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  • Brazil  (59)
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  • 1
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The paper's main goal is to advance in the knowledge of a key function of the government: the policy coordination. This is even more relevant within the core of the government, which is a set of institutions and actors that provide direct support to implementation of priority actions defined by the president. Thus, the research analyzes what mechanisms, instruments and levels of coordination are actually used in the policymaking of four strategic policies during the Lula's and Dilma's administration, namely: i) Programa Bolsa Família (PBF); ii) Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento (PAC); iii) Programa Brasil Sem Miséria (BSM); e iv) Programa de Investimento em Logística (PIL). The investigation employed bibliographic review, content analysis of official publications and, mainly, interviews with actors who occupied key positions in the Presidency and Ministries of Finance and Planning in both administrations. The main conclusion is that in spite of the existence of various formal and procedural coordination instruments, in practice, the instruments most used in priority policies coordination are the ones informal and designed ad hoc for such programs. In addition, the hierarchical mechanism shares space with intra-governmental networking strategies, especially to solve conflicts and disagreements among ministries.
    Keywords: H83 ; ddc:330 ; governmental coordination ; public policy ; core of government ; Executive branch ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 2
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The present article aims to compare the regulatory and technical standardization systems in Brazil and Argentina, in order to examine the degree of convergence existing and possible between the two trade partners. Understanding the regulatory and standardization characteristics of the two countries is essential to analyze some of the acute problems of the integration process in Mercosur. The examination of regulations, technical standards and the regional instruments to regulatory convergence in these countries makes it possible to compare the level of compatibility between the two regulatory frameworks, as well as to formulate proposals for deepening the regional integration process within Mercosur.
    Keywords: F10 ; F13 ; Q17 ; ddc:330 ; Brazil ; Argentina ; regulation ; technical standards ; TBT ; Mercosur
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 3
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: After the year 2000 homicides data shows an increasing in Brazil. Our attention directed to quantify those who are survivors or co-victims of homicide. Our initial exercise is a methodology to calculate the quantity of survivors from homicide against afro Brazilian black people. In 2010, for each homicide of an afro Brazilian black youth a minimum of 5 to 6 people were affected, causing a total of 82.535 survivors. At the same year, over 4 to 5 people were indirect victims of homicide against afro Brazilian black people summing an amount of 122.761 survivors.
    Keywords: C13 ; ddc:330 ; homicide ; afro Brazilian black population ; survivors ; co-victims ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 4
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: A subject of great relevance, but little studied in Brazil, concerns the effect of female participation in the labor market (PFMT) on domestic violence. In this article, we try to understand this question from a reflection on two polar literatures based on economic rationality and patriarchal theory, which reach opposite conclusions. Additionally, based on PNAD/IBGE data from 2009, we examined empirically the effects of PFMT on the violence perpetrated not only by the spouse but also by the former spouse. In order to overcome the potential problems of endogeneity, we used a probit model with instrumental variables, in which the instrument for the participation of women in the labor market was based on the number of places in kindergartens and pre-schools in the locality where they live.
    Keywords: J15 ; J16 ; K42 ; ddc:330 ; domestic violence ; Brazil ; job Market ; rationality ; patriarchy
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 5
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Based on a state policy perspective, this paper presents the path of Brazil's participation in U.N. peace operations, from its genesis in 1947 to the present day, with the intent to comprehend if there is in fact a progressive and evolutionary pattern in the participation of Brazil in peacekeeping, and which would be the challenges, contributions and future orientations to the country in this matter. For that, in a first moment, the text will bring a conceptual discussion regarding the different definitions and understandings on peacekeeping operations. Subsequently, we will analyze the evolution of UN peacekeeping operations throughout its 70 years and the Brazilian positions during this period. In a third moment, we will present the final considerations identifying the upcoming challenges and the main possible perspectives for Brazil to engage in future peacekeeping operations. The intention, therefore, is to ascertain whether peacekeeping operations, as an instrument of international policy aligned to the guidelines of Brazilian defense policy and foreign policy, should continue to be supported by Brazil or if new reorientations are necessary as a national strategy.
    Keywords: F02 ; F51 ; F52 ; ddc:330 ; peace operations ; Brazil ; United Nations ; MINUSTAH ; UNIFIL ; peacekeeping
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 6
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The objective of this paper is to analyze the trade flow between Brazil and the United States between 2000 and 2014, considering its evolution and analyzing indicators such as export and import tariffs, relative importance of bilateral trade, trade intensity index, concentration index, index of comparative advantage revealed and the intersectoral pattern of bilateral trade. To contextualize the analysis of trade flows between the two countries, a brief retrospective of the conduct of Brazilian foreign policy between 2000 and 2014 is presented, particularly considering the strategies of Brazil's diplomatic relations with the United States, whose objective is to provide subsidies for construction hypotheses and speculations about the relationship between foreign policy and trade flows. In this sense, it is important to point out that no assertion is made in the sense that foreign policy has determined the behavior of trade flows between the two countries, since during the period there were several other factors operating and there is no analysis to capture the relevance of foreign policy.
    Keywords: F1 ; F15 ; F5 ; ddc:330 ; foreign policy ; foreign trade ; Brazil ; United States
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 7
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: It should be emphasized the role assumed by government procurement policy in the list of public policies since this mechanism can be used to achieve a wide range of objectives. Moreover, this importance becomes even more evident when the high proportion of government purchasing power vis-à-vis the GDP of countries is verified. In Brazil, based on the study that will be presented in this text for discussion, the magnitude of the government procurement market represents 12.5% of the country's GDP (average calculated for the period 2006 and 2016). Given the importance of the market and government procurement policy, and intending to the scarcity of studies on these topics, the relevance of studies that throw light on them is in the eye. This is precisely the objective of this study, namely, to bring to the fore data and information about the Brazilian government procurement market between 2006 and 2016, considering the following dimensions: i) purchases of costing versus capital purchases; ii) direct administration and indirect administration (for the federal government); and iii) Participation of the three Federation ones. Besides the measurement of the Brazilian government procurement market for the period explained, this study also proposes to present explanations for the drop of about 4.5 p.p. between 2012 and 2016. Concerning methodological strategies, this study is mainly based on two mechanisms: i) bibliographic review of the literature concerning the central theme of the research; and ii) collection and analysis of secondary data from the Brazilian official bases, to measuring and analyzing the Brazilian government procurement market.
    Keywords: H5 ; H57 ; ddc:330 ; Brazil ; public procurement policy ; public procurement market assessment ; development
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 8
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: A subject that has gained prominence in the fields of political science and public administration is the Core of Government (CoG), that is, units and/or individuals responsible for the alignment and coordination of the main objectives of the president or first-minister. Although the topic has several names, a question still deserves to be better addressed: how do the planning, coordination and management of the Executive branch's priorities operate? However, the literature of CoG is still in early stage, especially in Brazil. In order to contribute to this debate, this paper develops a broad literature review with three primary goals: to present the concepts and findings of the international literature of core of government; to map the advances of the field of study of the Executive branch in Brazil and to indicate the future research agenda in the country. As a conclusion, the diversity of analytical strategies must be seen as constructive to the extent which there is a consensus that the frameworks' variations of the core of government are the rule, not the exception. In addition, the Brazilian case constitutes an excellent research laboratory on the Executive dynamics, due to its political-institutional particularities. Therefore, this research agenda tends to contribute to the description and explanation of how the political system operates and, above all, its effects on the decision-making processes and their outputs and outcomes in terms of public policies.
