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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (41,698)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 396-401 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The addition of dexamethasone (dex) to human fibroblast cultures has been found to elicit enhanced proliferation. This enhancement is manifested by an increase in the initial growth rate, saturation density, and proliferative life span of WI-38 fibroblast cultures grown in the presence of dex. We examined the acute effects of dex on a number of growth-related genes in WI-38 cells. Our results show a decrease in the level of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1 in response to dex. In addition, the level of the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is increased in dex-treated cells. These changes are correlated with changes in the activity of the p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1 and IGF-1R promoters. The results presented in this report suggest that dex may delay growth arrest in response to contact inhibition, as well as during cellular senescence. Thus, dex may act at multiple levels to enhance cellular proliferation in WI-38 cells: first, to decrease the level of an inhibitor of cell-cycle progression, and second, to increase the sensitivity of WI-38 cells to the proliferative effects of IGF-1. These acute effects may cooperate with other, as yet uncharacterized effects, to result in the enhanced proliferation seen in the presence of dex. J. Cell. Physiol. 177:396-401, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 387-395 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Previously, we reported that unaggressive, growth factor-dependent FET human colon carcinoma cells downregulated their transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) expression in a quiescent state (G0/G1) induced by growth factor and nutrient deprivation (Mulder, 1991, Cancer Res., 51:2256-2262). In contrast, highly aggressive, growth factor-independent HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells aberrantly upregulated this autocrine activity in the quiescent state (Mulder, 1991, Cancer Res., 51:2256-2262; Howell et al., 1998, Mol. Cell. Biol., 18:303-313). In this report, the role of autocrine TGFα and the mechanism of its regulation of expression during reentry into the cell cycle from a noncycling growth state were determined in FET cells. Optimal induction of DNA synthesis from a quiescent state in FET cells is dependent upon autocrine TGFα as well as exogenous transferrin and insulin. Reentry into the cell cycle resulting from treatment with exogenous transferrin and insulin resulted in ∼3-fold induction of TGFα expression within 1 hr. TGFα induction was controlled at the transcription level, and the cis-controlling element was localized to the region between bp -370--201 relative to the translation start codon within the TGFα promoter. Thus neutralization of autocrine TGFα protein revealed that the induced TGFα autocrine activity was necessary for DNA synthesis and acted only in the early G1 phase of the cell cycle. Blockade of autocrine TGFα expression early in the cell cycle resulted in the reduction of DNA synthesis, whereas treatment with neutralization antibody at later times had no effect. This suggested that autocrine TGFα functions to initiate cell growth from noncycling states. This was further confirmed by the dependence of FET cells upon autocrine TGFα for colony formation in experiments where the plating density was sufficiently low to generate a lag phase in tissue culture. In contrast, TGFα autocrine activity was not required for exponential phase cells, as evidenced by the failure of TGFα neutralizing antibody to inhibit proliferation in this growth state. Taken together, these results suggest that autocrine TGFα acts primarily in the process of growth initiation by moving cells from a noncycling state back into the cell cycle, rather than supporting cell growth already initiated. J. Cell. Physiol. 177:387-395, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 411-425 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2) is progressively lost from mammary epithelial cells as they become malignant. To investigate the effects of restoring the expression of bFGF in breast cancer cells, we constructed MCF-7 cells that permanently overexpress 18-kD cytoplasm-localizing bFGF (MCF-7/ΔAFGF(18) cells) and cells that express both the 18-kD along with the 22- and 24-kD nucleus-localizing bFGF peptides (MCF-7/NCFFGF(18,22,24) cells), using retroviral transduction. These stable cell constructs grew more slowly and had a larger fraction of their populations in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle than control cells. All forms of bFGF were eluted from MCF-7/NCFFGF(18,22,24) cell monolayers with 2 M NaCl, in contrast to fibroblasts that were demonstrated to secrete only the 18-kD bFGF isoform. High-affinity binding of 18-kD 125I-bFGF to these cells was significantly decreased, probably because of competitive binding by the autocrine-secreted bFGF. Recombinant 18-kD bFGF that was previously demonstrated in our laboratory to inhibit proliferation, activate MAP kinase, and induce the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 in MCF-7 cells, further inhibited MCF-7/ΔAFGF(18) cells but had no effect on MCF-7/NCFFGF(18,22,24) cells. The total cellular content of the high-affinity FGF receptors 1-3 was unchanged, but FGF receptor 4 was decreased in MCF-7/NCFFGF(18,22,24) cells. Both cell types overexpressing bFGF isoforms had elevated levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 but not that of p21WAF1/CIP1. In MCF-7/ΔAFGF(18) cells, FGFR1 and MAP kinase were constitutively phosphorylated. Exogenous recombinant 18-kD bFGF did not accentuate these effects but did induce an increase in the levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 corresponding to the further inhibition induced by exogenous bFGF in these cells. In MCF-7/NCFFGF(18,22,24) cells, FGFR1 and MAP kinase were not phosphorylated at baseline nor upon stimulation with recombinant bFGF, and exogenous bFGF only had a minimal effect on low steady-state p21WAF1/CIP1 levels. However, stimulation of these cells with phorbol ester or insulin did result in MAP kinase phosphorylation. While growth-inhibited in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, MCF-7/NCFFGF(18,22,24) cells retained active isoforms of cdk2 and the hyperphosphorylated form of Rb. These data suggest that high molecular weight forms of bFGF overexpressed in MCF-7 cells do not activate the receptor-mediated MAP kinase pathway, and do not induce p21WAF1/CIP1 in an autocrine manner, but inhibit proliferation through other, possibly direct nuclear signalling mechanisms. J. Cell. Physiol. 177:411-425, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 402-410 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Potassium (K+) conductances are known to be involved in cell proliferation of a number of nonexcitable cell types. The nature of the mechanism by which K+ channel inhibition reduces cell proliferation has remained elusive despite intensive search. We investigated whether such a phenomenon could be demonstrated in excitable cells, using the GH3 pituitary cell line as a cell model. Our aims were: (1) to study the effect of K+ channel inhibition on the proliferation of GH3 cells; and (2) to investigate the putative intracellular signals involved in this inhibition. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a blocker of the calcium (Ca2+)-dependent K+ conductances of GH3, was found to reversibly inhibit cell proliferation, as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Cell cycle block specifically occurred at the G1/S phase of the cell cycle. This inhibition of proliferation was observed for 1-4 mM TEA, which suppressed most of the Ca2+-activated K+ current and part of the inward rectifying K+ current, as shown by electrophysiological experiments. Increasing extracellular K+ concentrations with KCl also inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Both TEA and KCl depolarized the cells and increased intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i), showing that, in this type of excitable cell, inhibition of cell proliferation can be associated with elevated Ca2+ levels. Ca2+ and membrane resting potential (MRP) were considered as possible messengers of this inhibition. Our results suggest that cell cycle arrest of GH3 cells by K+ channel block probably involves an additional pathway, distinct from those of Ca2+ and MRP. J. Cell. Physiol. 177:402-410, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 426-438 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells derived from colony-forming units-fibroblastic (CFU-Fs). These cells reside in the bone marrow cavity and are capable of differentiating into several cell phenotypes including osteoblasts, chondroblasts, hematopoiesis-supporting stromal cells, and adipocytes. However, the factors that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of the BMSC population are for the most part unknown. Since many members of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family have been shown to participate in growth control of various mesenchymal cell populations, in this study we examined the expression and function of RTKs in the BMSC population. Degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to two conserved catalytic domains of the RTK family and RT-PCR were used initially to determine which RTKs are expressed in the human BMSC (hBMSC) system. After subcloning the amplification product generated from mRNA of a multicolony-derived hBMSC strain, PDGF receptor (β), EGF receptor, FGF receptor 1, and Axl were identified by DNA sequencing of 26 bacterial colonies. Furthermore, PDGF and EGF were found to enhance BMSC growth in a dose-dependent manner and to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular molecules, including the PDGF and EGF receptors themselves, demonstrating the functionality of these receptors. On the other hand, bFGF was found to have little effect on proliferation or tyrosine phosphorylation. Since single colony-derived hBMSC strains are known to vary from one colony to another in colony habit (growth rate and colony structure) and the ability to form bone in vivo, the expression levels of these RTKs were determined in 18 hBMSC clonal strains by semiquantitative RT-PCR and were found to vary from one clonal strain to another. While not absolutely predictive of the osteogenic capacity of individual clonal strains, on average, relatively high levels of PDGF-receptor were found in bone-forming strains, while on average, nonbone-forming strains had relatively high levels of EGF-receptor. Taken together, these results indicate that RTKs play a role in the control of hBMSC proliferation, and that the differential pattern of RTK expression may be useful in correlating the biochemical properties of individual clonal strains with their ability to produce bone in vivo. J. Cell. Physiol. 177:426-438, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 439-452 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is a recently characterized member of the VEGF family of angiogenic polypeptides. We demonstrate here that VEGF-C is angiogenic in vitro when added to bovine aortic or lymphatic endothelial (BAE and BLE) cells but has little or no effect on bovine microvascular endothelial (BME) cells. As reported previously for VEGF, VEGF-C and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced a synergistic in vitro angiogenic response in all three cells lines. Unexpectedly, VEGF and VEGF-C also synergized in the in vitro angiogenic response when assessed on BAE cells. Characterization of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) expression revealed that BME, BAE, and BLE cell lines express VEGFR-1 and -2, whereas of the three cell lines assessed, only BAE cells express VEGFR-3. We also demonstrate that VEGF-C increases plasminogen activator (PA) activity in the three bovine endothelial cell lines and that this is accompanied by a concomitant increase in PA inhibitor-1. Addition of α2-antiplasmin to BME cells co-treated with bFGF and VEGF-C partially inhibited collagen gel invasion. These results demonstrate, first, that by acting in concert with bFGF or VEGF, VEGF-C has a potent synergistic effect on the induction of angiogenesis in vitro and, second, that like VEGF and bFGF, VEGF-C is capable of altering endothelial cell extracellular proteolytic activity. These observations also highlight the notion of context, i.e., that the activity of an angiogenesis-regulating cytokine depends on the presence and concentration of other cytokines in the pericellular environment of the responding endothelial cell. J. Cell. Physiol. 