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  • Engineering General  (9,884)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: waste containment systems ; slope failure ; strain-softening ; landfill ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: The potential for progressive failure in waste containment systems is an important design consideration. Many common interfaces between components in containment systems exhibit strain-softening behaviour; however, slopes are presently designed using limit equilibrium methods that do not account for these effects. An analytical model is developed to investigate the potential for progressive failure due to strain softening. Results are presented in a non-dimensional form relating the potential for strain softening to the slope geometry, the waste properties and the properties of the containment system interface. The potential for progressive failure increases as (i) the waste stiffness decreases relative to the initial stiffness of the interface resistance, (ii) the length of the slip surface increases and (iii) the rate of strain softening with displacement increases. Analysis of a case study slope failure indicates that the analytical approach produces results that are consistent with field observations and comparable to results from a more sophisticated, numerical analysis. Although simple, this analytical approach serves as a useful design guide to identify cases where it is unsafe to use the peak shear strength in a limit equilibrium analysis.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: inverse analysis ; parameter identification ; underground excavation ; optimization technique ; finite element method ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: A probabilistic framework to perform inverse analysis of geotechnical problems is presented. The formulation allows the incorporation of existing prior information on the parameters in a consistent way. The method is based on the maximum likelihood approach that allows a straightforward introduction of the error structure of field measurements and prior information. The difficulty of ascribing definite values to the uncertainties associated with the various types of observations is overcome by including the corresponding variances in the set of parameters to be identified. The inverse analysis results in a minimization problem that is solved by coupling the optimization technique to the finite element method. Two examples are presented to illustrate the performance of the method. The first one corresponds to a synthetic case simulating the excavation of a tunnel. Young's modulus, K0 value and measurements variances are identified. The second case concerns the excavation of a large underground cavern in which again Young's modulus and K0 are identified. It is shown that introduction of prior information permits the estimation of parameters more consistent with all available informations that include not only monitored displacements but also results from in situ tests carried out during the site investigation stage.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: compressibility ; elastic settlement ; geosynthetic-reinforced soil ; mechanical foundation model ; prestressing ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: In the present paper, a new foundation model has been proposed by introducing a stretched rough elastic membrane in the Pasternak shear layer sandwiched between two spring layers which is an extension of Kerr model. Considering the equilibrium of different elements, the equations governing the elastic settlement response of the model are derived. Finite difference scheme has been employed to solve the governing equations. The parametric studies carried out show the effect of several parameters on the elastic settlement response of the model. The proposed model is well suited for idealizing the behavior of geosynthetic-reinforced granular fill - soft soil system besides other applications.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: damage mechanics ; earthquakes ; gravity dam ; damage evolution ; absorbing boundary ; anisotropic behaviour ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: In this paper, the seismic response analysis of concrete gravity dams is presented using the concept of Continuum Damage Mechanics. The analysis is performed using the finite element technique and a proper material degradation/damage model. The damage criterion used here is a second order tensor model based on elastic-brittle characterization and on a power function of the principal tensile stress. The methodology employed is shown to be computationally efficient and consistent in its treatment of both damage growth and propagation. Other important features considered in the analysis are: (1) dam-foundation interaction (2) appropriate modelling of joined rock mass using continuum damage mechanics, and (3) proper modelling of unbounded domain of foundation rock. The infinite media representation of the foundation material has been achieved by using doubly asymptotic approximation. The results of the analysis indicate that the seismic response of a damaged concrete dam could be significantly different from that of an undamaged one. In particular, the analysis shows that during a seismic event, the microstructure of a damaged zone can significantly change due to growth and propagation of microcracks.