    Keywords: H83 ; ddc:330 ; core of government ; coordination ; Executive branch ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 9
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The Índice de Vulnerabilidade Social (IVS) and the Atlas da Vulnerabilidade Social (AVS) of the municipalities and metropolitan regions arise by an effort of selection, development and georeferencing of indicators that could express conditions of social vulnerability in the different scales of brazilian territory. Such conditions may emerge from plural factors that are part of the social issue, like the contexts of income and labour, education and health, mobility, habitation and sanitation. The IVS is a sinthetic index constructed with indicators that express fragilities of this social factors. The text below presentes the process of criation of the IVS from your conceptual, methodological and statiscal aspects and limitations. After this presentation, the work will show na analysis of some IVS results, as well as your dimensions and indicatores for the years of 2000 e 2010, in order to delineate the conditions of social vulnerability in the brazilian territory and exemplify ways of data analysis available in the AVS.
    Keywords: O15 ; O18 ; R23 ; J15 ; ddc:330 ; social vulnerability ; sinthetic index ; Brazil ; public policy ; regional development
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 10
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: In the wake of the debates on Digitalized Finance, and updating some of its main findings regarding the prognoses of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, this paper presents an overview of recent developments, as well as the main tendencies of the process of digitalization of the Brazilian capital markets in the last decades. With this, it aims to shed light on an emerging phenomenon in the sector, presenting data and information that contribute to reflections on the consequences of such process for the Brazilian economy, within the framework of globally interconnected financial markets.
    Keywords: G15 ; G28 ; N26 ; O33 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; digitalization ; capital markets ; Brazil ; financialization ; ICT
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 11
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: From 2002 to 2016 National Bank of Economic and Social Development (BNDES, in Portuguese) financed a total amount of US$ 14 billion for 14 engineering Brazilian companies. Exporting construction services was executed in 11 countries located in Central America, South America and Africa, Angola itself received around US$ 4 billion, meanwhile Odebrecht concentrated almost 80% of the total financed amount.
    Keywords: H2 ; ddc:330 ; BNDES financing ; Angola ; Odebrecht ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 12
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: In this article, the rape notifications registered in Brazil between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed based on data from the Notifiable Conditions Information System (Sinan) of the Ministry of Health. The phenomenon was also characterized according to these administrative records. More specifically, the profiles of victims and perpetrators were described, along with the relationship between them and other situational elements. An unacceptable unchanging statistical pattern over the period analyzed was noted, in which 69.9% of victims were children and teenagers, and over 10% of victims had physical and/or mental disabilities. In parallel, there was an increase in the proportion of gang rape cases, which in 2014 accounted for 15.8% of all cases, where in 25.6% the victim did not know the perpetrators. Another alarming finding was that 40.0% of child rapists were close family members, including the father, stepfather, uncle, brother and grandfather. The data draws attention to the seriousness of the problem of gender violence in Brazil and highlights the need to produce more accurate information allowing mitigating public policies to be devised that involve several State agencies, particularly in the educational field.
    Keywords: I1 ; K14 ; ddc:330 ; rape ; Brazil ; violence ; Sinan ; gender
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 13
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The objective of this article is to understand the main socioeconomic determinants of family cohabitation and new household formation by young adults in Brazilian urban areas. Methodologically, the study adapts the models of De Vos (1989) and Granado and Castillo (2002) to the Brazilian case, using microdata from Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics - IBGE 2009 National Household Survey - PNAD. The work also intends to verify to what extent the family cohabitation and new household formation are related to the conditions prevailing in the housing market, in order to subsidize the elaboration of housing policies more appropriate to the needs of the young population.
    Keywords: R15 ; R21 ; R31 ; R38 ; C33 ; J32 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; cohabitation ; new household formation ; adulthood transition ; leaving parental home ; housing demand ; housing policy ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 14
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Capital stock in residential structures, as well as the distribution of its appropriation and ownership among families are fundamental determinants of the wealth, welfare and productivity of the economy. As part of a broad project on the stock of capital of the Brazilian economy in the 20th Century, this paper presents estimates of the value of the stock in residential structures in Brazil from 1970 to 1999. The macroeconomic focus neglects the distributive and allocative effects of residential property and use. The model of hedonic prices is applied to data on the values of rents and other characteristic of the residences - number of rooms and bathroom, construction material, accesss to public servies such as electricity, water, garbage collection, among other - to estimate the hedonic prices of these attributes. After the introduction, the models discusss the specification of the hedonic model as well as of other hypothesis used in the estimation. The third section describes the database. The fourth section discusses estimation methods and problems. The fifth section analyses the results showing, on the one hand, that they seem to be quite reasonable in international perspective, and on the other that attributes related to the public infrastructure have fundamental impactos on the value to residential stock. The paper concludes calling attention to the high social return of public investments in infrastructure, and in particular of the investments and financing of housing projects for low income families which can have substantial effectos on the wealth, productive capacity, and welfare of Brazilian society.
    Keywords: E01 ; C21 ; G12 ; R31 ; ddc:330 ; residential structure ; housing wealth ; hedonic prices ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 15
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Capital stock in residential structures, as well as the distribution of its appropriation and ownership among families are fundamental determinants of the wealth, welfare and productivity of the economy. As part of a broad project on the stock of capital of the Brazilian economy in the 20th Century, this paper presents estimates of the value of the stock in residential structures in Brazil from 1970 to 1999. The macroeconomic focus neglects the distributive and allocative effects of residential property and use. The model of hedonic prices is applied to data on the values of rents and other characteristic of the residences - number of rooms and bathroom, construction material, accesss to public servies such as electricity, water, garbage collection, among other - to estimate the hedonic prices of these attributes. After the introduction, the models discusss the specification of the hedonic model as well as of other hypothesis used in the estimation. The third section describes the database. The fourth section discusses estimation methods and problems. The fifth section analyses the results showing, on the one hand, that they seem to be quite reasonable in international perspective, and on the other that attributes related to the public infrastructure have fundamental impactos on the value to residential stock. The paper concludes calling attention to the high social return of public investments in infrastructure, and in particular of the investments and financing of housing projects for low income families which can have substantial effectos on the wealth, productive capacity, and welfare of Brazilian society.
