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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (504,054)
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  • 1
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-28
    Description: Many journals, including the Journal of Neurochemistry , enable authors to list peer reviewers as “preferred” or “opposed” suggestions to the editor. At the Journal of Neurochemistry , the handling editor (HE) may follow recommendations or select non-author-suggested reviewers (non-ASRs). We investigated whether selection of author-suggested reviewers (ASRs) influenced decisions on a paper, and whether differences might be related to a reviewers’, editor's or manuscript's geographical location. In this retrospective analysis, we compared original research articles submitted to the Journal of Neurochemistry from 2013 through 2016, that were either reviewed exclusively by non-ASRs, by at least one ASR, by at least one reviewer marked by the author as “opposed”, or none. Manuscript outcome, reviewer rating of manuscript quality, rating of the reviewers’ performance by the editor (R-score), time to review, and the country of the editor, reviewers and manuscript author were analyzed using non-parametric rank-based comparisons, chi-square (x 2 ) analysis, multivariate linear regression, one-way analysis of variance, and inter-rater reliability determination. Original research articles that had been reviewed by at least one ASR stood a higher chance of being accepted (525/1006 = 52%) than papers that had been reviewed by non-ASRs only (579/1800 = 32%). An article was 2.4 times more likely to be accepted than rejected by an ASR compared to a non-ASR (Pearson's x 2 (1) = 181.3, p〈0.05). At decision, the editor did not simply follow the reviewers’ recommendation but had a balancing role: Rates of recommendation from reviewers for rejection were 11.2% (139/1241) with ASRs vs. 29.0% (1379/4755) with non-ASRs (this is a ratio of 0.39 where 1 means no difference between rejection rates for both groups), whereas the proportion of final decisions to reject was 24.7% (248/1006) vs. 45.7% (822/1800) (a ratio of 0.54, considerably closer to 1). Recommendations by non-ASRs were more favorable for manuscripts from USA/Canada and Europe than for Asia/Pacific or Other countries. ASRs judged North American manuscripts most favorably, and judged papers generally more positively (mean: 2.54 on a 1-5 scale) than did non-ASRs (mean: 3.16) reviewers, whereas time for review (13.28 vs. 13.20 days) did not differ significantly between these groups. We also found that editors preferably assigned reviewers from their own geographical region, but there was no tendency for reviewers to judge papers from their own region more favorably. Our findings strongly confirm a bias towards lower rejection rates when ASRs assess a paper, which led to the decision to abandon the option to recommend reviewers at the Journal of Neurochemistry . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-30
    Description: The population of adult survivors of childhood cancer continues to grow as survival rates improve. Although it is well established that these survivors experience various complications and comorbidities related to their malignancy and treatment, this risk is modified by many factors that are not directly linked to their cancer history. Research evaluating the influence of patient-specific demographic and genetic factors, premorbid and comorbid conditions, health behaviors, and aging has identified additional risk factors that influence cancer treatment-related toxicity and possible targets for intervention in this population. Furthermore, although current long-term follow-up guidelines comprehensively address specific therapy-related risks and provide screening recommendations, the risk profile of the population continues to evolve with ongoing modification of treatment strategies and the emergence of novel therapeutics. To address the multifactorial modifiers of cancer treatment-related health risk and evolving treatment approaches, a patient-centered and risk-adapted approach to care that often requires a multidisciplinary team approach, including medical and behavioral providers, is necessary for this population. CA Cancer J Clin 2018 . © 2018 American Cancer Society .
    Print ISSN: 0007-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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  • 3
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: The world conference (Conference of the Parties (COP23)) under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change took place in Bonn (Germany) from 6 to 17 November. Speakers at the meeting stressed the severity of the threat from global warming and the urgent need to act but what commitments came out of the COP23 meeting? Alexandra Carrick gives a short summary of the meeting and some of the energy outcomes of the conference.
    Electronic ISSN: 2050-0505
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 4
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: The synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) within the interlayer space of transparent layered titania nanosheet (TNS) films is investigated. A considerable number of silver ions (≈70% against the cation exchange capacity of the TNS) are intercalated in the TNS films using methyl-viologen-containing TNSs as a precursor. The silver ion (Ag + )-containing TNS films are treated with aqueous sodium tetrahydroborate (NaBH 4 ), resulting in a gradual color change to bright blue. Various structural analyses clearly show that crystalline AgNPs are generated within the interlayer space of the TNSs. The NaBH 4 -treated films show intense and characteristic near-infrared (NIR) extinction spectra up to 1800 nm. The stability of the AgNPs within the TNS against oxygen and moisture is also investigated, and 96% and 82% of the AgNPs remain after standing in air for 1 month and 1 year, respectively. The NIR extinctions of the AgNP-containing TNS films are further extended by employing different preparation procedures, for example, using sintered TNS films as starting materials and irradiating the Ag + -containing TNSs with ultraviolet (UV) light. The obtained AgNP-containing TNS films exhibit photochemical activities in the production of hydrogen from ammonia borane under visible-light irradiation and the decomposition of nitrogen monoxide under UV-light irradiation. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles within the interlayer spaces of layered titanate films and their optical and photochemical characteristics are investigated. The films show intense extinction from the visible to the near-infrared region and exhibit good stability in air. The films exhibit photochemical activities for hydrogen production from amminetrihydridoboron and nitric oxide decomposition.
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 5
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: An approach for underground, deep, and turbid water remediation is presented based on optical fibers with a photocatalytic coating. Thus, photocatalytic TiO 2 P25 nanoparticles immobilized in a poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) matrix are coated on polymeric optical fibers (POFs) and the photocatalytic performance of the system is assessed under artificial sunlight. To the best of our knowledge, poly(methyl methacrylate)-POF coated with TiO 2 /PVDF and the reusability of any type of POF for photocatalytic applications are not previously reported. The photocatalytic efficiency of the hybrid material in the degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and its reusability are evaluated here. It is shown that 50 w/w% of TiO 2 P25 achieves a degradation of 95% after 72 h under artificial sunlight and a reusability of three times leads to a loss of activity inferior to 11%. The efficient removal of ciprofloxacin and the stability of the POF coated with TiO 2 P25 successfully demonstrate its suitability in the degradation of pollutants with potential application in regions with low light illumination, as in underground and deep water. For the first time, the immobilization of photocatalytic titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles in a polymer (PVDF) onto the surface of polymeric optical fibers is shown. This material combines the practicability of the optical fibers to transport radiation, the chemical resilience of the PVDF coating, and the catalytic properties of TiO 2 nanoparticles into a single reusable material.
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 6
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-30
    Description: Invasive alien species are a major driver of global biodiversity loss. Constrained conservation budgets demand that threat abatement strategies take into account the heterogeneity of areas in need of protection, such as significant ecological and cultural sites, as well as the competing values, preferences and objectives of stakeholders. We used strategic foresight to assess the threat that invasive alien grasses pose to environmental and Indigenous cultural values on the floodplains of a co-managed, World Heritage-inscribed national park. We found strategic foresight to be a useful framework to set management priorities that simultaneously conserve biological and cultural diversity. However, it required the development and application of novel ecological and participatory tools and significant time, financial and human resources. This was the first study to apply strategic foresight to weed management planning in a realistic, culturally complex setting and our work provides an exemplar for the application of the strategic foresight framework and our tools to other contexts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Print ISSN: 1755-263X
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-263X
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-31
    Description: Despite billions of dollars invested, “getting to scale” remains a fundamental challenge for conservation donors and practitioners. Occasionally, however, a conservation intervention will “go viral,” with rapid, widespread adoption that transforms the relationship between people and nature across large areas. The factors that shape rates and patterns of conservation interventions remain unclear, puzzling scientists and hindering evidence-based policymaking. Diffusion of innovation theory – the study of the how and why innovations are adopted, and the rates and patterns of adoption – provides a novel lens for examining rates and patterns in the establishment of conservation interventions. Case studies from Tanzania and the Pacific illustrate that characteristics of the innovation, of the adopters, and of the social-ecological context shape spatial and temporal dynamics in the diffusion of community-centered conservation interventions. Differential trends in adoption mirrored the relative advantage of interventions to local villagers and villager access to external technical assistance. Theories of innovation diffusion highlight new arenas for conservation research and provide critical insights for conservation policy and practice, suggesting the potential to empower donors and practitioners with the ability to catalyze conservation at scale – and to do so at less cost and with longer-lasting impacts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Print ISSN: 1755-263X
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-263X
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-01
    Description: A species has a post-reproductive stage if, like humans, a female entering the adult population can expect to live a substantial proportion of their life after their last reproductive event. However, it is conceptually and statistically challenging to distinguish these true post-reproductive stages from the usual processes of senescence, which can result in females occasionally surviving past their last reproductive event. Hence, despite considerable interest, the taxonomic prevalence of post-reproductive stages remains unclear and debated. In this study we use life tables constructed from published data on wild populations of mammals, and statistical measures of post-reproductive lifespans, to distinguish true post-reproductive stages from artefacts of senescence and demography in 52 species. We find post-reproductive stages are rare in mammals and are limited to humans and a few species of toothed whales. By resolving this long-standing debate, we hope to provide clarity for researchers in the field of evolutionary biology and a solid foundation for further studies investigating the evolution and adaptive significance of this unusual life history trait. Despite considerable interest, the taxonomic prevalence of extended human menopause-like postreproductive stages in mammals remains unclear and debated. In this article, we show that postreproductive lifespans are limited to humans and a couple of species of toothed whale.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: An explicit prognostic cloud cover scheme (PROGCS) is implemented into the Global/Regional Assimilation and Prediction System (GRAPES) for global middle-range numerical weather predication system (GRAPES_GFS) to improve the model performance in simulating cloud cover and radiation. Unlike the previous diagnostic cloud cover scheme (DIAGCS), PROGCS considers the formation and dissipation of cloud cover by physically connecting it to the cumulus convection and large-scale stratiform condensation processes. Our simulation results show that clouds in mid-high latitudes arise mainly from large-scale stratiform condensation processes, while cumulus convection and large-scale condensation processes jointly determine cloud cover in low latitudes. Compared with DIAGCS, PROGCS captures more consistent vertical distributions of cloud cover with the observations from Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and simulates more realistic diurnal cycle of marine stratocumulus with the ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The low-, high- and total cloud covers that are determined via PROGCS appear to be more realistic than those simulated via DIAGCS when both are compared with satellite retrievals though the former maintains slight negative biases. In addition, the simulations of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from PROGCS runs have been considerably improved as well, resulting in less biases in radiative heating rates at heights below 850hPa and above 400hPa of GRAPES_GFS. Our results indicate that a prognostic method of cloud cover calculation has significant advantage over the conventional diagnostic one, and it should be adopted in both weather and climate simulation and forecast.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 10
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: Gene flow has historically been thought to constrain local adaptation; yet, recent research suggests that populations can diverge despite exchanging genes. Here I use a common garden experiment to assess the combined effects of gene flow and natural selection on morphological variation of 16 wood frog ( Rana sylvatica ) populations, a species known to experience divergent selection pressures in open- and closed-canopy ponds across relatively small geographic scales. Wood frog tadpoles from different ponds showed significant morphological variation associated with canopy type with a trade-off between tail length and body depth consistent with previous research. In contrast, neutral genetic differentiation of nine microsatellite loci as measured by Jost's D was not associated with canopy type, indicating no pattern of isolation by environment. Genetic structure analyses indicated some substructure across the 16 ponds ( K  =   4); however, three out of four assigned clusters included both open- and closed-canopy ponds. Together, these results suggest that morphological divergence among these wood frog populations is occurring despite gene flow and that selection within these environments is strong. Furthermore, morphological variation among ponds differed across two sampling periods during larval development, demonstrating the importance of evaluating phenotypic divergence over multiple time periods and at a time relevant to the processes being studied. In this article, I investigate the role of gene flow and environment on morphological variation across larval wood frog populations using a common garden experiment. The results indicate that wood frog larvae show fine-scale morphological variation across ponds consistent with environmental differences and regardless of high levels of gene flow.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 11
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: Vultures provide an essential ecosystem service through removal of carrion, but globally, many populations are collapsing and several species are threatened with extinction. Widespread declines in vulture populations could increase the availability of carrion to other organisms, but the ways facultative scavengers might respond to this increase have not been thoroughly explored. We aimed to determine whether facultative scavengers increase carrion consumption in the absence of vulture competition and whether they are capable of functionally replacing vultures in the removal of carrion biomass from the landscape. We experimentally excluded 65 rabbit carcasses from vultures during daylight hours and placed an additional 65 carcasses that were accessible to vultures in forested habitat in South Carolina, USA during summer (June–August). We used motion-activated cameras to compare carrion use by facultative scavenging species between the experimental and control carcasses. Scavenging by facultative scavengers did not increase in the absence of competition with vultures. We found no difference in scavenger presence between control carcasses and those from which vultures were excluded. Eighty percent of carcasses from which vultures were excluded were not scavenged by vertebrates, compared to 5% of carcasses that were accessible to vultures. At the end of the 7-day trials, there was a 10.1-fold increase in the number of experimental carcasses that were not fully scavenged compared to controls. Facultative scavengers did not functionally replace vultures during summer in our study. This finding may have been influenced by the time of the year in which the study took place, the duration of the trials, and the spacing of carcass sites. Our results suggest that under the warm and humid conditions of our study, facultative scavengers would not compensate for loss of vultures. Carcasses would persist longer in the environment and consumption of carrion would likely shift from vertebrates to decomposers. Such changes could have substantial implications for disease transmission, nutrient cycling, and ecosystem functioning. We excluded vultures from carcasses to measure the response of scavenging mammals. Mammals did not increase carrion consumption in the absence of vulture competition. Carcasses persisted longer when vultures were excluded, indicating that mammals would not functionally replace vultures as scavengers under these conditions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 12
