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  • H54  (24)
  • Portuguese  (24)
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  • 1
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper presents an exploratory analysis of the institutional arrangement of the Fund of Investment of Guarantee of the Time of Service (FI-FGTS, in Portuguese) with the main objective of assessing the institutional configuration and the operational performance of FI-FGTS. This instrument was established by Act n. 11.491/2007, within the scope of the Growth Acceleration Program (PAC, in Portuguese), aimed at channeling financial resources of the FGTS for allocation in equity instruments and corporate debt instruments issued in the domestic capital market and associated with infrastructure projects. The research was based on an analysis of the legislation, financial statements, management reports, and databases generated by the Brazilian Association of Financial and Capital Market Entities (Anbima, in Portuguese) and Caixa Econômica Federal. The results indicate that the institution of the FI-FGTS increased the availability of resources to finance infrastructure projects, but it did not have an effect in terms of increasing funding as it only shifted resources from the credit market to the capital market. The observed operational pattern evidenced the existence of a triple gap: low FGTS quota subscription rate, low paid-in subscription rate, and low budget execution rate.
    Keywords: G20 ; H00 ; H54 ; H81 ; O16 ; ddc:330 ; financing ; investment ; infrastructure ; institutions
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 2
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Keywords: K23 ; L51 ; D73 ; H54 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 3
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The paper is an exploratory historical analysis, based on documentary research and literature review, which focuses on the formation of the bureaucratic apparatus in the area of economic infrastructure, analyzed from the perspective of the construction of the Brazilian State and its technical, administrative and political capacities. The work explores the links between successive institutional arrangements and the construction of state capabilities of a technical and political nature. The trajectory of the institutional arrangements is analyzed based on a periodization that considers the inflections in the recent trajectory of the structuring of State functions, correspondingly, the organization of the public administration, its legal frameworks and institutional arrangements in each period. The periodization distinguishes the following moments: the beginnings of developmentalism (1930-1945); the parallel administration and developmental initiatives (1946-1963); state enterprises and the developmental State (1964-1988); and the emergence of the regulatory State and the resurgence of state activism (1988-2016). In the end, the conclusion is that it is dominant during most of the period analyzed the persistence of a vector of construction of the State apparatus that dislocates the formation of the bureaucracy away from the central administration.
    Keywords: H83 ; N46 ; O21 ; P11 ; D73 ; H54 ; ddc:330 ; bureaucracy ; infrastructure ; institutional arrangements ; state capacities ; economic development
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 4
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This article presents a simulation of Public-Private Partnership for the maintenance and operation of all paved federal highways. To do so, we evaluate the distribution of benefits and costs between taxpayers, government and road users as a way to set toll values bankable by users, easing the tax burden on all taxpayers with regard to spending on highways. Then, we propose the use of a concession model in which part of the concessionaire's revenue comes from toll collection and part from payment for availability by the government. In addition, the concessionaire must pay the government a grant value per vehicle, so that the total amount of the grant is variable with the demand. Such a mechanism, in addition to reducing the demand risk allocated to the concessionaire, allows cross-subsidization of highways with high traffic volume for the low volume ones. Considering the average costs of operation and maintenance of highways under concession, we evaluate if the collection with the proposed tolls would be sufficient to cover the costs. The results indicate that even considering only the roads not conceded yet, generally low traffic, the fiscal costs of such a model would be smaller than the average expenditures executed by DNIT with maintenance and operation of federal highways. And also ensure higher level of quality, with direct benefits to users and indirect ones to the whole society.
    Keywords: H54 ; H43 ; O22 ; ddc:330 ; concessions ; roadways ; costs and benefits distribution
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 5
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: The objective of this text is to present an overview of the trajectory of the infrastructure policies in Brazil in the recent period (2005-2013). In order to do so, it highlights the main efforts and advances towards the resumption of the role of the federal government in the sector, as well as it points to the limits and obstacles that contributed to the production of incomplete results and partial achievements in terms of project implementation and effectiveness. The analysis of the historical trajectory draws from three interrelated analytical categories: political-institutional environment, institutional arrangements and instruments of public action. The main conclusion is that the advances in the development of instruments and arrangements were incomplete and insufficient. Incomplete because they failed to overcome some of internal limitations (such as planning failures and decision-making processes isolated from civil society). Insufficient because, even if they were fully developed, they would still face difficulties in counterbalancing external constraints and the governance challenges imposed by the Brazilian political-institutional environment (such as a fragmentation of the state apparatus and the short-term interests of political actors inside the logic of the political system).
