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  • 1
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pain, Stephanie -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):S50-1. doi: 10.1038/531S50a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26981726" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/history ; Air Pollution/history ; Animals ; Architecture as Topic/history ; Cholera/history ; Cities/history ; Conservation of Natural Resources/history ; Disease Outbreaks/history ; Droughts/history ; Heat Stroke/history ; History, 17th Century ; History, 18th Century ; History, 19th Century ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; History, Ancient ; History, Medieval ; Housing/history ; Humans ; Noise ; Ozone/history/radiation effects ; Plague/history ; Quarantine/history ; Railroads/history ; Rivers ; Sanitary Engineering/history ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/history ; Urban Health/*history ; Urban Population/statistics & numerical data ; Urbanization/history ; Vehicle Emissions ; Water Supply/history
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Willyard, Cassandra -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):S43-5. doi: 10.1038/533S43a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144609" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biomedical Research/*economics/*organization & administration ; Developing Countries/economics ; Drug Discovery/*economics/organization & administration ; Drug Industry/economics ; Foundations/economics/organization & administration ; Fund Raising/*economics/*organization & administration ; Global Health/economics ; Humans ; Investments/*economics/*organization & administration ; Vaccines/economics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cartwright, Jon -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):669-71.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27035011" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Atmosphere/chemistry ; *Crowdsourcing/instrumentation/methods ; Data Collection/*instrumentation ; Databases, Factual ; Humans ; Mobile Applications/utilization ; Science/*instrumentation/manpower/*methods ; Smartphone/*utilization
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Willyard, Cassandra -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):166-8. doi: 10.1038/532166a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075079" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents/economics/therapeutic use ; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/economics/*therapeutic use ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/*drug effects/genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Humans ; Immunotherapy, Adoptive/economics/trends ; Mice ; Molecular Targeted Therapy/economics/*methods/trends ; Mutation/*genetics ; Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy/genetics/pathology ; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/chemically induced/genetics/prevention & control ; Neoplasms/*drug therapy/*genetics/pathology ; Selection, Genetic/*drug effects/genetics ; Tumor Microenvironment/drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Winston, Patrick Henry -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):282. doi: 10.1038/530282a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. He was a graduate student of Marvin Minsky's in the 1960s, and thereafter an admiring friend and colleague.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887486" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Artificial Intelligence/*history ; Child ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Humans ; Microscopy, Confocal/history ; Neural Networks (Computer) ; Robotics/history ; Software/history ; United States
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-28
    Description: The bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system allows sequence-specific gene editing in many organisms and holds promise as a tool to generate models of human diseases, for example, in human pluripotent stem cells. CRISPR/Cas9 introduces targeted double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with high efficiency, which are typically repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) resulting in nonspecific insertions, deletions or other mutations (indels). DSBs may also be repaired by homology-directed repair (HDR) using a DNA repair template, such as an introduced single-stranded oligo DNA nucleotide (ssODN), allowing knock-in of specific mutations. Although CRISPR/Cas9 is used extensively to engineer gene knockouts through NHEJ, editing by HDR remains inefficient and can be corrupted by additional indels, preventing its widespread use for modelling genetic disorders through introducing disease-associated mutations. Furthermore, targeted mutational knock-in at single alleles to model diseases caused by heterozygous mutations has not been reported. Here we describe a CRISPR/Cas9-based genome-editing framework that allows selective introduction of mono- and bi-allelic sequence changes with high efficiency and accuracy. We show that HDR accuracy is increased dramatically by incorporating silent CRISPR/Cas-blocking mutations along with pathogenic mutations, and establish a method termed 'CORRECT' for scarless genome editing. By characterizing and exploiting a stereotyped inverse relationship between a mutation's incorporation rate and its distance to the DSB, we achieve predictable control of zygosity. Homozygous introduction requires a guide RNA targeting close to the intended mutation, whereas heterozygous introduction can be accomplished by distance-dependent suboptimal mutation incorporation or by use of mixed repair templates. Using this approach, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells with heterozygous and homozygous dominant early onset Alzheimer's disease-causing mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP(Swe)) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1(M146V)) and derived cortical neurons, which displayed