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Print ISSN: 0007-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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  • 13
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Climate models predict that shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are likely to occur across the globe. Changing climate will likely have strong effects on arid environments as a result of increased temperatures, increasing frequency and intensity of droughts, and less consistent pulses of rainfall. Therefore, understanding the link between patterns of precipitation, temperature, and population performance of species occupying these environments will continue to increase in importance as climatic shifts occur within these natural ecosystems. We sought to evaluate how individual, maternal, population, and environmental, particularly temperature and precipitation, level factors influence population performance of a large herbivore in an arid environment. We used mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus ) as a representative species and quantified juvenile survival to test hypotheses about effects of environmental factors on population performance. Precipitation events occurring in mid- to late-pregnancy (January–April) leading to spring green-up, as indexed by normalized difference in vegetation index, had the strongest positive effect on juvenile survival and recruitment. In addition, larger neonates had an increased probability of survival. Our findings indicate that timing and amount of precipitation prior to parturition have strong influences on maternal nutritional condition, which was passed on to young. These results have important implications for understanding how animal populations may benefit from timing of precipitation during spring and prior to parturition, especially in arid environments. Our changing climate is expected to increase drought frequency and intensity throughout many arid regions. Here, we assess and identify a direct link between climatic variables and population performance measures of a large herbivore occupying an arid environment. Our findings shed light on how species in these regions may react as our environment continues to shift in the future.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 14
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: There is little direct evidence for effects of soil heterogeneity and root plasticity on the competitive interactions among plants. In this study, we experimentally examined the impacts of temporal nutrient heterogeneity on root growth and interactions between two plant species with very different rooting strategies: Liquidambar styraciflua (sweet gum), which shows high root plasticity in response to soil nutrient heterogeneity, and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine), a species with less plastic roots. Seedlings of the two species were grown in sandboxes in inter- and intraspecific combinations. Nutrients were applied in a patch either in a stable (slow-release) or in a variable (pulse) manner. Plant aboveground biomass, fine root mass, root allocation between nutrient patch and outside the patch, and root vertical distribution were measured. L. styraciflua grew more aboveground (40% and 27% in stable and variable nutrient treatment, respectively) and fine roots (41% and 8% in stable and variable nutrient treatment, respectively) when competing with P. taeda than when competing with a conspecific individual, but the growth of P. taeda was not changed by competition from L. styraciflua . Temporal variation in patch nutrient level had little effect on the species’ competitive interactions. The more flexible L. styraciflua changed its vertical distribution of fine roots in response to competition from P. taeda , growing more roots in deeper soil layers compared to its roots in conspecific competition, leading to niche differentiation between the species, while the fine root distribution of P. taeda remained unchanged across all treatments. Synthesis . L. styraciflua showed greater flexibility in root growth by changing its root vertical distribution and occupying space of not occupied by P. taeda . This flexibility gave L. styraciflua an advantage in interspecific competition. Liquidambar styraciflua showed greater flexibility in root growth by changing its root vertical distribution and occupying space not occupied by Pinus taeda . This flexibility gave L. styraciflua an advantage in interspecific competition.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 15
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Ecological theory suggests that prey size should increase with predator size, but this trend may be masked by other factors affecting prey selection, such as environmental constraints or specific prey preferences of predator species. Owls are an ideal case study for exploring how predator body size affects prey selection in the presence of other factors due to the ease of analyzing their diets from owl pellets and their widespread distributions, allowing interspecific comparisons between variable habitats. Here, we analyze various dimensions of prey resource selection among owls, including prey size, taxonomy (i.e., whether or not particular taxa are favored regardless of their size), and prey traits (movement type, social structure, activity pattern, and diet). We collected pellets of five sympatric owl species ( Athene noctua , Tyto alba , Asio otus , Strix aluco, and Bubo bubo ) from 78 sites across the Mediterranean Levant. Prey intake was compared between sites, with various environmental variables and owl species as predictors of abundance. Despite significant environmental impacts on prey intake, some key patterns emerge among owl species studied. Owls select prey by predator body size: Larger owls tend to feed on wider ranges of prey sizes, leading to higher means. In addition, guild members show both specialization and generalism in terms of prey taxa, sometimes in contrast with the expectations of the predator–prey body size hypothesis. Our results suggest that while predator body size is an important factor in prey selection, taxon specialization by predator species also has considerable impact. We studied the roles of environmental gradients as well as various prey life history strategies on the diet of five sympatric owl species. When significant environmental factors were accounted for, we found a strong effect of prey selection by mass, although some owl species specialize on or avoid specific prey taxa.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 16
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Hydrophobically modified acrylamide copolymers dewater oil sands tailings more effectively than anionic polyacrylamide, but the root causes for this enhanced performance have not been investigated systematically. Polyacrylamide-poly(ethylene oxide methyl ether methacrylate) copolymers with different comonomer compositions, hydrophobic chain lengths, and molecular weights to map out these effects systematically are synthetized. Through a statistical design of experiments, it is found out that all three variables above significantly affected flocculation performance and that certain combinations achieve optimal results. The effect of centrifugation on the flocculation and dewatering performance of these polymers is also investigated. This study proposes to dewater oil sands mature fine tailings (MFT) using hydrophobically modified copolymers of acrylamide, poly(acrylamide- co -ethylene oxide methyl ether methacrylate). Dewatering of MFT is systematically studied as a function of comonomer content, hydrophobic chain lengths, and copolymer molecular weight.
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by inflammatory neurodegeneration, with axonal injury and neuronal cell death occurring in parallel to demyelination. Regarding the molecular mechanisms responsible for demyelination and axonopathy, energy failure, aberrant expression of ion channels and excitotoxicity have been suggested to lead to Ca 2+ overload and subsequent activation of calcium-dependent damage pathways. Thus, the inhibition of Ca 2+ influx by pharmacological modulation of Ca 2+ channels may represent a novel neuroprotective strategy in the treatment of secondary axonopathy. We therefore investigated the effects of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blocker nimodipine in two different models of mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established experimental paradigm for MS. We show that preventive application of nimodipine (10 mg/kg per day) starting on the day of induction had ameliorating effects on EAE in SJL/J mice immunized with encephalitic myelin peptide PLP 139-151 , specifically in late-stage disease. Furthermore, supporting these data, administration of nimodipine to MOG 35-55 -immunized C57BL/6 mice starting at the peak of pre-established disease, also led to a significant decrease in disease score, indicating a protective effect on secondary CNS damage. Histological analysis confirmed that nimodipine attenuated demyelination, axonal loss and pathological axonal β-APP accumulation in cerebellum and spinal cord in the chronic phase of disease. Of note, we observed no effects of nimodipine on the peripheral immune response in EAE mice with regard to distribution, antigen-specific proliferation or activation patterns of lymphocytes. Taken together, our data suggest a CNS-specific effect of L-type VGCC blockade to inflammation-induced neurodegeneration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 18
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: The Shank proteins are crucial scaffolding elements of the post-synaptic density (PSD). One of the best-characterized domains in Shank is the PDZ domain, which binds to C-terminal segments of several other PSD proteins. We carried out a detailed structural analysis of Shank3 PDZ domain-peptide complexes, in order to understand determinants of binding affinity towards different ligand proteins. Ligand peptides from four different proteins were cocrystallized with the Shank3 PDZ domain, and binding affinities were determined calorimetrically. In addition, to conserve class I interactions between the first and third C-terminal peptide residue and Shank3, side chain interactions of other residues in the peptide with the PDZ domain are important factors in defining affinity. Structural conservation suggests that the binding specificities of the PDZ domains from different Shanks are similar. Two conserved buried water molecules in PDZ domains may affect correct local folding of ligand recognition determinants. The solution structure of a tandem Shank3 construct containing the SH3 and PDZ domains showed that the two domains are close to each other, which could be of relevance, when recognizing and binding full target proteins. The SH3 domain did not affect the affinity of the PDZ domain towards short target peptides, and the schizophrenia-linked Shank3 mutation R536W in the linker between the domains had no effect on the structure or peptide interactions of the Shank3 SH3-PDZ unit. Our data show the spatial arrangement of two adjacent Shank domains and pinpoint affinity determinants for short PDZ domain ligands with limited sequence homology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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    Topics: Medicine
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  • 19
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: O 6 -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase ( MGMT ) promoter methylation is a predictive biomarker for benefit from alkylating chemotherapy, specifically temozolomide (TMZ), in glioblastoma, the most common malignant intrinsic brain tumor. Glioma-initiating cells (GIC) with stem-like properties have been associated with resistance to therapy and progression. We assessed the levels of MGMT mRNA and MGMT protein by real-time PCR and immunoblot and evaluated the impact of MGMT on TMZ sensitivity in clonogenicity assays in GIC sphere cultures (S) or differentiated adherent monolayer cultures (M). Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling was assessed by reporter assay and immunoblot. Compared to M cells, S cells expressed higher levels of MGMT. Differentiation of GIC induced by S-to-M transition resulted in a gradual loss of MGMT expression and increased TMZ sensitivity. This transcriptional regulation of MGMT was restricted to cell lines without MGMT promoter methylation and was not coupled to any specific neurobasal (NB) stem cell medium supplement or loss of cell adhesion. Expression levels of p50/p65 subunits of NF-κB, a transcriptional regulator of MGMT , were increased in S cells. Inhibition of NF-κB by the small molecule inhibitor, BAY 11-7082, or siRNA-mediated gene silencing, reduced MGMT levels. In summary, alkylator resistance of S cells is mainly promoted by overexpression of MGMT which results from increased activity of the NF-κB pathway in this cell culture model of glioma stem-like cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 20
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-26
    Description: Rocky shorelines are relatively common features along modern coastlines, but few have been recognized in the geologic record. The hard substrates of rocky shorelines telescope the width of offshore marine environments, thus the diagnostic deposits observed in such settings today have a low preservation potential due to small accommodation space and high-energy conditions. This study recognized previously overlooked, laterally extensive Lower(?) Devonian rocky shoreline deposits in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado. The newly defined lithostratigraphic unit, the East Lime Creek Conglomerate (ELCC), is 0-23 m thick, unconformably overlying Proterozoic crystalline rocks and unconformably overlain by the Upper Devonian Ignacio Formation and/or Elbert Formation. The unit mostly consists of clast-supported cobble-boulder conglomerate with rounded quartzite clasts up to 1.4 m in length interbedded with thin sandstone layers and lenses. Sandstones in the ELCC are distinguished from unconformably overlying Upper Devonian sedimentary rocks because they have sericite cements. Most importantly, there are buttressing relationships between the ELCC and underlying Proterozoic crystalline rocks interpreted as palaeo-sea cliffs, palaeo-wave-cut platforms, and palaeo-tombolos. A proposed rocky shoreline facies model includes headlands with upper shoreface-beachface tabular cobble-boulder gravels sourced from rock fall talus, nearshore subaqueous debris flow deposits, and intervening pocket beaches with imbricated, stratified pebble-cobble gravel sheets. Palaeocurrent data (n = 338) from clast long-axis orientations, imbrication, and cross bedding indicate south-to-north transport roughly onshore-offshore to a coastline consisting of alternating rocky headlands and pocket beaches. This Lower(?) Devonian unit documents a previously unrecognized episode in the geologic history of southwestern Colorado. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electronic ISSN: 2055-4877
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 21
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-261X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 22
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: The genesis of tropical disturbances in strong and weak monsoon trough (MT) patterns is examined in an idealized model. The initial MT patterns in the model simulations are obtained from a global reanalysis dataset that encompasses a 29-year period. The simulations show that a tropical disturbance tends to develop over the eastern part of western North Pacific (WNP) near 150°–160°E when the MT extends eastward, whereas a tropical disturbance tends to occur over the western part of the WNP near 120°–130°E when the MT retreats westward. In addition, there is a faster development of tropical disturbance with a greater intensity in the strong MT pattern than that in the weak MT pattern. The tropical disturbances are triggered in the most convectively unstable region through the local dynamic and thermodynamic processes in the strong and weak MT patterns. Idealized simulations of the genesis of tropical disturbances in the strong and weak monsoon trough (MT) patterns are conducted using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model. The simulations show that the tropical disturbance tends to develop over the eastern part of the western North Pacific (WNP) near 150°–160°E when the MT extends eastward, whereas the tropical disturbance tends to occur over the western part of the WNP near 120°–130°E when the MT retreats westward. During the strong MT pattern, there is a faster development of tropical disturbance with a greater intensity than that in the weak MT pattern.
