senescence is a highly variable process that comprises both age-dependent and state-dependent components and can be greatly affected by environmental conditions. However, few studies have quantified the magnitude of age-dependent and state-dependent senescence in key life-history traits across individuals inhabiting different spatially structured and seasonal environments. We used longitudinal data from wild female yellow-bellied marmots ( Marmota flaviventer ), living in two adjacent environments that differ in elevation and associated phenology, to quantify how age and individual state, measured as “time to death,” affect body mass senescence in different environments. Further, we quantified how patterns of senescence differed between two biologically distinct seasons, spring, and late summer. Body mass senescence had an age-dependent component, expressed as a decrease in mass in old age. Overall, estimated age-dependent senescence was greater in females living in the more favorable lower elevation environment, than in the harsher higher elevation environment, and greater in late summer than in spring. Body mass senescence also had a state-dependent component, captured by effects of time to death, but only in the more favorable lower elevation environment. In spring, body mass gradually decreased from 2 years before death, whereas in late summer, state-dependent effects were expressed as a terminal decrease in body mass in the last year of life. Contrary to expectations, we found that senescence was more likely to be observed under more favorable environmental conditions, rather than under harsher conditions. By further demonstrating that senescence patterns differ among seasons, our results imply that within-year temporal environmental variation must be considered alongside spatial environmental variation in order to characterize and understand the pattern and magnitude of senescence in wild populations. Few studies have quantified the magnitude of age-dependent and state-dependent senescence in key life-history traits across individuals inhabiting different spatially structured and seasonal environments. We show that age-dependent and state-dependent (i.e., time to death) effects on body mass co-occur in wild yellow-bellied marmots, and contrary to most previous studies, we found that senescence was more likely to be observed at lower rather than higher elevation. By further demonstrating that senescence patterns differ among seasons, our results imply that within-year temporal environmental variation must be considered alongside spatial environmental variation in order to characterize and understand the pattern and magnitude of senescence in natural populations.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 70
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Forecast increases in the frequency, intensity, and duration of droughts with climate change may have extreme and extensive ecological consequences. There are currently hundreds of published, ongoing, and new drought experiments worldwide aimed to assess ecological sensitivity to drought and identify the mechanisms governing resistance and resilience. To date, the results from these experiments have varied widely, and thus, patterns of drought sensitivities and the underlying mechanisms have been difficult to discern. Here we examined 89 published drought experiments, along with their associated historical precipitation records to (1) identify where and how drought experiments have been imposed, (2) determine the extremity of drought treatments in the context of historical climate, and (3) assess the influence of ambient precipitation variability on the magnitude of drought experiments. In general, drought experiments were most common in water-limited ecosystems, such as grasslands, and were often short-term, as 80% were 1–4 yr in duration. When placed in a historical context, the majority of drought experiments imposed extreme drought, with 61% below the 5th, and 43% below the 1st percentile of the 50-yr annual precipitation distribution. We also determined that interannual precipitation variability had a large and potentially underappreciated effect on the magnitude of drought treatments due to the co-varying nature of control and drought precipitation inputs. Thus, detecting significant ecological effects in drought experiments is strongly influenced by the interaction between experimental drought magnitude, precipitation variability, and key ecological thresholds. The patterns that emerged from this study have important implications for the design and interpretation of drought experiments and also highlight critical gaps in our understanding of the ecological effects of drought.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 71