177:439-452, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 453-464 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cell cycle control of histone H4 gene transcription is mediated by the multipartite promoter domain H4-Site II, which supports transcriptional activation at the G1/S phase transition and modulates basal H4 gene transcription. Proliferation-specific transcription is determined by the integrated activities of three distinct promoter factors interacting with H4-Site II: the interferon regulatory factor IRF-2 (synonymous with HiNF-M), HiNF-D (a complex between the homeodomain protein CDP-cut and the cell cycle mediators CDC2, cyclin A and pRB), as well as HiNF-P/H4TF-2. However, the contribution of HiNF-D to the enhancement and/or suppression of H4 gene transcription at specific cell cycle stages remains to be established. We used a panel of synchronized HeLa S3 cell lines containing stably integrated H4 promoter/CAT reporter gene constructs with mutations in H4-Site II. The temporal regulation of CAT mRNA accumulation under the control of the H4 promoter was analyzed by RNase protection analysis. Our main finding is that mutation of the HiNF-D/CDP-cut binding site alters the timing of histone gene activation during the cell cycle. Furthermore, our data indicate that HiNF-P/H4TF-2 may functionally compensate for HiNF-M/IRF-2 at Site II to regulate histone H4 gene transcription in HeLa S3 cervical carcinoma cells during early S phase. We postulate that HiNF-D (CDP-cut/cyclin A/CDC2/pRB containing complex) promotes HiNF-M/IRF-2 (and/or HiNF-P/H4TF-2) dependent histone H4 gene activation at the G1/S phase transition and attenuates H4 gene transcription at later cell cycle stages. The mechanistic division in the gene regulatory functions of the three H4-Site II binding proteins may ensure that histone H4 gene expression is stringently coupled with the onset of S phase in response to growth factor/cytokine-induced cell cycle progression. J. Cell. Physiol. 177:453-464, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 465-473 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Human dermal fibroblasts suspended in a collagen matrix exhibit a 4-day delay in cell division, while the same cells in monolayer divided by day 1. The initial rates of 3H-thymidine incorporation by cells in monolayer or suspended in collagen were not significantly different. When suspended in collagen, there was a threefold increase in the proportion of cells in a tetraploidal (4N) DNA state compared to the same cells in monolayer. Flow cytometry analysis and 3H-thymidine incorporation studies identified the delay of cell division as a consequence of a block in the G2/M of the cell cycle and not an inhibition of DNA synthesis. The inclusion of 150 μ/ml of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the manufacture of fibroblast populated collagen lattices (FPCL) caused a stimulation of cell division, as determined by cell counting; increased the expression of tubulin, as determined by Western blot analysis; and reduced the proportion of cells in a 4N state, as determined by flow cytometry. HA added to the same cells growing in monolayer produced a minimal increase in the rate of cell division or DNA synthesis. HA supplementation of FPCLs stimulated cell division as well as tubulin concentrations, but it did not enhance lattice contraction. The introduction of tubulin isolated from pig brain or purchased tubulin into fibroblasts by electroporation prior to their transfer into collagen lattices promoted cell division in the first 24 hours and enhanced FPCL contraction. It is proposed that tubulin protein, the building blocks of microtubules, is limited in human fibroblasts residing within a collagen matrix. When human fibroblasts are suspended in collagen, one effect of added HA may be to stimulate the synthesis of tubulin which assists cells through the cell cycle. J. Cell. Physiol. 177:465-473, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 9
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 474-482 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In this study we examined the regulation of cdk1 expression in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) and neoplastic keratinocytes. Keratinocytes were growth-arrested by allowing the cells to grow to confluence or by treating them with interferon-gamma (IFNγ) or 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that cdk1 was profoundly reduced in growth-arrested HEKs when compared with dividing HEKs. In contrast, a squamous carcinoma cell line, SCC25, did not growth-arrest in response to growth inhibitors and did not downregulate cdk1 expression. Transfection of HEKs with a reporter gene driven off a 2.5-kb fragment of the human cdk1 promoter indicated that the downregulation of cdk1 upon growth arrest was transcriptional. Deletion mapping of the cdk1 promoter indicated that a repressor region was located between -949--722 bp. This repressor region was not operative in the SCC25 cells. Examination of DNA:protein binding complexes by gel-shift analysis indicated that nuclear factors from both proliferative and growth-arrested cells bound to the DNA fragment spanning -949--722 bp. Further analysis revealed that this binding could be resolved into a constitutive and growth arrest-specific complex that bound in a similar fashion to regions spanning -892--831 bp and -831--774 bp, respectively. The putative growth arrest-specific complex was not found in contact-inhibited fibroblasts and was found at very low levels in SCC25 cells, indicating that the putative repressor binding was growth arrest-specific and possibly keratinocyte-specific. The binding complexes bound to these two fragments were localized, by competition analysis, to regions -874--853 bp and -830--800 bp. This is the first report of a transcriptional repressor being operative during keratinocyte growth arrest. J. Cell. Physiol. 177:474-482, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 575-584 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The role of hsp27 as an inhibitor of actin polymerization was considered in the context of the actin cytoskeleton and its relationship with focal adhesion formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of hsp27 on focal adhesion formation as a relevant biological consequence of actin stress fiber formation. When hsp27 was overexpressed in stably transfected cells, cell attachment was delayed and recovery of disrupted stress fibers and focal adhesions was limited. In ROS 17/2.8 cells, heat shock caused the reversible disruption of stress fibers and focal adhesions. The loss of stress fibers and focal adhesions was associated with reduced phosphotyrosine on the focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Microinjection of recombinant 6-His hsp27 and phosphorylated 6-His hsp27 was used to demonstrate that nonphosphorylated hsp27 prevented the recovery of stress fibers and focal adhesions. These results provide in vivo evidence that hsp27 acts as an inhibitor of actin polymerization that can alter cellular interactions with extracellular environments by perturbation of stress fibers, and subsequently focal adhesions. J Cell Physiol 177:575-584, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 11
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 535-552 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The viral Crk oncogene (v-Crk) is known to induce sarcomas in chicken and its cellular homologs c-Crk I, c-Crk II, and Crk-like (CRKL) have been implicated in many signal transduction events. These include cell differentiation, cell migration, and the induced nonresponsiveness of T-cells to stimulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR), a state known as anergy. CRKL is also the most prominent substrate of the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein which causes human chronic myelogenous leukemias (CML). The modular composition of the Crk family adapters which largely consist of Src homology (SH2 and SH3) domains has prompted an intensive search for physiological and pathological upstream and downstream signalling partners which selectively bind to these adapters. Upstream proteins include various receptors and large multisite docking proteins, while several protein kinases and guanine nucleotide release proteins (GNRPs) have been suggested to function downstream of c-Crk and CRKL. Most Crk/CRKL SH2- and SH3-binding proteins contain several docking sites with considerable sequence similarity. Thus the binding requirements of Crk/CRKL SH2 and SH3 domains are now well defined, providing a basis for the design of small inhibitory molecules to block the function of these adapter proteins. The enzymatic cascades activated through Crk family adapters are only partially known, but stress kinases (SAPKs/JNKs) and the GTPase Rap1, as well as the B-Raf isoform of the Raf protein kinases, are affected in some systems. Several yet unidentified, highly selective Crk interacting proteins detectable in specific cell types remain to be studied. More detailed analyses of the enzymatic activities triggered through Crk-type adapters will also be crucial to fully define the signalling pathways controlled by this protein family. J Cell Physiol 177:535-552, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 12
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 553-562 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Hepatocytes entrapped in collagen gel and cultured in serum-free conditions survived longer than cells cultured on plastic (5 days vs. 3 weeks), showed fewer signs of early cell senescence (no increase in c-fos oncoprotein expression), and maintained the expression of differentiated hepatic metabolic functions over a longer period of time. Cells cultured in collagen gels retained their ability to respond to hormones. The insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis rate remained fairly constant during 18 days in culture (between 5.4 ± 0.37 and 9 ± 2.7 nmol glucose/h/μg DNA). Collagen-cultured hepatocytes recovered glycogen stores to levels similar to those found in liver, or in hepatocytes isolated from fed rats. Urea synthesis from ammonia remained stable for more than 2 weeks (average value, 23 ± 4 nmol urea/h/μg DNA). The rate of albumin synthesis in collagen-entrapped cells was maintained above the day-1 level during 18 days in culture. Cells showed high levels of glutathione (GSH) (1,278 ± 152 pmol/μg DNA). Biotransformation activities CYP4501A1, CYP4502A2, CYP4502B1, and CYP4503A1 remained fairly stable in collagen-cultured hepatocytes. CYP4502E1 and CYP4502C11 decreased but were still measurable after 18 days. After 4 days in culture, GST activity returned to levels observed in isolated hepatocytes. In contrast with plastic cultures, cells responded to CYP450 inducers (methylcholanthrene for CYP4501A1, CYP4501A2, and gluthatione-transferase, and ethanol for CYP4502E1) for more than 2 weeks. CYP4501A1, CYP4501A2, and glutathione-transferase A2 (GST A2) induction was preceded by an increase in specific mRNA, while the effects on CYP4502E1 seemed to be at a posttranslational level. Analysis of the expression of relevant hepatic genes by reverse Northern and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that culturing hepatocytes in collagen gels results in a sustained higher expression of key liver transcription factor genes DBP, C/EBP-α and -β, and HNF-1 and -4, as well as specific liver enzyme genes (phosphoenol pyryvate carboxykinase, and carbamoylphosphate-synthetase I). J Cell Physiol 177:553-562, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 13
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 377-386 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Apoptosis in cells of different lineages is restrained by survival signals which depend upon cell-to-cell communication. The aim of this study was to determine whether colonic cells deprived of crypt ambient are doomed to die prior to their normal chronological demise. Apoptosis was studied in rat whole colonic tissue, in isolated intact crypts, and in colonic cell populations collected from the crypt axis at different stages of proliferation and differentiation. In a number of experiments, cell harvest was performed in the presence of either a tetrapeptide (YVAD-CMK) inhibitor of interleukin-1β-converting enzyme (ICE), or tyrphostin A25, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or sodium-orthovanadate, a phosphatase inhibitor. DNA fragmentation was assessed by electrophoretic and nonisotopic-labeling procedures. The ultrastructure of colonic tissue specimens and isolated cells was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Apoptosis in whole colonic tissue and in isolated crypts was confined predominantly to cells resident in the upper crypt regions. In contrast, extensive apoptotic death was observed in isolated colonic cells, irrespective of their developmental stage and positional hierarchy within the crypt continuum at harvest time. An apoptotic gradient, however, was evident. Exposure to YVAD-CMK resulted in a marked decrease in the number of apoptotic cells. Treatment with tyrphostin A25 caused a sharp rise in the apoptotic index; conversely, vanadate significantly impeded apoptosis. Cumulatively, these results indicate that disordered intercellular communication provokes unscheduled ICE-mediated apoptosis of colonocytes, and that local signals along the crypt continuum control both the reprieve from death and the timely demise of distinct colonic cell populations. Attenuation of tyrosine phosphorylation may be a contributory event in the acquisition of the apoptotic phenotype. J. Cell. Physiol. 177:377-386, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 14