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-261X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 23
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: In this study, the projections of daily rainfall from an ensemble mean of 20 global climate models (GCMs) are used to examine projected trends in heavy rainfall distribution over Central Africa (CA), under the representative concentration pathway 8.5. For this purpose, two analyses periods of 40-years have been selected (2006–2045 and 2056–2095) to compute trends in the 90th and 99th percentiles of the daily rainfall distributions. We found that large increase trend is mostly found in the 99th percentile of rainfall events, over southern Chad, northern Cameroon, northern Zambia, and in the Great Lakes Area. This can be attributed to the increase of moisture convergence intensified by the presence of the Congo Basin rainforest. It is also shown that the largest number of GCMs with a trend of the same sign as the average trend is observed over the above regions. It is thus clear that the projected increase trends in heavy rainfall events may further worse floods which are real problems in the CA countries. Therefore, strong subregional policies are needed to help design effective adaptation and mitigation measures for the region's countries. We found that large increase trend is mostly found in the 99th percentile of extreme rainfall events, over southern Chad, northern Cameroon, northern Zambia, and in the Great Lakes Area. This can be attributed to the increase of moisture convergence intensified by the presence of the Congo Basin rainforest. It is also shown that the largest number of GCMs with a trend of the same sign as the average trend is observed over the above regions. Average trend (in mm day −1 decade −1 ) in the 90th (a, c) and 99th (b, d) percentiles. Results are for the trend estimates over the period 2006–2045 (a and c) and 2056–2095 (b and d). Stippling indicates statistically significant regions at 95% confidence level of the Mann-Kendall test.
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-261X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 24
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: The atmospheric abundance of the non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) ethane, propane, and butane increased during the industrial era. In addition to weak absorption and emission of longwave radiation, these gases influence the atmospheric radiative balance indirectly, mainly as precursors for ozone (O 3 ), and through reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH), which leads to less OH and thereby longer atmospheric lifetime of methane (CH 4 ). In this study, we have calculated lifetimes, direct and indirect radiative forcing (RF), and global warming potentials (GWPs) for the three compounds, using a self-consistent methodology. Results show net RF per unit emission of 1.0, 0.9, and 0.6 mW m −2 (Tg year −1 ) −1 for ethane, propane, and butane, respectively. For all compounds, the direct effect is considerably smaller than the indirect effects (6% or less of the total). The indirect O 3 and CH 4 effects are approximately of the same magnitude. Net GWPs for a 100-year time horizon are 10 for ethane and propane, and 7 for butane, whereof the direct GWPs are 〈1 for all compounds. The net GWPs are generally higher than previous estimates, mainly because our calculations include emissions for a full year rather than one season. For the compounds studied here, 100-year GWP values do not differ substantially between each compound, considering the large uncertainties involved, and this may indicate that using values representative for a lump of NMVOCs may be sufficient. However, the climate effects may differ more between NMVOC compounds other than alkanes, such as alkenes and aromatics. Ethane is the non-methane hydrocarbon with the longest lifetime and highest abundance in the atmosphere. We have calculated lifetimes, direct and indirect radiative forcing (RF), and global warming potentials (GWPs), using a consistent methodology. Results show that the direct RF efficiency of ethane, propane, and butane is lower than previous estimates, while the net GWP is higher than before, due to stronger indirect effects on ozone and methane.
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-261X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 25
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: A mesoscale convective system (MCS) over East China on June 5, 2009 was thoroughly analyzed using an Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) system. The analyzed reflectivity structure, location and intensity compared well with observation, and were substantially better than an experiment without radar data assimilation. The cold pool and wind speed in the convective regions were strengthened. With improved initial conditions, the impact of single-moment (SM), double-moment (DM) and triple-moment (TM) microphysics parameterization (MP) schemes on ensemble forecasts of MCSs was evaluated. The use of multi-moment (MM) MP schemes showed some improvements in neighborhood ensemble probability for reflectivity and precipitation. Quantitative reflectivity and precipitation forecast skills were also improved in MM forecasts, with those of the TM forecast the best. A mesoscale convective system (MCS) on June 5, 2009 over east China was well analyzed with Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) system. The use of multi-moment (MM) microphysics parameterization (MP) schemes showed some improvements in neighborhood ensemble probability for reflectivity and precipitation. Quantitative reflectivity and precipitation forecast skills were also improved in MM forecasts, with those of the triple-moment (TM) forecast the best. Fraction skill score (FSS; a, e, i, m), equitable threat score (ETS; b, f, j, n), probability of detection (POD; c, g, k, o) and false alarm ration (FAR; d, h, l, p) of reflectivity of EXP_DSM, EXP_DDM and EXP_DTM for threshold 5 dB Z (a–d), 15 dB Z (e–h), 25 dB Z (i–l) and 45 dB Z (m–p). x -axis is time in minutes, starting at 1000 UTC June 5, 2009. The shaded area is 95% confidence interval.
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-261X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 26
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 27
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Fire regimes have long-term effects on ecosystems which can be subtle, requiring study at a large spatial scale and temporal scale to fully appreciate. The way in which multiple fires interact to create a fire regime is poorly understood, and the relationship between the severities of consecutive fires has not been studied in Australia. By overlaying remotely sensed severity maps, our study investigated how the severity of a fire is influenced by previous fire severity. This was done by sampling points at 500-m spacing across 53 fires in dry eucalypt forests of southeast Australia, over a range of time since fire spanning every major fire season for 30 yr. Generalized additive models were used to determine the influence of previous severity on the probability of crown fire and understory fire, controlling for differences in time since fire, topography, and weather. We found that a crown fire is more than twice as likely after a previous crown fire than previous understory fire, and understory fire is more likely after previous understory fire. Our findings are in line with the results of studies from North America and suggest that severe fire promotes further fire. This may be evidence of a runaway positive feedback, which can drive ecological change, and lead to a mosaic of divergent vegetation, but research into more than two consecutive fires is needed to explore this. Our results also suggest that a low-severity prescribed fire may be a useful management option for breaking a cycle of crown fires.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 28
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Plants interact with a variety of soil biota. The accumulation of beneficial or antagonistic biota over time can have strong positive or negative effects on the recruitment of new individuals into the population (i.e., plant–soil feedback, PSF). Despite the potential influence of PSF on plant diversity in terrestrial ecosystems, our understanding of its determinants remains incomplete. Within forests, recent evidence indicates that mycorrhizal type can regulate PSF: Arbuscular mycorrhizal trees typically experience negative PSF, while ectomycorrhizal trees experience positive PSF. Other studies have found that plant traits and the local environment also affect PSF; yet, these studies are based on arbuscular mycorrhizal plants in herbaceous systems. Consequently, the relationship between PSF and plant traits or the environment may depend on the mycorrhizal type of the tree. Using PSF measurements for 520 populations belonging to 52 North American temperate forest tree species, we tested whether mycorrhizal type influences how plant traits and climate relate to PSF. For both mycorrhizal types, species that produced larger seeds and were less drought tolerant had more positive (or less negative) PSF. Precipitation during the dry season was negatively related to PSF, but only for arbuscular mycorrhizal trees. These results suggest that investing more resources in seeds may minimize PSF for tree species, irrespective of mycorrhizal type. Species that have historically been exposed to greater pathogen abundances in wetter environments may also be better defended against attack, minimizing negative PSF. However, for species currently found in wetter environments, PSF may be strongly negative if their mycorrhizas do not defend them against attack, as is common among arbuscular mycorrhizal trees. Combined, these results highlight the importance of mycorrhizal type in determining the relationship between PSF and climate, but indicate that the relationship between PSF and plant traits may be independent of mycorrhizal type. Nevertheless, mycorrhizal type remains an important consideration when studying PSF, and forest dynamics in general.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 29
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Structural habitat complexity (SHC) and functional habitat connectivity (FHC) are the basic components that make up the physical architecture of an ecosystem, and can have substantial impacts on predator–prey interactions. These structural components influence animal behaviors such as inter-patch movement, foraging, and competition, and can impact community structure/dynamics in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The effects of SHC and FHC on predator–prey dynamics within an ecosystem may also have important cascading effects on neighboring ecosystems by altering the movement of individuals across ecosystem boundaries. For example, when aquatic insects emerge as adults, they enter terrestrial ecosystems where they become an important food resource for terrestrial predators. Using a multiple patch, predator enclosure design in ponds, we tested whether altering intra-patch plant stem densities (SHC) and inter-patch distances (FHC) would influence the impact a predatory fish has on the biomass, quality, and trophic composition of emergent insects. As expected, fish significantly reduced emergent insect biomass (33% ± 7.6, mean ± SE). Intra-patch stem densities (SHC) did not significantly alter fish effects; however, inter-patch distance (FHC) did significantly alter the impact of fish on the size of some emergent insects. Damselflies that emerged in treatments with fish present and shorter inter-patch distances were significantly larger, 4.1 ± 0.1 mg/m 2 compared to 3.3 mg/m 2  ± 0.1 in the long/fish treatments. In fish treatments, this effect on damselfly size resulted in greater reductions in total emergent insect biomass in long inter-patch distance treatments (47.3% ± 6.9) compared to short inter-patch distance treatments (20.5% ± 12.4). Our results suggest that physical components of a habitat, such as inter-patch distances, have important impacts on predator–prey dynamics within habitats. These altered predator–prey dynamics can then have cascading effects on adjacent habitats by influencing the abundance, trophic composition, and quality of exported trophic subsidies.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 30
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Print ISSN: 1757-1693
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-1707
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 31
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Print ISSN: 0007-9235
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4863
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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  • 32
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: The gravitational effects of the atmosphere and subsurface water are significant obstacles to observing gravity variations on the sub-μGal (1 μGal = 10 nm/s 2 ) scale. The goal of this study is to detect changes in gravity that are caused by mass redistributions deep underground related to seismological phenomena by reducing environmental gravity effects using multiple gravimeters below- and aboveground, which we term a “vertical gravimeter array”. Based on an evaluation of the responses to atmospheric effects and rainfall events identified in observations made with individual relative gravimeters, the vertical gravimeter array succeeds in stacking the target signals from deep underground and in reducing errors due to rainfall or free groundwater and atmospheric effects. To enable accurate interpretation, we introduce a physical approach that is based on attraction and loading deformation effects for atmospheric reduction using state-of-the-art gridded weather data products. Changes in the water levels of confined groundwater can be regarded as a signal from deep underground, and a response coefficient of approximately −15 μGal/m was obtained. In addition, the response coefficient of the free groundwater level was determined to be approximately 5 μGal/m. Such array observations are expected to contribute to monitoring crustal activity and hydrological studies.
