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  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: The potential for the gut microbiota to affect health has a particular relevance for older individuals. This is because the microbiota may modulate aging-related changes in innate immunity, sarcopaenia, and cognitive function, all of which are elements of frailty. Both cell culture-dependent and -independent studies show that the gut microbiota of older people differs from that of younger adults. There is no chronological threshold or age at which the composition of the microbiota suddenly alters; rather, changes occur gradually with time. Our detailed analyses have separated the microbiota into groups associated with age, long-term residential care, habitual diet, and degree of retention of a core microbiome. We are beginning to understand how these groups change with aging and how they relate to clinical phenotypes. These data provide a framework for analyzing microbiota-health associations, distinguishing correlation from causation, identifying microbiota interaction with physiological aging processes, and developing microbiota-based health surveillance for older adults.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉O'Toole, Paul W -- Jeffery, Ian B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1214-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aac8469.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Microbiology and APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork T12 Y337, Ireland. pwotoole@ucc.ie. ; School of Microbiology and APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork T12 Y337, Ireland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785481" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; *Aging ; Food Habits ; Frail Elderly ; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome ; Health ; Humans
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Flow regulation and irrigation alter local freshwater conditions, but their global effects are highly uncertain. We investigated these global effects from 1901 to 2008, using hydroclimatic observations in 100 large hydrological basins. Globally, we find consistent and dominant effects of increasing relative evapotranspiration from both activities, and decreasing temporal runoff variability from flow regulation. The evapotranspiration effect increases the long-term average human consumption of fresh water by 3563 +/- 979 km(3)/year from 1901-1954 to 1955-2008. This increase raises a recent estimate of the current global water footprint of humanity by around 18%, to 10,688 +/- 979 km(3)/year. The results highlight the global impact of local water-use activities and call for their relevant account in Earth system modeling.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jaramillo, Fernando -- Destouni, Georgia -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1248-51. doi: 10.1126/science.aad1010.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Goteborg, Sweden. fernando.jaramillo@natgeo.su.se. ; Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785489" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Agricultural Irrigation ; Climate Change ; *Drinking ; *Fresh Water ; Humans ; Plant Transpiration ; Water Supply/*standards
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Claiborne, Anne B -- English, Rebecca A -- Kahn, Jeffrey P -- 10002265/PHS HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):668-70. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3091. Epub 2016 Feb 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Medicine, U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, DC 20001, USA. aclaiborne@nas.edu. ; Institute of Medicine, U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, DC 20001, USA. ; Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842937" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Nucleus/genetics ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Ethics, Medical ; *Government Regulation ; Humans ; Mitochondrial Diseases/genetics/*prevention & control ; Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy/*ethics/*standards ; *Oocytes ; United States ; United States Food and Drug Administration ; *Zygote
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Servick, Kelly -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):15. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6268.15.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721984" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; California ; Cell Differentiation ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; Drug Industry ; Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology/*transplantation ; Financing, Organized ; Humans ; Photoreceptor Cells/physiology ; Rats ; Regenerative Medicine/*economics/*trends ; Retina/cytology/physiology ; Stem Cell Research/*economics
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shanahan, Jesse -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):418. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6271.418.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Jesse Shanahan is a master's student in astronomy at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. Send your story to SciCareerEditor@aaas.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26798017" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Astronomy/*education ; *Career Mobility ; Disabled Persons/*psychology/statistics & numerical data ; Fear ; *Hostility ; Humans ; Male ; United States
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Couzin-Frankel, Jennifer -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):440-3. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6272.440.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823410" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Child ; Child, Preschool ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; DNA Repair/genetics ; Female ; *Genes, Neoplasm ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Humans ; Male ; Mutation ; Neoplasms/*genetics/mortality ; Pedigree ; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-28
    Description: Riboswitches and attenuators are cis-regulatory RNA elements, most of which control bacterial gene expression via metabolite-mediated, premature transcription termination. We developed an unbiased experimental approach for genome-wide discovery of such ribo-regulators in bacteria. We also devised an experimental platform that quantitatively measures the in vivo activity of all such regulators in parallel and enables rapid screening for ribo-regulators that respond to metabolites of choice. Using this approach, we detected numerous antibiotic-responsive ribo-regulators that control antibiotic resistance genes in pathogens and in the human microbiome. Studying one such regulator in Listeria monocytogenes revealed an attenuation mechanism mediated by antibiotic-stalled ribosomes. Our results expose broad roles for conditional termination in regulating antibiotic resistance and provide a tool for discovering riboswitches and attenuators that respond to previously unknown ligands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dar, Daniel -- Shamir, Maya -- Mellin, J R -- Koutero, Mikael -- Stern-Ginossar, Noam -- Cossart, Pascale -- Sorek, Rotem -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):aad9822. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9822.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. ; Institut Pasteur, Unite des Interactions Bacteries-Cellules, Paris, F-75015 France. INSERM, U604, Paris, F-75015 France. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, USC2020, Paris, F-75015 France. ; Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. rotem.sorek@weizmann.ac.il.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120414" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3' Untranslated Regions/genetics ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology ; Bacillus subtilis/drug effects/genetics ; Drug Resistance, Bacterial/*genetics ; Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects/genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Genome, Bacterial/genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study/*methods ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/*methods ; Humans ; Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects/genetics ; Ribosomes/metabolism ; Riboswitch/*genetics ; Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods ; *Transcription Termination, Genetic