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 493-498 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Ultraviolet light A (UVA) is shown to play an augmentative or synergistic role with UVB in pathophysiological conditions induced by solar radiation. Thus, UVA would contribute significantly to the development of skin malignancies. It remains unclear, however, how UVA contributes to solar radiation-induced immune suppression. Keratinocytes (KC) produce cytokines which are a significant mediator of inflammatory and immunologic reactions in skin exposed to solar radiation and are a potent mediator in the induction of immune suppression. To examine if UVA alters the expression and production of cytokines from KC, normal human keratinocytes (HuSK) were cultured and exposed to UVA at doses ranging between 2.5 and 20 kJ/m2. Constitutive expression of the p35 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the p40 subunit was induced by UVA irradiation dose dependently. IL-12 protein was also detected in the supernatants from UVA-irradiated HuSK by enzyme-linked imuunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by a bioassay. On the other hand, the same doses of UVA did not induce IL-10 mRNA or IL-10 protein which has been shown to be one of the cytokines responsible for the induction of UVB-induced immunosuppression. Considering that IL-12 promotes activation of Th1 cells and prevents the activation of Th2 cells and that administration of IL-12 has been shown to block the induction of immune suppression in UV-irradiated animals, our results suggest that UVA modulates skin immune function distinctively from UVB by affecting the balance between IL-10 and IL-12 produced from KC. J. Cell. Physiol. 177:493-498, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 15
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 483-492 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Treatment with the sulfhydryl oxidant diamide denatures and aggregates cellular proteins, which prior studies have implicated as an oxidative damage that activates the heat shock transcription factor and induces thermotolerance. This study was initiated to further characterize cellular response to diamide-denatured proteins, including their involvement in diamide cytotoxicity. Cytotoxic diamide exposures at 37.0°C denatured and aggregated cellular proteins in a manner that was proportional to cell killing, but this correlation was different than that established for heated cells. Diamide exposures at 24.0°C were orders of magnitude less cytotoxic, with little additional killing occurring after diamide was removed and cells were returned to 37.0°C. Thus, protein denaturation that occurred at 37.0°C, after proteins were chemically destabilized by diamide at 24.0°C [Freeman et al., J. Cell. Physiol., 164:356-366 (1995) Senisterra et al., Biochemistry 36: 11002-11011 (1997)], had little effect on cell killing. Thermotolerance protected cells against diamide cytotoxicity but did not reduce the amount of denatured and aggregated protein observed immediately following diamide exposure. However, denatured/aggregated proteins in thermotolerant cells were disaggregated within 17 h following diamide exposure, while no disaggregation was observed in nontolerant cells. This more rapid disaggregation of proteins may be one mechanism by which thermotolerance protects cells against diamide toxicity, as it has been postulated to do against heat killing. As with heat shock, nontoxic diamide exposures induced maximal tolerance against heat killing; however, there was no detectable, increased synthesis of heat shock proteins. Thus, diamide treatment proved to be a reproducible procedure for inducing a phase of thermotolerance that does not require new heat shock protein (HSP) synthesis, without having to use transcription or translation inhibitors to suppress HSP gene expression.These results complement those from studies with other stresses to establish the importance of protein denaturation/aggregation as a cytotoxic consequence of stress and a trigger for thermotolerance induction. The data also illustrate that differences in how proteins are denatured and aggregated can affect their cytotoxicity and the manner in which thermotolerance is expressed. J. Cell. Physiol. 177:483-492, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 16
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    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 499-499 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: No abstract.
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  • 17
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    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 501-506 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: CDK9 is a cdc2-related kinase protein. Previously named PITALRE, this protein is a serine-threonine kinase involved in many physiological processes. Unlike most of the cdc2-like kinases, its activity is not cell cycle-regulated. CDK9 acts preferentially in processes different from cell-cycle regulation, such as differentiation. Its cyclin partners, cyclins of T family, recently have been isolated. CDK9 immunoprecipitates with several unidentified polypeptides that may regulate its kinase activity. CDK9 has been shown to associate with the HIV-Tat protein, suggesting a possible involvement in AIDS. CDK9 recently was shown to be responsible for the kinase activity associated with the TAK complex and with the P-TEFb complex, suggesting activity also in the transcription process. J Cell Physiol 177:501-506, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 18
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    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 525-534 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: No abstract.
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  • 19
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    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 518-524 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: No abstract.
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  • 20
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    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 507-517 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Neuropeptides, including mammalian bombesin-like peptides, act as potent cellular growth factors and have been implicated in a variety of normal and abnormal processes, including development, inflammation, and malignant transformation. These signaling peptides exert their characteristic effects on cellular processes by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) on the surface of their target cells. Typically, the binding of a neuropeptide to its cognate GPCR triggers the activation of multiple signal transduction pathways that act in a synergistic and combinatorial fashion to relay the mitogenic signal to the nucleus and promote cell proliferation. A rapid increase in the synthesis of lipid-derived second messengers with subsequent activation of protein phosphorylation cascades is an important early response to neuropeptides. An emerging theme in signal transduction is that these agonists also induce rapid and coordinate tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins including the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase p125fak and the adaptor proteins p130cas and paxillin. This tyrosine phosphorylation pathway depends on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton and requires functional Rho. The purpose of this article is to review recent advances in unraveling the pathways that play a role in transducing mitogenic and migratory responses induced by G protein-coupled neuropeptide receptor agonists. J Cell Physiol 177:507-517, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 21
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    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 585-592 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The effect of metabolic inhibitors on nontransferrin bound iron transport by K562 cells was investigated. Incubation with 1 μM rotenone, 10 μM antimycin, or 0.5 mM 2,4-dinitrophenol effectively reduced ATP levels by ∼50%. Both the rate and extent of Fe+3 uptake were impaired in ATP-depleted cells, which display a reduced Vmax for uptake. K562 cell ferrireductase activity was also lowered by metabolic inhibitors, suggesting that the apparent energy requirements for transport reside in the reduction of Fe+3 to Fe+2. However, ATP depletion was found to inhibit the rate and extent of Fe+2 uptake as well. Thus, the transbilayer passage of Fe+2 and/or Fe+3 appears to be an energy-requiring process. These features possibly reflect properties of the transport mechanism associated with a recently identified K562 cell transport protein, called SFT for “Stimulator of Fe Transport,” since exogenous expression of its activity is also affected by ATP depletion. J Cell Physiol 177:585-592, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 22
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    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 593-605 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Clusterin (ApoJ) is an extracellular glycoprotein expressed during processes of tissue differentiation and regression that involve programmed cell death (apoptosis). Increased clusterin expression has also been found in tumors, however, the mechanism underlying this induction is not known. Apoptotic processes in tumors could be responsible for clusterin gene activation. Alternatively, oncogenic mutations could modulate signal transduction, thereby inducing the gene. We examined the response of the rat clusterin gene to two oncogenes, Ha-ras and c-myc, in transfected Rat1 fibroblasts. While c-myc overexpression did not modify clusterin gene activity, the Ha-ras oncogene produced a seven to tenfold repression of clusterin mRNA; this down-regulation was also observed in the presence of c-myc. Since no induction of the clusterin gene was observed by the two oncogenes, we tested the alternative mechanism involving apoptosis. Growth factor withdrawal induced apoptosis, as shown by DNA degradation and micronuclei formation in the floating cells. Concomittantly we observed a three to tenfold increase in the amount of clusterin mRNA in the adhering cells of Rat1 and the c-myc transformed cell lines, and a weaker induction in the Ha-ras transformed cell line. On the basis of our results, we suggest that clusterin gene induction in the vital cells is produced by signaling molecules that are generated by the apoptotic cells. We conclude that apoptotic processes, not oncogenic mutations, are responsible for increased clusterin expression in tumors. J Cell Physiol 177:593-605, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 23
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    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 563-574 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have previously described a specific, saturable receptor for rat collagenase-3 in the rat osteosarcoma cell line, UMR 106-01. Binding of rat collagenase-3 to this receptor is coupled to the internalization and eventual degradation of the enzyme and correlates with observed extracellular levels of the enzyme. In this study we have shown that decreased binding, internalization, and degradation of 125I-rat collagenase-3 were observed in cells after 24 h of parathyroid hormone treatment; these activities returned to control values after 48 h and were increased substantially (twice control levels) after 96 h of treatment with the hormone. Subcellular fractionation studies to identify the route of uptake and degradation of collagenase-3 localized intracellular accumulation of 125I-rat collagenase-3 initially in Golgi-associated lysosomes and later in secondary lysosomes. Maximal lysosomal accumulation of the radiolabel and stimulation of general lysosomal activity occurred after 72 h of parathyroid hormone treatment. Preventing fusion of endosomes with lysosomes (by temperature shift, colchicine, or monensin) resulted in no internalized 125I-collagenase-3 in either lysosomal fraction. Treatment of UMR cells with the above agents or ammonium chloride decreased excretion of 125I-labeled degradation products of collagenase-3. These experiments demonstrated that degradation of collagenase-3 required receptor-mediated endocytosis and sequential processing by endosomes and lysosomes. Thus, parathyroid hormone regulates the expression and synthesis of collagenase-3 as well as the abundance and functioning of the collagenase-3 receptor and the intracellular degradation of its ligand. The coordinate changes in the secretion of collagenase-3 and expression of the receptor determine the net abundance of the enzyme in the extracellular space. J Cell Physiol 177:563-574, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 24