    Additional Material: 18 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: piled raft systems ; raft-pile-soil interaction ; finite layer methods ; foundations ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: This paper presents a method of analysis for piled raft systems constructed in layered soils. The method presented takes account of the interactions of the raft, piles and soil without the cost of a full three-dimensional rigorous analysis. This is done by the use of finite layer methods for the analysis of the soil and finite element methods for the raft. Examples are provided in the paper for piled rafts constructed on layered soils, and results are presented for bending moments in the raft and loads in the piles.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: Land displacement ; groundwater pumping ; Galerkin finite element model ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: Equations of equilibrium (force balance) and flow in multidimensions were coupled in this paper to describe land displacements due to pressure decline in aquifers. A Galerkin finite element model based on these equations was developed. The saturated/unsaturated behaviour and the isotropic/anisotropic properties of permeability and elasticity were considered when the model was formulated. This model was verified by comparing its simulation results with those of known analytical solutions for simplified cases. The simulation of displacements due to pressure decline in unsaturated media was also performed. Those results demonstrated that the choice of boundary ranges for an aquifer with infinite domain may significantly affect the estimated horizontal and vertical displacements. To obtain a good estimation of land displacements, the boundary ranges should be carefully chosen. The displacements occurring in unconfined aquifers are caused by the drop of the water table and the change in body force in the dewatering zone. Simulation results also indicated that the change in body force should be considered once an unconfined aquifer has been pumped. Otherwise, the horizontal and vertical displacements in unconfined aquifers would be overestimated and underestimated, respectively. The behaviour of land displacements due to pumping was shown to be affected by changes in the total stresses in aquifers.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: pollutant migration ; solute breakthrough curves ; numerical simulation ; porous media ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: The effect of heterogeneity on solute transport in porous media is examined by means of physical experiments and controlled numerical simulations. The special cases of layered, clogged and aggregated porous media are particularly investigated. The breakthrough curves (BTCs) obtained from some sections of the physical models are extremely distorted with extended concentration tails. These tailings are caused by different trajectories of the tracer through fine (millimeter and centimeter) scale spatial heterogeneities. On the other hand, BTCs in sections of the physical models having no heterogeneous nature, showed classical ‘S’-shape.A computer simulation based on an improved capacitance model was used to match the experimental data. The BTCs can be represented adequately by the model. However, it seems necessary to determine the fitting parameters experimentally in order to relate them to actual physical phenomena.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: slope stabilization ; piles ; soil response modelling ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: Piles used for the stabilization of slopes have to be adequately designed to resist the induced lateral loads due to the movement of the unstable slope. In this paper, a numerical method is presented for the analysis of this problem. In this approach, the piles are modelled using beam finite elements. The soil response at the individual piles is modelled using the modulus of subgrade reaction and pile-soil-pile interaction considered using the theory of elasticity. Two case histories, one for single pile and the other for pile group, are analysed which show that the numerical model can predict the general characteristics of the piles reasonably well. The study suggests that the design of the piles based on the computed response from single pile analysis, ignoring group effects, may be unduly conservative.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: seepage ; recharge-discharge ; hydraulic gradient ; conformal mapping ; boundary value problems ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: Steady two-dimensional gravity-driven seepage in homogeneous porous lumps is studied with the help of conformal mappings and boundary value problem technique. The Terzaghi flow pattern for a trapezoidal dam exposed to a heavy rainstorm is analysed. For a semi-circular massif, the influence of impervious bed inclination is studied. Recharge-discharge distributions, hinge points, gradients along the lump contour as well as the total flow rate exhibiting water-bearing capacity of the unit are found in explicit form. Generalizations for non-isobaric boundary conditions are discussed.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: dynamic ; compaction ; soil ; damping ; non-linear stressing ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: The majority of currently available analytical tools to predict ground stresses due to impact are based on linear spring-dashpot dynamic models. Although these simple models adequately represent stiff ground possessing linear visco-elastic behaviour, they suffer from two striking limitations when applied to relatively softer ground; (1) the inability to account for the permanent deformation resulting from impact, (2) failure to incorporate stiffness changes of softer soil within the impact duration. In this paper, the authors present an improved analytical approach formulated on the basis of a series of laboratory impact tests, to address the shortcomings of the current dynamic models in relation to soft soils. In this procedure, the impact zone is modelled as three distinct zones; (1) a zone beneath the falling weight undergoing non-linear axial deformation while being in vertical motion, (2) an inner zone immediately surrounding zone 1 with non-linear shear deformation, and (3) an outer zone undergoing a relatively lower degree of (linear) shear deformation. The soil constitutive parameters pertinent to the model are obtained from a modified dynamic compression test that simulates the impact conditions. It is shown that analytical predictions of the impact stress history and penetration are in agreement with test results. The findings are useful in the exploration of dynamic compaction techniques that will be effective in soft soil improvement.