    Keywords: H54 ; O18 ; O21 ; ddc:330 ; infrastructure ; instruments ; public policy arrangements ; investment
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 6
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper describes the implementation process of the Transnordestina Railway, which has been built under the scope of the Institutional Constraints on Implementation of Investment in Infrastructure project in Brazil. It looks for answering questions as such: Which institutional factors conditioned the implementation pace of the Transnordestina Railway project? What are the institutional innovations that were used to start up the project? These questions organize up the text around a list of institutional analysis variables, which were detected during the research process. The railway construction is lagging from its initial completion date of 2010 and its implementation value rised up. The text points out that many problems have arisen during the stages of planning and execution of the project. One of the research fidings is that the lack of knowledge about the implementation difficulties extended the project completion deadline, such as increased its financial, social and environmental cost.
    Keywords: H54 ; J68 ; O18 ; R42 ; ddc:330 ; infrastructure ; transports ; railways
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 7
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: This paper aims to contribute to a theoretic and analytical basis to analyze Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) as a particular institutional arrangement from the point of view of its transaction costs, an approach that still has been neglected. That negligence has frequently jeopardized the implementation of PPPs in infrastructure projects. In order to achieve that end, it is discussed the application of the concept of hybrid institutional arrangements to PPPs in infrastructure sectors, making an effort to identify the sources of transaction costs intrinsic to that sort of PPPs.
    Keywords: D02 ; H54 ; L33 ; ddc:330 ; transaction costs ; hybrid arrangements ; public private partnerships
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 8
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The paper discusses the main challenges and opportunities for attracting both private domestic and foreign capital to foster the growth of concessions projects in the infrastructure sector, and proposes solutions from the Brazilian recent experience and other emerging economies. Given the exhaustion of the public funding sources in Brazil and the increasing demand for finance in the infrastructure sector in the coming decades, there is a consensus on the need of attracting private capital so to ensure the viability of the various concession projects planned for the period. We shall propose a new model for concession financing with provisions for demand risk to be shared between the Government and the concessionaire in order to increase participation of private capital in these projects. The model may also include currency hedge instruments in order to increase its attractiveness to foreign investors.
    Keywords: H54 ; H43 ; O22 ; ddc:330 ; concessions ; infrastructure ; project finance ; risk management
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 9
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Keywords: H54 ; O21 ; ddc:330 ; planejamento ; infraestrutura ; transporte ; energia elétrica
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 10
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Keywords: H60 ; H54 ; ddc:330 ; investimento público ; política fiscal ; regime fiscal
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 11
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: At the end of 2014, the pension funds in Brazil held a portfolio of R$ 672 billion. About 45% of these resources are owned by the three largest entities of the country, namely, Previ, Petros and FUNCEF. This article aims to analyze in detail the evolution of the portfolios of these three entities over the period 2003-2013. We conclude that although they hold a higher proportion of investments in equities and structured investments - compared to the other pension funds - the portfolio management of these three entities is also very conservative, counting on a great concentration of resources allocated in government bonds. The article presents an analysis of the profile and management of these government bonds, and a sectoral division of the investments made by these entities. The analysis makes clear the importance of these three entities in: i) public companies privatization; ii) major national groups configuration; iii) infrastructure investments.
    Keywords: H60 ; H54 ; ddc:330 ; pension funds ; Previ ; Petros ; Funcef ; financing ; portfolio choice
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 12
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The progressive international visibility provided by mega sports events hosted by Rio de Janeiro has exposed public managers to extremes of the art of managing. If on the one hand, the fact provides the means for determining the economic growth and the achievement of the desired productivity, on the other, represents a challenge in overcoming old dysfunctions as the slow mobility and unpleasant pollution. The way in which the managers chose to answer the question has been decisive and deserves to be studied in nuances that shape the future development. The innovations offered by the transportation infrastructure and the corresponding institutional arrangement foreshadow transform the profile of the region and encourage the healthy pace of life of the population. The combination of increasing urbanization with sustainable development is credible, since attention is focused on the interdependencies with the occupation of the soil, the generation of clean energy and the use of information and communication technology.
    Keywords: H5 ; H54 ; ddc:330 ; technology ; infrastructure ; urbanism ; mobility ; public management
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 13
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Over the last decades, the challenge of giving support to national economic growth process has become an undisputed issue. Since the second term of the Lula government, the theme of resumption of investment was imposed. In particular, the State of Rio de Janeiro benefited from a cycle of large investments, resuming the debate on the strength of its centrality - in this case, "capitalidade". This paper discusses what lessons about state action teaches that experience on the periphery of Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro specifically from the realization of Thyssenkrupp CSA, Comperj, Promef and Metropolitan Arch. In particular, it seeks to question the authenticity of a certain "state capitalism" on the role of public policies in the coordination of decisions.