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    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 606-617 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The role of HSP27 in cell growth and resistance to stress was investigated using murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells (normally devoid of constitutively expressed small HSPs) and human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells stably transfected with a human hsp27 expression vector. Our data showed that our L929 cells were more resistant to oxidative stress than generally observed for this line. Production of HSP27 in these cells led to a marked decrease in growth rate associated with a series of phenotypical changes, including cell spreading, cellular and nuclear hypertrophy, development of an irregular outline, and a tremendous accumulation of actin stress fibers. By contrast, none of these changes was observable in SaOS-2/hsp27 transfectants overexpressing the protein product. Together, these observations are consistent with a cause-to-effect cascade relationship between increased (or induced) HSP27 expression, changes in cytoskeletal organization, and decreased growth. On the other hand, whereas the transfection of the hsp27 gene increased the cell resistance to heat in both cell lines, only in SaOS-2 cells was this associated with protection to the cytotoxic action of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and etoposide. Unexpectedly, L929/hsp27 transfectants exhibited an increased sensitivity to both agents and also to H2O2. These data thus imply that different mechanisms are involved in the cell resistance to heat shock and to the cytotoxic action of TNF-α, etoposide, and H2O2. They also plead against the simple view that overexpression of a phosphorylatable HSP27 would necessarily be beneficial in terms of increased cell resistance to any type of stress. Our data further indicate that the role of HSP27 in cellular resistance to stress and in cell proliferation involves different targets and that the ultimate result of its interference with these processes depends on the intracellular context in which the protein is expressed. J Cell Physiol 177:606-617, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 25
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    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 618-627 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We previously reported that the enterocytic differentiation of human colonic Caco-2 cells correlated with down-regulation of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN), two extracellular matrix components interacting with cell surface integrin receptors. We now investigated whether Caco-2 cell differentiation was associated with alterations in integrin signaling with special interest in the expression and activity of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. The differentiation of Caco-2 cells was associated with: (1) down-regulation of β1 integrin expression at the mRNA and protein levels; (2) increased FAK expression together with decreased FAK autophosphorylation; (3) decreased FAK's ability to associate with PI3-kinase and pp60c-src; and (4) increased MAP kinase expression along with decreased MAP activity. In addition, we show that FAK and MAP kinase belong to distinct integrin signaling pathways and that both pathways remain functional during Caco-2 cell differentiation since the coating of differentiating cells on FN and LN but not on polylysine increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK and of its endogenous substrate paxillin, and stimulated MAP kinase activity. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that FAK and MAP kinase, two signaling molecules activated independently by β1 integrins in Caco-2 cells, undergo alterations of both expression and activity during the enterocytic differentiation of this cell line. J Cell Physiol 177:618-627, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 26
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    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 636-645 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Using an expression cloning approach, we identified and cloned a novel intracellular protein produced by osteoclasts that indirectly induces osteoclast formation and bone resorption, termed OSF. Conditioned media from 293 cells transiently transfected with the 0.9 kb OSF cDNA clone stimulated osteoclast-like cell formation in both human and murine marrow cultures in the presence or absence 10-9 M 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. In addition, conditioned media from 293 cells transfected with the OSF cDNA clone enhanced the stimulatory effects of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on bone resorption in the fetal rat long bone assay. In situ hybridization studies using antisense oligomers showed expression of OSF mRNA in highly purified osteoclast-like cells from human giant cell tumors of the bone. Northern blot analysis demonstrated ubiquitous expression of a 1.3 kb mRNA that encodes OSF in multiple human tissues. Sequence analysis showed the OSF cDNA encoded a 28 kD peptide that contains a c-Src homology 3 domain (SH3) and ankyrin repeats, suggesting that it was not a secreted protein, but that it was potentially involved in cell signaling. Consistent with these data, immunoblot analysis using rabbit antisera against recombinant OSF demonstrated OSF expression in cell lysates but not in the culture media. Furthermore, recombinant OSF had a high affinity for c-Src, an important regulator of osteoclast activity. Taken together, these data suggest that OSF is a novel intracellular protein that indirectly enhances osteoclast formation and osteoclastic bone resorption through the cellular signal transduction cascade, possibly through its interactions with c-Src or other Src-related proteins. J Cell Physiol 177:636-645, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 27
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    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 628-635 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Salivary glands contain two major epithelial cell types: acinar cells which produce the primary salivary secretion, including amylase, and ductal cells which reabsorb electrolytes but also secrete kallikrein. Here we investigated salivary acinar cell differentiation in vitro using the activity of the salivary amylase and tissue kallikrein promoters as markers of acinar cell and ductal cell differentiation, respectively. Each of the promoter sequences was cloned into a replication-deficient adenoviral vector containing the luciferase reporter gene. Previous studies showed that a human submandibular gland cell line (HSG) differentiated into acinar cells when cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane matrix (Matrigel). The luciferase activity of the amylase promoter vector (AdAMY-luc) was low in HSG cells cultured on plastic, where they grow as an epithelial monolayer. The promoter activity increased approximately tenfold when HSG cells were cultured on Matrigel and developed an acinar phenotype. Under the same conditions, the luciferase activity of the kallikrein promoter (AdKALL-luc) was not induced. Because HSG cells demonstrate acinar cell morphology, but not amylase gene expression, when cultured on laminin-1, certain soluble components of Matrigel were tested for their ability to induce the amylase promoter during in vitro differentiation of acinar cells. We find that epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α), which are present in the basement membrane, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) increase activity of the amylase promoter. Other basement membrane-derived growth factors such as TGF-β, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PGDF), as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), keratinocyte growth factor (KGH), nerve growth factor (NGF) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were inactive. This system will be further exploited to study the mechanisms by which extracellular matrix molecules and growth factors regulate salivary acinar cell differentiation. J Cell Physiol 177:628-635, 1998. Published 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 28
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    Journal of Cellular Physiology 177 (1998), S. 646-660 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The pentameric B subunit of verotoxin (VT) mediates the attachment to cell surface globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb3) to facilitate receptor-mediated endocytosis of the toxin. In highly toxin-sensitive tumor cells, the holotoxin and VT1 B subunit is targeted intracellularly to elements of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/nuclear membrane. In less sensitive cells, the toxin is targeted to components of the Golgi apparatus. We have studied two cell systems: the induced VT hypersensitivity of human astrocytoma cell lines cultured in the presence of sodium butyrate (compared to sodium propionate and capronate) and the increased VT sensitivity of multiple drug-resistant mutants as compared to parental human ovarian carcinoma cells. In both cases, a difference in the intracellular retrograde transport of the receptor-bound internalized toxin to the ER/nuclear envelope, as opposed to the Golgi, correlated with a 〉1,000-fold increase in cell sensitivity to VT. This change in intracellular routing may be due to sorting of Gb3 fatty acid isoforms, since nuclear targeting was found in turn to correlate with the preferential synthesis of Gb3 containing shorter chain (primarily C16) fatty acid species. We propose that the isoform-dependent traffic of Gb3 from the cell surface to the ER/nuclear membrane provides a new signal transduction pathway for Gb3 binding proteins. J Cell Physiol 177:646-660, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 29
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 69 (1998), S. 483-489 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Cordyceps sinensis ; adrenal cells ; steroidogenesis ; signal pathway ; PKC ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Cordyceps sinensiscontains a factor that stimulates corticosteroid production in the animal model. However, it is not known whether this drug acts directly on the adrenal glands or indirectly via the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. In the present study, we used primary rat adrenal cell cultures to investigate the pharmacological function of a water-soluble extract of Cordyceps sinensis(CS) and thesignaling pathway involved. Radioimmunoassay of corticosterone indicated that the amount of corticosterone produced by adrenal cells is increased in a positively dose-dependent manner by CS, reaching a maximun at 25 μg/ml. This stimulating effect was seen 1 h after CS treatment and was maintained for up to 24 h. Concomitantly, the lipid droplets in these cells became small and fewer in number. Immunostaining with a monoclonal antibody, A2, a specific marker for the lipid droplet capsule, demonstrated that detachment of the capsule from the lipid droplet occurs in response to CS application and that the period required for decapsulation is inversely related to the concentration of CS applied. The mechanism of CS-induced steroidogenesis is apparently different from that for ACTH, since intracellular cAMP levels were not increased in CS-treated cells. However, combined application with calphostin C, a PKC inhibitor, completely blocked the effect of CS on steroidogenesis, suggesting that activation of PKC may be responsible for the CS-induced steroidogenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:483-489, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 30
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 69 (1998), S. 490-505 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: nucleolus ; nuclear import ; ribosomal protein L5 ; ribonucleoprotein particles ; ribosome assembly ; TFIIIA ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: In Xenopus laevis oocytes, 5S RNA is stored in the cytoplasm until vitellogenesis, at which time it is imported into the nucleus and targeted to nucleoli for ribosome assembly. This article shows that throughout oogenesis there is a pool of nuclear 5S RNA which is not nucleolar-associated. This distribution reflects that of oocyte-type 5S RNA, which is the major 5S RNA species in oocytes; only small amounts of somatic-type, which differs by six nucleotides, are synthesized. Indeed, 32P-labeled oocyte-type 5S RNA showed a degree of nucleolar localization similar to endogenous 5S RNA (33%) after microinjection. In contrast, 32P-labeled somatic-type 5S RNA showed significantly enhanced localization, whereby 70% of nuclear RNA was associated with nucleoli. A chimeric RNA molecule containing only one somatic-specific nucleotide substitution also showed enhanced localization, in addition to other somatic-specific phenotypes, including enhanced nuclear import and ribosome incorporation. The distribution of 35S-labeled ribosomal protein L5 was similar to that of oocyte-type 5S RNA, even when preassembled with somatic-type 5S RNA. The distribution of a series of 5S RNA mutants was also analyzed. These mutants showed various degrees of localization, suggesting that the efficiency of nucleolar targeting can be influenced by many discrete regions of the 5S RNA molecule. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:490-505, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 31