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: effective stress principle ; stress-strain relationships ; porous media ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: Different expressions of the effective stress principle can be found in the literature, in particular some are written in finite form and others in incremental form. For the purpose of the paper we take for granted that stress-strain relationships exist or can be obtained for the effective stress coming from both formulations. We investigate the consequences of the choice of particular finite or differential forms when they are introduced in a weak form of the linear momentum balance equation of two- of three-phase porous media for its numerical solution. For partially saturated geomaterials the importance of the capillary pressure-saturation relationship is pointed out.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: groundwater ; velocity ; heat transquent ; heated cylinder ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: An isothermally heated, impervious cylinder, which is placed normal to the path of flowing groundwater, is theoretically evaluated for its potential to serve as a kind of ‘groundwater velocimeter’. The essential task is to determine whether the variation in heat output along the cylinder perimeter is sufficiently large to permit measurement for typical groundwater velocities. Using finite elements, the governing equations of advective thermal transport in saturated porous media are solved to obtain the variation in heat output along the circumference of the heated cylinder. An annular region of different hydraulic conductivity is assumed to separate the cylinder from the surrounding formation. The creation of such a region during placement of a cylinder is inevitable. A parametric study led to the following conclusions: (1) A smaller cylinder radius is preferable since the time to achieve a particular degree of asymmetry in heat output is then greatly reduced. (2) An annular region of lower hydraulic conductivity, relative to formation, reduces output asymmetry by no more than 25%, but if hydraulic conductivity is increased, output asymmetry can increase several times. (3) For annular regions having a higher hydraulic conductivity than the surrounding formation, annular thickness is not important. (4) The least groundwater speed which may be accurately measured by such a device will depend heavily upon instrumentation but is tentatively placed at about 5⋅0×10-5 cm/s. Theoretical results are approximately confirmed by preliminary experiments with a prototype device which has been constructed so as to directly measure the expected variation in thermal output. Partial construction details are provided.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: finite element method ; large deformation ; cone penetration test ; layered soil ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: An Eulerean large-strain finite element formulation is presented to simulate static soil penetration. The method is an extension of the Updated Lagrangean description to an Eulerean formulation taking into account convection of deformation-history-dependent properties as well as material properties. The strength of the soil is characterized by a non-associated Drucker-Prager criterion which depends on peak and critical friction angles. The model is applied to cone penetration in two-layer systems: (a) clay on sand and (b) sand on clay.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: concrete ; interface layer ; microstructure ; mortar ; stress ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: In this paper, the influence of geometrical and physical parameters (size of the sand particle, thickness of the interface layer and ratios of the modulus of elasticity) on stress distributions in a mortar is studied. It is found that a weak or soft interface layer in the mortar will greatly reduce the strength of the concrete; if the modulus of the interface layer approaches to that of the cement paste and the modulus of the sand particle (or aggregate) is 4-10 times as large as that of the cement paste, the concrete will possess a much higher strength and thus has a better property.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: inclined wellbore ; stress field ; plane model ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: In-plane and out-of-plane analyses for the stress field around an internally pressurized, cased, cemented and remotely loaded circular hole have been developed in this report. Taking into account the well-known solution for a pressurized circular hole in an infinite medium, we have effected appropriate complex potentials for the steel ring and the cement annulus, such that continuity of stresses and displacements is maintained along the steel/cement and cement/rock interfaces and prescribed pressure is imposed along the open hole. Results indicate that the plane of the maximum tangential stress may rotate 90°, between the steel/cement and the cement/rock interfaces. A quantitative justification for the occurrence of such a rotation is presented, by considering the hole, the steel and the cement layers as a single ‘equivalent’ inclusion, bonded on the rock matrix.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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  • 23
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 24
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: Poroelasticity ; FEM ; borehole ; anisotropy ; rock mechanics ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: The finite element equations for non-linear, anisotropic poroelasticity are cast in the form of measurable engineering constants. Two problems of importance to the rock and petroleum industry are analysed by the FEM. First, the classical Mandel's problem with an extension to transversely isotropic case is investigated. Second, the problem of an inclined borehole is explored. In particular, the effect of material anisotropy on stress concentration near the wall with implication to borehole instability is examined in detail.