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Although landscape spatial structure is known to influence spatial patterns of biodiversity, its effect on insect communities at higher trophic levels such as parasitoids remains poorly understood. This is particularly true in continuously distributed forests in which it can be difficult to identify clear boundaries among habitat patches. Using the metacommunity framework, we evaluate the relative importance of forest landscape structure, non-environmental spatial structure, and host outbreak status to spatial and within-season temporal variation in parasitoid communities. We used variation partitioning and metacommunity structure analyses to identify (1) the drivers of the metacommunity structure of parasitoids associated with the spruce budworm ( Choristoneura fumiferana ), and (2) how their relative influence varies through a season. We used a multi-scale perspective to summarize landscape heterogeneity in regions of increasing size around the community sampling locations. Spruce budworm larvae and pupae were sampled during three periods during the summer 2014 in 18 locations within continuous forest landscapes in Quebec, Canada. Thirty-two parasitoid wasp and fly species were recorded, 16 of which were found at more than one location. We found that the mechanisms shaping metacommunity structure changed over the course of a single season and that community structure varied among sites. At early and late periods in the season, we found that non-environmental structure, forest structure, and likely inter-specific competition were the main mechanisms influencing spatial variation in community structure. These results suggest a competition–dispersal trade-off. In contrast, at the middle period of the season, environmental filtering by forest structure and stochastic events were found to influence community structure. This period corresponds to the transition between early and late parasitoid communities. Our findings on the role of environmental filtering and forest structure support the idea that forest manipulations have the potential to influence parasitoid populations and hence spruce budworm outbreak dynamics as hypothesized by the “enemies hypothesis.” Moreover, our study highlights the value of considering a multi-scale approach and temporal variability of species interactions when characterizing the multiple processes shaping spatial metacommunity structure, particularly in continuous environments.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 72
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: In semi-arid mountainous regions across the western United States, the distribution of upland aspen ( Populus tremuloides ) is often related to heterogeneous soil moisture subsidies resulting from redistributed snow. As temperatures increase, interactions between decreasing snowpack and future trends in the net primary productivity (NPP) of aspen forests remain uncertain. This study characterizes the importance of heterogeneously distributed snow water to aspen communities in the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory located in southwestern Idaho, USA. Net primary productivity of three aspen stands was simulated at sites spanning elevational and precipitation gradients using the biogeochemical process model Biome-BGC and precipitation data adjusted to account for drifting snow. Compared to a spatially homogeneous precipitation distribution, Biome-BGC simulations accounting for redistributed precipitation were in better agreement with previous simulations of snow accumulation and soil moisture field measurements. During drought years, simulations below the largest drifts that included wind-redistributed snow resulted in NPP values nearly 77% higher than simulations assuming uniform precipitation. However, during wet years (and at sites with higher total precipitation), increased effective precipitation resulting from drifting snow did not have a significant role in aspen productivity. In these cases, soil moisture was found to be non-limiting even in the absence of redistributed snow. Increased water availability from snow drifts often exceeded the storage capacity of the soil and contributed little to plant available water used later in the growing season.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathway activation is a key mechanism for mediating cancer growth, survival, and treatment resistance. Cognate ligands play crucial roles in autocrine or paracrine stimulation of these RTK pathways. Here, we show SEMA3C drives activation of multiple RTKs including EGFR, ErbB2, and MET in a cognate ligand-independent manner via Plexin B1. SEMA3C expression levels increase in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), where it functions to promote cancer cell growth and resistance to androgen receptor pathway inhibition. SEMA3C inhibition delays CRPC and enzalutamide-resistant progression. Plexin B1 sema domain-containing:Fc fusion proteins suppress RTK signaling and cell growth and inhibit CRPC progression of LNCaP xenografts post-castration in vivo . SEMA3C inhibition represents a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. SEMA3C is a secreted autocrine factor that drives cancer growth and treatment resistance by transactivating multiple receptor tyrosine kinases via Plexin B1 in a cognate ligand-independent manner. Antagonizing SEMA3C signaling inhibits prostate cancer growth in vitro and in vivo .