    Keywords: G32 ; G38 ; L22 ; G31 ; ddc:330 ; residential structure ; housing wealth ; hedonic prices ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 16
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Violence against women is a problem of great magnitude and relevance in Brazil, which has death as its more extreme expression. This study aimed to estimate corrected female mortality rates due to assault and to describe the profile of these deaths in Brazil, in its macro-regions and Federative Units (UF) in the period 2011-2013. Data from the Mortality Information System (SIM), of the Secretariat of Health Surveillance, Brazilian Ministry of Health (SVS/MS) were used. In Brazil, in the period 2011-2013, there were estimated 17,581 deaths of women for assaults, which correspond to a corrected annual mortality rate of 5.87 deaths per 100,000 women. In the studied period, there were, on average, 5,860 deaths of women from assault each year, 488 every month 16.06 each day, or one every 1h30m. The study confirmed that the mortality of women by assault is high in Brazil and affects women of all ages, ethnicities and levels of education. The main victims were adolescents and young women (45% in the age group 10-29 years), women with black skin color (64%) and residents in the Midwest, Northeast and North regions. The death's profile, with high occurrence inside households (28.1%) and during weekends (35.7%) is suggestive of domestic violence against women. In addition to presenting current data on mortality of women due to assaults, the study contributes to unveil the relative invisibility of the problem of violence against women in Brazil and discusses the need for improvement of fatal violence monitoring, as well as targeted actions and policies to deal with the problem.
    Keywords: I12 ; ddc:330 ; violence against women ; mortality ; descriptive epidemiology ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 17
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The Urban Network and Territory research, developing in the Directory of Studies and Regional, Urban and Environmental Policies (Dirur) of the Ipea, comes following the activities focused on dynamic analysis, characterization and prospect about the urban agglomerations and the urban-regional system. With focus 2000-2014 period, highlights the changes in relations between the territories, demographic profile, productive and functional of the municipalities and their relations with the outside world, as well as in the configuration and trend of socio-spatial organization of the South American continent, in order to contribute to the development of strategies to support the formulation and implementation of territorial development policy (urban and regional) national and regional scale, In addition to subsidizing studies, research and policies of that order in scales of the subcontinent and the States of the Federation. This research is justified since over the last decade, the process of urbanization in the country and the continent have intensified. The creation of new towns, the growth of small and medium-sized cities, the population density in areas already consolidated and the occupation of pioneer fronts are some of the phenomena that characterize the ongoing process. For understanding the nature of the process of urbanization, the phenomena mentioned above need to be more clearly identified and characterized in detail, and enlarged its analysis, especially with regard to the functional role of urban centres, productive restructuring which took place (in particular the processes of industrial de-concentration and expansion of the agricultural frontier), the demographic dynamics of the cities and towns and economic infrastructure , and existing urban social-including logistic networks.
    Keywords: N76 ; N96 ; O18 ; P25 ; R11 ; R23 ; R58 ; ddc:330 ; urban network ; territory ; territory development ; urban agglomeration ; Brazil ; South America
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 18
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The contemporary debate on postsecondary student funding involves two key issues: a) fiscally responsible ways to allocate more resources to public institutions, as by increasing student participation on the costs of their studies in a manner that avoids additional barriers to access; b) design of student aid programs emphasizing equity goals, while limiting the amount of public subsidies. These are usually poorly discussed topics in the Brazilian context. Nonetheless, the current scenario of fiscal restriction and deteriorating economic indicators may bring to light topics such as cost sharing in public universities and the provision of income contingent loans (ICL). This paper presents a literature review on ICL, which are little known in Brazil, and discusses possible ways to implement them in the Brazilian context. The major objective is twofold: i) to introduce a research agenda on cost sharing in public higher education institutions; ii) to propose a reformulation of the existing federal student aid program designed for low-income students enrolled in private institutions. Besides that, ICL and equity-like financial instruments are briefly discussed as alternatives to: iii) expand the availability and decrease the costs of loans to finance student living costs; iv) finance professional certificates and postgraduate courses. This paper is an initial approach to these issues, yet to be further developed in future studies.
    Keywords: I22 ; H81 ; H52 ; ddc:330 ; student funding ; postsecondary education ; Brazil ; income contingent loans
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 19
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The study analyses bureaucratic capacity in Brazil's and Argentina's federal governments by applying the concept of state capacity. To capture the capacity civil servants the study investigated dimensions such as professionalization, qualification, promotion rules, and recruitment mechanisms for entering the civil service. The study shows that although both countries experienced the same trajectory in the early years of the construction of their bureaucratic systems and that access to civil service combined patronage and meritocratic patterns in the early 2000s, however, Brazilian political elites implemented a constitutional mandate determining that access to civil service was conditioned to competitive exams, making the system closer to Weber's rational-legal authority type. Argentina, in contrast, kept the selection of their civil servants based on personal and political ties. This does not mean that Argentina's bureaucracy lacks quality but they do not fulfill some of Weber's requirements such as stability and selection more based on merit rather than patronage. The study argues this difference is explained by different redemocratization agendas.
    Keywords: O29 ; ddc:330 ; bureaucratic capacity ; burocratization ; redemocratizarion ; Argentina ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 20
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The strategic monitoring of public policies is both a great lack and a great need for high Brazilian public administration. Among other reasons for this paradox is discussed in the text issues alienation and resignation, both applied to the institutional context. Then the questioning of the proposed strategic monitoring, understood as a methodology that seeks to permanent and systemic way, diagnose and expose weaknesses in selected public policies aimed at expanding the capacity to implement and create inventory of knowledge is made policy. Then, we present the description of the organization and analysis platform, highlighting some of its main categories: organizational capabilities, institutional processes and the delivery of goods and services to society. Finally, we discuss the operationalization of strategic monitoring and its main impediments, such as the difficulty in obtaining information, the resistance of the bureaucracy to systematize and deepen knowledge on public policy, increasing the embarrassment by exposing the weaknesses and low interest information for decision-makers of the genre. With this final reflection is made on the main challenges of strategic monitoring and seek to define possible routes to solve them.
    Keywords: H8 ; H80 ; ddc:330 ; state ; government planning ; strategic monitoring ; public policies ; PPA 2016-2019 ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 21
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Brazilian Welfare Policy, in its basic protection dimension, is implemented by public structures called as Referencial Centers of Social Assistence (Cras), which work at the local level (municipalities), but are organized, coordinated, legislated and co-financed by the federal government. This paper aims to measure relative efficiency of the operation of the Cras' units, using data envelopment analysis - DEA, in order to identify inefficient cases which could be targeted to be verified later in order to improve their performances. In addition, the paper aims to foster the use of efficiency measures, since financial transfers by the federal government are based on indicators related to the infrastructure available disregarding any information related to efficiency.
    Keywords: I14 ; I84 ; I38 ; C02 ; C54 ; ddc:330 ; social care ; efficiency ; data envelopment analysis ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 22
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This study analyzed in comparative perspective the social protection systems in South Africa, Argentina and Brazil, highlighting the different levels of existing links between their security policies and labor protection. The study compared the state capacity to implement social policies of these countries and their constraints in achieving the objectives of economic growth with social protection. It is concluded that the main differences between their countries stem from their different public policies and protection strategies for tackling social problems, especially in times of economic growth. In the cases of Argentina and Brazil, protection strategies are focused on the generation of formal employment, emphasizing the increased capacity of the respective States to provide contributory benefits and increasing labor protection and the minimum wage. In contrast, in South Africa there is a disjunctive between social security and protection of labor, which in addition to absent of state support have a marked privatizing character.