    Additional Material: 17 Ill.
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 27
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: rock reinforcement ; load distribution ; cable bolts ; fully grouted ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: Explanation for the widely reported observation that fully grouted reinforcement is more effective in hard rock that behaves as a discontinuum than in soft rock is presented. Analytical solutions are presented for the distribution of displacement and load along an untensioned fully grouted elastic bolt, of specified bond stiffness, which is activated during excavation by either a continuous or discontinuous distribution of rock displacement. The results indicate that significantly higher axial loads are developed for the discontinuous case.Since the mechanics of bond failure depend on the type of bolt and grout used, in the second part of the paper a finite difference formulation is introduced and combined with a non-linear model for the bond behaviour of a cement grouted seven-wire strand cable bolt. The results of a parametric study indicate that, because the bond is frictional and depends on confinement at the borehole wall, for the same profile of rock mass displacement lower loads are developed in soft rock. Furthermore, in soft rock, excavation induced stress changes can cause a dramatic reduction in bond strength, so that, even after significant rock mass displacement, the axial load developed is significantly less than the tensile strength of the cable. A combination of these effects can explain why failures of cable bolted ground involve debonding at the cable-grout interface in soft rock, and why instances of cable rupture are confined to hard, blocky rock masses.
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  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 29
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: finite element-method ; contaminant migration ; fractured porous media ; mass transport ; double-porosity model ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
    Notes: This paper describes the development of a finite element method for analysing contaminant transport in double-porosity geomaterials using a time-stepping approach. In many cases, double-porosity models may be used to represent fractured rock formations and fissured soils. A distinctive feature of utilizing this kind of model is that it is not necessary to have an intimate knowledge of the nature, distribution and properties of individual fractures and fracture arrangement since the fracture geometry and details are considered only in an averaged or equivalent continuum sense. The flux exchange that occurs between the fluid in the fractures and in the solid matrix is represented by a linear heriditary process. This has the consequence that in order to carry the solution forward from time t to t+Δt, it is necessary to know and to store the complete contaminant history up to time t. This paper shows that all the hereditary information necessary to carry the solution forward is contained in the values of certain hereditary variables at time t so that it is not necessary to store the complete time history and consequently a more efficient numerical process can be developed.
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  • 30
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0363-9061
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 31
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: finite elements ; automatic generation ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Finite element generation methods, such as Delaunay, allow the meshing of shapes from a set of nodes. These nodes must previously exist. The authors present a simple, fast and reliable method to generate them in an unstructured way in N-dimensional space. Its main characteristic is to easily allow variation of the node density by introducing a density function, either analytical or discretized. This function can also be anisotropic. Some nodes can have a pre-fixed position. Inner lines and holes can also be specified in the domain to be meshed. Generated nodes are to be connected according to triangles in 2D and tetrahedrals in 3D.
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  • 32
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 33
    Electronic Resource
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
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  • 34
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: obstacle problems ; quadratic programming ; finite element ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The numerical solution of problems involving frictionless contact between an elastic body and a rigid obstacle is considered. The elastic body may undergo small or large deformation. Finite element discretization and repetitive linearization lead to a sequence of quadratic programming (QP) problems for incremental displacement. The performances of several QP algorithms, including two new versions of a modified steepest descent algorithm, are compared in this context. Numerical examples include a string, a membrane and an Euler-Bernoulli beam, in contact with flat and non-flat rigid obstacles.