genotype-dependent disease-associated phenotypes. Our findings enable efficient introduction of specific sequence changes with CRISPR/Cas9, facilitating study of human disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Paquet, Dominik -- Kwart, Dylan -- Chen, Antonia -- Sproul, Andrew -- Jacob, Samson -- Teo, Shaun -- Olsen, Kimberly Moore -- Gregg, Andrew -- Noggle, Scott -- Tessier-Lavigne, Marc -- 8 UL1 TR000043/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM007739/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):125-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17664. Epub 2016 Apr 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Brain Development and Repair, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, The Rockefeller University and Sloan-Kettering Institute Tri-institutional MD-PhD Program, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120160" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Age of Onset ; Alleles ; Alzheimer Disease/genetics ; Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics/secretion ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/*genetics ; DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded ; DNA Cleavage ; DNA Repair/genetics ; Female ; Genes, Dominant/genetics ; Genetic Association Studies ; Genetic Engineering/*methods ; *Heterozygote ; *Homozygote ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mutagenesis/*genetics ; Mutation/*genetics ; Presenilins/genetics ; RNA, Guide/genetics ; Sequence Homology ; Substrate Specificity ; Templates, Genetic
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  • 7
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Castelvecchi, Davide -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):153-4. doi: 10.1038/533153a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172022" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Computer Simulation/economics ; Humans ; Laboratories/*economics ; Prejudice/prevention & control/psychology ; Research/*economics/*instrumentation/trends ; Research Subjects ; Software/economics ; *User-Computer Interface
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gupta, Sujata -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):S12-3. doi: 10.1038/531S12a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934519" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Animals ; Biological Availability ; Brain/*physiology ; Child ; Cognition/*physiology ; Dendrites/physiology ; Dietary Proteins ; Docosahexaenoic Acids/metabolism ; Eicosapentaenoic Acid/metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Iron/administration & dosage/pharmacology ; *Meat ; Pregnancy ; Primates/physiology ; Vitamin B Complex ; Zinc
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: Sulawesi is the largest and oldest island within Wallacea, a vast zone of oceanic islands separating continental Asia from the Pleistocene landmass of Australia and Papua (Sahul). By one million years ago an unknown hominin lineage had colonized Flores immediately to the south, and by about 50 thousand years ago, modern humans (Homo sapiens) had crossed to Sahul. On the basis of position, oceanic currents and biogeographical context, Sulawesi probably played a pivotal part in these dispersals. Uranium-series dating of speleothem deposits associated with rock art in the limestone karst region of Maros in southwest Sulawesi has revealed that humans were living on the island at least 40 thousand years ago (ref. 5). Here we report new excavations at Talepu in the Walanae Basin northeast of Maros, where in situ stone artefacts associated with fossil remains of megafauna (Bubalus sp., Stegodon and Celebochoerus) have been recovered from stratified deposits that accumulated from before 200 thousand years ago until about 100 thousand years ago. Our findings suggest that Sulawesi, like Flores, was host to a long-established population of archaic hominins, the ancestral origins and taxonomic status of which remain elusive.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉van den Bergh, Gerrit D -- Li, Bo -- Brumm, Adam -- Grun, Rainer -- Yurnaldi, Dida -- Moore, Mark W -- Kurniawan, Iwan -- Setiawan, Ruly -- Aziz, Fachroel -- Roberts, Richard G -- Suyono -- Storey, Michael -- Setiabudi, Erick -- Morwood, Michael J -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):208-11. doi: 10.1038/nature16448.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Archaeological Science, School of Earth &Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia. ; Naturalis Biodiversity Center, 2333 CR Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Research Centre for Human Evolution, Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia. ; School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia. ; Geology Museum Bandung, Geological Agency, Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia. ; Archaeology, School of Humanities, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2350, Australia. ; Quadlab, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 13 DK-1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762458" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Fossils ; History, Ancient ; *Hominidae ; Human Migration/history ; Humans ; Indonesia ; Tool Use Behavior
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Briggs, Adam -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):551. doi: 10.1038/531551a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Oxford, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27029244" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Beverages/analysis/*economics ; Child ; Dietary Sucrose/*adverse effects ; Food Industry/*economics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Great Britain ; *Health Policy ; Humans ; *Legislation, Food ; Obesity/epidemiology/prevention & control ; Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control ; Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence ; Taxes/*legislation & jurisprudence
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  • 11