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 69 (1998), S. 506-521 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: heart ; development ; CaMPK ; cAPK ; CDK ; cGPK ; Kkialre ; PKC ; Wee1 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: During early postnatal development, cardiomyocytes, which comprise about 80% of ventricular mass and volume, become phenotypically developed to facilitate their contractile functions and terminally differentiated to grow only in size but not in cell number. These changes are due to the expression of contractile proteins as well as the regulation of intracellular signal transduction proteins. In this study, the expression patterns of several protein kinases involved in various cardiac functions and cell-cycle control were analyzed by Western blotting of ventricular extracts from 1-, 10-, 20-, 50-, and 365-day-old rats. The expression level of cAMP-dependent protein kinase was slightly decreased (20%) over the first year, whereas no change was detected in cGMP-dependent protein kinase I. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, which is involved in Ca2+ uptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, was increased as much as ten-fold. To the contrary, the expressions of protein kinase C-α and ι declined 77% with age. Cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) such as CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, and CDK5, which are required for cell-cycle progression, abruptly declined to almost undetectable levels after 10-20 days of age. In contrast, other CDK-related kinases, such as CDK8 or Kkialre, did not change significantly or increased up to 50% with age, respectively. Protein kinases implicated in CDK regulation such as CDK7 and Wee1 were either slightly increased in expression or did not change significantly. All of the proteins that were detected in ventricular extracts were also identified in isolated cardiac myocytes in equivalent amounts and analyzed for their relative expression in ten other adult rat tissues. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:506-521, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 32
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 8-21 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: activin A ; bone marrow stromal cells ; gene regulation ; promoter activity ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Activin A, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, plays roles in differentiation and development, including hematopoiesis. Our previous studies indicated that the expression of activin A by human bone marrow cells and monocytes is highly regulated by inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids. The present study was undertaken to investigate the regulation of activin A gene expression in the human bone marrow stromal cell lines L87/4 and HS-5, as well as in primary stromal cells. Northern blots demonstrated that, like primary stromal cells, the cell lines expressed four activin A RNA transcripts (6.4, 4.0, 2.8, and 1.6 kb), although distribution of the RNA among the four sizes varied. The locations of the 5′ ends of the RNAs were investigated by Northern blots and RNase protection assays. The results identified a transcription start site at 212 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon. In addition, luciferase expression assays of a series of deletion constructs were used to identify regulatory sequences upstream of the activin A gene. A 58 bp upstream sequence exhibits promoter activity. However, severalfold higher expression requires a positive element consisting of an additional 71 bp of the upstream region. Promoter activity was also identified between 2.5 and 3.6 kb upstream of the start codon. These findings suggest that expression of activin A at the transcriptional level follows complex patterns of regulation. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:8-21, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 33
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 22-28 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Msx-1 ; Msx-2 ; homeobox ; adhesion ; sorting ; cadherin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Msx-1 and Msx-2 are two closely related homeobox genes expressed in cephalic neural crest tooth buds, the optic cup endocardial cushions, and the developing limb [Hill and Davidson, 1991; Monaghan et al., 1991; Robert et al., 1991]. These sites correspond to regions of active cell segregation and proliferation under the influence of epithelial-mesenchymal cell interactions [Brown et al., 1993; Davidson et al., 1991], suggesting that Msx-1 and Msx-2 regulate cell-cell interactions. We have investigated the potential relationship between expression of the Msh homeobox genes (Msx-1 and Msx-2) and cadherin-mediated cell adhesion and cell sorting. We report that cell lines stably expressing Msx-1 or Msx-2 differentially sort on the basis of Msh gene expression. We demonstrate in vitro that initial cell aggregation involves calcium-dependent adhesion molecules (cadherins) and that Msh genes regulate cadherin-mediated adhesion. These results support the hypothesis that Msh genes play a role in the regulation of cell-cell adhesion and provide a link between the genetic phenomena of homeobox gene expression and cellular events involved in morphogenesis, including cell sorting and proliferation. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:22-28, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 1-7 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: apoptosis ; p53 ; pRb2/p130 ; E2F ; transcriptional control ; leukemia ; protein phosphatases ; colon cancer ; retinoblastoma ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: A significant portion of published literature is dedicated to describing the cloning and the characterization of proteins involved in the progression of the cell cycle, which govern cell growth both in cancer and normal ontogenesis. With this abundance of information, the cascading pathways of molecular events that occur in the cell cycle are proving to be exceedingly complicated. The purpose of this conference was to attract the leading clinical and basic science investigators in the growth control field with a final goal to determine how this current wealth of knowledge can be used to impact upon patient care and management by the design of novel adjuvant therapeutics specifically targeted at tumor cells and the identification of molecular diagnostic and/or prognostic markers in an efficient and cost effective manner. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:1-7, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 35
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 313-322 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: proliferation ; cell cycle ; apoptosis ; cyclins ; p27Kip1 ; cell magnesium ; CD11b ; myeloid differentiation ; HL-60 cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: When cultured in Mg restricted medium, human leukemic HL-60 cells develop morphological and functional granulocytic differentiation. In 0.03 mM Mg, cells display the distinctive features of differentiation, without appreciable inhibition of proliferation. In 0.01 mM Mg, cells show terminal differentiation, accompanied by clear inhibition of proliferation. Such cells accumulate in the G0/G1 phase and subsequently die via apoptosis, similar to HL-60 cells that have been induced to differentiate by DMSO. These phenotypic changes are associated with a marked increase in the expression level of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. Cyclin E expression is also slightly increased in Mg restricted cells, whereas no changes are observed in the expression level of cyclin D1. We also show that during differentiation cell total Mg decreases, whereas [Mg2+]i increases in both Mg-depleted and DMSO-treated cells. These data suggest that the maturation process is paralleled by a redistribution of intracellular Mg, leading to a shift from the bound to the free form. These changes could modulate the kinetics of Mg-dependent enzyme(s) that are involved in the control of the differentiation pathway. We propose that this model may represent an useful tool for the study of the mechanisms of cell differentiation and related events, such as aging and death. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:313-322, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 36
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 323-329 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: steroids ; DNA replication ; carcinogenesis ; proliferation ; cell-free system ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: There is now convincing evidence associating estrogens with an increased risk of some cancers. However, the absence of a complete correlation between estrogen receptor binding and the biological activity of these estrogens has suggested the possibility of other mechanisms of action. The effect on DNA replication of several hormones that are putatively involved in breast cancer was tested at a physiological concentration. The studies were conducted in a HeLa cell-free system by using a plasmid containing a specific mammalian origin of replication (DHFR oriβ〈0R) as template DNA. A series of related steroids produced an entire range of activity from enhancement to inhibition of in vitro DNA replication. These studies indicate a new possible target, which may help to better understand the effect of these hormones in breast cancer. Furthermore, the results show that this in vitro DNA replication system provides an evaluative assay for the effects of compounds on hormone-responsive cancers independent of some hormone receptors. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:323-329, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 37
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 330-337 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: cadherin ; catenins ; thyroid carcinoma cell ; epithelial cell ; cell-cell adhesion ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: E-cadherin is the major cell-cell adhesion molecule expressed by epithelial cells. Cadherins form a complex with three cytoplasmic proteins, α-, β-, and γ-catenin, and the interaction between them is crucial for anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the intercellular adherens junctions. The invasive behavior of cancer cells has been attributed to a dysfunction of these molecules. In this study, we examined the distribution of the cadherin-catenin complex in a Chinese human thyroid cancer cell line, CGTH W-2, compared with that in normal human thyroid epithelial cells. In the normal cells, using immunofluorescence staining, E-cadherin and α-, β-, and γ-catenin were found to be localized at the intercellular junction and appeared as 135, 102, 90, and 80 kD proteins on Western blots. In CGTH W-2 cells, no E-cadherin and γ-catenin immunoreactivity was detected by immunofluorescence or Western blotting; α- and β-catenin were detected as 102 and 90 kD proteins on blots but gave a diffuse cytoplasmic immunofluorescence staining pattern in most cells, while β-catenin was also distributed throughout the cytoplasm in most cells but was found at the cell junction in some, where it colocalized with α-actinin. The present data indicate that the loss of cell adhesiveness in these cancer cells may be due to incomplete assembly of the cadherin-catenin complex at the cell junction. However, this defect did not affect the linkage of actin bundles to vinculin-enriched intercellular junctions. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:330-337, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 38
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 338-345 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: sphingosine ; interleukin-6 ; osteoblast ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We previously reported that prostaglandin (PG)E1 and PGF2α induce the synthesis of interleukin-6 (IL-6) via activation of protein kinase (PK)A and PKC, respectively, in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, we have shown that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) elicits IL-6 synthesis through intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in these cells and that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) induces IL-6 synthesis through sphingosine 1-phosphate produced by sphingomyelin hydrolysis. In the present study, among sphingomyelin metabolites, we examined the effect of sphingosine on IL-6 synthesis induced by various agonists in MC3T3-E1 cells. Sphingosine inhibited the IL-6 synthesis induced by PGF2α or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, an activator of PKC. Sphingosine suppressed the PGE1-induced IL-6 synthesis. The IL-6 synthesis induced by cholera toxin, forskolin, or dibutyryl cAMP was inhibited by sphingosine. Sphingosine inhibited the IL-6 synthesis induced by bFGF or A23187. However, sphingosine did not affect the IL-6 synthesis induced by interleukin-1. On the contrary, sphingosine enhanced the TNF-induced IL-6 synthesis. DL-threo-Dihydrosphingosine, an inhibitor of sphingosine kinase, reduced the enhancement by sphingosine as well as the TNF-effect. These results indicate that sphingosine modulates the IL-6 synthesis stimulated by various agonists in osteoblasts. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:338-345. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 39