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  • 35
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: mode-matching ; Helmholtz' equation ; DtN ; finite element ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Finite element (FE) mode-matching procedures for the solution of Helmholtz' equation on an unbounded domain are reviewed and a symmetric general formulation is presented. This is a formal restatement of procedures applied previously to computations involving scattering of shallow water waves, acoustic transmission in non-uniform ducts and acoustic radiation from prismatic sheet metal ducts. An essential feature of the method is the use of a Galerkin procedure, rather than collocation, to match a finite computational model to a truncated modal expansion with the desired radiation characteristics. The method produces a symmetric set of linear equations which can be solved to give the unknown nodal values of the dependent variable and the modal coefficients of an outer expansion. Either of these sets of variables can be eliminated prior to solution to yield a reduced set of equations in the remaining parameters. The reduced equations obtained by eliminating the modal coefficients are shown to be identical to those obtained by applying a truncated Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) boundary condition. If applied in this form, mode-matching can therefore be regarded as an alternative to the DtN method for generating this common set of discrete equations while permitting simultaneous solution for the modal coefficients in the outer region.
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  • 36
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    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The authors study the shape optimization of a complex cracked shell under complex criteria. The shell is one of various cases of a turboshaft, and optimization criteria are associated to the cost, the technology, and above all the working conditions for the turboshaft. The optimization criteria involved are of course the weight of the structure, but also the plastic instability and critical stress intensity factor. All computations have been made with the Ansys finite element program in which an optimization module exists.
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  • 37
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    Keywords: mesh generation ; adaptivity ; iterated fractal systems ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: In the paper the author presents a novel point of view for the refinement and derefinement algorithms of triangular nested meshes using fractal concepts and iterated function systems (IFS). The fractal behaviour can be understood in the sense that these meshes feature a remarkable amplifying invariance under changes of magnification. Here we compare the meshes obtained by the combination of these algorithms with those presented by Bova and Carey (1992). Although both of the meshes are very similar, the current algorithms automatically build and manage sequences of nested irregular discretizations of the domain. The author illustrates here how the application of IFS families is equivalent to the use of an adaptive strategy that combines the refinement procedure with the derefinement one.
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  • 38
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    Keywords: wavelets ; measures ; stability ; domains ; differential equations ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The paper investigates the accuracy and numerical stability of a class of wavelet Galerkin formulations on irregular domains. The method of numerical boundary measures is based upon a domain embedding strategy in which the irregular domain of interest is embedded in a larger domain having regular geometry. One advantage of the domain embedding method is that the boundary conditions on the larger, regular domain can be enforced in a straightforward manner, and the solution procedure can exploit the highly structured form of the resulting governing equations. The defining characteristic of this method is that the calculation of integrals along the irregular boundary are carried out using recently derived numerical boundary measures. In addition, the coercive bilinear forms characterizing the boundary value problem of interest must be calculated when restricted to the actual domain. In the case of wavelet Galerkin formulations, this calculation is accomplished with the three term connection coefficients that characterize the numerical boundary measure. The numerical stability and accuracy of the domain embedding procedure is compared to a newly developed wavelet-based finite element formulation.
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  • 40
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    Keywords: stretching functions ; mesh refinement ; finite differences ; truncation error ; composite grids ; regularity ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: In this work the truncation-error criteria of Thompson and Mastin (1985) are combined with conditions of vanishing second and higher derivatives at both endpoints for the purpose of deriving new classes of one-dimensional stretching functions for mesh refinement in finite-difference numerics. With these elementary stretching functions, matching of the slopes between adjacent grid patches then automatically confers Cn regularity upon the composite stretching function. Formulated with reference to two conceptions of truncation order (fixed relative distribution against fixed number of nodes) the resulting mappings are shown to provide particularly advantageous node distributions at both ends simultaneously (with concomitantly higher truncation error in between). Viewed overall, the truncation-error functions compare favourably with those for sinh, tanh and erf - mappings whose utility for mesh refinement was established by Thompson and Mastin. The numerical labour of implementing the new stretching functions is only slightly greater than that required for the error function. An illustrative derivation involving Cn patching leads to two-sided stretching functions, which allow the slopes at both ends to be prescribed arbitrarily. This formulation differs from a previous approach described by Vinokur (1983).