    Electronic ISSN: 2333-5084
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 33
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are major precursors of both ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the troposphere and represent a non-negligible portion of the carbon fixed by primary producers, but long-term ecosystem scale measurements of their exchanges with the atmosphere are lacking. In this study the fluxes of 46 ions corresponding to 36 BVOCs were continuously monitored along with the exchanges of mass (carbon dioxide, water vapour) and energy (sensible and latent heat) for an entire year in a poplar ( Populus ) short-rotation crop (SRC), using the eddy covariance methodology. BVOC emissions mainly consisted of isoprene, acetic acid and methanol. Total net BVOC emissions were 19.20 kg C ha −1 yr −1 , which represented 0.63% of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE), resulting from −23.59 Mg C ha −1 yr −1 fixed as CO 2 and 20.55 Mg C ha −1 yr −1 respired as CO 2 from the ecosystem. Isoprene emissions represented 0.293% of NEE, being emitted at a ratio of 1:1709 mol isoprene per mol of CO 2 fixed. Based on annual ecosystem-scale measurements this study quantified for the first time that BVOC carbon emissions were lower than previously estimated in other studies (0.5-2% of NEE) on poplar trees. Furthermore, the seasonal and diurnal emission patterns of isoprene, methanol and other BVOCs provided a better interpretation of the relationships with ecosystem CO 2 and water vapour fluxes, with air temperature, vapour pressure deficit and photosynthetic photon flux density. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 1757-1693
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-1707
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 34
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Mounting evidence has indicated that engaging in extrapair copulations (EPCs) might be maladaptive or detrimental to females. It is unclear why such nonadaptive female behavior evolves. In this study, we test two hypotheses about the evolution of female EPC behavior using population genetic models. First, we find that both male preference for allocating extra effort to seek EPCs and female pursuit behavior without costs can be maintained and remain polymorphic in a population via frequency-dependent selection. However, both behaviors cannot evolve when females with pursuit behavior suffer from a decline in male parental care. Second, we present another novel way in which female pursuit behavior can evolve; indirect selection can act on this behavior through a ratchet-like mechanism involving oscillating linkage disequilibria between the target EPC pursuit locus and two other loci determining male mate choice and a female sexual signal. Although the overall positive force of such indirect selection is relatively weak, our results suggest that it may still play a role in promoting the evolution of female EPC behavior when this behavior is nonadaptive (i.e., it is neutral) or only somewhat maladaptive (e.g., males only occasionally lower parental care when their mates pursue EPCs). Little is known about the evolution of nonadaptive female extrapair copulation (EPC) behavior. We find that such a behavior can be maintained and remain polymorphic in a population via frequency-dependent selection when there is no cost for females. Also, indirect selection can act on this behavior through a ratchet-like mechanism involving oscillating linkage disequilibria between the target EPC pursuit locus and two other loci determining male mate choice and a female sexual signal.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 35
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 36
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: The reproductive stages of the life cycle are crucial in explaining the distribution patterns of plant species because of their extreme vulnerability to environmental conditions. Despite reported evidence that seed germination is related to habitat macroclimatic characteristics, such as mean annual temperature, the effect of this trait in controlling plant species distribution has not yet been systematically and quantitatively evaluated. To learn whether seed germination can predict species distribution along altitude gradients, we examined germination data of 36 Rhododendron species in southeastern Tibet originating from contrasting altitudes, habitats, plant heights, seed masses, and phylogenies. Germination varied significantly with altitude, habitat, plant height, and phylogeny and was higher in the light than in the dark. Germination percentage was highest at 10:20°C in the light and 15:25°C in the dark. As altitude increased, germination percentages first rose and then decreased, being highest at 3,500–4,000 m. Germination percentage and rate were highest on rocky slopes, increasing as seed mass and plant height rose. Variations in germination percentage and rate were not significant at subgenera, section, and subsection levels, but they were significant at species level. The results suggested that the relationship between germination and altitude may provide insights into species distribution patterns. Further, germination patterns are a result of long-term evolution as well as taxonomic constraints. The reproductive stages of the life cycle are crucial in explaining the distribution patterns of plant species because of their extreme vulnerability to environmental conditions. Phylogeny, habitat together with biological and ecological factors can influence germination of 36 subalpine Rhododendron species from the eastern Tibetan Plateau.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 37
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: A human-made environmental disaster due to the shipwrecked of Costa Concordia cruise vessel on the Tuscan Island of Giglio (Italy) coast and the possible pollutants release has been feared, so requiring the activation of removal operations and the monitoring of the marine environment. In the present study, the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile was used as a bioindicator for the impact of the Costa Concordia accident on the marine and coastal habitat. Different P. oceanica samples were collected in the shipwrecked site under different light conditions. Using high-performance thin-layer chromatography, metabolic analysis of the samples was carried out in order to highlight possible changes in the secondary metabolism due to the permanent shading and the presence of pollutant traces. Moreover, sample mutagenicity, as a consequence of the possible absorption of environmental toxicants leaked by the wreck, was assessed by the Ames test. The results highlighted the permanence of the Concordia-induced alteration in the plant secondary metabolites. However, absorption of chemical pollutants and carcinogens was not reported; this point was confirmed by the lack of mutagenic effects found for the samples tested. Our results clearly evidence that the environmental impact of Costa Concordia wreck and removal operations on P. oceanica was mainly due to the lack of light in the marine habitat. Present methodological approach, which combines metabolomic and genetic ecotoxicological analysis, could represent a suitable strategy to evaluate the impact of human disasters on the ecosystem and to monitor the environmental changes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 38
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Spatial variation in fish densities across river networks suggests that the influence of food and habitat resources on assemblages varies greatly throughout watersheds. Conceptual models predict that in situ primary production should vary with river characteristics, but the influence of autochthonous resource availability on the capacity for river reaches to support fish is poorly understood. We estimated primary production throughout the South Fork and Middle Fork of the John Day River, Oregon, by measuring diel cycles in dissolved oxygen (DO) during July 2013. Using these data, we (1) evaluated the extent to which juvenile salmonid abundance and resource limitation correlated with areas of high gross primary production (GPP), (2) developed models to predict GPP from both site-level measurements and remotely sensed data, and (3) made predictions of GPP across the entirety of the Middle Fork John Day River (MFJD) network and assessed the utility of these spatially continuous predictions for describing variation fish densities at broad scales. We produced reliable estimates of GPP at sites where DO loggers were deployed using measurements of solar exposure, water temperature, and conductivity measured at each site, as well as surrogates for these data estimated from remote sensing data sources. Estimates of GPP across fish sampling sites explained, on average, 58–63% of the variation in juvenile salmonid densities during the summer sampling period, and 51–83% during the fall sampling period, while continuous network predictions of GPP explained 44% of the variation in fish densities across 29 km of the MFJD. Further, GPP explained nearly half of the variation in juvenile steelhead dietary resource limitation, as inferred from bioenergetics modeling results. These results comprise a first effort at quantifying variation in autochthonous production across an entire river network and, importantly, provide a much-needed food-web context for guiding more effective fish and habitat management.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 39
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 40
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: In article number 1700124 , Pedro M. Martins, Senentxu Lanceros-Méndez, and co-workers show for the first time the immobilization of photocatalytic titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles in a polymer (PVDF) onto the surface of polymeric optical fibers, which can be applied in environmental decontamination. The optical fibers not only act as a material of light transportation but also an immobilization matrix for the PVDF/TiO 2 composite, thus radiation and the photocatalytic effect are provided by the same material. The immobilization of TiO 2 in the polymer improves the stability of the coating and consequently its reusability, which is important for practical applications. As light is transmitted through the fibers until the end tip, remote environments deployed of light access, as it is the case of soil and deep water, can be reached and decontaminated. This work combines the practicability of the optical fibers to transport radiation, the chemical resilience of the PVDF coating, and the catalytic properties of TiO 2 into a single material.
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 41
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: No abstract is available for this article.
    Electronic ISSN: 2333-5084
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 42
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: A novel method is developed to realize a III-V/Si dual-junction photovoltaic cell by combining epitaxial lift-off (ELO) and print-transfer-assisted bonding methods. The adoption of ELO enables III-V wafers to be recycled and reused, which can further lower the cost of III-V/Si photovoltaic panels. For demonstration, high crystal quality, micrometer-thick, GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs films are lifted off, transferred, and directly bonded onto Si wafer without the use of any adhesive or bonding agents. The bonding interface is optically transparent and conductive both thermally and electrically. Prototype AlGaAs/Si dual-junction tandem solar cells have been fabricated and exhibit decent performance. A novel method is developed to realize an III-V/Si multijunction photovoltaic device by combining the epitaxial lift-off (ELO) and print-transfer-assisted bonding methods. The adoption of ELO enables III-V wafers to be recycled and reused, which is promising to further lower the cost of III-V/Si photovoltaic panels.