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dejana, Elisabetta -- Betsholtz, Christer -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):341-2. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1139.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology, Milan, Italy. Department of Oncology and Hemato-Oncology, Milan University, Milan, Italy. elisabetta.dejana@igp.uu.se christer.betsholtz@igp.uu.se. ; Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. elisabetta.dejana@igp.uu.se christer.betsholtz@igp.uu.se.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26798001" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Movement ; Cerebral Cortex/*embryology ; Humans ; Neural Stem Cells/*physiology ; *Neurogenesis ; Oligodendroglia/*physiology ; *Organogenesis ; Spinal Cord/*embryology
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: The stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent human pathogens. It has dispersed globally with its human host, resulting in a distinct phylogeographic pattern that can be used to reconstruct both recent and ancient human migrations. The extant European population of H. pylori is known to be a hybrid between Asian and African bacteria, but there exist different hypotheses about when and where the hybridization took place, reflecting the complex demographic history of Europeans. Here, we present a 5300-year-old H. pylori genome from a European Copper Age glacier mummy. The "Iceman" H. pylori is a nearly pure representative of the bacterial population of Asian origin that existed in Europe before hybridization, suggesting that the African population arrived in Europe within the past few thousand years.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4775254/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4775254/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Maixner, Frank -- Krause-Kyora, Ben -- Turaev, Dmitrij -- Herbig, Alexander -- Hoopmann, Michael R -- Hallows, Janice L -- Kusebauch, Ulrike -- Vigl, Eduard Egarter -- Malfertheiner, Peter -- Megraud, Francis -- O'Sullivan, Niall -- Cipollini, Giovanna -- Coia, Valentina -- Samadelli, Marco -- Engstrand, Lars -- Linz, Bodo -- Moritz, Robert L -- Grimm, Rudolf -- Krause, Johannes -- Nebel, Almut -- Moodley, Yoshan -- Rattei, Thomas -- Zink, Albert -- 2P50 GM076547/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM076547/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM087221/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027584/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):162-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2545.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy. frank.maixner@eurac.edu albert.zink@eurac.edu. ; Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Kiel University, Schittenhelmstrasse 12, 24105 Kiel, Germany. ; CUBE-Division of Computational Systems Biology, Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria. ; Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tubingen, Rumelinstrasse 23, 72072 Tubingen, Germany. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Kahlaische Strasse 10, 07745 Jena, Germany. ; Institute for Systems Biology, 401 Terry Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; Scuola Superiore Sanitaria Provinciale "Claudiana," Via Lorenz Bohler 13, 39100 Bolzano, Italy. ; Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Strasse 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany. ; Universite de Bordeaux, Centre National de Reference des Helicobacters et Campylobacters and INSERM U853, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux, France. ; Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy. ; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, 141 83 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. ; Robert Mondavi Institute for Food Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ; Department of Zoology, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, Republic of South Africa. Department of Integrative Biology and Evolution, Konrad Lorenz Institute for Ethology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Savoyenstrasse 1a, 1160 Vienna, Austria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744403" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Asia ; Chromosome Mapping ; DNA, Bacterial/genetics/isolation & purification ; Europe ; Genome, Bacterial/*genetics ; Helicobacter Infections/*microbiology ; Helicobacter pylori/*genetics/isolation & purification ; Human Migration ; Humans ; *Hybridization, Genetic ; Ice Cover/microbiology ; Mummies/microbiology ; Phylogeny ; Phylogeography ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Stomach/*microbiology
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Matacic, Catherine -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):392-3. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6284.392. Epub 2016 Apr 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102453" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Facial Expression ; Hand ; Head ; Humans ; Israel ; Linguistics/*trends ; Persons With Hearing Impairments/*rehabilitation ; *Sign Language ; Torso
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  • 11
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kupferschmidt, Kai -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):128-9. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6282.128. Epub 2016 Apr 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124428" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/virology ; Angola/epidemiology ; Animals ; Chick Embryo ; Disease Outbreaks/*prevention & control ; Humans ; Vaccination/statistics & numerical data ; World Health Organization ; Yellow Fever/*epidemiology/*prevention & control ; Yellow Fever Vaccine/*administration & dosage
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kupferschmidt, Kai -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1143. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1143.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965608" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acinetobacter/*growth & development ; Animals ; *Death ; Humans ; Mice ; Moraxellaceae/*growth & development ; Rhizobiaceae/*growth & development ; Time Factors
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Segal, Rosalind A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1494. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6280.1494.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Rosalind A. Segal is a neurobiology professor at Harvard Medical School and co-chair of cancer biology at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston. Send your story to SciCareerEditor@aaas.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013735" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Career Choice ; Female ; Humans ; Neurobiology/manpower ; *Sexism ; *Women, Working
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  • 14
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kupferschmidt, Kai -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1136-7. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1136.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965604" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; *Bacteria/classification/genetics/isolation & purification ; Biometric Identification/*methods ; Cell Phones ; Clothing ; *Forensic Medicine ; Humans ; *Microbiota ; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics/isolation & purification ; Sex Factors
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  • 15
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Servick, Kelly -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1130-2. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1130.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965601" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bites and Stings ; Criminal Law/*statistics & numerical data ; Dermatoglyphics ; Firearms ; Forensic Sciences/legislation & jurisprudence/*statistics & numerical data/trends ; Humans ; Wounds, Gunshot
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cohen, Jon -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):434. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6272.434.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823407" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anti-Retroviral Agents/*pharmacokinetics/therapeutic use ; *Drug Resistance, Viral ; HIV/drug effects/*genetics/physiology ; HIV Infections/blood/*drug therapy/*virology ; Humans ; Lymph Nodes/*virology ; Male ; Mutagenesis ; RNA, Viral/analysis ; Tissue Distribution ; Virus Replication
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cohen, Jon -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):16-9. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6268.16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721985" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biomedical Research/*economics ; Communicable Disease Control/*economics ; Financial Management ; Humans ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.) ; United States ; Vaccines/*economics
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  • 18