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 74
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Plant–soil feedbacks (PSFs) have gained attention for their potential role in explaining plant growth and invasion. While promising, most PSF research has measured plant monoculture growth on different soils in short-term, greenhouse experiments. Here, five soil types were conditioned by growing one native species, three non-native species, or a mixed plant community in different plots in a common-garden experiment. After 4 years, plants were removed and one native and one non-native plant community were planted into replicate plots of each soil type. After three additional years, the percentage cover of each of the three target species in each community was measured. These data were used to parameterize a plant community growth model. Model predictions were compared to native and non-native abundance on the landscape. Native community cover was lowest on soil conditioned by the dominant non-native, Centaurea diffusa , and non-native community cover was lowest on soil cultivated by the dominant native, Pseudoroegneria spicata . Consistent with plant growth on the landscape, the plant growth model predicted that the positive PSFs observed in the common-garden experiment would result in two distinct communities on the landscape: a native plant community on native soils and a non-native plant community on non-native soils. In contrast, when PSF effects were removed, the model predicted that non-native plants would dominate all soils, which was not consistent with plant growth on the landscape. Results provide an example where PSF effects were large enough to change the rank-order abundance of native and non-native plant communities and to explain plant distributions on the landscape. The positive PSFs that contributed to this effect reflected the ability of the two dominant plant species to suppress each other's growth. Results suggest that plant dominance, at least in this system, reflects the ability of a species to suppress the growth of dominant competitors through soil-mediated effects. A native and non-native plant community were grown on different soils during a seven-year plant–soil feedback experiment. Consistent with plant growth on the landscape, the native community grew poorly on soils cultivated by the dominant non-native plant, and the non-native community grew poorly on soils cultivated by the dominant native plant.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 75
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Plant leaf phenology is typically observed either via ground-based visual observations on individuals or via remote sensing of land surface vegetation. To integrate phenological information from both data sources, collected at different spatial scales using different observational protocols, digital cameras were deployed spanning canopy areas with enough spatial resolution to identify temporal changes in individual deciduous tree species with continuous observations. Comparisons of phenology between camera photography and in situ observations have been reported in prior studies; however, it is still unclear that how these camera images relate to field observations at individual and species levels, and how the metrics from those images provide comparable species-specific phenological responses to environmental variation. We set a suite of digital time-lapse cameras to acquire continuous photographs of deciduous tree canopies and conducted ground-based visual observations in Connecticut, USA, from 2012 to 2014. Comparisons between image-derived dates and observed phenological dates showed that both green and red color indices could be matched to ground observations, and red color indices showed good performance in matching autumn phenology across our group of eight tree species that dominate the southern New England forests. Linear mixed-effects models were applied to investigate the relationships between climatic/weather conditions and the timing of peak and of intensity of red color in fall foliage for each species. Model results suggested that temperature, precipitation, drought stress in autumn, and heat stress in summer are all important factors to the timing of peak fall foliage color and that higher minimum temperatures (or lower cold degree-day accumulation) in the autumn are linked to higher intensity of red coloration at least in sugar maples. This study improves our understanding of temporal and spatial variation in the phenology of deciduous trees captured by digital cameras. As well, this provides insights into relating species-specific information on phenology from visual observations in the field to near-surface remote sensing and points to the need for further research on autumn phenology using the change in redness of tree canopies.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 76
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Species responses to climate change have been shown to vary in both direction and magnitude. Understanding these idiosyncratic responses is crucial if we are to predict extinction risk and set up efficient conservation strategies. The variations observed across species have been related to several species attributes including intrinsic traits such as physiological tolerances or life-history strategies but also to niche characteristics (e.g., niche breadth [NB], niche position [NP]). However, although previous studies have successfully linked species attributes to population dynamics or range shifts, few have considered synergistic effects to explain responses to climate variations. Here, we assessed whether five species attributes (fecundity, thermal safety margin, trophic position [TP], NB, and NP) explained interspecific differences in four parameters influencing population dynamics of 35 stream fish species at the French scale. We used Bayesian N-mixture models to estimate posterior distributions of the growth rate, the strength of density dependence, and the influence of both mean temperature and temperature variability on populations for each species. We then used phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) models to investigate the influence of species attributes and their interactions on interspecific differences in each of the four parameter driving population dynamics. The percentage of variance explained by the PGLS models was relatively high (around 40% on average), indicating that species attributes are good predictors of species population dynamics. Furthermore, we showed that the influence of these single attributes was mediated by other attributes, especially NP and TP. Importantly, we found that models including interaction terms had greater support over simple additive models in explaining interspecific differences in population dynamics. Taken together, these results point to the importance of considering the interplay between species attributes in unraveling the mechanisms involved in population dynamics and understanding the vulnerability of species to global change.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-23
    Description: Conventional pacemaker batteries have limited lifetime and require a major surgery for replacement. To overcome this impediment, a design for piezoelectric energy harvester scavenging energy from blood pressure variation in the patient's body is proposed. This piezoelectric energy harvester converts the force arising from blood pressure variation into electric voltage. The image shows the self-powered pacemaker; the background portrays the campus of the Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, India, where the research was carried out. Further details can be found in article number 1700084 by Rahul Vaish and co-workers.
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 78
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-23
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 79
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-23
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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