    Keywords: J48 ; J88 ; J32 ; ddc:330 ; state capacities ; labour ; social security ; South Africa ; Argentina ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 23
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This reflection is part of a larger project whose goal is to produce suggestions for reshaping the planning process of the federal government and, further, offering elements of methodological and organizational nature for the preparation of the Multiyear Plan (PPA) 2016-2019. The idea of preparing federal subsidies to rethink the planning system is motivated by the need to reform it in depth, which is intended to show evident. But mostly, the technopolitical feasibility of undertaking such reform as critical resources required to carry it forward are almost all under the control of the Federal Executive Branch. The main difficulty for the task relates to achieve allocate the time of the main leading to this task. Ie, able to make dominant understanding that the time spent with the reform is not lost time or dedicated the smallest thing, but time applied in the preparation of the structural conditions to make better and faster later on. In other words, a time taken to produce longer.
    Keywords: H8 ; H80 ; ddc:330 ; state ; government planning ; PPA 2016-2019 ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 24
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: United States and India represent trade partners with strong demand for Brazilian food or interesting potential for future business. Here the objective was to verify the importance and potential in USA and Indian markets for Brazilian agricultural exports. Results based on identifying products in which USA or India were leader or intermediate markets in buying Brazilian agricultural exports during the seventeen last years. In general terms, for USA the major part of identified products are products already processed (animal or vegetable fats and oils, products of food industries, and products of chemical industries). Moreover, in the products in which USA were an intermediate market, grapes, bovine meat preparations, and gross sugar cane deserve attention. At the same time, India demands a smaller number of Brazilian agricultural products. This result shows the more potential profile of this country. Special highlight must be done to gross sugar cane, identified for both countries.
    Keywords: F14 ; Q11 ; Q17 ; ddc:330 ; farming and castle raising ; exports ; Brazil ; United States of America ; India
    Language: Portuguese
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 25
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The Law 11.340, known as Maria da Penha Law (MPL), enacted in 2006, represented an important institutional framework in order to overcome domestic violence in Brazil. However, more than eight years after the sanction of MPL, there is a complete gap about empirical studies to evaluate their effect, which is the object of this work. We Constructed a model of differences in differences, where homicides against women that occurred at home were compared with those against men. Our results indicated that the law played an important role to curb gender violence, although its effectiveness has potentially been heterogeneous between localities due to different level of institutionalization of the protective service to victims, described by the law.
    Keywords: K42 ; ddc:330 ; Maria da Penha Law ; evaluation ; Brazil ; domestic violence
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 26
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper offers a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the effects of malapportionment on partisan bias, that is, the uneven distribution of legislative seats among parties for votes received. Specifically, it examines such effect in the Brazilian Lower Chamber from 1994 to 2010. First, we use King's (1990) multinomial bilogit model to analyze the responsiveness of the Brazilian electoral system, which revealed to be quite high. Second, adapting the analytical strategy of Grofman, Koetzle e Brunell (1997) to multi-party system and multi-member districts, and after extracting the effects of electoral coalitions, we found results that suggest strong malapportionment effects on partisan bias in Brazil. These effects, however, vary considerably by parties and elections.
    Keywords: D72 ; ddc:330 ; malapportionment ; party system ; coalitions ; Chamber of Deputies ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 27
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The analysis of the relations between the Executive and Legislative Federal, in Brazil, relate the support of the partisan coalition to government initiatives in Congress with the parties'representation of the base in the ministries. These approaches suppose an understanding that the distribution of cabinet's role in Executive branch fulfills the function of coordinating the actions of partisan coalition to government interests. It is intended in this study precisely qualify this coordination. How, in the exercise of their terms, presidents mobilize and organize their government to interact with the legislature and their partisan coalition? This is the starting point of this work. Under an analytical perspective that emphasizes organizational structure and attributions of the Presidency, precisely at the Civil House, the text discusses how, particularly, Fernando Henrique Cardoso and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva managed the political coordination of their government. Under an institutional approach, introduced in the field of presidential studies by Terry Moe, the work intends to analyze the president's levels of control on political coordination structures project in the Presidency. It is argued that in some periods, to galvanize the support of their coalition, the presidents not only expand the representation of their partisan base in cabinet's role in Executive branch, but grant spaces in their own power structure, the Presidency, to the members of the coalition. Based on specific variables, will be to see that there are several political articulation arrangements arranged along their respective terms and they express different levels of control of the president.
    Keywords: D73 ; E61 ; ddc:330 ; Civil House ; appointments ; political appointments ; patronage ; Presidency ; political coordination ; state capacity ; cash transfer programs ; social policies ; Brazil ; Argentina ; South Africa
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 28
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper aims to analyze the role of government coalitions in the formulation and implementation of a socioeconomic development model. It is a qualitative research that focuses on the extent to which the formation of coalitions to support a developmental platform is efficient in formulating and implementing sustainable public policies in the medium and long term in order to shape a national development agenda. The central hypothesis is that the development process has a direct relationship with the institutional dimension, in particular the role of the State, of government coalitions, of various public institutions (especially those that tend to coordinate interests' between the public and private sectors) and strategic actors profiles in the formulation and implementation of policies. From the interactions established between State, institutions and strategic players different styles or patterns of development are configured. "Developmental coalitions" is defined as the convergent action of different actors involved in any dynamic of growth and development (Tanaka, 2012). The "strategic actor" category includes business, organized labor and public bureaucracy. However, we focus on business and labor vis-à-vis the political field, which represents the space of articulation of interests of the different strategic actors. The methodological approach consists in the evaluation, based on stylized facts, of the turning points of the economic models (neoliberal and post-neoliberal) and the analysis of positions (statements, actions, exclusions) of strategic elites.
    Keywords: O21 ; O38 ; O43 ; ddc:330 ; state ; coalitions ; elites ; Argentina ; Brazil ; development
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 29
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper presents an international literature review on qualified labor shortage and summarizes recent evidence on this topic in the context of Brazilian labor markets. An interpretation is provided on the extent of this problem in Brazil in the 2000s. It does not seem to be the case that a general workforce shortage took place in Brazil in that period - at least not among the more educated workers. Nonetheless, some mismatch may have occurred. The problem might have affected specific industries experiencing strong and fast growth back then, as well as those highly dependent on less educated workforce. Moreover, difficulties to fill vacancies may have emerged due to some possible developments not directly related to the lack of individuals with minimal credentials available in the labor market. In a decade of high levels of employment, Brazilian firms seem to have foreseen some lack of soft skills (e.g. leadership) and of other non-education-related attributes (e.g. large experience) as a sign of general workforce shortage. Vacancies requiring highly specialized skills, as well as those available far from major urban centers as a result of new investments, common in years of higher economic growth, may have intensified the perception of a general shortage. However, these are usually short run mismatches and are likely to be solved rather by customized short courses and/or market and regulation mechanisms than by increasing graduate flows. Long run initiatives should be more focused on improving all levels of the currently low-quality Brazilian education system - which affects the performance of the workforce and their productivity at all times, whether or not quantitative shortages are likely to take place. Delimitating the problem accurately is important to avoid inappropriate policy targeting.