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Edwards, Marc -- Bernstein, Rachel -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1230. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1230.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Rachel Bernstein is the editor of Science Careers. Send your story to SciCareerEditor@aaas.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965630" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Drinking Water/*analysis ; Humans ; Lead/*analysis ; Michigan ; *Water Purification
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: As tumors grow, they acquire mutations, some of which create neoantigens that influence the response of patients to immune checkpoint inhibitors. We explored the impact of neoantigen intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) on antitumor immunity. Through integrated analysis of ITH and neoantigen burden, we demonstrate a relationship between clonal neoantigen burden and overall survival in primary lung adenocarcinomas. CD8(+)tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes reactive to clonal neoantigens were identified in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer and expressed high levels of PD-1. Sensitivity to PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade in patients with advanced NSCLC and melanoma was enhanced in tumors enriched for clonal neoantigens. T cells recognizing clonal neoantigens were detectable in patients with durable clinical benefit. Cytotoxic chemotherapy-induced subclonal neoantigens, contributing to an increased mutational load, were enriched in certain poor responders. These data suggest that neoantigen heterogeneity may influence immune surveillance and support therapeutic developments targeting clonal neoantigens.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McGranahan, Nicholas -- Furness, Andrew J S -- Rosenthal, Rachel -- Ramskov, Sofie -- Lyngaa, Rikke -- Saini, Sunil Kumar -- Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam -- Wilson, Gareth A -- Birkbak, Nicolai J -- Hiley, Crispin T -- Watkins, Thomas B K -- Shafi, Seema -- Murugaesu, Nirupa -- Mitter, Richard -- Akarca, Ayse U -- Linares, Joseph -- Marafioti, Teresa -- Henry, Jake Y -- Van Allen, Eliezer M -- Miao, Diana -- Schilling, Bastian -- Schadendorf, Dirk -- Garraway, Levi A -- Makarov, Vladimir -- Rizvi, Naiyer A -- Snyder, Alexandra -- Hellmann, Matthew D -- Merghoub, Taha -- Wolchok, Jedd D -- Shukla, Sachet A -- Wu, Catherine J -- Peggs, Karl S -- Chan, Timothy A -- Hadrup, Sine R -- Quezada, Sergio A -- Swanton, Charles -- 12100/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 1R01CA155010-02/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 1R01CA182461-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 1R01CA184922-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1463-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1490. Epub 2016 Mar 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Francis Crick Institute, London WC2A 3LY, UK. Centre for Mathematics and Physics in the Life Sciences and Experimental Biology (CoMPLEX), University College London (UCL), London WC1E 6BT, UK. Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Cancer Immunology Unit, UCL Cancer Institute, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Section for Immunology and Vaccinology, National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, 1970 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. ; The Francis Crick Institute, London WC2A 3LY, UK. Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; The Francis Crick Institute, London WC2A 3LY, UK. ; Cancer Immunology Unit, UCL Cancer Institute, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Department of Cellular Pathology, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Center for Cancer Precision Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany. German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), 69121 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Hematology/Oncology Division, 177 Fort Washington Avenue, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Ludwig Collaborative Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. Ludwig Collaborative Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Internal Medicine, Brigham and Woman's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Cancer Immunology Unit, UCL Cancer Institute, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK. s.quezada@ucl.ac.uk charles.swanton@crick.ac.uk. ; The Francis Crick Institute, London WC2A 3LY, UK. Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. s.quezada@ucl.ac.uk charles.swanton@crick.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940869" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy/genetics/*immunology ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Antigens, Neoplasm/genetics/*immunology ; Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; CTLA-4 Antigen/immunology ; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics/immunology ; Cell Cycle Checkpoints/immunology ; Female ; Humans ; *Immunologic Surveillance ; Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy/genetics/*immunology ; Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology ; Male ; Melanoma/immunology ; Middle Aged ; Mutation ; Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology ; Skin Neoplasms/immunology
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Currie, Janet -- Grenfell, Bryan -- Farrar, Jeremy -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):815-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8521.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA. jcurrie@princeton.edu. ; Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA. ; Wellcome Trust, 215 Euston Road, London NW1 2BE, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912880" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Communicable Disease Control/*methods/*organization & administration ; Delivery of Health Care ; Disease Reservoirs ; Epidemics/*prevention & control ; *Global Health ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology/prevention & control ; Humans ; International Cooperation ; Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology/prevention & control ; Zoonoses/prevention & control/transmission
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Starr, Douglas -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1133-6. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1133.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965602" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Criminal Law ; DNA/genetics ; DNA Fingerprinting/*legislation & jurisprudence ; False Positive Reactions ; Genetic Testing/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Humans ; Prisons ; Sequence Analysis, DNA/*standards
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: The cerebrum of large mammals is convoluted, whereas that of small mammals is smooth. Mota and Herculano-Houzel (Reports, 3 July 2015, p. 74) inspired a model on an old theory that proposed a fractal geometry. I show that their model reduces to the product of gray-matter proportion times the folding index. This proportional relation describes the available data even better than the fractal model.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉de Lussanet, Marc H E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):825. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0127.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Sports Science, University of Munster, Horstmarer Landweg 62b, D-48149 Munster, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912885" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cerebral Cortex ; Humans ; Lissencephaly/*pathology ; Neurons/*cytology
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: Sanchez et al.'s textbook k-anonymization example does not prove, or even suggest, that location and other big-data data sets can be anonymized and of general use. The synthetic data set that they "successfully anonymize" bears no resemblance to modern high-dimensional data sets on which their methods fail. Moving forward, deidentification should not be considered a useful basis for policy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre -- Pentland, Alex Sandy -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1274. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1578.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Harvard University, Institute for Quantitative Social Science, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. yvesalexandre@demontjoye.com. ; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989244" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Commerce ; *Data Collection ; Female ; Humans ; *Information Dissemination ; Male ; *Privacy