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-05
    Description: Evidence for human sacrifice is found throughout the archaeological record of early civilizations, the ethnographic records of indigenous world cultures, and the texts of the most prolific contemporary religions. According to the social control hypothesis, human sacrifice legitimizes political authority and social class systems, functioning to stabilize such social stratification. Support for the social control hypothesis is largely limited to historical anecdotes of human sacrifice, where the causal claims have not been subject to rigorous quantitative cross-cultural tests. Here we test the social control hypothesis by applying Bayesian phylogenetic methods to a geographically and socially diverse sample of 93 traditional Austronesian cultures. We find strong support for models in which human sacrifice stabilizes social stratification once stratification has arisen, and promotes a shift to strictly inherited class systems. Whilst evolutionary theories of religion have focused on the functionality of prosocial and moral beliefs, our results reveal a darker link between religion and the evolution of modern hierarchical societies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Watts, Joseph -- Sheehan, Oliver -- Atkinson, Quentin D -- Bulbulia, Joseph -- Gray, Russell D -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):228-31. doi: 10.1038/nature17159. Epub 2016 Apr 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Psychology, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. ; Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena 07743, Germany. ; School of Art History, Classics and Religious Studies, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6014, New Zealand. ; Research School of the Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra 2601, Australia. ; Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27042932" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bayes Theorem ; *Ceremonial Behavior ; *Cultural Evolution ; Humans ; Models, Theoretical ; Oceanic Ancestry Group/psychology ; Phylogeny ; Religion and Psychology ; *Social Class ; *Social Control, Formal
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  • 12
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Webster, Andrew -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):7. doi: 10.1038/532007a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Director of the Science and Technology Studies Unit (SATSU) at the University of York, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27078528" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Communication ; Great Britain ; Humans ; Lobbying ; *Public Opinion ; Public Policy ; *Research Personnel ; Social Sciences/*trends
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 13
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):286. doi: 10.1038/531286a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Nucleus/genetics ; DNA/*analysis/genetics ; DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Humans ; Neanderthals/*genetics ; *Phylogeny ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Time Factors
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  • 14
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-31
    Description: Colonic epithelial cells are covered by thick inner and outer mucus layers. The inner mucus layer is free of commensal microbiota, which contributes to the maintenance of gut homeostasis. In the small intestine, molecules critical for prevention of bacterial invasion into epithelia such as Paneth-cell-derived anti-microbial peptides and regenerating islet-derived 3 (RegIII) family proteins have been identified. Although there are mucus layers providing physical barriers against the large number of microbiota present in the large intestine, the mechanisms that separate bacteria and colonic epithelia are not fully elucidated. Here we show that Ly6/PLAUR domain containing 8 (Lypd8) protein prevents flagellated microbiota invading the colonic epithelia in mice. Lypd8, selectively expressed in epithelial cells at the uppermost layer of the large intestinal gland, was secreted into the lumen and bound flagellated bacteria including Proteus mirabilis. In the absence of Lypd8, bacteria were present in the inner mucus layer and many flagellated bacteria invaded epithelia. Lypd8(-/-) mice were highly sensitive to intestinal inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Antibiotic elimination of Gram-negative flagellated bacteria restored the bacterial-free state of the inner mucus layer and ameliorated DSS-induced intestinal inflammation in Lypd8(-/-) mice. Lypd8 bound to flagella and suppressed motility of flagellated bacteria. Thus, Lypd8 mediates segregation of intestinal bacteria and epithelial cells in the colon to preserve intestinal homeostasis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okumura, Ryu -- Kurakawa, Takashi -- Nakano, Takashi -- Kayama, Hisako -- Kinoshita, Makoto -- Motooka, Daisuke -- Gotoh, Kazuyoshi -- Kimura, Taishi -- Kamiyama, Naganori -- Kusu, Takashi -- Ueda, Yoshiyasu -- Wu, Hong -- Iijima, Hideki -- Barman, Soumik -- Osawa, Hideki -- Matsuno, Hiroshi -- Nishimura, Junichi -- Ohba, Yusuke -- Nakamura, Shota -- Iida, Tetsuya -- Yamamoto, Masahiro -- Umemoto, Eiji -- Sano, Koichi -- Takeda, Kiyoshi -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):117-21. doi: 10.1038/nature17406. Epub 2016 Mar 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, Tokyo 100-0004, Japan. ; Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686, Japan. ; Department of Infection Metagenomics, Genome Information Research Center, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. ; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Cell Physiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan. ; Department of Bacterial Infections, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Laboratory of Immunoparasitology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027293" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Adhesion ; Caco-2 Cells ; Cell Line ; Colitis/chemically induced/drug therapy/genetics ; Colon/*microbiology ; Dextran Sulfate ; Epithelium/*microbiology ; Female ; *Flagella ; GPI-Linked Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism/secretion ; Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects/metabolism/pathogenicity/*physiology ; Homeostasis ; Humans ; Inflammation/chemically induced/drug therapy/genetics ; Intestinal Mucosa/cytology/metabolism/*microbiology/secretion ; Male ; Mice ; Proteus mirabilis/drug effects/metabolism/pathogenicity ; Symbiosis