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 346-353 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: MHC class II ; T-helper cells ; phosphotyrosine kinase ; phospholipase C-γ1 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II are expressed on most activated human lymphocytes. They direct antigen presentation events in dendritic cells and B cells (collectively called antigen presenting cells), but the role for MHC class II in human T cells is not well understood. To understand the role of surface MHC class II and to identify the molecules involved in signaling, we have defined the early activation sequence in T cells when MHC class II are engaged by a specific antibody. Specifically, we have characterized the involvement of phosphotyrosine kinases, phospholipase C (PLC), and Ca2+ mobilization. With the engagement by either whole anti-class II antibody or its Fab fragments, the enzymatic activity of p56lck and ZAP-70 increased, but there was no increase in p59fyn activity. In addition, the intracellular free Ca2+ increased, which was due to enhanced influx and not to the mobilization of intracytoplasmic Ca2+. These events did not require cross-linking because they were not significantly augmented by the addition of antispecies antibody. The coimmunoprecipitation of tyrosine phosphorylated PLC-γ1 with surface MHC class II suggested that PLC-γ1 could be recruited to MHC class II after engagement. These results show the complexities of the early signals transduced by the engagement of surface MHC class II on T cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:346-353, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 40
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 354-365 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: human fetal colon ; apolipoprotein A-I, A-IV, B-48, B-100 ; hydrocortisone ; insulin ; epidermal growth factor ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The present investigation aimed at defining the localization of apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-IV, B-48, and B-100 along the crypt-villus axis of the human fetal colon, their biogenesis during gestation, and their hormonal regulation. Using immunofluoresence, the distribution of apo A-I and A-IV appeared as a gradient, increasing from the developing crypt to the tip of the villus. On the other hand, apo B-100 staining was found in the crypt and the lower mid-villus region with varying intensities in the upper villus cells, while the 2D8 antibody which recognizes both apo B-100 and B-48, revealed uniform staining along the crypt-villus axis. Apolipoprotein synthesis, determined by [35S] methionine labeling, immunoprecipitation, and SDS-PAGE showed a predominance of apo A-IV (53%), followed by apo A-I (23.9%), apo B-48 (13.4%), and apo B-100 (9.7%). The synthesis of each apolipoprotein was significantly modulated by hydrocortisone, insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Apart from a decrease in apo B-100 exerted by EGF and a reduction in apo A-I resulting from the addition of insulin, the other apolipoproteins were all enhanced. Our data confirm that the fetal colon has the capacity to synthesize apolipoprotein A-I, A-IV, B-48, and B-100 and establish that their synthesis are modulated by hormonal and growth factors known to be involved in the regulatory mechanism of the functional development of human jejunum. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:354-365, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 41
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 366-375 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: transcription ; myogenesis ; MADS domain ; DNA binding ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Previous investigations have demonstrated synergistic interactions in vivo between CCAC and A/T-rich nucleotide sequence motifs as functional components of muscle-specific transcriptional enhancers. Using CCAC and A/T-rich elements from the myoglobin and muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene enhancers, Sp1 and myocyte-specific enhancer factor-2 (MEF-2) were identified as cognate binding proteins that recognize these sites. Physical interactions between Sp1 and MEF-2 were demonstrated by immunological detection of both proteins in DNA binding complexes formed in vitro by nuclear extracts in the presence of only the A/T sequence motif, by coprecipitation of recombinant MEF-2 in the presence of a glutathione-S-transferase-Sp1 fusion protein bound to glutathione beads, and by a two-hybrid assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The interaction with Sp1 in vitro and in vivo is specific for MEF-2 and was not observed with serum response factor, a related MADS domain protein. Forced expression of Sp1 and MEF-2 in insect cells otherwise lacking these factors promotes synergistic transcriptional activation of a promoter containing binding sites for both proteins. These data expand the repertoire of functional and physical interactions between lineage-restricted (MEF-2) and ubiquitous (Sp1) transcription factors that may be important for myogenic differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:366-375, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 42
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 376-390 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: osteopontin ; integrins ; mechano-transduction ; tyrosine kinase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Osteopontin is a predominant integrin binding protein of bone and its expression has been shown to be induced by mechanical stimuli within osteoblasts (Toma et al. [1997] J. Bone Miner. Res. 12:1626-1636). The present studies examined if the cell adhesion would mimic the mechano-transduction that stimulated opn mRNA expression and whether integrin receptors were involved in these processes. Osteopontin mRNA expression was induced three- to four-fold, 24 hours after embryonic chicken calvaria osteoblast attachment to fibronectin (FN), however no induction was observed if the cells were plated on tissue culture plastic alone. Osteopontin mRNA induction in response to cell attachment on FN was dependent on new protein synthesis and the activation of a tyrosine protein kinase(s) but unlike mechano-induction was independent of the maintenance of the cell's microfilament structure. Integrin receptor(s) were shown to be involved in mediating the signal transduction processes of both cell attachment and mechanical stimulation since incubation of osteoblasts with the integrin binding peptide RGDS partially blocked the induction of opn expression in response to both stimuli. Interestingly, incubation of the osteoblasts that were adherent on tissue culture plastic alone with the RGDS peptide lead to an induction in opn expression suggesting that integrin occupancy by itself was sufficient to initiate the signal transduction process that induced opn expression. In order to assess the role of integrin occupancy vs. focal adhesion complex formation that accompanies cell attachment, in the signal transduction process that induces opn expression, receptor clustering was stimulated pharmacologically with bombesin or lysophasphatidic acid in osteoblasts attached to tissue culture plastic. Neither compound in the absence of occupancy of the integrin receptors was capable of stimulating opn expression in attached cells, however if the cells were placed in suspension pharmacological mediation of receptor clustering and integrin occupancy were additive in their effect of inducing opn expression. These data demonstrate that induction of opn expression by mechanical stimuli and cell attachment are commonly mediated through integrin receptor(s). However, when cells are attached receptor clustering alone which accompanies focal adhesion formation was incapable of mediating signal transduction suggesting that receptor occupancy was a prerequisite to the signal transduction process that leads to the induction of opn mRNA expression. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:376-390. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 43
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 391-401 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: anabolic ; bone ; MMP-9 ; osteoblast ; parathyroid hormone ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Intermittent doses of parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulate bone formation in animals and humans, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not understood. Bone formation culminates with the expression of type I collagen, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase, but genes that initiate and support the anabolic response are not known. To identify novel PTH-regulated genes in bone during the anabolic response, we used differential display-polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) to analyze RNA from young male rats injected with either human PTH (1-34) or vehicle control, once daily for 5 days. Total RNA was isolated from the distal femur metaphysis at 1, 6, and 48 h after the final injection and subjected to DDRT-PCR. We identified three PTH-responsive transcripts as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), creatine kinase, and the α1(I) polypeptide chain (COL1A1) of type I collagen. The concomitant upregulation of MMP-9 and COL1A1 during bone formation was particularly intriguing. Further characterization of MMP-9 expression revealed that it was localized to osteoblasts, osteocytes, megakaryocytes, and cells of the bone marrow in the rat distal femur metaphysis. Northern analysis for MMP-9 expression in other tissues indicated that this transcript was present in the kidney and brain. In vitro, PTH regulated the protein synthesis of MMP-9 by osteoblasts of the primary spongiosa. We propose that PTH may promote bone formation by mediating the subtle variation in MMP activities, thus preparing the extracellular matrix for the subsequent bone cell migration and deposition of new osteoid. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:391-401, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 44
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 402-413 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: genome ; calmodulin ; smooth muscle ; immunohistochemistry ; heart ; development ; protein kinase ; tissue selective ; calcium ; signal transduction ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We report that the genetic locus that encodes vertebrate smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and kinase-related protein (KRP) has a complex arrangement and a complex pattern of expression. Three proteins are encoded by 31 exons that have only one variation, that of the first exon of KRP, and the genomic locus spans approximately 100 kb of DNA. The three proteins can differ in their relative abundance and localization among tissues and with development. MLCK is a calmodulin (CaM) regulated protein kinase that phosphorylates the light chain of myosin II. The chicken has two MLCK isoforms encoded by the MLCK/KRP locus. KRP does not bind CaM and is not a protein kinase. However, KRP binds to and regulates the structure of myosin II. Thus, KRP and MLCK have the same subcellular target, the myosin II molecular motor system. We examined the tissue and cellular localization of KRP and MLCK in the chicken embryo and in adult chicken tissues. We report on the selective localization of KRP and MLCK among and within tissues and on a differential distribution of the proteins between embryonic and adult tissues. The results fill a void in our knowledge about the organization of the MLCK/KRP genetic locus, which appears to be a late evolving regulatory paradigm, and suggest an independent and complex regulation of expression of the gene products from the MLCK/KRP genetic locus that may reflect a basic principle found in other eukaryotic gene clusters that encode functionally linked proteins. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:402-413, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 45