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stone, Richard -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1138-40. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1138.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965605" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Computer Simulation ; *Explosions ; *Forensic Sciences ; Humans ; *Nuclear Weapons ; United States
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fahlgren, Noah -- Bart, Rebecca -- Herrera-Estrella, Luis -- Rellan-Alvarez, Ruben -- Chitwood, Daniel H -- Dinneny, Jose R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):824. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6275.824-a. Epub 2016 Feb 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO 63132, USA. ; Nacional de Genomica para la Biodiversidad, Irapuato, 36821, Mexico. ; Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO 63132, USA. jdinneny@carnegiescience.edu dchitwood@danforthcenter.org. ; Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. jdinneny@carnegiescience.edu dchitwood@danforthcenter.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912883" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: China ; Food, Genetically Modified/*adverse effects ; Genetic Engineering/*utilization ; Health ; Humans ; Plants, Genetically Modified/*adverse effects/genetics ; United States ; Zea mays/genetics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: Therapeutic advances in oncology have not fully translated to the treatment of metastatic disease, which remains largely incurable. Metastatic subclones can emerge both early and late in the life of the primary tumor. A better understanding of the genetic evolution of metastatic disease has the potential to reveal differences in the therapeutic vulnerabilities of primary and metastatic tumors, shed light on the temporal patterns of and routes to metastatic colonization, and provide insight into the biology of the metastatic process. Here we review recent comparative studies of primary and metastatic tumors, including data suggesting that macroevolutionary shifts (the onset of chromosomal instability) contribute to the evolution of metastatic disease. We also discuss the practical challenges associated with these studies and how they might be overcome.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Turajlic, Samra -- Swanton, Charles -- C50947/A18176/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Department of Health/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):169-75. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf2784.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Francis Crick Institute, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3LY2, UK. Renal and Skin Units, The Royal Marsden Hospital, London SW3 6JJ, UK. ; The Francis Crick Institute, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3LY2, UK. University College London Hospitals and Cancer Institute, Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, Huntley Street, London WC1, UK. charles.swanton@crick.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124450" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Clone Cells/pathology ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Genetic Variation ; Humans ; Neoplasm Metastasis/*genetics/*pathology ; Neoplasms/classification/genetics/pathology ; Phylogeny
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tuting, Thomas -- de Visser, Karin E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):145-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf7300.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany. ; Division of Immunology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands. k.d.visser@nki.nl.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124439" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bystander Effect ; Humans ; Immunotherapy/methods ; Leukocyte Count ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Neoplasm Metastasis/*immunology/*therapy ; Neoplasms, Experimental/immunology/pathology/therapy ; Neutrophils/*immunology/*pathology
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: Fecal microbiome variation in the average, healthy population has remained under-investigated. Here, we analyzed two independent, extensively phenotyped cohorts: the Belgian Flemish Gut Flora Project (FGFP; discovery cohort; N = 1106) and the Dutch LifeLines-DEEP study (LLDeep; replication; N = 1135). Integration with global data sets (N combined = 3948) revealed a 14-genera core microbiota, but the 664 identified genera still underexplore total gut diversity. Sixty-nine clinical and questionnaire-based covariates were found associated to microbiota compositional variation with a 92% replication rate. Stool consistency showed the largest effect size, whereas medication explained largest total variance and interacted with other covariate-microbiota associations. Early-life events such as birth mode were not reflected in adult microbiota composition. Finally, we found that proposed disease marker genera associated to host covariates, urging inclusion of the latter in study design.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Falony, Gwen -- Joossens, Marie -- Vieira-Silva, Sara -- Wang, Jun -- Darzi, Youssef -- Faust, Karoline -- Kurilshikov, Alexander -- Bonder, Marc Jan -- Valles-Colomer, Mireia -- Vandeputte, Doris -- Tito, Raul Y -- Chaffron, Samuel -- Rymenans, Leen -- Verspecht, Chloe -- De Sutter, Lise -- Lima-Mendez, Gipsi -- D'hoe, Kevin -- Jonckheere, Karl -- Homola, Daniel -- Garcia, Roberto -- Tigchelaar, Ettje F -- Eeckhaudt, Linda -- Fu, Jingyuan -- Henckaerts, Liesbet -- Zhernakova, Alexandra -- Wijmenga, Cisca -- Raes, Jeroen -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):560-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3503. Epub 2016 Apr 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉KU Leuven-University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Leuven, Belgium. VIB, Center for the Biology of Disease, Leuven, Belgium. ; KU Leuven-University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Leuven, Belgium. VIB, Center for the Biology of Disease, Leuven, Belgium. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculty of Sciences and Bioengineering Sciences, Microbiology Unit, Brussels, Belgium. ; Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia. Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia. ; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Genetics, 9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands. ; VIB, Center for the Biology of Disease, Leuven, Belgium. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculty of Sciences and Bioengineering Sciences, Microbiology Unit, Brussels, Belgium. ; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Genetics, 9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands. Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, Netherlands. ; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Genetics, 9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands. University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Pediatrics, 9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands. ; KU Leuven-University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Leuven, Belgium. KU Leuven-University Hospitals Leuven, Department of General Internal Medicine, Leuven, Belgium. ; KU Leuven-University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Leuven, Belgium. VIB, Center for the Biology of Disease, Leuven, Belgium. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculty of Sciences and Bioengineering Sciences, Microbiology Unit, Brussels, Belgium. jeroen.raes@kuleuven.be.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126039" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacteria/*classification/genetics/isolation & purification ; Belgium ; Cohort Studies ; Drug Interactions ; Feces/microbiology ; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome ; Humans
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Underwood, Emily -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270):212-3. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6270.212.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816355" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Advertising as Topic/legislation & jurisprudence ; Brain/*physiology ; Cognition ; Humans ; *Learning ; Neuronal Plasticity ; Neurosciences/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Simulation Training/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Software/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Video Games/*legislation & jurisprudence