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  • 15
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: Developmental disabilities, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability (ID), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), affect one in six children in the USA. Recently, gene mutations in patched domain containing 1 (PTCHD1) have been found in ~1% of patients with ID and ASD. Individuals with PTCHD1 deletion show symptoms of ADHD, sleep disruption, hypotonia, aggression, ASD, and ID. Although PTCHD1 is probably critical for normal development, the connection between its deletion and the ensuing behavioural defects is poorly understood. Here we report that during early post-natal development, mouse Ptchd1 is selectively expressed in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a group of GABAergic neurons that regulate thalamocortical transmission, sleep rhythms, and attention. Ptchd1 deletion attenuates TRN activity through mechanisms involving small conductance calcium-dependent potassium currents (SK). TRN-restricted deletion of Ptchd1 leads to attention deficits and hyperactivity, both of which are rescued by pharmacological augmentation of SK channel activity. Global Ptchd1 deletion recapitulates learning impairment, hyper-aggression, and motor defects, all of which are insensitive to SK pharmacological targeting and not found in the TRN-restricted deletion mouse. This study maps clinically relevant behavioural phenotypes onto TRN dysfunction in a human disease model, while also identifying molecular and circuit targets for intervention.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4875756/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4875756/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wells, Michael F -- Wimmer, Ralf D -- Schmitt, L Ian -- Feng, Guoping -- Halassa, Michael M -- F31 MH098641/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R00 NS078115/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH097104/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH107680/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH097104/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH10768/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):58-63. doi: 10.1038/nature17427. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. ; McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 1003, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007844" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aggression ; Animals ; Animals, Newborn ; Attention ; Attention Deficit Disorder with ; Hyperactivity/genetics/*physiopathology/*psychology ; Behavior, Animal ; Disease Models, Animal ; Electric Conductivity ; Female ; GABAergic Neurons/metabolism/pathology ; *Gene Deletion ; Humans ; Learning Disorders/genetics/physiopathology ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/*deficiency/*genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Motor Disorders/genetics/physiopathology ; Neural Inhibition ; Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated/metabolism ; Sleep ; Sleep Deprivation/genetics/physiopathology ; Thalamic Nuclei/pathology/*physiopathology
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: Promoters are DNA sequences that have an essential role in controlling gene expression. While recent whole cancer genome analyses have identified numerous hotspots of somatic point mutations within promoters, many have not yet been shown to perturb gene expression or drive cancer development. As such, positive selection alone may not adequately explain the frequency of promoter point mutations in cancer genomes. Here we show that increased mutation density at gene promoters can be linked to promoter activity and differential nucleotide excision repair (NER). By analysing 1,161 human cancer genomes across 14 cancer types, we find evidence for increased local density of somatic point mutations within the centres of DNase I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in gene promoters. Mutated DHSs were strongly associated with transcription initiation activity, in which active promoters but not enhancers of equal DNase I hypersensitivity were most mutated relative to their flanking regions. Notably, analysis of genome-wide maps of NER shows that NER is impaired within the DHS centre of active gene promoters, while XPC-deficient skin cancers do not show increased promoter mutation density, pinpointing differential NER as the underlying cause of these mutation hotspots. Consistent with this finding, we observe that melanomas with an ultraviolet-induced DNA damage mutation signature show greatest enrichment of promoter mutations, whereas cancers that are not highly dependent on NER, such as colon cancer, show no sign of such enrichment. Taken together, our analysis has uncovered the presence of a previously unknown mechanism linking transcription initiation and NER as a major contributor of somatic point mutation hotspots at active gene promoters in cancer genomes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Perera, Dilmi -- Poulos, Rebecca C -- Shah, Anushi -- Beck, Dominik -- Pimanda, John E -- Wong, Jason W H -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):259-63. doi: 10.1038/nature17437.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Prince of Wales Clinical School and Lowy Cancer Research Centre, UNSW Australia, Sydney 2052, Australia. ; Department of Haematology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney 2031, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075100" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Colonic Neoplasms/genetics ; DNA Damage/genetics ; DNA Repair/*genetics/radiation effects ; Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/genetics ; Melanoma/genetics ; Mutagenesis/*genetics ; *Mutation Rate ; Neoplasms/*genetics ; Point Mutation/genetics ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/*genetics ; *Transcription Initiation, Genetic ; Ultraviolet Rays