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 414-424 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: analog ; bone ; growth inhibition ; differentiation ; vitamin D ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) is involved in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of a variety of cell types including cancer cells. In recent years, numerous new vitamin D3 analogs have been developed in order to obtain favorable therapeutic properties. The effects of a new 20-epi analog, CB1093 (20-epi-22-ethoxy-23-yne-24a,26a,27a-trihomo-1α,25(OH)2D3), on the proliferation and differentiation of human MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line were compared here with those of the parent compound 1,25D. Proliferation of the MG-63 cells was inhibited similarly by 22%, 50% and 59% after treatment with 0.1 μM 1,25D or CB1093 for 48 h, 96 h, and 144 h, respectively. In transfection experiments, the compounds were equipotent in stimulating reporter gene activity under the control of human osteocalcin gene promoter. In cell culture experiments, however, CB1093 was more potent than 1,25D at low concentrations and more effective for a longer period of time in activating the osteocalcin gene expression at mRNA and protein levels. Also, a 6-h pretreatment and subsequent culture for up to 120 h without 1,25D or CB1093 yielded higher osteocalcin mRNA and protein levels with analog-treated cells than with 1,25D-treated cells. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed stronger VDR-VDRE binding with analog-treated MG-63 cells than with 1,25D-treated cells. The differences in the DNA binding of 1,25D-bound vs. analog-bound VDR, however, largely disappeared when the binding reactions were performed with recombinant hVDR and hRXRβ proteins. These results demonstrate that the new analog CB1093 was equally or even more effective than 1,25D in regulating all human osteosarcoma cell functions ranging from growth inhibition to marker gene expression and that the differences in effectivity most probably resulted from interactions of the hVDR:hRXRβ-complex with additional nuclear proteins. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:414-424, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 46
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70 (1998), S. 433-441 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: AKT2 ; serine-threonine kinase ; oncogene ; insulin ; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The AKT2 oncogene encodes a protein-serine/threonine kinase that was recently shown to be activated by a variety of growth factors. In addition, we previously showed that AKT2 is abundant in brown fat and skeletal muscle, tissues that are highly insulin responsive and that play a role in glucose metabolism. In this study, we demonstrate that AKT2 is activated in response to stimulation by insulin in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human ovarian carcinoma cells and that activation of AKT2 is abolished in cells pretreated with wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). Activation of AKT2 is manifested by changes in its phosphorylation state. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrate that AKT2 is translocated to the plasma membrane after insulin stimulation, and this translocation is abolished by wortmannin. Both wild-type AKT2 activated by insulin and constitutively active AKT2, which has been targeted to the membrane by the addition of a myristoylation signal, were found to inactivate glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in vitro. GSK-3 was not inactivated by a catalytically inactive AKT2 mutant. Collectively, these data indicate that activation of AKT2 by insulin is mediated by PI 3-kinase and that GSK-3 is a downstream target of AKT2, suggesting a potentially important role of AKT2 in glycogen synthesis and other GSK-3 signaling pathways. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:433-441, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 47
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 71 (1998), S. 127-139 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: GAPDH gene expression ; spermatogenesis ; meiotic and postmeiotic cells ; heat shock ; polyadenylation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), in addition to being a classic glycolytic enzyme, is a multifunctional protein involved in relevant cell functions such as DNA replication, DNA repair, translational control of gene expression, and apoptosis. Although the multifunctional nature of GAPDH suggests versatility in the mechanisms regulating its expression, no major qualitative changes and few quantitative changes in the GAPDH transcripts have been reported. While studying the expression of GAPDH during spermatogenesis, we detected alternative initiations to TATA box and alternative splicings in the 5′ region of the pre-mRNA, resulting in at least six different types of mRNAs. The amount and the polyadenylation of the GAPDH transcripts increased in mature testis in relation to immature testis and further increased when cell suspensions from mature testis were exposed to heat shock. These results suggest that alternative initiation, alternative splicing, and polyadenylation could provide the necessary versatility to the regulation of the expression of this multifunctional protein during spermatogenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:127-139, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 48
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 71 (1998), S. 140-148 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: calmodulin ; calcineurin ; protein phosphatase ; calcium-binding protein ; regucalcin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The regulatory effect of regucalcin on Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase activity and the binding of regucalcin to calmodulin was investigated. Phosphatase activity toward phosphotyrosine, phosphoserine, and phosphothreonine in rat liver cytosol was significantly increased by the addition of Ca2+ (100 μM) and calmodulin (0.30 μM). Thess increases were clearly inhibited by the addition of regucalcin (0.50-1.0 μM) into the enzyme reaction mixture. The cytosolic phosphoamino acid phosphatase activity was significantly elevated by the presence of anti-regucalcin monoclonal antibody (0.2 μg/ml), suggesting that endogenous regucalcin in the cytosol has an inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity. This elevation was prevented by the addition of regucalcin (0.50 μM). Purified calcineurin phosphatase activity was significantly increased by the addition of calmodulin (0.12 μM) in the presence of Ca2+ (1 and 10 μM). This increase was completely inhibited by the presence of regucalcin (0.12 μM). The inhibitory effect of regucalcin was reversed by the addition of calmodulin with the higher concentration (0.36 μM). Regucalcin has been demonstrated to bind on calmodulin-agarose beads by analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The present study demonstrates that regucalcin inhibits Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase activity in rat liver cytosol, and that regucalcin can bind to calmodulin. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:140-148, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 49
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 71 (1998), S. 149-157 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: RAP ; α2MR/LRP ; melanocytes ; melanoma ; cell culture density ; flow cytometry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: α2-Macroglobulin receptor/low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein is a multifunctional cell surface receptor known to bind and internalize a large number of ligands. α2-Macroglobulin receptor-associated protein acts as an intracellular “chaperone” for this receptor, and it has been shown to inhibit binding of all its known ligands. In this paper, we characterize the expression of the receptor-associated protein in both normal human epidermal melanocytes and in six different human melanoma cell lines, by the use of flow cytometry and Western blotting analysis. We show that all the melanoma cell lines and the normal melanocytes express the receptor-associated protein at similar levels, with most located intracellularly. No receptor-associated protein was detected at the cell surface in the melanocytes or in three of the cell lines. However, in two of the melanoma cell lines, large amounts of receptor-associated protein were found on the cell surface, these having the largest amounts of it reported to date; in a further melanoma cell line, there was a small amount at the cell surface. We have also shown that the melanocytes and all the melanoma cell lines express the receptor itself at a wide range of levels, the highest levels of both the cell surface receptor and the cell surface receptor-associated protein being found in one particular melanoma cell line. By growing the cell lines under controlled conditions, we have demonstrated that, although the total cellular content of the receptor is markedly increased at high cell culture density, this treatment has no effect on the level of expression of the receptor-associated protein. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:149-157, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 50
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 71 (1998), S. 158-168 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: glycosylation ; lysosomal targeting ; lysozyme ; monensin ; myeloperoxidase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The role of the N-terminal sequence of myeloperoxidase in the intracellular targeting was examined by using glycosylated lysozyme as a reporter. A fusion protein was constructed in which the presequence residues -18 through -6 of the lysozyme moiety had been replaced by residues 1-158 of prepromyeloperoxidase. Expression of the fusion protein in Chinese hamster ovary cells demonstrated its partial secretion and partial intracellular retention. The latter was accompanied by trimming the myeloperoxidase prosequence off the lysozyme moiety. The rate of the retention of the lysozyme fusion protein was higher than that of glycosylated lysozyme that had been expressed in cells transfected with cDNA of glycosylated lysozyme. The retention was insensitive to NH4Cl. In the secreted protein, lysozyme contained predominantly complex oligosaccharides as demonstrated by a proteolytic fragmentation in vitro and resistance to endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. In contrast, when targeted to lysosomes, the lysozyme moiety of the fusion protein contained predominantly mannose-rich oligosaccharides. In baby hamster kidney cells, the trimming of the oligosaccharides in the lysozyme fragment was less vigorous, and a selective targeting of molecules bearing mannose-rich oligosaccharides to lysosomes was more apparent than in Chinese hamster ovary cells. In the presence of monensin, the formation of complex oligosaccharides in the fusion protein and its secretion were strongly inhibited, whereas the intracellular fragmentation was not. We suggest that the prosequence of myeloperoxidase participates in the intracellular routing of the precursor and that this routing operates on precursors bearing mannose-rich rather than terminally glycosylated oligosaccharides and diverts them from the secretory pathway at a site proximal to the monensin-sensitive compartment of the Golgi apparatus. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:158-168, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 51
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 71 (1998), S. 169-181 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: intermediate filaments ; mitogen-activated protein ; kinase-activated protein kinase-2 ; vimentin ; okadaic acid ; phosphorylation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Organization of intermediate filament, a major component of cytoskeleton, is regulated by protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, which is a dynamic process governed by a balance between the activities of involved protein kinases and phosphatases. Blocking dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase inhibitors such as okadaic acid (OA) leads to an apparent activation of protein kinase(s) and to genuine activation of phosphatase-regulated protein kinase(s). Treatment of 9L rat brain tumor cells with OA results in a drastically increased phosphorylation of vimentin, an intermediate filament protein. In-gel renaturing assays and in vitro kinase assays using vimentin as the exogenous substrate indicate that certain protein kinase(s) is activated in OA-treated cells. With specific protein kinase inhibitors, we show the possible involvement of the cdc2 kinase- and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)-mediated pathways in this process. Subsequent in vitro assays demonstrate that vimentin may serve as an excellent substrate for MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK-2), the downstream effector of p38MAPK, and that MAPKAPK-2 is activated with OA treatment. Comparative analysis of tryptic phosphopeptide maps also indicates that corresponding phosphopeptides emerged in vimentin from OA-treated cells and were phosphorylated by MAPKAPK-2. Taken together, the results clearly demonstrate that MAPKAPK-2 may function as a vimentin kinase in vitro and in vivo. These findings shed new light on the possible involvement of the p38MAPK signaling cascade, via MAPKAPK-2, in the maintenance of integrity and possible physiological regulation of intermediate filaments. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:169-181, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 52