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Underwood, Emily -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):116-9. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6269.116.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744391" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antibodies/*therapeutic use ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; *Cortical Spreading Depression/drug effects/immunology/physiology ; Drug Design ; Drug Industry ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Migraine Disorders/*immunology/physiopathology/*therapy ; Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/*antagonists & inhibitors/immunology ; Sex Ratio
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015, and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. We performed next-generation sequencing to generate seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Results of phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, which we estimated to have occurred between May and December 2013, more than 12 months before the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV-endemic areas, as well as with reported outbreaks in the Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however, no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this correlation does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology of this emerging virus in the Americas.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Faria, Nuno Rodrigues -- Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva -- Kraemer, Moritz U G -- Souza, Renato -- Cunha, Mariana Sequetin -- Hill, Sarah C -- Theze, Julien -- Bonsall, Michael B -- Bowden, Thomas A -- Rissanen, Ilona -- Rocco, Iray Maria -- Nogueira, Juliana Silva -- Maeda, Adriana Yurika -- Vasami, Fernanda Giseli da Silva -- Macedo, Fernando Luiz de Lima -- Suzuki, Akemi -- Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro -- Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro -- Nunes, Bruno Tardeli -- Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida -- Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro -- Nunes Queiroz, Alice Louize -- da Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto -- Henriques, Daniele Freitas -- Travassos da Rosa, Elisabeth Salbe -- de Oliveira, Consuelo Silva -- Martins, Livia Caricio -- Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez -- Casseb, Livia Medeiros Neves -- Simith, Darlene de Brito -- Messina, Jane P -- Abade, Leandro -- Lourenco, Jose -- Carlos Junior Alcantara, Luiz -- de Lima, Maricelia Maia -- Giovanetti, Marta -- Hay, Simon I -- de Oliveira, Rodrigo Santos -- Lemos, Poliana da Silva -- de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas -- de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva -- da Silva, Sandro Patroca -- de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota -- Franco, Luciano -- Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira -- Vianez-Junior, Joao Lidio da Silva Goncalves -- Mir, Daiana -- Bello, Gonzalo -- Delatorre, Edson -- Khan, Kamran -- Creatore, Marisa -- Coelho, Giovanini Evelim -- de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber -- Tesh, Robert -- Pybus, Oliver G -- Nunes, Marcio R T -- Vasconcelos, Pedro F C -- 090532/Z/09/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 095066/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 102427/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- MR/L009528/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R24 AT 120942/AT/NCCIH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 15;352(6283):345-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf5036. Epub 2016 Mar 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA 67030-000, Brazil. Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. ; Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Para State, Brazil. ; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. ; Instituto Adolfo Lutz, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. ; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. ; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. Metabiota, San Francisco, CA 94104, USA. ; Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. ; Centre of Post Graduation in Collective Health, Department of Health, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. ; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA. Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. ; Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA 67030-000, Brazil. ; Laboratorio de AIDS and Imunologia Molecular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ; Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ; Brazilian Ministry of Health, Brasilia, Brazil. ; Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. ; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. Metabiota, San Francisco, CA 94104, USA. oliver.pybus@zoo.ox.ac.uk marcionunesbrasil@yahoo.com.br pedrovasconcelos@iec.pa.gov.br. ; Center for Technological Innovation, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, PA 67030-000, Brazil. Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. oliver.pybus@zoo.ox.ac.uk marcionunesbrasil@yahoo.com.br pedrovasconcelos@iec.pa.gov.br. ; Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Para State, Brazil. oliver.pybus@zoo.ox.ac.uk marcionunesbrasil@yahoo.com.br pedrovasconcelos@iec.pa.gov.br.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013429" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/virology ; Americas/epidemiology ; Animals ; *Disease Outbreaks ; Female ; Genome, Viral/genetics ; Humans ; Incidence ; Insect Vectors/virology ; Microcephaly/*epidemiology/virology ; Molecular Epidemiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Pacific Islands/epidemiology ; Phylogeny ; Pregnancy ; RNA, Viral/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, RNA ; Travel ; Zika Virus/classification/*genetics/isolation & purification ; Zika Virus Infection/*epidemiology/transmission/*virology
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: The U4/U6.U5 triple small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (tri-snRNP) is a major spliceosome building block. We obtained a three-dimensional structure of the 1.8-megadalton human tri-snRNP at a resolution of 7 angstroms using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). We fit all known high-resolution structures of tri-snRNP components into the EM density map and validated them by protein cross-linking. Our model reveals how the spatial organization of Brr2 RNA helicase prevents premature U4/U6 RNA unwinding in isolated human tri-snRNPs and how the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-like protein Sad1 likely tethers the helicase Brr2 to its preactivation position. Comparison of our model with cryo-EM three-dimensional structures of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae tri-snRNP and Schizosaccharomyces pombe spliceosome indicates that Brr2 undergoes a marked conformational change during spliceosome activation, and that the scaffolding protein Prp8 is also rearranged to accommodate the spliceosome's catalytic RNA network.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Agafonov, Dmitry E -- Kastner, Berthold -- Dybkov, Olexandr -- Hofele, Romina V -- Liu, Wen-Ti -- Urlaub, Henning -- Luhrmann, Reinhard -- Stark, Holger -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1416-20. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2085. Epub 2016 Feb 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cellular Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany. ; Bioanalytical Mass Spectrometry, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany. Bioanalytics Group, Institute for Clinical Chemistry, University Medical Center Gottingen, D-37075 Gottingen, Germany. ; Department of 3D Electron Cryomicroscopy, Georg-August Universitat Gottingen, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany. Department of Structural Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany. ; Bioanalytical Mass Spectrometry, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany. Bioanalytics Group, Institute for Clinical Chemistry, University Medical Center Gottingen, D-37075 Gottingen, Germany. reinhard.luehrmann@mpi-bpc.mpg.de hstark1@gwdg.de henning.urlaub@mpibpc.mpg.de. ; Department of Cellular Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany. reinhard.luehrmann@mpi-bpc.mpg.de hstark1@gwdg.de henning.urlaub@mpibpc.mpg.de. ; Department of 3D Electron Cryomicroscopy, Georg-August Universitat Gottingen, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany. Department of Structural Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany. reinhard.luehrmann@mpi-bpc.mpg.de hstark1@gwdg.de henning.urlaub@mpibpc.mpg.de.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912367" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; DEAD-box RNA Helicases/chemistry ; Enzyme Activation ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Peptide Elongation Factors/chemistry ; Protein Conformation ; RNA Helicases/chemistry ; RNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry ; Ribonucleoprotein, U4-U6 Small Nuclear/*chemistry ; Ribonucleoprotein, U5 Small Nuclear/*chemistry ; Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nuclear/chemistry ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry ; Schizosaccharomyces/metabolism ; Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/chemistry