    Keywords: J21 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; workforce shortage ; Brazil ; literature review
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 30
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: By focusing on the relationship between state and society in countries like Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS), taken as an example of emerging economies, this paper analyzes the advisory counsel to the Executive from Brazil, South Africa and India as a means of expanding state capacity state interaction with society, eventually providing ideas for policy development in the post-neoliberal context. Overall, it is argued that the different ways were structured and the equally diverse working of the studied advice do vary the potential for expansion of state capacity. Finally, we emphasize the contributions of India and South Africa councils to improve the Brazilian experiences.
    Keywords: O20 ; O29 ; O43 ; ddc:330 ; BRICS ; Brazil ; India ; South Africa ; state/society councils ; state capacities
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 31
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This research analyzes the principal conditions that allowed the development of national cash transfer programs in the social protection systems of Brazil, Argentina and South Africa. The main focuses are the political and institutional conditions for the emergence and development of these programs in the policy agenda, as well as the articulation of these and other social policies - such as social assistance, education, health and employment generation and income -, in order to understand problems of coordination and intersectoral coordination. The guiding questions are: What are the main institutional dimensions that organize cash transfer programs in Brazil, Argentina and South Africa? How distinct state capacities and political choices organize these arrangements?
    Keywords: I38 ; F55 ; H75 ; ddc:330 ; state capacity ; cash transfer programs ; social policies ; Brazil ; Argentina ; South Africa
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 32
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The aim of this work is to analyze the evolution and the composition of the labor costs in the industrial sector in Brazil during the period between 1996 and 2012. The source of data is the Annual Survey of Mining and Manufacturing Industries (PIA) issued by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Labor costs comprise i) pay for time worked; ii) directly-paid benefits; iii) employer social insurance expenditures and labor-related taxes. This structure is compatible with the one adopted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and with the resolution concerning statistics of labor cost adopted by the International Labor Organization (ILO). It is shown that the monthly average labor costs per worker in the mining industry rose from BRL 4,165 to BRL 7,122 between 1996 and 2012 (in constant 2012 Brazilian Reais deflated by the Consumer Price Index - Broad Concept). As a result, the annual average growth rate reached 3.41% in the period. In the manufacturing industry, these costs rose from BRL 3,150 to BRL 3,582 in the same interval (annual average growth rate of 0.81%). When these costs are expressed in US Dollars and plotted in a graph the result is an "U-shape" curve, as the costs declined between 1996 and 2002 and, from this moment onwards, rose and reached a peak in 2011. This curve reflects the combined trajectories of the labor costs and of the exchange rates in the period. In 2012, the highest costs were observed in the "extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas" sector (BRL 36,729) whereas the lowest ones in the "manufacture of wearing apparel" sector (BRL 1,453). If the analysis is limited to the manufacturing industry, the highest costs were observed in the "manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products" sector (BRL 11,710). Considering both the mining and the manufacturing industries, employer social insurance expenditures and labor-related taxes represented, in 2012, around 25% of the total labor costs. There is, however, significant dispersion among sectors, as this percentage ranges from less than 20% to more than 30%.
    Keywords: J3 ; ddc:330 ; labor costs ; mining and manufacturing industries ; Brazil ; social insurance expenditures ; labor-related taxes
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 33
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The Brazilian agricultural market is a key source of government revenues. Therefore, many studies are being done to assess the sector's productivity gain over time. This work focuses on mapping the gain of agricultural productivity in Brazil in the years 1990-2012 by micro-region. After an overview of the behavior of productivity in the major regions, will be studied the six major crops relative to the production value.The soybean, sugar cane, corn, coffee, cotton and cassava crops accounted, on average between 2010 and 2012, 72% of national production. These 23 years will be divided into two periods, justified by the existing economic outlook at the time: from 1990 to 2000 and 2001 to 2012. These two periods are compared in order to analyze the evolution of productivity over the years.
    Keywords: Q10 ; N56 ; O13 ; ddc:330 ; agricultural productivity ; mapping ; agriculture ; micro-regions ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 34
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Actually, Brazil shows expertise in production, internal supply and exports of an extended variety of agricultural products and their processed products. At the same time, several studies expose Brazil's competitive capacity in those products, and a projected increase in world demands for foods, aligned to an increasing in world population. So, in this study we tried to find a better understand about the main demander countries of Brazilian agricultural products. Data from 1997 to 2013 were employed. In terms of geographical regions European Union and South America are relevant when number of main demander countries is observed. At second, Asian countries, Middle East countries and African countries are also leader markets in demand Brazilian agricultural products, and Middle East countries are highlighted by a relatively consolidated position in buying Brazilian meat. At third, North-American countries also deserve mention. The results permitted to identify intermediate markets, which can represent potential for a better international insertion of Brazilian agricultural product.
    Keywords: F14 ; Q11 ; Q17 ; ddc:330 ; farming and castle raising ; exports ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 35
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Brazil has constitutionally adopted a National Health System (SUS) since 1988. SUS is designed so that central government, states and municipalities together offer public, free for all, full health coverage. The complexity and territorial arrangement of SUS have been developed in such a way that each government body has its specific obligations within the system. This legal framework establishes that the municipalities are competent and responsible for providing basic health attention under general guidance of federal policy. Within this context, the objective of this paper is to estimate levels of efficiency and under which determinants municipalities' personnel expenditures are correlated to increases in health service provision results in the period 2000-2010. In order to do that, firstly, spatial exploratory analysis is applied to data from two different official sources on municipal personnel expenditure. The spatial analysis enables insights into the quality of the expenditure information as well as its heterogeneous spatial distribution. The data used comes from i) municipal data demanded by the National Treasure and Accountancy Justice Department and ii) labor social information compiled by the Ministry of Labor. Secondly, a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is performed to evaluate municipal expenditure against health provision indicators. Finally, a regression is fitted to identify which elements suggested in the literature are the most influential on the technical efficiency for the Brazilian municipalities. [...]
    Keywords: H51 ; H71 ; C14 ; ddc:330 ; municipalities ; efficiency ; personnel expenditure ; spatial analysis ; public policy ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 36
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper aims to evaluate the economic impacts of the Northeast Regional Fund (FNE). This study combines evaluations using different spatial scales that provide robust results of impact of the FNE loans on the GDP per capita growth between 2004 and 2010. The resu lts of fixed effect models show a positive and statistically significant impact of the 'FNE-total' on the GDP per capita growth at the municipal-level and at the micro-regional-level. Moreover, the most reliable results suggest that the positive effects of 'FNE-total' are largely influenced by the performance and the positive impact of FNE loans to the agricultural sector.
    Keywords: C52 ; R58 ; ddc:330 ; impact evaluation ; regional development ; FNE ; Northeast ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 37
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: It is renowned the importance of trade balance for maintaining macroeconomic equilibrium. So, the objective of the study was to identify main products in Brazilian agricultural exports from 1989 to 2012 and, secondly, to describe the identified products and formulate questions for future investigations. There is a trend for positive increasings in nominal level of agricultural exports. Substantive correlation between mean values and median values exported was also highlighted, something that can suggest the presence of products concentrating revenues. Moreover, increasing in mean values of agricultural exports was greater than increasing in mean values of global Brazilian exports, particularly from 2000. In terms of frequency in exported items, fruits and meat and edible meat offal must be cited. At second level in terms of frequency in export items there are animal and vegetable fats and oils, cocoa and cocoa preparations, preparations of vegetables and tobacco and manufactured tobacco. It is also remarkable specific codes of cocoa and cocoa preparations, sugars and sugar confectionery, and fruits, for example. Further studies can investigate potential increasing of consumption of those items in global markets and Brazilian perspectives in such scenario.