    Electronic ISSN: 2050-0505
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 43
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: The transport phase of the animal-mediated plant dispersal process is critical to dispersal effectiveness as it determines the spatial distribution of the diaspores released and their chance for further recruitment. Assessing this specific phase of the dispersal process generally requires combining diaspore retention times with the associated distances covered. Here, we specifically tested the effect of grooming behavior, interindividual contacts and ungulate fur on diaspore retention times and associated dispersal distances for the hooked diaspores of Xanthium strumarium L. experimentally attached to tamed individuals of three ungulate species. We used a comparative approach based on differing fur quality on different body zones of these three ungulates. During 6-hr sessions, we monitored for grooming and social interactions that may induce intended or inadvertent diaspore detachment. Additionally, we proposed innovative approaches to directly assessing diaspore dispersal distances by red deer in situ. Fat-tailed functions fitted diaspore retention time, highlighting the potential for long-distance dispersal events. The longer the hair, the higher the retention capacity of diaspores in the animal's fur. As predicted, donkey retained diaspores longer than red deer and dwarf goat; and we also confirmed that diaspores attached to the short hair of the head fell off more quickly than did those on the other body zones. Dwarf goat groomed more often than both red deer and donkey, but also when it carried diaspores. Up to 14% of the diaspores detached from animal fur after specific grooming behavior. We observed, in controlled conditions, for the first time and for each ungulate species, interindividual transfers of diaspores, representing 5% of the diaspores attached to animals’ fur. Our results militate for incorporating animal behavior into plant dispersal modeling approaches. We present important methodological updates stressing the potential for long-distance animal-mediated diaspore dispersal events using short monitoring sessions and a trait-based cross-comparative approach. We highlight the interest of coupling diaspore fate monitoring with behavioral census. This helped us describing for the first time unsuspected diaspore transfers among conspecifics.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 44
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-06
    Description: A new statistical-dynamical model is developed for estimating the long-term hazard of rare, high impact tropical cyclones events globally. There are three components representing the complete storm lifetime: an environmental index-based genesis model, a beta-advection track model and an autoregressive intensity model. All three components depend upon the local environmental conditions, including potential intensity, relative sea surface temperature, 850 and 250 hPa steering flow, deep-layer mean vertical shear, 850 hPa vorticity, and midlevel relative humidity. The hazard model, using 400 realizations of a 32-year period (approximately 3000 storms per realization), captures many aspects of tropical cyclone statistics, such as genesis and track density distribution. Of particular note, it simulates the observed number of rapidly intensifying storms, a challenging issue in tropical cyclone modeling and prediction. Using the return period curve of landfall intensity as a measure of local tropical cyclone hazard, the model reasonably simulates the hazard in the western north Pacific (coastal regions of the Philippines, China, Taiwan, and Japan) and the Caribbean islands. In other regions, the observed return period curve can be captured after a local landfall frequency adjustment that forces the total number of landfalls to be the same as that observed while allowing the model to freely simulate the distribution of intensities at landfall.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 45
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a differentiation- and stress-associated molecule that is predominantly expressed in astrocytes in the central nervous system. In this study, we examined the expression and role of NDRG2 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of NDRG2 was observed in astrocytes of spinal cord, and was enhanced after EAE induction. A comparative analysis of wild-type (WT) and Ndrg2 -/- mice revealed that deletion of Ndrg2 ameliorated the clinical symptoms of EAE. Although Ndrg2 deficiency only slightly affected the inflammatory response, based on the results of flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry, it significantly reduced demyelination in the chronic phase, and, more importantly, neurodegeneration both in the acute and chronic phases. Further studies revealed that the expression of astrocytic glutamate transporters, including glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), was more maintained in the Ndrg2 -/- mice compared with WT mice after EAE induction. Consistent with these results, studies using cultured astrocytes revealed that Ndrg2 gene silencing increased the expression of GLAST, while NDRG2 overexpression decreased it without altering the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. The effect of NDRG2 on GLAST expression was associated with the activation of Akt, but not with the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B. These findings suggest that NDRG2 plays a key role in the pathology of EAE by modulating glutamate metabolism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 46
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: The etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is egregiously comprehended, but epidemiological studies have posited that diets rich in the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid (palmitate) are a significant risk factor. The production and accumulation of Amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) is considered the core pathological molecular event in the pathogenesis of AD. The rate limiting step in Aβ genesis from Amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) is catalyzed by the enzyme β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), the expression and enzymatic activity of which is significantly upregulated in the AD brain. In this study, we determined the molecular mechanisms that potentially underlie the palmitate-induced up-regulation in BACE1 expression and augmented Aβ production. We demonstrate that a palmitate-enriched diet and exogenous palmitate treatment evoke an increase in BACE1 expression and activity leading to enhanced Aβ genesis in the mouse brain and SH-SY5Y-APP S we cells respectively, through the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and luciferase reporter assays revealed that palmitate enhances BACE1 expression by increasing the binding of NF-κB in the BACE1 promoter followed by an enhancement in the transactivation of the BACE1 promoter. Elucidation and delineation of upstream molecular events unveiled a critical role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated transcription factor, C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP) in the palmitate-induced NF-κB activation, as CHOP knock-down cells and Chop -/- mice do not exhibit the same degree of NF-κB activation in response to the palmitate challenge. Our study delineates a novel CHOP-NF-κB signaling pathway that mediates palmitate-induced up-regulation of BACE1 expression and Aβ genesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 47
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Molecular imaging of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the brain provides an important cholinergic biomarker for the pathophysiology and treatment of dementias including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, kinetics modeling methods were applied and compared for quantifying regional brain uptake of the VAChT-specific PET radiotracer, ((-)-(1-(-8-(2-fluoroethoxy)-3-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)piperidin-4-yl)(4-fluorophenyl)-methanone) ([ 18 F]VAT) in macaques. Total volume distribution ( V T ) estimates were compared for one-tissue compartment model (1TCM), two-tissue compartment model (2TCM), Logan graphic analysis (LoganAIF) and multiple linear analysis (MA1) with arterial blood input function using data from three macaques. Using the cerebellum-hemispheres as the reference region with data from seven macaques, three additional models were compared: reference tissue model (RTM), simplified reference tissue model (SRTM), and Logan graphic analysis (LoganREF). Model selection criterion (MSC) indicated that a) 2TCM and SRTM were the most appropriate kinetics models for [ 18 F]VAT; and b) SRTM was strongly correlated with 2TCM (Pearson's coefficients r 〉 0.93, p 〈 0.05). Test-retest studies demonstrated that [ 18 F]VAT has good reproducibility and reliability (TRV 〈 10%, ICC 〉 0.72). These studies demonstrate [ 18 F]VAT is a promising VAChT PET tracer for quantitative assessment of VAChT levels in the brain of living subjects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 48
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-07
    Description: Growing evidence suggests a close relationship between Alzheimer′s Disease (AD) and cerebral hypoxia. Astrocytes play a key role in brain homeostasis and disease states, while some of the earliest changes in AD occur in astrocytes. We have therefore asked whether mutations associated with AD increase astrocyte vulnerability to ischemia. Two astroglioma cell lines derived from APP SWE /PS1A246E (APP, amyloid precursor protein; PS1, presenilin 1) transgenic mice and controls from normal mice were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model of ischemia. Cell death was increased in the APP SWE /PS1A246E line compared to the control. Increasing extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ]) exacerbated cell death in the mutant but not in the control cells. In order to explore cellular Ca 2+ homeostasis the cells were challenged with ATP or thapsigargin and [Ca 2+ ] was measured by fluorescence microscopy. Changes in cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] c ) were potentiated in the APP SWE /PS1A246E transgenic line. Mitochondrial function was also altered in the APP SWE /PS1A246E astroglioma cells; mitochondrial membrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species were increased while mitochondrial basal respiratory rate and ATP production were decreased compared to control astroglioma cells. These results suggest that AD mutations in astrocytes make them more sensitive to ischemia; Ca 2+ dysregulation and mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to this increased vulnerability. Our results also highlight the role of astrocyte dyshomeostasis in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative brain disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 49
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-08
    Description: Genotyping of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is challenging when they are hypervariable and occur in multiple copies. In this study, we used several different approaches to genotype the moderately variable MHC class I exon 3 (MHCIe3) and the highly polymorphic MHC class II exon 2 (MHCIIβe2) in the bluethroat ( Luscinia svecica ). Two family groups (eight individuals) were sequenced in replicates at both markers using Ion Torrent technology with both a single- and a dual-indexed primer structure. Additionally, MHCIIβe2 was sequenced on Illumina MiSeq. Allele calling was conducted by modifications of the pipeline developed by Sommer et al. (BMC Genomics, 14, 2013, 542) and the software AmpliSAS. While the different genotyping strategies gave largely consistent results for MHCIe3, with a maximum of eight alleles per individual, MHCIIβe2 was remarkably complex with a maximum of 56 MHCIIβe2 alleles called for one individual. Each genotyping strategy detected on average 50%–82% of all MHCIIβe2 alleles per individual, but dropouts were largely allele-specific and consistent within families for each strategy. The discrepancies among approaches indicate PCR biases caused by the platform-specific primer tails. Further, AmpliSAS called fewer alleles than the modified Sommer pipeline. Our results demonstrate that allelic dropout is a significant problem when genotyping the hypervariable MHCIIβe2. As these genotyping errors are largely nonrandom and method-specific, we caution against comparing genotypes across different genotyping strategies. Nevertheless, we conclude that high-throughput approaches provide a major advance in the challenging task of genotyping hypervariable MHC loci, even though they may not reveal the complete allelic repertoire. Several different approaches were used to genotype the moderately variable MHC class I exon 3 (MHCIe3) and the highly polymorphic MHC class II exon 2 (MHCIIβe2) in the bluethroat, using replicates and family data. While the results were largely consistent for MHCIe3 among strategies, the different strategies rendered different results for MHCIIβe2.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 50
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Underground community assemblies have not been studied well compared with aboveground communities, despite their importance for our understanding of whole ecosystems. To investigate underground community assembly over evolutionary timescales, we examined terrestrial earthworm communities (Oligochaeta: Haplotaxida) in conserved mountainous primary forests in Japan as a model system. We collected 553 earthworms mostly from two dominant families, the Megascolecidae and the Lumbricidae, from 12 sites. We constructed a molecular taxonomic unit tree based on the analysis of three genes to examine the effects of a biogeographic factor (dispersal ability) and an evolutionary factor (habitat adaptation) on the earthworm community assembly process. The phylogenetic distance of the earthworm communities among sites was positively correlated with geographic distance when intraspecific variation was included, indicating that the divergence within species was affected by biogeographic factors. The community assembly process in the Megascolecidae has also been affected by environmental conditions in relation to an evolutionary relationship between habitat environment and intestinal cecum type, a trait closely related to habitat depth and diet, whereas that in the Lumbricidae has not been affected as such. Intestinal cecum type showed a pattern of niche conservatism in the Megascolecidae lineage. Our results suggest that investigating the evolution of a key trait related to life history can lead to the clear description of community assembly process over a long timescale and that the community assembly process can differ greatly among related lineages even though they live sympatrically. To investigate underground community assembly over evolutionary time scales, we examined terrestrial earthworm communities (Oligochaeta: Haplotaxida) in conserved mountainous primary forests in Japan. Our study shows that the community assembly process in the Megascolecidae, which is one of the two dominant families in Japan, has been affected by environmental factors in relation to an evolutionary relationship between habitat environment and intestinal cecum type, a trait closely related to habitat depth and diet, whereas that in the Lumbricidae has not been affected as such. Our results suggest that investigating the evolution of a key trait related to life history can lead to the clear description of community assembly process and that the community assembly process can differ greatly among related lineages even though they live sympatrically.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 51
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 52
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Rare species can play important functional roles, but human-induced changes to disturbance regimes, such as fire, can inadvertently affect these species. We examined the influence of prescribed burns on the recruitment and diversity of plant species within a temperate forest in southeastern Australia, with a focus on species that were rare prior to burning. Floristic composition was compared among plots in landscapes before and after treatment with prescribed burns differing in the extent of area burnt and season of burn (before–after, control-impact design). Floristic surveys were conducted before burns, at the end of a decade of drought, and 3 years postburn. We quantified the effect of prescribed burns on species grouped by their frequency within the landscape before burning (common, less common, and rare) and their life-form attributes (woody perennials, perennial herbs or geophytes, and annual herbs). Burn treatment influenced the response of rare species. In spring-burn plots, the recruitment of rare annual herbs was promoted, differentiating this treatment from both autumn-burn and unburnt plots. In autumn-burn plots, richness of rare species increased across all life-form groups, although composition remained statistically similar to control plots. Richness of rare woody perennials increased in control plots. For all other life-form and frequency groups, the floristic composition of landscapes changed between survey years, but there was no effect of burn treatment, suggesting a likely effect of rainfall on species recruitment. A prescribed burn can increase the occurrence of rare species in a landscape, but burn characteristics can affect the promotion of different life-form groups and thus affect functional diversity. Drought-breaking rain likely had an overarching effect on floristic composition during our study, highlighting that weather can play a greater role in influencing recruitment and diversity in plant communities than a prescribed burn. Prescribed burning can inadvertently affect plant rarity. We examined the influence of prescribed fire on plants in a temperate forest and found that prescribed burns can positively influence the presence of rare species. Burn characteristics, such as season and extent, can influence the type of life-form promoted, for example, extensive spring burns favoring rare annual herbs. Managing disturbance to promote heterogeneous landscapes may help maintain rare species diversity on a landscape scale.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 53