    Keywords: E22 ; E61 ; E65 ; H54 ; L21 ; L25 ; O11 ; O14 ; O22 ; ddc:330 ; state capitalism ; public policy ; Thyssenkrupp CSA ; Comperj ; Promef ; Metropolitan Arch ; Rio de Janeiro
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 14
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro has an urban structure "macrocefálica" in which the hinterland remains "the shadow of the metropolis" with other reduced centrality. However, in the recent period, there was the advent of large investment projects in its periphery, notably in the steel, oil and gas, shipbuilding and logistics. So it should ask what the potential that this cycle has to leverage a regional sustained economic growth on the specifics of RMRJ. In particular, it is expected to show that the potential of the current investment cycle is limited in their own dynamic structural weaknesses that are amplified by the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan problems, such as low density of productive periphery of the RMRJ and its severe infrastructure deficiencies.
    Keywords: H54 ; O14 ; O18 ; R11 ; R12 ; R53 ; R58 ; ddc:330 ; metropolitan region ; Rio de Janeiro ; growth process ; productive empty ; basic infrastructure ; investment cycle
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 15
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper provides new evidence for the empirical literature that investigates the presence of political cycles in public investments in Brazil. This approach differs from most of the studies for applying the state-space modeling whose greatest benefit is estimating the cyclical component endogenously and with greater precision. Another difference is that it considers the presence of cycles in central, states and local investments and central government capital transfers allowing a wider vision of the general government sector and of the intergovernmental relations. The main contributions come from the identification of qualitative differences among the political cycles of each government level - pointing to a smaller degree of direct influence of local elections as it progresses from local to state and central levels - and the close relation between the two-year cycles of central government transfers and of the investment of state and local levels.
    Keywords: E39 ; E62 ; H54 ; H76 ; H77 ; ddc:330 ; political cycles ; public investment ; space state models
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 16
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Keywords: H54 ; R42 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 17
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This work analyses the risk allocation between government and concessionaire in the High Speed Train (HST) Project from Rio de Janeiro to São Paulo and Campinas. The concession model proposed by the government to transfer the HST operation to private firms in 2010 was revised in 2012, with the main difference between them been on the risk allocation between government and concessionaire related to demand and construction costs. This work assess these two context of HST proposal considering the best practices recommended in the literature, discusses quantitatively how the potential costs of these risks affect the concessionaire's profits and presents some improvements to the current concession model, in an attempt to disseminate good risk allocation practices for infrastructure projects in Brazil.
    Keywords: H54 ; L98 ; L92 ; R42 ; R48 ; ddc:330 ; risk allocation ; concessions ; infrastructure ; high speed trains
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 18
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The waterway transportation is considered the most efficient. Moreover, Brazil has many rivers, besides the extensive coastline, appropriate to navigation. However, this mode of transport is not widely used in the country, especially inland. This study evaluates the possible causes for this. From a historical perspective, a waterway is characterized and its potential use in the country is evaluated, especially for the distribution of agricultural production. Costs of operation and deployment of a waterway are compared with a railroad. Despite these costs depend on the natural river navigability, the cost structure is favorable to the waterway, specially in rivers of low to medium course. Institutional analysis indicates that despite being the mode of transportation that gets less public investment, there are a greater number of public agents involved, with various plans and programs in progress, but without proper integration. Moreover, there is a lack of reliable information on the cost of investments needed, exacerbated by the fact that Technical, Economic and Environmental Feasibility Studies are still under development, impairing decision making on such investments. The review recommends that the implementation and operation of waterways should be transferred to the private sector through simple concessions, with toll collection, allowing expedite the necessary work and giving prospects for continuity of operations for carriers, since the maintenance of navigability on the waterways will not depend on public resources.
    Keywords: H54 ; L98 ; L92 ; R42 ; R48 ; ddc:330 ; waterway transportation ; public investments
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 19
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Neste artigo, introduz-se ao modelo de crescimento neoclássico a defasagem necessária para que o investimento público se consolide em capital público (processo time-to-build), assim como alíquotas tributárias distorcivas que se ajustam de acordo com a dívida acumulada pelo setor público. O objetivo é isolar quantitativamente o efeito do aumento do investimento público observado no Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento (PAC). Dependendo da defasagem associada ao processo time-to-build e da política de ajuste fiscal consideradas, o PAC pode ter induzido uma queda do produto entre 0,2% e 0,4% em um horizonte de até quatro anos.