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  • 41
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    Keywords: solid-shell structure ; 3D solid element ; degenerated shell element ; DOF expanding ; multipoint constraint equations ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The paper presents a degree of freedom expanding method for dealing with the connections of 3D isoparametric solid elements and the degenerated shell elements. By introducing two degrees of freedom to describe the elongation in the normal direction of the shell node linked with solid elements, a series of multipoint constraint equations which provide proper connections of solid and shell nodes are raised. The method gives a complete solution to the problem of connection between 3D isoparametric solid elements and degenerated shell elements even for the thermal elasto-plastic problem. It can adapt to complex junctions and simplify programming. Numerical examples are also presented to demonstrate the accuracy and feasibility in thermal elasto-plastic analysis.
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  • 42
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    Keywords: mesh generation ; Delaunay mesh ; Watsens method ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Automated mesh generation using a combined octree/Delaunay approach typically requires that rectangular elements be bounded by other rectangular elements which are not more that one division smaller (i.e. 1/8 the volume in 3D). This limitation is sometimes referred to as the 2 : 1 rule. This paper presents a modification which allows for any level of difference.
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  • 43
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    Keywords: anisotropy ; finite elements ; layers ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A modification of the usual quadrangle (2D) and brick (3D) finite element for field problems is proposed. It allows the principal directions of the conductivity tensor (anisotropy directions) to be derived from the geometrical shape of the finite element and to change within it. An internal layering is assumed which is parallel to the boundary at two opposite faces (top and bottom) of the element. Without an explicit computation of angles the anisotropy directions are parallel and perpendicular to this layering. An application is the modelling of pore fluid flow in sedimentary basins.
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  • 46
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    Keywords: Navier-Stokes ; artificial compressibility methodology ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The paper considers the problem of laminar incompressible viscous flow through a wavy channel. An artificial compressibility method using the approximate factorization technique is applied to solve the velocity-pressure formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations written in curvilinear non-orthogonal coordinates. The physical domain used was one wavelength of the channel in which appropriate periodicity conditions were applied in order to find a solution independent of entry effects. Flow separation was observed for high Re numbers and/or large wave amplitudes of the channel. The effect of inertia to the velocity profiles was observed, and pressure and shear stress were calculated along the length of the channel. These flows have great interest in industry and medicine such as for the extracorporeal membrane oxygenator.
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    Keywords: finite element method ; mesh refinement ; adaptivity ; singularities near edges ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This paper is concerned with several refinement techniques of finite element meshes for treating elliptic boundary value problems in domains with re-entrant edges and corners. A priori mesh grading is explained, and it is combined with the well-known adaptive finite element method. For two representative examples the numerically determined error norms are recorded, and the different strategies are compared.
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  • 48
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    Keywords: symmetrically laminated plates ; anisotropy ; fundamental solutions ; boundary integral equations ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: In the paper the bending problem of moderately thick symmetrically laminated anisotropic plates is considered, based on the first-order transverse shear deformation plate theory. Using the method of plane wave decomposition and Hörmander's operator method, the fundamental solution of the plates is presented. The boundary integral equation of the plates is formulated by taking the fundamental solution presented as the weighted function and using the method of weighted residuals. The numerical calculation of the boundary integral equation presented is discussed in detail. Some examples are presented and compared with the exact solutions and the numerical solutions available in the literature. The numerical results show that the present method has a satisfactory rate of convergence and acceptable accuracy with a reasonable boundary mesh.
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    Keywords: boundary integral equation ; necessary and sufficient condition ; plane elasticity problem ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: With respect to a given boundary value problem, the corresponding conventional boundary integral equation is shown to yield non-equivalent solutions, which are dependent upon Poisson's ratio and geometry. In the paper a systematic method for establishing a necessary and sufficient boundary integral formulation has been proposed for two-dimensional elastostatic problems. Numerical analyses show that the conventional boundary integral equation yields incorrect results when the scale in the fundamental solution approaches a degenerate scale value. However, the results of the necessary and sufficient boundary integral equation are in good agreement with analytical solutions of the boundary value problem.