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Food resources are often not sufficient to satisfy the nutritional and energetic requirements during winter conditions at high latitudes. Dietary analysis is a prerequisite to fully understanding the feeding ecology of a species and the nature of trophic interactions. Previous dietary studies of Asian Great Bustard ( Otis tarda dybowskii ) relied on behavioral observations, resulting in categorization of diet limited to broad taxonomic groupings. Here, we applied a high-throughput sequencing meta-barcoding approach to quantify the diet of resident and migratory Asian Great Bustard in three wintering sites during early winter and late winter. We detected 57 unique plant taxa in the bustard diet, among which 15 species were confirmed by a local plant database we generated. Both agricultural and natural foods were detected, indicating a relatively broad dietary niche. Spatiotemporal dietary changes were discovered, revealing diet differences among wintering sites and a general shift toward lower plant diversity later in winter. For the nonmigratory population, we detected a significantly more diverse array of plant species in their diet. We hypothesize that dietary variation between resident and migratory populations could be involved in the recent transition to partial migration in this species, although climate change can not be excluded. Collectively, these results support protecting unharvested grain fields and naturally unplowed lands to help conserve and promote population growth of Asian Great Bustard. Previous studies on the diet of Asian Great Bustard ( Otis tarda dybowskii ) relied only on behavioral observation, resulting in superficial knowledge of diet limited to broad taxonomic. We applied the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approach to the analysis of the plant component of resident and migratory Asian Great Bustard diet in three wintering sites during early winter and late winter. Spatiotemporal dietary changes were discovered, revealing an interactive effect of wintering site and wintering time on diets of Asian Great Bustards.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 54
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Prions that cause chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids can remain infective for years outside the host. Infectious cervids shed prions for a long time, consequently depositing prions in frequently used areas. These environmental prions are important in CWD epidemiology. Unfortunately, effective tools for quantifying CWD prions in soil, water, and other environmental sources are not currently available. Our goal was to investigate relative differences in visits by mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus hemionus ) to various environmental site types as an indicator of the relative risk of prion contamination and disease transmission. For this, we deployed a system of triggered-by-movement cameras at eight site types in a CWD-endemic area in Saskatchewan, Canada. We first assessed whether the relative differences among site types in the frequency of visits by mule deer of any sex-and-age class, males, and females varied by season and site type. We then assessed whether the rate of behaviors with a high risk of environmental prion transmission (either contamination or acquisition) differed by season and site type. Finally, we assessed whether the intensity of visitation, based on the number of animals per picture, differed by season and site type. We found that grain sources and beds were key attractants for mule deer: (1) The greatest number of pictures with mule deer per camera-day occurred at grain sources across all seasons, except in fawning, when beds were the most visited sites; (2) during pre-rut and early gestation, mule deer visited grain sources at least twice as often as most other sites; (3) females were more likely to visit beds and grain sources, but there was no significant site preferences for males after accounting for season; (4) mule deer were most likely to be pictured contacting the environment at grain sources in early gestation; and (5) beds and grain sources were the most intensively visited sites. We also found that environmental contacts at waterholes were more frequent during spring. We discuss the potential importance of various sites in the transmission of CWD and how their modification could potentially reduce the risk of prion environmental exposure among mule deer.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 55
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Plant species affect soil bacterial diversity and compositions. However, little is known about the role of dominant plant species in shaping the soil bacterial community during the restoration of sandy grasslands in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China. We established a mesocosm pots experiment to investigate short-term responses of soil bacterial diversity and composition, and the related soil properties in degraded soils without vegetation (bare sand as the control, CK) to restoration with five plant species that dominate across restoration stages: Agriophyllum squarrosum (AS), Artemisia halodendron (AH), Setaria viridis (SV), Chenopodium acuminatum (CA), and Corispermum macrocarpum (CM). We used redundancy analysis (RDA) to analyze the association between soil bacterial composition and soil properties in different plant species. Our results indicated that soil bacterial diversity was significantly lower in vegetated soils independent of plant species than in the CK. Specifically, soil bacterial species richness and diversity were lower under the shrub AH and the herbaceous plants AS, SV, and CA, and soil bacterial abundance was lower under AH compared with the CK. A field investigation confirmed the same trends where soil bacteria diversity was lower under AS and AH than in bare sand. The high-sequence annotation analysis showed that Proteobacteria , Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the most common phyla in sandy land irrespective of soil plant cover. The OTUs (operational taxonomic units) indicated that some bacterial species were specific to the host plants. Relative to bare sand (CK), soils with vegetative cover exhibited lower soil water content and temperature, and higher soil carbon and nitrogen contents. The RDA result indicated that, in addition to plant species, soil water and nitrogen contents were the most important factors shaping soil bacterial composition in semiarid sandy land. Our study from the pot and field investigations clearly demonstrated that planting dominant species in bare sand impacts bacterial diversity. In semiarid ecosystems, changes in the dominant plant species during vegetation restoration efforts can affect the soil bacterial diversity and composition through the direct effects of plants and the indirect effects of soil properties that are driven by plant species. In addition to plant species, soil water and nitrogen contents were the most important factors shaping soil bacterial composition in semiarid sandy land. Our study from the pot and field investigations clearly demonstrated that planting dominant species in bare sand impacts bacterial diversity. In semiarid ecosystems, changes in the dominant plant species during vegetation restoration efforts can affect the soil bacterial diversity and composition through the direct effects of plants and the indirect effects of soil properties that are driven by plant species.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
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  • 56
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Fire exclusion in eastern North American Quercus–Carya woodlands has resulted in overstory compositional changes, linked to altered fuel composition, structure, and ultimately, altered fire regimes. These compositional changes have been implicated in a dampening effect on fire behavior in formerly fire-prone ecosystems, the positive feedback termed “mesophication.” Several proposed mechanisms are likely involved in this process; however, few have been examined. We evaluated the potential mechanism of dampened forest floor flammability through changes in litter composition in a southeastern U.S. oak–hickory forest undergoing mesophication. Laboratory drying and burning experiments revealed that increasing the relative contribution of litter from fire-sensitive mesophytic tree species ( Liquidambar styraciflua , Ulmus alata , and Cornus florida ) increased moisture retention and diminished litter flammability. Litterbeds composed of ≥66% mesophyte litter gained the most moisture following fuelbed saturation and were consistently wetter than pyrophyte litter following 12 and 24 h of drying. Flammability metrics decreased with increasing contribution of mesophyte litter with reductions most pronounced under more moist conditions. Under dry conditions, where litter moisture did not differ across compositional treatments, mesophyte litter was less flammable than fuelbeds that contained any pyrophyte litter. The combined effects of moisture retention and less flammable litter reveal an important synergistic impact that may result with increased dominance of fire-sensitive mesophytic species. Restoration efforts in long-unburned eastern hardwood forests may require altering stand composition to limit mesophytic litter input or developing burn prescriptions that intensify surface fire behavior in less flammable fuels.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 57
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Over the past two decades, the population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline in overwintering numbers. Habitat restoration that includes planting milkweeds is essential to boost monarch numbers within the breeding range. Milkweeds are the only host plants for larval monarch butterflies, but female oviposition preference for different milkweed species, especially those with overlapping ranges, is not well documented. We examined the relative inclination to lay eggs on nine milkweed species native to Iowa (no choice), and oviposition preference (choice) among the four most commonly occurring Iowa species ( Asclepias incarnata , Asclepias syriaca , Asclepias tuberosa , and Asclepias verticillata ). In both experiments, eggs were counted daily for four days. The milkweeds tested were Asclepias exaltata (poke milkweed), Asclepias hirtella (tall green milkweed), A. incarnata (swamp milkweed), Asclepias speciosa (showy milkweed), Asclepias sullivantii (prairie milkweed), A. syriaca (common milkweed), A. tuberosa (butterfly milkweed), A. verticillata (whorled milkweed), and Cynanchum laeve (honeyvine milkweed). When females were given only a single species on which to lay eggs, there were significant differences among milkweed species in the average number of eggs laid; A. incarnata had the highest average egg count. When females were given a choice among A. incarnata , A. syriaca , A. tuberosa , and A. verticillata , there were also differences among milkweed species in the number of eggs laid; again, A. incarnata had the highest average number of eggs laid. Additionally, females laid more total eggs when four plants of different milkweed species were available than when there were four plants of a single milkweed species. Our results show that monarch butterflies will lay eggs on all nine milkweeds, but that there are clear preferences for some milkweed species over others.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Proteostasis imbalance is emerging as a major hallmark of cancer, driving tumor aggressiveness. Evidence suggests that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a major site for protein folding and quality control, plays a critical role in cancer development. This concept is valid in glioblastoma multiform (GBM), the most lethal primary brain cancer with no effective treatment. We previously demonstrated that the ER stress sensor IRE1α (referred to as IRE1) contributes to GBM progression, through XBP1 mRNA splicing and regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD) of RNA. Here, we first demonstrated IRE1 signaling significance to human GBM and defined specific IRE1-dependent gene expression signatures that were confronted to human GBM transcriptomes. This approach allowed us to demonstrate the antagonistic roles of XBP1 mRNA splicing and RIDD on tumor outcomes, mainly through selective remodeling of the tumor stroma. This study provides the first demonstration of a dual role of IRE1 downstream signaling in cancer and opens a new therapeutic window to abrogate tumor progression. The IRE1 arm of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) plays a major role in cancer development. Dissecting IRE1 signals in human glioblastoma tumors, primary and established cell lines reveals the dual role of XBP1 mRNA splicing and RIDD in tumor aggressiveness.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 59
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Inherited CTPS1, CD27, and CD70 deficiencies in humans have revealed key factors of T-lymphocyte expansion, a critical prerequisite for an efficient immunity to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. RASGRP1 is a T-lymphocyte-specific nucleotide exchange factor known to activate the pathway of MAP kinases (MAPK). A deleterious homozygous mutation in RASGRP1 leading to the loss RASGRP1 expression was identified in two siblings who both developed a persistent EBV infection leading to Hodgkin lymphoma. RASGRP1-deficient T cells exhibited defective MAPK activation and impaired proliferation that was restored by expression of wild-type RASGRP1. Similar defects were observed in T cells from healthy individuals when RASGRP1 was downregulated. RASGRP1-deficient T cells also exhibited decreased CD27-dependent proliferation toward CD70-expressing EBV-transformed B cells, a crucial pathway required for expansion of antigen-specific T cells during anti-EBV immunity. Furthermore, RASGRP1-deficient T cells failed to upregulate CTPS1, an important enzyme involved in DNA synthesis. These results show that RASGRP1 deficiency leads to susceptibility to EBV infection and demonstrate the key role of RASGRP1 at the crossroad of pathways required for the expansion of activated T lymphocytes. RASGRP1 deficiency is characterized by a high susceptibility to develop Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders such as B-cell lymphoma like Hodgkin lymphoma. This is caused by defective expansion of activated T cells required for an efficient immune response to EBV.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) as senile plaques is one of the pathological hallmarks in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In addition, glial activation has been found in AD brains, although the precise pathological role of astrocytes remains unclear. Here, we identified kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) as an astrocyte-derived Aβ degrading enzyme. Expression of KLK7 mRNA was significantly decreased in the brains of AD patients. Ablation of Klk7 exacerbated the thioflavin S-positive Aβ pathology in AD model mice. The expression of Klk7 was upregulated by Aβ treatment in the primary astrocyte, suggesting that Klk7 is homeostatically modulated by Aβ-induced responses. Finally, we found that the Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-dementia drug memantine can increase the expression of Klk7 and Aβ degradation activity specifically in the astrocytes. These data suggest that KLK7 is an important enzyme in the degradation and clearance of deposited Aβ species by astrocytes involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Decreased clearance of Aβ from the brain is related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) is an astrocyte-derived Aβ degrading enzyme that affects the amyloid pathology. Thus, astrocytes could be an effective cellular target for AD.
    Print ISSN: 1757-4676
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-4684
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 61
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: The adjoint method is used to calibrate the medium complexity climate model “Planet Simulator” through parameter estimation. Identical twin experiments demonstrate that this method can retrieve default values of the control parameters when using a long assimilation window of the order of 2 months. Chaos synchronization through nudging, required to overcome limits in the temporal assimilation window in the adjoint method, is employed successfully to reach this assimilation window length. When assimilating ERA-Interim reanalysis data, the observations of air temperature and the radiative fluxes are the most important data for adjusting the control parameters. The global mean net longwave fluxes at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere are significantly improved by tuning two model parameters controlling the absorption of clouds and water vapor. The global mean net shortwave radiation at the surface is improved by optimizing three model parameters controlling cloud optical properties. The optimized parameters improve the free model (without nudging terms) simulation in a way similar to that in the assimilation experiments. Results suggest a promising way for tuning uncertain parameters in non-linear coupled climate models.