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Agol, Vadim -- Cello, Jeronimo -- Chumakov, Konstantin -- Ehrenfeld, Ellie -- Wimmer, Eckard -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):348. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6271.348-b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉M. P. Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides, Moscow, 142782, Russia. A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physical-Chemical Biology, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899, Russia. ; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. ; Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20903, USA. Konstantin.Chumakov@fda.hhs.gov. ; NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26798005" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Disease Eradication ; *Global Health ; Humans ; Poliomyelitis/*prevention & control ; *Poliovirus
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Operskalski, Joachim T -- Barbey, Aron K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):413-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf7966.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Decision Neuroscience Laboratory, Beckman Institute, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. ; Decision Neuroscience Laboratory, Beckman Institute, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. barbey@illinois.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102467" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Clinical Decision-Making ; Humans ; *Physician-Patient Relations ; Precision Medicine/*statistics & numerical data ; Probability ; Risk Assessment
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  • 35
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: Bruns and Taylor argue that our finding of widespread distribution among Glomeromycota "virtual taxa" is undermined by the species definition applied. Although identifying appropriate species concepts and accessing taxonomically informative traits are challenges for microorganism biogeography, the virtual taxa represent a pragmatic classification that corresponds approximately to the species rank of classical Glomeromycota taxonomy, yet is applicable to environmental DNA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Opik, Maarja -- Davison, John -- Moora, Mari -- Partel, Meelis -- Zobel, Martin -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):826. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5495.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Botany, University of Tartu, 40 Lai Street, 51005 Tartu, Estonia. maarja.opik@ut.ee. ; Department of Botany, University of Tartu, 40 Lai Street, 51005 Tartu, Estonia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912890" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Ecosystem ; Humans ; *Mycorrhizae ; Plant Roots/*microbiology ; *Symbiosis
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  • 36
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-02
    Description: Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded byTyro3in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4. T cell-specificPros1knockouts phenocopied the loss ofTyro3 Thus, a PROS1-mediated feedback from adaptive immunity engages a rheostat, TYRO3, on innate immune cells to limit the intensity of type 2 responses.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chan, Pamela Y -- Carrera Silva, Eugenio A -- De Kouchkovsky, Dimitri -- Joannas, Leonel D -- Hao, Liming -- Hu, Donglei -- Huntsman, Scott -- Eng, Celeste -- Licona-Limon, Paula -- Weinstein, Jason S -- Herbert, De'Broski R -- Craft, Joseph E -- Flavell, Richard A -- Repetto, Silvia -- Correale, Jorge -- Burchard, Esteban G -- Torgerson, Dara G -- Ghosh, Sourav -- Rothlin, Carla V -- HL004464/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL078885/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL088133/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL104608/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL117004/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- MD006902/MD/NIMHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI089824/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007019/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007205/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 1;352(6281):99-103. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1358.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunobiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Department of Immunobiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Laboratorio de Trombosis Experimental, Instituto de Medicina Experimental, Academia Nacional de Medicina-CONICET, Buenos Aires, 1425, Argentina. ; Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. ; Department of Experimental Medicine, University of California San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. ; Department of Immunobiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Department of Internal Medicine (Rheumatology), School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Department of Immunobiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiologia y Parasitologia Medica, University of Buenos Aires-CONICET, Buenos Aires, 1121, Argentina. Hospital de Clinicas Jose de San Martin, University of Buenos Aires, 1120, Argentina. ; Center for Research on Neuroimmunological Diseases, Raul Carrea Institute for Neurological Research (FLENI), Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina. ; Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Department of Bioengineering, School of Pharmacy, University of California San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. ; Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Department of Immunobiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. carla.rothlin@yale.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27034374" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptive Immunity/*genetics ; Animals ; Asthma/genetics/*immunology ; Blood Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/metabolism ; Dendritic Cells/immunology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Gene Knockout Techniques ; Host-Parasite Interactions/genetics/*immunology ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate/*genetics ; Interleukin-4/immunology/pharmacology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Nippostrongylus/immunology ; Pyroglyphidae/immunology ; Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics/*physiology ; Strongylida Infections/immunology ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wade, Lizzie -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1141-3. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1141.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965607" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Crime ; *Fires ; *Forensic Sciences ; Humans ; Mexico ; Students ; Waste Disposal Facilities
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  • 38
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Azevedo-Santos, Valter M -- Vitule, Jean R S -- Garcia-Berthou, Emili -- Pelicice, Fernando M -- Simberloff, Daniel -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):675. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6274.675. Epub 2016 Feb 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratorio de Ictiologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho, Campus de Botucatu," SP, 18618-970, Brazil. valter.ecologia@gmail.com. ; Laboratorio de Ecologia e Conservacao (LEC), Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR, 81531-970, Brazil. ; Institute of Aquatic Ecology, University of Girona, Catalonia, Spain. ; Nucleo de Estudos Ambientais, Universidade Federal de Tocantins, Porto Nacional, TO, 77500-000, Brazil. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912851" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/growth & development/*virology ; Animals ; Biodiversity ; Brazil ; Chikungunya virus ; Dengue Virus ; Humans ; *Introduced Species ; Larva ; Mosquito Control/*methods ; *Poecilia ; Zika Virus
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  • 39