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  • 50
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    Keywords: finite volume ; high-order discretization ; non-oscillatory schemes ; pressure interpolation ; non-staggered grid ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The paper addresses the problem of convection discretization by extension and application of numerical schemes used in compressible flows: SONIC-A, SONIC-B, UNO2, MUSCL and MINMOD to predict steady incompressible recirculating convection dominated flows. A new scheme, SONIC-Q, is proposed together with a third-order non-oscillatory practice for pressure interpolation in non-staggered grids. Finite-volume calculations of the Navier-Stokes equations of a standard 2D driven square cavity standard test case and the laminar flow over a fence using primitive variables and non-staggered grid systems have shown that the schemes are alternatives to the conventional ones used in general algorithms for incompressible recirculating flows. In general these composite high-order schemes have proved to be good candidates to overcome the problems of false-diffusion and unboundedness encountered in non-composite high-order upwind schemes used in incompressible flows.
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  • 53
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    Keywords: time integration ; finite element method ; least squares formulation ; multistep methods ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The paper presents a formulation and analysis of three and four step least squares algorithms for first order IVPs. The three step algorithm is derived using cubic Lagrangian interpolation, and is found to be third order accurate but only conditionally stable. Fourth order Lagrangian interpolation is used to obtain a four step least squares scheme which is A0-stable but inconsistent.
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    Keywords: two-phase flow ; solute transport ; interphase exchange ; porous media ; finite element ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The development of a numerical method for modelling two-phase flows and solute transport, particularly with interphase exchange in porous media, is presented. The governing equations are derived to describe two immiscible and compressible fluids flows such as water-air and two-phase solute transport with interphase exchange. Technically, the standard finite element method and a strongly implicit procedure are employed to solve the fully coupled governing equations. Pressures of two-phase fluids and solute concentrations in two-phase fluids are taken as the primary unknown variables, and the discretized equations are solved by a direct type of solver. Application examples are shown to confirm the applicability of the numerical method.
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  • 55
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    Keywords: inviscid drops ; coalescence ; boundary element method ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A numerical method is used to simulate the motion of inviscid drops colliding and coalescing at a solid surface. The equations of motion are solved by a boundary element method in which the free surface of the drop is represented by a moving grid. The numerical results include the configuration of the drop during coalescence and the kinetic and potential energies. A numerical example is used to demonstrate the way in which coalescence affects the configuration of the free surface.
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  • 56
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    Keywords: harmonic differential quadrature method ; computational complexity ; differential quadrature ; numerical method ; centrosymmetric matrix ; computational mechanics ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The structure of weighting coefficient matrices of harmonic differential quadrature (HDQ) is found to be either centrosymmetric or skew centrosymmetric, depending on the order of the corresponding derivatives. The properties of both matrices are briefly discussed in the paper. It is noted that the computational effort of the harmonic quadrature for some problems can be further reduced by up to 75 per cent by using the properties of the above-mentioned matrices.
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  • 57
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    Keywords: numerical methods ; constitutive equations ; composite ; mixing formulation ; anisotropic elastoplastic model ; mapping stress tensor space ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A general constitutive model adequate for analysis of the thermomechanical response of composite materials is presented. The model is based on the mixture of the basic substances of the composite and allows the evaluation of the interdependence between the constitutive behaviour of different compounding materials. The behaviour of the each compound is modelled by a general anisotropic thermo-elasto-plastic model, termed the ‘base model’. The different base models for each compound are combined using mixing theory to simulate the behaviour of the multiphase material.
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  • 58
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    Keywords: linear polyhedra ; symbolic integration ; polynomial functions ; monomials ; tetrahedron ; hexahedron ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The paper concerns analytical integration of polynomial functions over linear polyhedra in three-dimensional space. To the authors' knowledge this is a first presentation of the analytical integration of monomials over a tetrahedral solid in 3D space. A linear polyhedron can be obtained by decomposing it into a set of solid tetrahedrons, but the division of a linear polyhedral solid in 3D space into tetrahedra sometimes presents difficulties of visualization and could easily lead to errors in nodal numbering, etc We have taken this into account and also the linearity property of integration to derive a symbolic integration formula for linear hexahedra in 3D space. We have also used yet another fact that a hexahedron could be built up in two, and only two, distinct ways from five tetrahedral shaped elements These symbolic integration formulas are then followed by an illustrative numerical example for a rectangular prism element, which clearly verifies the formulas derived for the tetrahedron and hexahedron elements.