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2466
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 62
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is a component of compact myelin in the peripheral nervous system. The amount of PMP22 in myelin is tightly regulated, and PMP22 over or under-expression cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) and Hereditary Neuropathy with Pressure Palsies (HNPP). Despite the importance of PMP22 , its function remains largely unknown. It was reported that PMP22 interacts with the β4 subunit of the laminin receptor α6β4 integrin, suggesting that α6β4 integrin and laminins may contribute to the pathogenesis of CMT1A or HNPP. Here we asked if the lack of α6β4 integrin in Schwann cells influences myelin stability in the HNPP mouse model. Our data indicate that PMP22 and β4 integrin may not interact directly in myelinating Schwann cells, however, ablating β4 integrin delays the formation of tomacula, a characteristic feature of HNPP. In contrast, ablation of integrin β4 worsens nerve conduction velocities and non-compact myelin organization in HNPP animals. This study demonstrates that indirect interactions between an extracellular matrix receptor and a myelin protein influence the stability and function of myelinated fibers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 63
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: The attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli has been shown to be associated with substance abuse-like behavior such as increased drug taking. Evidence suggests that glutamate neurotransmission and sequential N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) activation are involved in the attribution of incentive salience. Here we further explore the role of second-by-second glutamate neurotransmission in the attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli by measuring sign-tracking behavior during a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure using ceramic-based microelectrode arrays configured for sensitive measures of extracellular glutamate in awake behaving Sprague Dawley rats. Specifically, we show that there is an increase in extracellular glutamate levels in the prelimbic cortex (PrL) and the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) during sign-tracking behavior to a food-predictive conditioned stimulus (CS+) compared to the presentation of a non-predictive conditioned stimulus (CS-). Further, the results indicate greater increases in extracellular glutamate levels in the PrL compared to NAcC in response to the CS+, including differences in glutamate release and signal decay. Taken together, the present research suggests that there is differential glutamate signaling in the NAcC and PrL during sign-tracking behavior to a food-predictive CS+. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 64
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Parkinson's disease (PD) is marked clinically by motor dysfunction and pathologically by dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra (SN) and iron accumulation in the substantia nigra. The driver underlying iron accumulation is unknown and could be genetic or environmental. The HFE protein is critical for the regulation of cellular iron uptake. Mutations within this protein are associated with increased iron accumulation including in the brain. We have focused on the commonly occurring H63D variant of the HFE gene as a disease modifier in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. To investigate the role of H63D HFE genotype, we generated a mouse model in which the wild-type (WT) HFE gene is replaced by the H67D gene variant (mouse homolog of the human H63D gene variant). Using paraquat toxicity as the model for Parkinson's disease, we found that WT mice responded as expected with significantly greater motor function, loss of tyrosine hydroxylase staining and increase microglial staining in the substantia nigra, and an increase in R 2 relaxation rate within the substantia nigra of the paraquat-treated mice compared to their saline-treated counterparts. In contrast, the H67D mice showed a remarkable resistance to paraquat treatment; specifically differing from the WT mice with no changes in motor function or changes in R 2 relaxation rates following paraquat exposure. At baseline, there were differences between the H67D HFE mice and WT mice in gut microbiome profile and increased L-ferritin staining in the substantia nigra that could account for the resistance to paraquat. Of particular note, the H67D HFE mice regardless of whether or not they were treated with paraquat had significantly less tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining than WT. Our results clearly demonstrate that the HFE genotype impacts the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra, the gut microbiome and the response to paraquat providing additional support that the HFE genotype is a disease modifier for PD. Moreover, the finding that the HFE mutant mice are resistant to paraquat may provide a model in which to study resistant mechanisms to neurotoxicants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 65
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Loss of function mutations of DJ-1 ( PARK7 ) have been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Antioxidative stress is one of the multi-protective functions of DJ-1, and oxidation of cysteine 106 (Cys106) has been proposed to regulate the protective activity of DJ-1. Uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4) is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria and functions to protect against oxidative stress. In this study, we used neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells and DJ-1 knockout (KO) mice to elucidate whether DJ-1 regulated oxidative stress via modulating the expression of UCP4, and the underlying mechanism. The downstream products of oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cell viability were also investigated. We found that UCP4 was up regulated upon 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + ) stimulation in SH-SY5Y cells, which was enhanced by wild type DJ-1 and alleviated by DJ-1 knockdown. Expression of UCP4 in DJ-1 KO mice was lower compared with wild type mice. In addition, up-regulation of UCP4 was alleviated by inhibition of oxidized DJ-1, and enhanced by increase of oxidized DJ-1 under conditions of oxidative stress using western blot analysis. Moreover, overexpression of UCP4 in DJ-1 knockdown cells partially reversed the decrease of cell viability, ΔΨm, as well as the increase of products of oxidative stress upon MPP + stimulation. Further analysis showed that DJ-1 regulated transcriptional activity of UCP4 partially via Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in the presence of MPP + . Together, our results suggested DJ-1 might regulate the expression of UCP4 by oxidation of DJ-1 and partially via NF-κB pathway in its protective response to oxidative stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 66
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Delayed cell death in the penumbra region of acute ischemic stroke occurs through apoptotic mechanisms, making it amenable to therapeutic interventions. Fas/CD95 mediates apoptotic cell death in response to external stimuli. In mature neurons, Fas/CD95 signaling is modulated by Fas-apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (Faim2), which reduces cell death in animal models of stroke, meningitis, and Parkinson disease. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been studied as a therapeutic strategy in ischemic stroke. Erythropoietin stimulates the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, which regulates Faim2 expression. Therefore, upregulation of Faim2 may contribute to neuroprotection by EPO. Male Faim2 deficient mice (Faim2 -/- ) and wild type littermates (WT) were subjected to 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 72 h of reperfusion. EPO was applied before (30 min) and after (24 and 48 h) MCAo. In WT mice application of EPO at a low dose (5,000 U/kg) significantly reduced stroke volume whereas treatment with high dose (90,000 U/kg) did not. In Faim2 -/- animals administration of low dose EPO did not result in a significant reduction of stroke volume. Faim2 expression as measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) increased after low dose EPO but not with high dose. An extensive phenotyping including analysis of cerebral vessel architecture did not reveal confounding differences between the genotypes. In human post mortem brain Faim2 displayed a differential expression in areas of penumbral ischemia. Faim2 upregulation may contribute to the neuroprotective effects of low dose erythropoietin in transient brain ischemia. The dose-dependency may explain mixed effects of erythropoietin observed in clinical stroke trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3042
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-4159
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 67
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Leaf area index (LAI) is often used to quantify plant production and evapotranspiration with terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs). This study evaluated the LAI simulation in North America using a data assimilation technique and a process-based TEM as well as in situ and satellite data. We first optimized the parameters related to LAI in the TEM using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, and AmeriFlux site-level and regional LAI data from advanced very high-resolution radiometer. The parameterized model was then verified with the observed monthly LAI of major ecosystem types at site level. Simulated LAI was compared well with the observed data at sites of Harvard Forest ( R 2  = 0.96), University of Michigan Biological Station ( R 2  = 0.87), Howland Forest ( R 2  = 0.96), Morgan Monroe State Forest ( R 2  = 0.85), Shidler Tallgrass Prairie ( R 2  = 0.82), and Donaldson ( R 2  = 0.75). The root-mean-square error (RMSE) between modeled and satellite-based monthly LAI in North America is 1.4 m 2 /m 2 for the period of 1985–2010. The simulated average monthly LAI in recent three decades increased by (3 ± 0.5)% in the region, with 1.24, 1.46, and 2.21 m 2 /m 2 on average, in Alaska, Canada, and the conterminous United States, respectively, which is consistent with satellite data. The model performed well for wet tundra, boreal forest, temperate coniferous forests, temperate deciduous forests, grasslands, and xeric shrublands (RMSE 〈 1.5 m 2 /m 2 ), but not for alpine tundra and xeric woodlands (RMSE 〉 1.5 m 2 /m 2 ). Both the spring and fall LAI in the 2000s are higher than that in the 1980s in the region, suggesting that the leaf phenology has an earlier onset and later senescence in the 2000s. The average LAI increased in April and September by 0.03 and 0.24 m 2 /m 2 , respectively. This study provides a way to quantify LAI with ecosystem models, which will improve future carbon and water cycling studies.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 68
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has emerged as an effective tool for estimating active layer thickness (ALT) and volumetric water content (VWC) within the active layer. In August 2013, we conducted a series of GPR and probing surveys using a 500 MHz antenna and metallic probe around Barrow, Alaska. We collected about 15 km of GPR data and 1.5 km of probing data. Here, we describe the GPR data processing workflow from raw GPR data to the estimated ALT and VWC. We include the corresponding uncertainties for each measured and estimated parameter. The estimated average GPR-derived ALT was 41 cm, with a standard deviation of 9 cm. The average probed ALT was 40 cm, with a standard deviation of 12 cm. The average GPR-derived VWC was 0.65, with a standard deviation of 0.14.
    Electronic ISSN: 2049-6060
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 69
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Whether interactions between wildlife and livestock are competitive or facilitative is context dependent. Intermediary factors that explain how context (seasonal or regional characteristics of the ecological community) affects these interactions are rarely reported. We compared activity time and density in vicuñas ( Vicugna vicugna ) introduced into the Chimborazo Faunal Production Reserve (CFPR), Ecuador, to describe how they interact with livestock. We compared vicuña density in wetlands and uplands (two landscape structures) with and without livestock (two conditions) using an isodar approach. We measured, over two seasons, vicuña forage abundance, composition, preference and accessibility, time vicuñas spent vigilant, and their flight distances on approach. We tested optimal foraging theory relating to the hypothesis that time mediates behavior, and found that vicuñas were no less frequently vigilant, nor were flight distances greater, during a wet season or in habitats of greater forage abundance and accessibility. We also found no evidence that vicuña behavior was density dependent; instead, we found that more time was spent vigilant by vicuñas when they foraged near livestock in rainy regions during the dry season. Although forage abundance was similar throughout CFPR during a dry season, better forage quality in areas occupied by livestock may constitute an effect of their facilitating vicuñas. A puzzling finding, because it was not explained by any of the other variables we measured, was that at low densities vicuñas selected habitat irrespective of livestock, and where their density was higher, it was doubly so adjacent to livestock. We conclude that in the CFPR, spatial heterogeneity in habitat quality determines the interactions between livestock and vicuñas. To support recommendations that minimize competition between wildlife and livestock, and to expand on descriptions of the contexts that determine the direction of species interactions, future study may require a wider sampling of the densities of sympatric large herbivores in general, and, in the CFPR, a closer resolution of spatial heterogeneity in forage plant quality.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 70
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Compositional changes in Himalayan vegetation in response to the major drivers of biodiversity loss, climate change and land-use change, are barely documented. We quantify temporal changes in the alpine vegetation of central Nepal and attribute these changes to temporally varying climatic and land-use factors. We re-surveyed the alpine vegetation of two locations within Langtang National Park, central Nepal, after 25 yr using 127 plots of 100 m 2 . Using ordination, regression, and weighted average regression and calibration techniques, we analyzed the changes in terms of species abundance, frequency, and elevational shift in relation to changing atmospheric temperature, precipitation, and livestock grazing. We found a significant increase in the frequency and relative abundance of the majority of species, which was significantly related to the temporal trends in climatic factors and grazing intensity. Out of 12 species with unimodal responses along the elevation gradient during both surveys, the optima of eight species decreased over the time period. The observed elevations of 62 out of 92 sample plots (hence, species composition) in 2014 were lower than the elevations calibrated from species composition and elevation of 1990, indicating an overall downward shift of species assemblages. However, an upward shift of assemblages was also observed at higher elevations. These results indicate that the observed temporal changes in alpine vegetation, largely contrasting the expected upslope shift of species due to climate warming, are driven most likely by interactions of contemporary climate and land-use changes, especially reduced grazing. The complex interactions and feedback mechanisms between warmer winters, increased precipitation, reduced grazing pressure, and thereby altered species interactions most likely facilitated the downslope shift of alpine species assemblages. Climatic and land-use responses of plant species assemblages should therefore be studied focusing on the potential interactions between both the climatic and the land-use factors because such interactions and feedback mechanisms have potential to mask or modify the expected climatic or land-use response of biodiversity.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 71
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: In studies of community assembly, species are often assumed to have similar spatial distributions and responses to the environment regardless of age or size. Under this assumption, it is possible to use species and species-level traits in community composition studies. Here, we test this assumption for two species of soil-living arthropods (springtails: Collembola) with direct development but assumed differences in self-organizing behavior. We expected that the species with more pronounced social interactions ( Hypogastrura tullbergi ) should be less influenced by environmental factors and species interactions across all age classes, than Folsomia quadrioculata that is not known to exhibit social behavior. We used variance partitioning to examine the relative contributions of soil variables, vegetation composition, and other Collembola, vs. spatial variables (as a proxy for intraspecific interactions, i.e., self-organization), on the distribution of the two species and three of their age classes. We show that two coexisting species with clear aggregation patterns greatly differ in how much the environment contributes to affecting the species’ spatial structure. Local F. quadrioculata abundance was explained by different spatial and environmental variables depending on age class. In contrast, for H. tullbergi, spatial variables explained more of the abundance variation in all age classes. These differences have implications for the general predictability of changes in spatial structuring of species, as self-organized species may be less likely to respond to changes in environmental factors. Our results show that because age classes may be differentially affected by environmental conditions, caution should be taken when assuming that species traits can be applied to all developmental stages in a species.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 72
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Variations in water level profoundly affect functional stability of freshwater ecosystems, as well as macrophyte growth and reproduction. Although the trade-off between allocation to clonal and sexual reproduction in clonal plants can be influenced by a variety of environmental factors, whether variations of reproductive allocation (RA) in response to different environments are driven only by a size-dependent effect (apparent plasticity) or whether RA can also change independently of plant size (true plasticity) is uncertain. We conducted an experiment in nine outdoor mesocosms (6400 L) to investigate the response of clonal and sexual reproduction and vegetative growth of a perennial submerged macrophyte Vallisneria spinulosa at water depths of 50, 100, or 150 cm. We evaluated size-dependent and size-independent effects of water depth on sexual and clonal RA. Deep water reduced vegetative size and sexual output (mass of fruits produced), but increased tuber production of V. spinulosa . There was an apparent trade-off between reproductive modes in terms of biomass investment; plants in deep water allocated more resources into clonal propagation and reduced investment in sexual reproduction compared to plants in shallow or intermediate water. Slopes of allometric relationships (sexual vs. vegetative biomass and clonal vs. vegetative biomass) were significantly affected by water depth. Shifts in sexual RA in response to varying water depths were largely size-dependent, but there were also size-independent effects. In contrast, size-independent effects were more important than effects of size changes in determining clonal RA. We concluded that V. spinulosa adapted to a water-depth gradient by plastic trade-offs between clonal propagation and sexual reproduction. Furthermore, a size-independent effect on RA suggests a flexible reproductive strategy that could be critical for plant performance in changing aquatic environments.