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 71 (1998), S. 182-188 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: human islets ; insulin release ; sulfonylurea receptors ; oral antidiabetic compounds ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Current information on pancreatic islet sulfonylurea receptors has been obtained with laboratory animal pancreatic β cells or stable β-cell lines. In the present study, we evaluated the properties of sulfonylurea receptors of human islets of Langherans, prepared by collagenase digestion and density-gradient purification. The binding characterisitics of labeled glibenclamide to pancreatic islet membrane preparations were analyzed, displacement studies with several oral hypoglycemic agents were performed, and these latter compounds were tested as for their insulinotropic action on intact human islets. [3H]glibenclamide saturable binding was shown to be linear at ≤0.25 mg/ml protein; it was both temperature and time dependent. Scatchard analysis of the equilibrium binding data at 25°C indicated the presence of a single class of saturable, high-affinity binding sites with a Kd value of 1.0 ± 0.07 nM and a Bmax value of 657 ± 48 fmol/mg of proteins. The displacement experiments showed the following rank order of potency of the oral hypoglycemic agents we tested: glibenclamide = glimepiride 〉 tolbutamide 〉 chlorpropamide ≫ metformin. This binding potency order was parallel with the insulinotropic potency of the evaluated compounds. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:182-188, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 53
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 71 (1998), S. 204-215 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: osteoclast ; spectrin ; membrane skeleton ; bone ; bone resorption ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The presence of spectrin was demonstrated in chick osteoclasts by Western blotting and light and electron microscopic immunolocalization. Additionally, screening of a chick osteoclast cDNA library revealed the presence of α-spectrin. Light microscope level immunocytochemical staining of osteoclasts in situ revealed spectrin staining throughout the cytoplasm with heavier staining found at the marrow-facing cell margin and around the nuclei. Confocal microscopy of isolated osteoclasts plated onto a glass substrate showed that spectrin encircled the organelle-rich cell center. Nuclei and cytoplasmic inclusions were also stained and the plasma membrane was stained in a nonuniform, patchy distribution corresponding to regions of apparent membrane ruffling. Ultracytochemical localization showed spectrin to be found at the plasma membrane and distributed throughout the cytoplasm with especially intense staining of the nuclear membrane and filaments within the nuclear compartment. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:204-215, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 54
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 71 (1998), S. 189-203 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: glucose transporters ; sperm ; dehydroascorbic acid ; fructose ; 2-deoxy-D-glucose ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We analyzed the expression of hexose transporters in human testis and in human, rat, and bull spermatozoa and studied the uptake of hexoses and vitamin C in bull spermatozoa. Immunocytochemical and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that adult human testis expressed the hexose transporters GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT3, GLUT4, and GLUT5. Immunoblotting experiments demonstrated the presence of proteins of about 50-70 kD reactive with anti-GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT3, and GLUT5 in membranes prepared from human spermatozoa, but no proteins reactive with GLUT4 antibodies were detected. Immunolocalization experiments confirmed the presence of GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT3, GLUT5, and low levels of GLUT4 in human, rat, and bull spermatozoa. Each transporter isoform showed a typical subcellular localization in the head and the sperm tail. In the tail, GLUT3 and GLUT5 were present at the level of the middle piece in the three species examined, GLUT1 was present in the principal piece, and the localization of GLUT2 differed according of the species examined. Bull spermatozoa transported deoxyglucose, fructose, and the oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbic acid. Transport of deoxyglucose and dehydroascorbic acid was inhibited by cytochalasin B, indicating the direct participation of facilitative hexose transporters in the transport of both substrates by bull spermatozoa. Transport of fructose was not affected by cytochalasin B, which is consistent for an important role for GLUT5 in the transport of fructose in these cells. The data show that human, rat, and bull spermatozoa express several hexose transporter isoforms that allow for the efficient uptake of glucose, fructose, and dehydroascorbic acid by these cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:189-203, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 55
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 71 (1998), S. 216-232 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: assembly of type I collagen ; COOH-terminal propeptide ; pepsin-resistant heterotrimers ; interspecies collagen molecule ; thermal stability ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Procollagen (Type I) contains a noncollagenous COOH-terminal propeptide (C-propeptide) hypothesized to be important in directing chain association and alignment during assembly. We previously expressed human pro-α2(I) cDNA in rat liver epithelial cells, W8, that produce only pro-α1(I) trimer collagen (Lim et al. [1994] MatrixBiol. 14: 21-30). In the resulting cell lines, α2(I) assembled with α1(I) forming heterotrimers. Using this cell system, we investigated the importance of the COOH-terminal propeptide sequence of the pro-α2(I) chain for normal assembly of type I collagen. Full-length human pro-α2(I) cDNA was cloned into expression vectors with a premature stop signal eliminating the final 10 amino acids. No triple-helical molecules containing α2(I) were detected in transfected W8 cells, although pro-α2(I) mRNA was detected. Additional protein analysis demonstrated that these cells synthesize small amounts of truncated pro-α2(I) chains detected by immunoprecipitation with a pro-α2(I) antibody. In addition, since the human-rat collagen was less thermostable than normal intraspecies collagen, wild-type and C-terminal truncated mouse cDNAs were expressed in mouse D2 cells, which produced only type I trimers. Results from both systems were consistent, suggesting that the last 10 amino acid residues of the pro-α2(I) chain are important for formation of stable type I collagen. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:216-232, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 71 (1998), S. 233-242 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: assembly of type I collagen ; COOH-terminal propeptide ; pesin-resistant heterotrimers ; disulfide bonds ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Collagen biosynthesis is a complex process that begins with the association of three procollagen chains. A series of conserved intra- and interchain disulfide bonds in the carboxyl-terminal region of the procollagen chains, or C-propeptide, has been hypothesized to play an important role in the nucleation and alignment of the chains. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the ability of normal and cysteine-mutated pro-α2(I) chains to assemble into type I collagen heterotrimers when expressed in a cell line (D2) that produces only endogenous pro-α1(I). Pro-α2(I) chains containing single or double cysteine mutations that disrupted individual intra- or interchain disulfide bonds were able to form pepsin resistant type I collagen with pro-α1(I), indicating that individual disulfide bonds were not critical for assembly of the pro-α2(I) chain with pro-α1(I). Pro-α2(I) chains containing a triple cysteine mutation that disrupted both intrachain disulfide bonds were not able to form pepsin resistant type I collagen with pro-α1(I). Therefore, disruption of both pro-α2(I) intrachain disulfide bonds prevented the production and secretion of type I collagen heterotrimers. Although none of the individual disulfide bonds is essential for assembly of the procollagen chains, the presence of at least one intrachain disulfide bond may be necessary as a structural requirement for chain association or to stabilize the protein to prevent intracellular degradation. J.Cell. Biochem. 71:233-242, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 71 (1998), S. 243-253 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: T-lymphocyte ; apoptosis ; signal transduction ; HgCl2 ; tyrosine phosphorylation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Exposure to Hg2+ at a wide range of concentrations (approximately 1-100 μM) more or less caused the death of murine thymic T-lymphocytes, and exposure to 1 μM but not 10 μM (or more) of Hg2+ induced DNA fragmentation. Exposure of cells to Hg2+ caused phosphorylation of multiple cellular proteins at the tyrosine residue in a concentration-dependent manner. We found that not only the DNA fragmentation induced by 1 μM Hg2+ but also the cell death bypassing DNA fragmentation caused by 10 μM or more Hg2+ was partly inhibited by protein kinase inhibitors such as staurosporine and herbimycin A. This result suggested the involvement of a protein phosphorylation-linked signal in the mechanism of the Hg2+-mediated cell death with or without DNA fragmentation. Analysis of proteins by both one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot showed that a 52-kDa Shc protein was heavily phosphorylated by an early signal delivered by a high concentration of Hg2+, which also phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1; p44) and ERK2 (p42) of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The c-Jun amino terminal kinase (p54), which is a distant relative of the MAPK family, was also phosphorylated by the treatment with Hg2+. This eventually formed the signaling cascade that ended with a nuclear target by phosphorylating c-jun at the serine 73. This phosphorylation of c-jun was inhibited by staurosporine. These results suggest that a high level of Hg2+-mediated protein phosphorylation-linked signal induces rapid cell death bypassing DNA fragmentation, whereas a lower level induces cell death accompanying DNA fragmentation. This conclusion in turn implies that DNA fragmentation is not always a prerequisite for the signal transduction-dependent cell death of T-lymphocytes. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:243-253, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 58
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 71 (1998), S. 264-276 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: HGF/SF ; MSH ; c-met ; tyrosinase ; B16 melanoma ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Reiterated selection in vivo of B16 murine melanoma cells for enhanced liver metastatic ability yielded a cell line (B16-LS9) dramatically overexpressing a constitutively active hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) receptor, the product of the c-met proto-oncogene. Most likely because of their overexpressing c-met, B16-LS9 cells appear to be more responsive than parental B16-F1 cells to HGF stimulation, in terms of motility, invasion, and growth. They are also more pigmented, and express higher levels of tyrosinase as compared to parental B16-F1 cells. Therefore, we set out to explore whether HGF/SF and the liver might influence the differentiation state of B16 cells. We found that HGF/SF and MSH, two factors which reportedly have a strong influence on the phenotype and the malignant behavior of melanoma cells, may act at different levels, and with opposite results, on the regulation of gene expression. In fact, while MSH induces, at the transcriptional level, an increase in the production of both c-met and tyrosinase, HGF/SF, in contrast, promotes a decrease in the expression of both c-met and tyrosinase, however at a posttranscriptional level. These two opposite effects can counter-balance each other, when the cells are treated with both factors at the same time, apparently through a mechanism involving MAP kinase activation. The effects were, however, additive when morphological changes were considered. Most intriguingly, we also describe a very strong downregulatory activity, limited to tyrosinase expression, by hepatocytes in coculture with B16 cells. This activity, also at the posttranscriptional level, is much stronger than that exerted by HGF/SF, and appears to be due to a labile soluble factor produced by the hepatocytes. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:264-276, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 59
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    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 71 (1998), S. 254-263 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: lysyl oxidase ; cyclooxygenase-1 ; type I collagen α1 ; prostaglandin E2 ; prostaglandin E2 receptors ; cyclic AMP ; interleukin-1β