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    Keywords: finite element method ; solid modelling ; optimal interpolation ; a posteriori error estimation ; adaptive interpolation ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The problem of approximating functions is considered in a general domain in one and two dimensions using piecewise polynomial interpolation. An error estimator is proposed which shows how to adaptively determine the interpolation degree. Numerical examples are given.
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    Keywords: weight function approach ; edge crack problem ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A fundamental field for the edge crack problem is suggested, and the field is composed of the singular displacement field and the complementary regular field. The boundary displacement of the fundamental field plays the role of the weight function in the edge crack problem. After multiplying the boundary traction in the physical problem with the weight function and performing integration along the boundary, the stress intensity factor at the crack tip is obtainable. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the use of the suggested weight function approach.
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    Keywords: control volume method ; finite element interpolation ; fluid flow ; upwind schemes ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Together with the finite element method (FEM), the control volume method (CVM) is of particular interest for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. The accuracy of computation of the CVM almost matches that of FEM in contour-adapted co-ordinates or block-structured meshes of a single element type. The CVM is superior to the FEM in terms of physical interpretation and ease of handling. The paper presents an interpretation of the FEM that allows it to be treated like a CVM. This formal CVM, which is based on FEM techniques, combines the advantages of both methods. The method is applied to the discretization of the Navier-Stokes equation.
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    Keywords: non-linear constitutive model ; anisotropy ; finite strains ; axisymmetrical finite elements ; vascular biomechanics ; soft tissue biomechanics ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: To explore the mechanical non-linear behaviour of anisotropic arterial walls on a computational basis, the formulation of a continuum based elastic potential is a major task and challenge to the analyst. The present communication is concerned with the constitutive modelling and numerical analysis of vascular segments covering finite strains. Special attention is paid to a two term potential that constitutes an essential foundation for accurate simulation within the entire strain domain. Axisymmetrical membrane elements are assembled to match the geometry of blood vessels. Numerical results confirm the theoretical approach by referring to experimental data of different rat arteries.
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    Keywords: hyperbolic equations ; finite-difference methods ; Padé approximants ; sequential and parallel implementation ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Techniques for two-time level difference schemes are presented for the numerical solution of first-order hyperbolic partial differential equations. The space derivative is approximated by (i) a low-order, and (ii) a higher-order backward difference replacement, resulting in a system of first-order ordinary differential equations, the solutions of which satisfy recurrence relations. The methods are obtained from the recurrence relations and are tested on three linear problems and one non-linear problem from the literature.
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  • 65
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    Keywords: frictional contact ; large deformation ; one-pass approach ; master segment ; slave node ; contact constraint ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: In the context of large deformation analysis for metal forming processes a new one-pass approach for the frictional contact is proposed. This approach eliminates the short comings of traditional one-pass and two-pass approaches both from the constraint requirement and solution convergence points of view. Implemented in an updated Lagrangian framework with the Perturbed Lagrangian formulation of Ju and Taylor for non-linear frictional contact, a patch test and typical examples have been worked out to prove the validity of the proposed approach. It is observed that a finer surface discretization of the slave and master surfaces is no longer needed to enforce contact constraint.
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    Keywords: acoustics ; finite element method ; error estimation ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A posteriori error estimation has become very popular, mainly in linear elasticity. A robust implementation of the superconvergent patch recovery technique of O. C. Zienkiewicz and J. Z. Zhu is presented for acoustic finite element analyses: the original concepts are extended to complex variables, and both local and global behaviours of the recovery procedure and the error estimation are studied. The numerical tests confirm the improvement of the rates of convergence for the recovered solution and also show the reliability of the error estimator except at frequencies corresponding either to the analytical or to the finite element eigenfrequencies.
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