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-8925
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 73
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Air masses in the convective outflows of four large convective systems near Borneo Island in Malaysia were sampled in the height range 11–13 km within the frame of the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) FP7 European project in November and December 2011. Correlated enhancements of CO, CH 4 and the short-lived halogen species (CH 3 I and CHBr 3 ) were detected when the aircraft crossed the anvils of the four systems. These enhancements were interpreted as the fingerprint of vertical transport from the boundary layer by the convective updraft and then horizontal advection in the outflow. For the four observations, the fraction f of air from the boundary layer ranged between 15 and 67%, showing the variability in transport efficiency depending on the dynamics of the convective system. Convective outflows were sampled in the tropical West Pacific in November and December 2011 during SHIVA project. Correlated enhancements of CO, CH 4 and the short-lived halogen species volume mixing ratios were detected when the aircraft crossed the outflow of the convective systems. Using these observations, the fraction of boundary layer air contained in fresh convective outflow was calculated.
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-261X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 74
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: During the recent 50 years, in response to global warming, nearly all of the rivers in the arid region of northwest China have shown significant increasing trends in runoff. However, runoff in the Hotan River has shown a slight decreasing trend that corresponded to a rate of −0.18 × 10 8  m 3 /decade for the same period. Here, based on an analysis of runoff from mountain pass hydrologic stations and precipitation during 1960–2009, as well as measurements of upper-air temperature (UAT) from the Hotan sounding station (1960–2011) and MODIS land surface temperature (LST) of the mountainous area (2001–2011), we found that the annual runoff in the Hotan River was mainly determined (75%) by summer runoff. We also determined that the summer runoff was strongly associated (correlation coefficient: R  = 0.78, P  〈 0.001) with summer UAT at 500 hPa and mountain LST ( R  = 0.69, P  〈 0.001) during 1960–2009. Because the largest proportion of runoff in the Hotan River stems from glacial meltwater, we suggest that the decreasing trends exhibited by the UAT in the mid-lower troposphere and the LST within the mountainous area in summer are the main reasons why runoff shows a slight decreasing trend over the past half century. Location map in the study and mountainous area of Hotan River.
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-261X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 75
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Evidence-informed health care decisions and recommendations need to be made systematically and transparently. Mediating technology can help manage boundaries between groups making decisions and target audiences, enhancing salience, credibility, and legitimacy for all. This article describes the development of the Evidence to Decision (EtD) framework and an interactive tool to create and use frameworks (iEtD) to support communication in decision making. Methods : Using a human-centered design approach, we created prototypes employing a broad range of methods to iteratively develop EtD framework content and iEtD tool functionality. Results : We developed tailored EtD frameworks for making evidence-informed decisions and recommendations about clinical practice interventions, diagnostic and screening tests, coverage, and health system and public health options. The iEtD tool provides functionality for preparing frameworks, using them in group discussions, and publishing output for implementation or adaption. EtD and iEtD are intuitive and useful for producers and users of frameworks, and flexible for use across different types of topics, decisions, and organizations. They bring valued structure to panel discussions and transparency to published output. Conclusion : EtD and iEtD can resolve some of the challenges inherent in multicriteria, multistakeholder decision systems. They are freely available online for all to use at https://ietd.epistemonikos.org/ and https://gradepro.org . The purpose of Evidence to Decision frameworks is to help groups make systematic, transparent, and adaptable health care recommendations or decisions. This article describes the development of the frameworks and digital tool, revealing key stakeholder perspectives that are relevant for anyone seeking to use the framework, the tool, or develop similar approaches for decisions in other domains.
    Electronic ISSN: 2056-6646
    Topics: General, Interdisciplinary , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 76
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Harvesting corn stover for biofuel production may decrease soil organic carbon (SOC) and increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Adding additional organic matter into soil or reducing tillage intensity, however, could potentially offset this SOC loss. Here, by using SOC and life cycle analysis (LCA) models, we evaluated the impacts of land management change (LMC), i.e., stover removal, organic matter addition, and tillage on spatially explicit SOC level and biofuels’ overall life-cycle GHG emissions in U.S. corn-soybean production systems. Results indicate that under conventional tillage (CT), 30% stover removal (dry weight) may reduce SOC by 0.04 t C ha −1 yr −1 over a 30-year simulation period. Growing a cover crop during the fallow season or applying manure, on the other hand, could add to SOC and further reduce biofuels’ life-cycle GHG emissions. With 30% stover removal in a CT system, cover crop and manure application can increase SOC at the national level by about 0.06 and 0.02 t C ha −1 yr −1 , respectively, compared to cases without such measures. With contributions from this SOC increase, the life-cycle GHG emissions for stover ethanol are more than 80% lower than those of gasoline, exceeding the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard mandate of 60% emissions reduction for cellulosic biofuels. Reducing tillage intensity while removing stover could also limit SOC loss or lead to SOC gain, which would lower stover ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions to near or under the mandated 60% reduction. Without these organic matter inputs or reduced tillage intensity, however, the emissions will not meet this mandate. More efforts are still required to further identify key practical LMCs, improve SOC modeling, and accounting for LMCs in biofuel LCAs that incorporate stover removal. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 1757-1693
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-1707
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 77
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: The response of tropical forests to global warming is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting the future carbon balance of Earth. To determine the likely effects of elevated temperatures on tropical forest understory plants and soils, as well as other ecosystems, an infrared (IR) heater system was developed to provide in situ warming for the Tropical Responses to Altered Climate Experiment (TRACE) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Three replicate heated 4-m-diameter plots were warmed to maintain a 4°C increase in understory vegetation compared to three unheated control plots, as sensed by IR thermometers. The equipment was larger than any used previously and was subjected to challenges different from those of many temperate ecosystem warming systems, including frequent power surges and outages, high humidity, heavy rains, hurricanes, saturated clayey soils, and steep slopes. The system was able to maintain the target 4.0°C increase in hourly average vegetation temperatures to within ± 0.1°C. The vegetation was heterogeneous and on a 21° slope, which decreased uniformity of the warming treatment on the plots; yet, the green leaves were fairly uniformly warmed, and there was little difference among 0–10 cm depth soil temperatures at the plot centers, edges, and midway between. Soil temperatures at the 40–50 cm depth increased about 3°C compared to the controls after a month of warming. As expected, the soil in the heated plots dried faster than that of the control plots, but the average soil moisture remained adequate for the plants. The TRACE heating system produced an adequately uniform warming precisely controlled down to at least 50-cm soil depth, thereby creating a treatment that allows for assessing mechanistic responses of tropical plants and soil to warming, with applicability to other ecosystems. No physical obstacles to scaling the approach to taller vegetation (i.e., trees) and larger plots were observed. An infrared heater system was designed, installed, and tested over tropical forest understory vegetation in Puerto Rico. Larger plots and a higher degree of warming required using 4–8 times larger equipment than used for this application before, and the location involved challenges from power surges and outages, high humidity, steep slope, weak soils, and hurricanes. The system maintained the target 4°C rise in temperature of the heated plots above that of the controls when power was available, the uniformity of the treatment was satisfactory, and significant soil warming of 2.6°C on average to a depth of 50 cm was achieved with minimal soil drying.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 78
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia infects a wide range of arthropods and their relatives. It is an intracellular parasite transmitted through the egg from mother to offspring. Wolbachia can spread and persist through various means of host reproductive manipulation. How these different mechanisms of host manipulation evolved in Wolbachia is unclear. Which host reproductive phenotype is most likely to be ancestral and whether evolutionary transitions between some host phenotypes are more common than others remain unanswered questions. Recent studies have revealed multiple cases where the same Wolbachia strain can induce different reproductive phenotypes in different hosts, raising the question to what degree the induced host phenotype should be regarded as a trait of Wolbachia . In this study, we constructed a phylogenetic tree of Wolbachia and analyzed the patterns of host phenotypes along that tree. We were able to detect a phylogenetic signal of host phenotypes on the Wolbachia tree, indicating that the induced host phenotype can be regarded as a Wolbachia trait. However, we found no clear support for the previously stated hypothesis that cytoplasmic incompatibility is ancestral to Wolbachia in arthropods. Our analysis provides evidence for heterogeneous transition rates between host phenotypes. This study uses comparative methods to analyze the evolution of Wolbachia -induced host reproductive phenotypes along the phylogenetic tree of Wolbachia . Our results show that Wolbachia -induced host reproductive phenotypes can be regarded as a Wolbachia trait and provide novel insights into ancestral states and evolutionary transition rates of Wolbachia 's host manipulation.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: The importance and prevalence of phylogenetic tracking between hosts and dependent organisms caused by co-evolution and shifting between closely related host species have been debated for decades. Most studies of phylogenetic tracking among phytophagous insects and their host plants have been limited to insects feeding on a narrow range of host species. However, narrow host ranges can confound phylogenetic tracking (phylogenetic tracking hypothesis) with host shifting between hosts of intermediate relationship (intermediate hypothesis). Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of the Enchenopa binotata complex of treehoppers. Each species in this complex has high host fidelity, but the entire complex uses hosts across eight plant orders. The phylogenies of E. binotata were reconstructed to evaluate whether (1) tracking host phylogeny; or (2) shifting between intermediately related host plants better explains the evolutionary history of E. binotata . Our results suggest that E. binotata primarily shifted between both distant and intermediate host plants regardless of host phylogeny and less frequently tracked the phylogeny of their hosts. These findings indicate that phytophagous insects with high host fidelity, such as E. binotata , are capable of adaptation not only to closely related host plants but also to novel hosts, likely with diverse phenology and defense mechanisms. Although with high host fidelity and a wide range of host usage (across eight host orders), we found that host shifting, regardless of the host plant relationship, played a more important role than coevolution with hosts in the evolutionary history of Enchenopa binotata treehoppers. This result is fascinating it is not only unsupportive to coevolution between plant–insect relationship, but is also unsupportive to intermediate hypothesis for host shifting.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell
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  • 80
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In: Ecosphere
    Publication Date: 2018-01-17
    Description: Salmon–bear ecosystems that historically existed throughout most of the northern temperate and boreal regions of planet earth now persist only in the North Pacific. Extensive research on salmon–bear interactions has focused on the role that bears ( Ursus arctos and U. americanus ) play in provisioning terrestrial systems with marine-derived nutrients, but little attention has been paid to how the much higher bear population densities in salmon-bearing ecosystems then affect ecological communities. Salmon-supported brown bears secondarily consume large quantities of fruit and may thus serve as important seed dispersers, but the relative seed dispersal services provided by bears and birds are unknown. We sought to (1) quantify the number of seeds dispersed by bears relative to birds, and (2) by brown bears relative to black bears, and to (3) assess whether the two sympatric bears temporally partition berry resources as a result of competitively dominant brown bears switching to feed on salmon, thus opening niche space for black bears. We used a combination of motion-triggered camera traps and environmental DNA (eDNA) from residual saliva to quantify the roles of birds, black bears, and brown bears as seed dispersers of devil's club ( Oplopanax horridus ), the dominant understory shrub at our field site in northern southeast Alaska. Brown bears were the numerically dominant seed dispersers, p