    Keywords: H54 ; O41 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 20
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Keywords: H11 ; H40 ; H54 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 21
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Acknowledged the importance of the Road transportation to Brazilian economy, especially when considering cargo transportation, Ipea has studied the main economical and institutional problems that involve Brazilian roads. Firstly, we present an overview of the road system from 1950's expansion to today's concessions and private-public partnerships' arguments. Following, we describe the financing model for this segment as well as the investments it's received - public and private - for expanding and operating. Afterwards, we present the major infra-structural demands, consolidating the Mapeamento Ipea de Obras Ferroviárias, followed by an analysis of how has the government program, PAC, been impacting over those needs. Next, we review Brazil's transport system division, analyzing the participation of road transport as it is now, and its perspectives for the next fifteen years. At last, we describe the general results of our analysis.
    Keywords: L92 ; H42 ; H54 ; G18 ; ddc:330 ; Straße ; Infrastrukturversorgung ; Öffentlich-private Partnerschaft ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 22
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This article presents new monthly estimates of the gross fixed capital formation of the Brazilian general government for the 2002-2010 years. A significant research effort was made to carry out the estimations. First, the many differences between the concepts of public investment (as used in the Brazilian public accounting manuals) and gross fixed capital formation of the general government (as used in the United Nations' System of National Accounts) were carefully identified - and so were the peculiarities of the Brazilian budget process which distort official estimates of the annual gross fixed capital formation of the Brazilian general government and affect the precision of naïve estimates of the same variable in higher frequencies. Second, several procedures were developed to correct or mitigate these problems. Finally, additional information was obtained from 20 out of 26 Brazilian states, the federal district, and tens of (large) municipalities in order to allow us to circumvent the relative scarcity of information on the finances of Brazilian state and local governments.
    Keywords: C82 ; E01 ; H54 ; H76 ; H83 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 23
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper has two main purposes. The first is to present, to analyze and to suggest road infrastructure investment and financing policies in Brazil. The second objective is to analyze toll road concessions, with emphasis on toll tariffs. For the last eight years federal road investment (at constant prices) has increased significantly. From 2003 to 2010, investments have climbed from R$ 1,3 billion to R$ 10,3 billion, representing an increase of 700%. Private investments were basically flat during the 2002-2007 period, with an average annual investment of R$ 1,8 billion. From 2007 on, due to road concessions, such a pattern has changed as private investment rose to reach a two-fold increase by 2010 (R$ 3,6 billion). Given the Brazilian road system, we calculate investment per kilometer, both for public roads and the conceded ones. Although the public and private investments per kilometer have increased, for the last eight years private investments were higher than public investments. From 2003 to 2010, investments per kilometer in conceded roads have gone from R$ 152 mil/km to R$ 239 mil/km, a 57% increase. For the same period, investments in federal roads rose 641%, reaching R$ 178 mil/km by 2010. This paper also presents a transport infrastructure investment plan for the next 15 years, according to which Brazil should invest about 3,4% of its GDP in order to catch up with developing countries. It means to invest R$ 125 billion per year (much more than the R$ 23,4 billion invested through 2010). From 2006 to 2010, road infrastructure accounts for 55,2% of total transport investments. At such a pace, for the next five years Brazil would invest about R$ 69 billion per year in road infrastructure. We also calculate toll tariff for Brazilian concessions. Firstly, we obtain a Federal Average Toll Tariff from the tariffs defined by the Federal Concessions Programme that took place throughout 1995-1997 and 2008-2009. Moreover, we compare toll tariff evolution during the 1995-2011 period with inflation rates measured by the Brazilian CPI. We conclude that toll prices for all the federal concessions have risen faster than prices measured by CPI, representing a burden on road users. Besides, we calculate State Average Tariff, which covers seven states that have implemented road concessions. Finally, we present the Brazilian Average Tariff, which takes into account toll tariff charged at federal and state conceded roads.
    Keywords: G18 ; H54 ; H42 ; L92 ; R42 ; R48 ; ddc:330 ; Straßenbau ; Infrastrukturinvestition ; Straßenbaufinanzierung ; Straßenbenutzungsgebühr ; Brasilien
    Language: Portuguese
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  • 24
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    Brasília: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This work develops a framework able to guide investment in hospital capacities within the realm of a complex health system. The study is performed from the standpoint of the economic surplus of public hospitals. Although the paper is inspired by the Brazilian National Health System, it can be useful to many others situations where public and private hospital share the market. The adoption of a public market share, the presence of a stochastic demand, the addressing of waiting times, and the institution of punishment for insufficient supply are interesting features of the paper.
    Keywords: I18 ; H51 ; H54 ; L33 ; ddc:330
    Language: Portuguese
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