    Keywords: F14 ; Q11 ; Q17 ; ddc:330 ; farming and castle raising ; exports ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 38
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The mean goal of the study was to map food products that are constant or regular in Brazilian imports during 1989-2012 periods. Analyzing Brazilian agricultural imports face to Brazilian total imports it is possible to observe a decreasing cost of food imports in terms of Brazilian imports. Moreover, the study highlights big share of specific products in Brazilian agricultural imports, that is, at first, edible vegetables and certain roots, cereals, edible fruits and nuts, and animal or vegetable fats and oils; at second, dairy products, beverages, spirits and vinegar, live animals, meat and edible meat offal, oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, preparations of vegetables, and miscellaneous edible preparations. Future questions can include, for example, similar analyses at level of agricultural inputs employed in Brazil. Moreover, it would be useful to investigate if it is worth for Brazil boost internal production in the case of non-regular imports of foods.
    Keywords: F14 ; Q11 ; Q17 ; ddc:330 ; farming and castle raising ; imports ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 39
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The aim of this work is to discuss the recent path followed by the indicators of productivity in Brazil based upon the results obtained in previous analyses and on the collection of additional data on the subject. Initially we discuss the relationship between economic growth and productivity in the approaches which use total and partial measures of productivity. We show that between 30% and 50% of the GDP per capita growth observed in Brazil during the last decade can be credited to the increase of the occupation and participation rates. That explains why the GPD per capita and labor productivity curves detach from each other when plotted in a graph. Based upon this result, we argue that higher rates of growth of the GDP per capita in Brazil can only be obtained if the country reaches higher rates of growth of the labor productivity in the future because significant increases in the employment and participation rates are not expected in the near future. We discuss the results obtained in previous works about the total factor productivity (TFP) in Brazil. We argue that the results are highly sensitive to the production functions, to the parameters and to the data sources used in each model. As a result, there seems to be no consolidated trend to the TFP in Brazil in the recent period. In spite of that, most works tend to suggest higher rates of growth of the TFP in the 2000 (especially after 2003) as compared to the 1990s. [...]
    Keywords: O47 ; ddc:330 ; productivity ; labor productivity ; total factor productivity ; Brazil ; employment rate ; participation rate
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 40
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The first decade of the new millennium, especially the period 2003-2013, fulfilled - among others - didactic function in the Brazilian academic and politic debate. After almost 25 years of liberal ideological dominance and attempts to implement policies and deregulation, privatizing and internationalizing solutions, with negligible or adverse results on classic indicators of macroeconomic performance and the domestic labor market, in recent times there has been empirical and theoretical defense of alleged supremacy of those formulations. In order to capture a supposed new sense of national development and interprets it in the light of recent changes, this text seeks to compare the performance of liberal development standard (1990s decade) and the "developmentalism" (2000s first decade) and their impacts on the world of labor and social welfare protection in each of the respective periods. The difference between them is one of the most significant features of the historical moment of transition between the partially implemented liberal model in the 1990s and this current phase of new - but still uncertain - possibilities of development in which the country finds itself these days.
    Keywords: J01 ; ddc:330 ; development patterns ; labor market ; social protection ; liberalism ; developmentalism ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 41
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The paper aims to evaluate the economic impact of the North Constitutional Regional Fund (FNO). The study uses different spatial scales to analyse the impact of FNO on gross national product (GDP) per capita growth between 2004 and 2010. In sum, the fixed effects panel data estimations show that that FNO-sectoral impacts positively GDP per capita growth at municipal level, probably because of loans granted to rural and services sectors. The results for micro and mesorregions suggest that FNO-total and FNO-sectoral do not stimulate economic growth in more aggregated regions.
    Keywords: C52 ; R58 ; ddc:330 ; impact evaluation ; regional development ; FNO ; North ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 42
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Recent studies have called attention that China may limit the export diversification and technological upgrading of countries such as Brazil, in its traditional markets for manufactures. The aim of the research is to estimate the displacement of Brazilian exports by China in the markets of South American countries, Mexico, the United States, European Union and African countries (Nigeria, South Africa and Mozambique) between 2002-2011. The model of constant market share (CMS) was used to estimate the loss of Brazil and China coincident exports in the markets selected. The study shows that the losses attributed to China were higher in the United States in the years 2002-2006 and in South America increased thereafter. Moreover, in the South American region the biggest losses are in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, but have been increasing in the markets of the other partners, especially in Argentina. Geographical proximity and the granting of a system of free intra - regional trade to a wide range of products did not prevent the displacement effect by China in the South American region Thus, Brazil's response should be in the direction of identifying and strengthening its competitive bases in the region through favorable policies to the creation of productive complementary - regional value chains.
    Keywords: F10 ; F13 ; ddc:330 ; China ; international trade ; Export ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 43
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper explores how malapportionment affects the way Brazilian federal government allocates its resources to subnational units. Specifically, we argue that over-represented subnational units receive more per capita in discretionary federal spending because the executive seeks its legislative support. Using data from 1997 to 2010, we propose and evaluate a model for explaining discretionary federal spending. The findings support the hypothesis that over-represented subnational units receive more than under-represented ones, presumably because the central government strategically target them to gain legislative support.
    Keywords: D72 ; ddc:330 ; malapportionment ; Executive-Legislative relations ; fiscal federalism ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 44
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The paper aims to evaluate the economic impact of the Center-West Constitutional Regional Fund (FCO). The study uses different spatial scales to analyse the impact of FCO on GDP per capita growth between 2004 and 2010. The results of the fixed effects panel data estimations show that FCO impacts positively GDP per capita growth only at municipal level and results suggest that this positive effect are mainly influenced by the specific FCO line of credit empresarial . The results for micro and mesorregions suggest that FCO does not stimulate economic growth in more aggregated regions.
    Keywords: C52 ; R58 ; ddc:330 ; impact evaluation ; regional development ; FCO ; Center-West ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 45
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This brief essay is about balance and historical context of the emergence, peak and decline of government planning in Brazil, seeking to identify theoretical and empirical elements to justify - perhaps - their recovery since the beginning of the new millennium, as an intrinsic and strategic function of the Brazilian State. On this tune, launches concrete proposals for a process of institutional and political function of this important government reorganization in the country, and is from the perspectives that open to Brazil with the presidential elections of 2014 and the arrival of a new cycle of formulation and implementation of policies public, by constitutional requirement of the PPA 2016-2019.