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hedley, Paula L -- Christiansen, Michael -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):456. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6272.456-a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department for Congenital Disorders, Statens Serum Institut, 2300, Copenhagen, Denmark. phy@ssi.dk. ; Department for Congenital Disorders, Statens Serum Institut, 2300, Copenhagen, Denmark. Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1165, Copenhagen, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823416" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Databases, Nucleic Acid ; Death ; Denmark ; *Genomics ; Humans ; Population/*genetics ; Population Groups/*genetics ; *Registries ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
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  • 40
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL-C levels but, paradoxically, increased atherosclerosis. The impact of SR-BI on HDL metabolism and CHD risk in humans remains unclear. Through targeted sequencing of coding regions of lipid-modifying genes in 328 individuals with extremely high plasma HDL-C levels, we identified a homozygote for a loss-of-function variant, in which leucine replaces proline 376 (P376L), in SCARB1, the gene encoding SR-BI. The P376L variant impairs posttranslational processing of SR-BI and abrogates selective HDL cholesterol uptake in transfected cells, in hepatocyte-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from the homozygous subject, and in mice. Large population-based studies revealed that subjects who are heterozygous carriers of the P376L variant have significantly increased levels of plasma HDL-C. P376L carriers have a profound HDL-related phenotype and an increased risk of CHD (odds ratio = 1.79, which is statistically significant).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zanoni, Paolo -- Khetarpal, Sumeet A -- Larach, Daniel B -- Hancock-Cerutti, William F -- Millar, John S -- Cuchel, Marina -- DerOhannessian, Stephanie -- Kontush, Anatol -- Surendran, Praveen -- Saleheen, Danish -- Trompet, Stella -- Jukema, J Wouter -- De Craen, Anton -- Deloukas, Panos -- Sattar, Naveed -- Ford, Ian -- Packard, Chris -- Majumder, Abdullah al Shafi -- Alam, Dewan S -- Di Angelantonio, Emanuele -- Abecasis, Goncalo -- Chowdhury, Rajiv -- Erdmann, Jeanette -- Nordestgaard, Borge G -- Nielsen, Sune F -- Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne -- Schmidt, Ruth Frikke -- Kuulasmaa, Kari -- Liu, Dajiang J -- Perola, Markus -- Blankenberg, Stefan -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Mannisto, Satu -- Amouyel, Philippe -- Arveiler, Dominique -- Ferrieres, Jean -- Muller-Nurasyid, Martina -- Ferrario, Marco -- Kee, Frank -- Willer, Cristen J -- Samani, Nilesh -- Schunkert, Heribert -- Butterworth, Adam S -- Howson, Joanna M M -- Peloso, Gina M -- Stitziel, Nathan O -- Danesh, John -- Kathiresan, Sekar -- Rader, Daniel J -- CHD Exome+ Consortium -- CARDIoGRAM Exome Consortium -- Global Lipids Genetics Consortium -- R01 DK089256/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL117078/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- TL1 RR024133/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- TL1R000138/PHS HHS/ -- TL1RR024133/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1166-71. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3517.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Genetics and Medicine, Division of Translational Medicine and Human Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Departments of Genetics and Medicine, Division of Translational Medicine and Human Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. INSERM UMR 1166 ICAN, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Hopital de la Pitie, Paris, France. ; INSERM UMR 1166 ICAN, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Hopital de la Pitie, Paris, France. ; Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. ; Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Centre for Non-Communicable Diseases, Karachi, Pakistan. ; Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. ; Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. The Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht, Netherlands. ; Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK. ; Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation, Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. ; Robertson Center for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. ; Glasgow Clinical Research Facility, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK. ; National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. ; International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. ; Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. ; Institute for Integrative and Experimental Genomics, University of Lubeck, Lubeck 23562, Germany. ; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark. ; Copenhagen University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospitals, Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland. ; Department of Public Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA 17033, USA. ; Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland. Institute of Molecular Medicine FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. ; Department of General and Interventional Cardiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany. University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. ; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France. ; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France. ; Department of Epidemiology, Toulouse University-CHU Toulouse, Toulouse, France. ; Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany. Department of Medicine I, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany. ; Research Centre in Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. ; UKCRC Centre of Excellence for Public Health, Queens University, Belfast, Northern Ireland. ; Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, Department of Human Genetics, and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. ; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hotel, Leicester, UK. ; Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany. ; Broad Institute and Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Department of Genetics, and the McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK. ; Departments of Genetics and Medicine, Division of Translational Medicine and Human Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. rader@mail.med.upenn.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965621" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged ; Amino Acid Substitution ; Animals ; Cholesterol, HDL/*blood ; Coronary Disease/*blood/*genetics ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Female ; Genetic Variation ; Heterozygote ; Homozygote ; Humans ; Leucine/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Middle Aged ; Proline/genetics ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; Risk ; Scavenger Receptors, Class B/*genetics/metabolism
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):394-5. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6284.394. Epub 2016 Apr 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102455" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Foundations ; Genes ; Genetic Research/*economics ; Great Britain ; Humans ; *Research Support as Topic ; *Selection, Genetic ; Sweden ; United States
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ball, Steven G -- Bhattacharya, Debashish -- Weber, Andreas P M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):659-60. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8864.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Universite de Lille CNRS, UMR 8576-UGSF-Unite de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F 59000 Lille, France. ; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. debash.bhattacharya@gmail.com. ; Institute for Plant Biochemistry, Center of Excellence on Plant Sciences, Heinrich-Heine-University, Universitatsstrasse 1, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912842" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alphaproteobacteria/*genetics/pathogenicity ; Animals ; Archaea/metabolism ; *Biological Evolution ; Endocytosis ; Energy Metabolism/genetics ; Eukaryota/genetics ; *Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Humans ; Mitochondria/*genetics ; Plastids/*genetics ; Rickettsia/genetics/pathogenicity ; Symbiosis/*genetics
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Balter, Michael -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):652-5, 657. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6274.652. Epub 2016 Feb 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912840" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anthropology ; Faculty ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Museums ; New York City ; Paleontology ; Sex Offenses/*psychology ; Sexual Harassment/*psychology ; Students/psychology ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Women/*psychology
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), which are central mediators of rapid neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity, predominantly exist as heteromers of the subunits GluA1 to GluA4. Here we report the first AMPAR heteromer structures, which deviate substantially from existing GluA2 homomer structures. Crystal structures of the GluA2/3 and GluA2/4 N-terminal domains reveal a novel compact conformation with an alternating arrangement of the four subunits around a central axis. This organization is confirmed by cysteine cross-linking in full-length receptors, and it permitted us to determine the structure of an intact GluA2/3 receptor by cryogenic electron microscopy. Two models in the ligand-free state, at resolutions of 8.25 and 10.3 angstroms, exhibit substantial vertical compression and close associations between domain layers, reminiscent of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Model 1 resembles a resting state and model 2 a desensitized state, thus providing snapshots of gating transitions in the nominal absence of ligand. Our data reveal organizational features of heteromeric AMPARs and provide a framework to decipher AMPAR architecture and signaling.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4852135/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4852135/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Herguedas, Beatriz -- Garcia-Nafria, Javier -- Cais, Ondrej -- Fernandez-Leiro, Rafael -- Krieger, James -- Ho, Hinze -- Greger, Ingo H -- MC_U105174197/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):aad3873. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3873. Epub 2016 Mar 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Neurobiology Division, Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK. ; Structural Studies Division, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966189" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brain/metabolism ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; *Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Receptors, AMPA/*chemistry/ultrastructure
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hicks, Christina C -- Levine, Arielle -- Agrawal, Arun -- Basurto, Xavier -- Breslow, Sara J -- Carothers, Courtney -- Charnley, Susan -- Coulthard, Sarah -- Dolsak, Nives -- Donatuto, Jamie -- Garcia-Quijano, Carlos -- Mascia, Michael B -- Norman, Karma -- Poe, Melissa R -- Satterfield, Terre -- St Martin, Kevin -- Levin, Phillip S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 1;352(6281):38-40. doi: 10.1126/science.aad4977.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, CA, USA. Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Australia. Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, UK. christina.hicks@lancaster.ac.uk. ; Geography, San Diego State University, CA, USA. ; School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Michigan, USA. ; Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, NC, USA. ; Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, WA, USA. ; School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA. ; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, USA. ; Northumbria University, UK. ; School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, University of Washington, USA. ; Swinomish Indian Tribal Community, WA, USA. ; Anthropology and Marine Affairs, University of Rhode Island, USA. ; Moore Center for Science, Conservation International, VA, USA. ; Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, WA, USA. Washington Sea Grant, University of Washington, USA. ; The Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, Canada. ; Department of Geography, Rutgers University, NJ, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27034361" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Ecosystem ; Forecasting ; Health ; Humans ; Quality of Life ; *Social Values ; *Value of Life
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: p97 is a hexameric AAA+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) that is an attractive target for cancer drug development. We report cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-bound, full-length, hexameric wild-type p97 in the presence and absence of an allosteric inhibitor at resolutions of 2.3 and 2.4 angstroms, respectively. We also report cryo-EM structures (at resolutions of ~3.3, 3.2, and 3.3 angstroms, respectively) for three distinct, coexisting functional states of p97 with occupancies of zero, one, or two molecules of adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATPgammaS) per protomer. A large corkscrew-like change in molecular architecture, coupled with upward displacement of the N-terminal domain, is observed only when ATPgammaS is bound to both the D1 and D2 domains of the protomer. These cryo-EM structures establish the sequence of nucleotide-driven structural changes in p97 at atomic resolution. They also enable elucidation of the binding mode of an allosteric small-molecule inhibitor to p97 and illustrate how inhibitor binding at the interface between the D1 and D2 domains prevents propagation of the conformational changes necessary for p97 function.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Banerjee, Soojay -- Bartesaghi, Alberto -- Merk, Alan -- Rao, Prashant -- Bulfer, Stacie L -- Yan, Yongzhao -- Green, Neal -- Mroczkowski, Barbara -- Neitz, R Jeffrey -- Wipf, Peter -- Falconieri, Veronica -- Deshaies, Raymond J -- Milne, Jacqueline L S -- Huryn, Donna -- Arkin, Michelle -- Subramaniam, Sriram -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):871-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad7974. Epub 2016 Jan 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ; Small Molecule Discovery Center, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. ; University of Pittsburgh Chemical Diversity Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA. ; Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick, MD 21702, USA. ; Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ; Division of Biology and Biological Engineering and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91107, USA. ; Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ss1@nih.gov.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26822609" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Diphosphate/chemistry ; Adenosine Triphosphatases/*antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry ; Adenosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives/chemistry ; Allosteric Regulation ; Binding Sites ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Enzyme Inhibitors ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Nuclear Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: The general view that only adaptive immunity can build immunological memory has recently been challenged. In organisms lacking adaptive immunity, as well as in mammals, the innate immune system can mount resistance to reinfection, a phenomenon termed "trained immunity" or "innate immune memory." Trained immunity is orchestrated by epigenetic reprogramming, broadly defined as sustained changes in gene expression and cell physiology that do not involve permanent genetic changes such as mutations and recombination, which are essential for adaptive immunity. The discovery of trained immunity may open the door for novel vaccine approaches, new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of immune deficiency states, and modulation of exaggerated inflammation in autoinflammatory diseases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Netea, Mihai G -- Joosten, Leo A B -- Latz, Eicke -- Mills, Kingston H G -- Natoli, Gioacchino -- Stunnenberg, Hendrik G -- O'Neill, Luke A J -- Xavier, Ramnik J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):aaf1098. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1098. Epub 2016 Apr 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands. mihai.netea@radboudumc.nl. ; Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands. ; Institute of Innate Immunity, Bonn University, Bonn, Germany. Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA. German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany. ; School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. ; Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Faculties of Science and Medicine, Radboud Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands. ; The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Center for Computational and Integrative Biology and Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102489" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; DNA Methylation ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate/genetics/*immunology ; Immunologic Memory/genetics/*immunology ; Infection/*immunology ; Inflammation/immunology ; Invertebrates/immunology ; Plants/immunology