    Keywords: H8 ; H80 ; ddc:330 ; state ; government planning ; PPA 2016-2019 ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 46
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: In a slow process marked by authoritarian moments, regressive effects, bureaucratic insulation, centralized arrangements and cronyism, since the 1930s Brazil has been building its Welfare State. In the wake of struggles and political clashes for ensuring rights and reviving democracy, the Constitution of 1988 brought about an important shift, as it established economic and social rights and outlined a new legal and institutional framework for social policies. Among other provisions, the 1988 Constitution also established specific guidelines for the social assistance field (i.e., a non-contributory universal policy intended to meet basic needs based on the offer of public services and payment of income). Early in the decade of 2000, concurrently with the construction of the new social assistance system, the Bolsa Família program (PBF) was created and launched. Compared to the track record of the Brazilian social policies, PBF adopted new management arrangements, instruments and methods and has accounted for a portion of the equity gains (reduced poverty and inequality) experienced in the 2000 decade.This paper analyzes the PBF from the point of view of its political and institutional arrangement - that is, the set of rules, organizations and processes that define the way stakeholders and interests are coordinated in the implementation of a specific public policy. In particular, it considers the program from the perspective of its dynamic relationship with the social assistance field, discussing the connection between the political and institutional arrangements of these two policies “at the end” (i.e., at a local level) and on the “top” (i.e., at a federal level). To that end, it draws on the categories of administrative capabilities (associated to the dimension of effectiveness) and political capabilities (associated to the dimension of legitimacy) and gets input from interviews with officials from the Ministry of Social Development and Fight Against Hunger (MDS). [...]
    Keywords: H53 ; H55 ; H75 ; H77 ; I38 ; O10 ; ddc:330 ; Brazil ; Bolsa Família Program ; social assistance ; state capacities ; inter-sectorial coordination and policy orchestration
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 47
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper investigates the evolution of the Brazilian per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - known as sigma-convergence -, between 1970 and 2008 across four geographic scales (municipalities, micro-regions, meso-regions and states), using four different statistics - coefficient of variation, standard deviation, Theil index and Gini index. The results reveal that the smaller the scale of analysis the smaller the decrease in inequality between 1970 and 2008. The same analysis conducted for two groups (or clubs) shows that the significant reduction in inequality which happened among the states from the North and Northeast disappears as the scale of analysis gets smaller and, according to two of the four statistics, it even increases between the micro-regions and municipalities. As for the rest of the country the results are not strongly affected by the scale reduction. This suggests the occurrence of a distinct convergence process of the per capita GPD between the two groups of regions, characterized by the divergence of the per capita GDP among the micro-regions and municipalities from the North and Northeast and the convergence for the rest of the country. This result shows that there is not one scale that is able to synthesize all the regional dynamics and that is more accurate than the others. In this sense, a multi-scale approach may be useful for a better understanding of the regional per capita GDP disparities in Brazil.
    Keywords: O18 ; O54 ; R11 ; ddc:330 ; regional income disparities ; convergence ; spatial scales ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 48
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This study analyzes trends in average commute times in Brazil between 1992 and 2009. It distinguishes between the nine largest metropolitan areas plus the Federal District of Brasília and describes how differences among these areas vary according to income levels and gender. This paper is based on the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) carried out by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), a source of data hitherto little used for transportation studies in Brazil. PNAD data is not conceived strictly for transport planning but is the only large-scale survey in Brazil with annual information since 1992 on commute time at national and subnational levels (states and metropolitan areas). Five main findings are stressed. First, travel to work trips tend to be 31% longer in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, the two largest metropolitan areas (MAs) in the country, than the in the other MAs. Second, workers in the poorest population segment (1st income decile) spend on average 20% more time on commuting than the wealthiest decile; 19% of the former make home-to-work trips longer than 1 hour against only 11% in the wealthiest group. Third, this gap in commute time between rich and poor is spatially contingent; it is large in Belo Horizonte, Curitiba and Federal District but almost nonexistent in Salvador, Recife, Fortaleza and Belém. Fourth, the data reveal worsening conditions for urban transport since 1992 as reflected in longer average commuting times. However, these worsening conditions have been more pronounced in the 1st income decile and especially the 7th-10th deciles. As a result, the overall differences across income groups have actually weakened during the period 1992-2009. Finally, the gender gap in average commuting times has been reduced considerably over the period considered with only small gaps remaining in the extreme income groups. The present study highlights that trends in average commute times in emerging economies, such as Brazil, need not follow the same trajectories as in the Global North. It also shows the importance of not focusing on national trends only; this will obscure important differences between urban regions. From a policy perspective, the paper shows the usefulness of the PNAD data for monitoring urban mobility conditions in Brazilian major MAs. Yearly variations in commuting time can among others be used to assess the effects of mass transport investments on urban transport conditions.
    Keywords: O18 ; ddc:330 ; Brazil ; commute time ; inequality ; metropolitan areas ; income ; gender
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 49
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The goal of this paper is to evaluate the results of regional economic growth estimates at multiple spatial scales using spatial panel data models. The spatial scales examined are minimum comparable areas, micro-regions, meso-regions and states over the period between 1970 and 2000. Alternative spatial panel data models with fixed effects were systematically estimated across those spatial scales to demonstrate that the estimated coefficients change with the scale level. The results show that the conclusions obtained from growth regressions are dependent on the choice of spatial scale. First, club convergence hypothesis cannot be rejected suggesting there are differences in the convergence processes between the north and south in Brazil. Moreover, the positive average-years-of-schooling coefficient gets larger as more aggregate spatial scales are used. Transportation costs effect is positive and statistically significant to economic growth only at the state level. Population density coefficients show that higher populated areas are harmful to economic growth demonstrating somehow that congestion effects are operating at the MCA, micro-regional and meso-regional spatial scales, but their magnitudes vary across the geographic scales. Finally, the values of spatial spillovers coefficients also vary according to the spatial scale under analysis. In general, such coefficients are statistically significant at the MCA, micro-regional and meso-regional levels; but, at state level those coefficients are no longer statistically significant suggesting that spatial spillovers are bounded in space.
    Keywords: C23 ; O18 ; R11 ; ddc:330 ; spatial externalities ; economic growth ; spatial scales ; spatial panel ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 50
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Computing, electronics and internet provides the free and fast flow of information across the globe. In a way, modern society depends on these autonomous control systems. However, this technological innovation requires a price to be paid: investment in cyber security of people, data, information and infrastructure. Some countries have already absorbed the issue as a matter of state and institutionalized government structures to take care exclusively of it. This paper presents some relevant points of the International Strategy for Cyberspace of the United States, besides the positioning of Russia and India on the subject. It then presents an overview of the Brazilian situation, from the the National Defense Strategy, a document that introduces the responsibility of protecting Brazilian cyberspace. It shows the arrangement, in the federal government hierarchy, of the various national agencies and organizations responsible for conducting intelligence activities necessary for the national security of Brazil. Finally, it provides an overview of the IT infrastructure existing in Brazil, especially in the federal public administration.
    Keywords: O3 ; O31 ; O38 ; ddc:330 ; cyber security and defense ; institutional arrangement ; international comparison ; USA ; Russia ; India ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 51
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper presents the methodological adjustments introduced in the second field research conducted by Ipea under the Integrated Information System on the Labor Market in the Tourism Sector with the aim of upgrading the tourist demand coefficients used in the estimation of tourism employment. The paper also elucidates some of the factors that can explain the existence of different statistics for the tourism labor market, such as the scope of activities considered as tourism, the restriction of the analysis to employment related to the consumption of tourists or not, and the inclusion of the informal market. Although the methodology still faces some challenging issues, the estimates obtained are consistent with the perceptions of experts in international tourism statistics and with similar data from countries with advanced statistical systems.
    Keywords: L83 ; J49 ; C18 ; ddc:330 ; tourism employment ; methodology ; Brazil
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 52
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The present investigation text performs a historical and contemporary analysis on the Brazilian public policy trajectory, specially focused on the regional development, aiming at characterizing the pattern of the territorial integration. The inflexion one searches relies on the regional integration transformation, traditionally promoted as a means of appropriation of mercantile sources, followed by social exclusion and radical environment transformation, vis-à-vis a more intense dynamic of technology generation, regional income, social inclusion and environmental impact boundaries. For that purpose, the bibliographic review goes through the history of the South America economic integration, from a Brazilian standpoint, which highlights the economic scale and the public intervention. As from the regional integration background, one considers some market characteristics of the continent productive factors. The analysis of the Brazilian and South American investments pursuant the Plan Plus Brazil (PMB 2012-2015) and the Agenda of Priority Integration Projects 2012 (API, 2011) shows the projects connection, although with traces of the Brazilian historic pattern of production factors integration (land, work and capital), with regard of the lack of guarantee of social inclusion and environmental protection. The meaning one searches relates to the importance of the regional integration economic process, which tangle with the construction of urban, logistic and productive infrastructure, as well as with a broad and articulated Brazilian public policy, jointly with the continent's country.
    Keywords: O20 ; ddc:330 ; integration ; factors of production ; public policy ; Brazil ; South America
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 53
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The present article compares the technological performance of United States enterprises in Brazil and South Korea. This analysis is based on the differences between the industrialization models in these countries. While Brazilian industrialization was based on the attraction of multinational companies, South Korea historically based its development on the support of national companies and limited Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) until the 1990s. It concludes that opening to foreign capital is not enough to stimulate the attraction of technological activities. Other factors, as sectorial structure, technological development of national firms and strong national system of innovation are essential to stimulate technological performance of foreign enterprises.
    Keywords: O30 ; ddc:330 ; South Korea ; Brazil ; technological globalization ; research and development (R&D)
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 54
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The objective of this paper is to analyze the implications of the economic, strategic and political transformation of the Brazilian energetic scenario, considering their possible impact on the country's international insertion. For this purpose, a global energy outlook will be presented, which discusses the role of key players in the sector recent developments in oil prices and the participation of the different energy sources in global supply. Subsequently, the article will analyze the geopolitical importance of oil, nuclear and ethanol industries evolution in Brazil, highlighting trends and debates in each segment. The analysis concludes that the effort to avoid energy constraints to the development process, besides having achieved diversification of the energetic matrix and self-sufficiency, started off relevant institutional and technological progress in the various energy industries, which created the conditions that, currently, made the country emerge as a relevant net energy exporter.
    Keywords: Q48 ; ddc:330 ; Energy ; Brazil ; Oil ; Ethanol ; Nuclear ; Energieversorgung ; Energieprognose ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 55
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The objective of this study is to analyze the economic, political and strategic implications of the discovery of huge oil and gas reserves in the presalt provinces in 2006. For this purpose we present the main challenges that must be confronted to make sure that the presalt cycle will contribute to the countries development: the national sovereignty over the areas, far way from the cost; the interaction with international interest; the upgrading of the industrial capacity through the use of local content requirements, justified by the scale and duration of the enterprise; the price formation and the risk of crowing out of ethanol; and the risk of rentier mentality and excess of dollar inflows. During the Lula and Dilma administration specific industrial strategies and a new legal framework were introduced to respond to these challenges. These policies are drive by a neodevelopmental perspective. The new reality of the presalt also means a repositioning of Petrobras as one of the main players in the international energy world.
    Keywords: Q48 ; Q38 ; L71 ; O13 ; ddc:330 ; presalt ; energy ; Brazil ; new development strategies ; local content
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 56
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper aims to understand and examine one of the domestic determinants of Brazilian foreign trade policy strategies from 1995 to 2010, focusing on the articulation of its trade policy with its foreign policy at large. Thus, the role of multilateralism and regionalism in Brazilian foreign policy is analyzed in order to identify and understand Brazil's trade negotiation strategies in the period under review. With this work, I try to shed light on the debate about domestic determinants of foreign trade policy in Brazil in recent decades, explaining the adoption of a three-tracks negotiating strategy, which combines the multilateral approach with a two-speed regionalism.
    Keywords: F50 ; F13 ; F10 ; ddc:330 ; foreign trade policy ; Brazil ; multilateralism ; regionalism ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 57
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The impacts of the exploration and production of large oil and gas reserves in a national economy are controversial. Several countries have shown a lack of capacity to develop based on these resources, while others achieve success. One important part of this equation are the local content rules adopted, that may force the oil companies into buying locally-produced supplies, which may influence the results attained either positively or negatively. The present work analyses the Brazilian case based on the international experience and concludes that, despite attaining a certain degree of success, the Brazilian local content policy should be enhanced as a way to minimize the risks of contracting the Dutch Disease by i) strengthening the controlling and transparency responsibilities of the local content coordination at ANP; ii) acknowledging the consequences of the oil industry to the national economy; and iii) considering the capability and specialization potential of the national industry.
    Keywords: L78 ; O13 ; O20 ; O54 ; Q32 ; ddc:330 ; Brazil ; mineral resources ; petroleum ; economic development ; local content ; Erdölvorkommen ; Erdölgewinnung ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 58
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: In this paper, we use data from the National Household Survey (PNAD) for Brazil to investigate the dynamics of the urban wage premium and the relationship between the urban wage premium and inequality trends, and we find two main results. First, we find a decreasing urban wage premium over the period 2002-2009 using both OLS and quantile regression. Second, we show that the fall in the urban wage premium is more pronounced at the 90th percentile than at the 10th percentile. This finding suggests that the falling urban wage premium has contributed to the reduction in inequality observed in Brazil in the last decade.
    Keywords: J31 ; J61 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; urban wage premium ; wage inequality ; Brazil ; Regionale Lohnstruktur ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: We use two frameworks to analyze the recent Brazilian public debt management. The first one encompasses the Brazilian optimal public debt management analysis through the examination of the correlations among the main variables to which the public debt is indexed. The second seeks to address the consequences of recent Brazilian economic policies, such as international reserves accumulation through sterilized interventions by the Central Bank and excessive capitalization of federal financial institutions. Those policies have important, albeit often ignored, fiscal impacts, which became important to determine the current size, maturity and composition of the public debt stock.
    Keywords: H63 ; E58 ; ddc:330 ; optimal public debt management ; Brazil ; public bonded debt. Jel Codes: H63 ; E58 ; Schulden management ; Öffentliche Schulden ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
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