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Qiu, Jane -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):428-31. doi: 10.1038/532428a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27121822" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Altitude ; Disasters/*prevention & control/*statistics & numerical data ; Earthquakes/mortality/*statistics & numerical data ; *Forecasting ; Humans ; Landslides/mortality/*statistics & numerical data ; Nepal ; Rain
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  • 18
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic signalling through the sodium- and chloride-dependent reuptake of neurotransmitter into presynaptic neurons. SERT is a target for antidepressant and psychostimulant drugs, which block reuptake and prolong neurotransmitter signalling. Here we report X-ray crystallographic structures of human SERT at 3.15 A resolution bound to the antidepressants (S)-citalopram or paroxetine. Antidepressants lock SERT in an outward-open conformation by lodging in the central binding site, located between transmembrane helices 1, 3, 6, 8 and 10, directly blocking serotonin binding. We further identify the location of an allosteric site in the complex as residing at the periphery of the extracellular vestibule, interposed between extracellular loops 4 and 6 and transmembrane helices 1, 6, 10 and 11. Occupancy of the allosteric site sterically hinders ligand unbinding from the central site, providing an explanation for the action of (S)-citalopram as an allosteric ligand. These structures define the mechanism of antidepressant action in SERT, and provide blueprints for future drug design.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Coleman, Jonathan A -- Green, Evan M -- Gouaux, Eric -- 5R37MH070039/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R37 MH070039/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):334-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17629. Epub 2016 Apr 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vollum Institute, Oregon Health &Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Oregon Health &Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049939" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allosteric Regulation/drug effects ; Allosteric Site/drug effects ; Antidepressive Agents/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Citalopram/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/chemistry ; Drug Design ; Extracellular Space/metabolism ; Humans ; Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology ; Intracellular Space/metabolism ; Ions/chemistry/metabolism ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; Paroxetine/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Protein Binding/drug effects ; Protein Conformation/drug effects ; Protein Stability ; Serotonin/metabolism ; Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/*chemistry/immunology/*metabolism ; Structure-Activity Relationship
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉King, Anthony -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):S18-9. doi: 10.1038/531S18a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934522" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amygdala/metabolism ; Animals ; Brain/*physiology ; Bullying ; DNA Methylation ; Depression/complications/prevention & control/therapy ; Emotional Adjustment ; Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics ; Female ; Hippocampus/metabolism ; Humans ; Hydrocortisone/metabolism ; Maternal Behavior ; Memory/physiology ; Mice ; Models, Animal ; Oxytocin/metabolism ; Pregnancy ; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/genetics ; Psychological Trauma/complications/genetics/metabolism ; Rats ; *Resilience, Psychological ; Social Isolation/psychology ; Stress, Psychological/complications/genetics/metabolism/therapy
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  • 20
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Check Hayden, Erika -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):19. doi: 10.1038/531019a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935676" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa, Western/epidemiology ; Brazil/epidemiology ; Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data ; *Epidemiological Monitoring ; *Global Health ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/*epidemiology ; Humans ; Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype ; Influenza, Human/epidemiology ; Information Dissemination ; Microcephaly/complications/epidemiology ; Public Health ; World Health Organization/*organization & administration ; *Zika Virus ; Zika Virus Infection/*epidemiology/virology
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  • 21
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yamada, Tadataka -- Ogawa, V Ayano -- Freire, Maria -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):29-31. doi: 10.1038/533029a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Global Health Risk Framework Commission, and venture partner at Frazier Healthcare Partners, Seattle, Washington, USA. ; Global Health Risk Framework Commission at the US National Academy of Medicine, Washington DC, USA. ; Global Health Risk Framework Commission, and president and executive director of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147017" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Communicable Diseases, Emerging/economics/epidemiology/mortality/prevention & ; control ; Disaster Planning/*economics/trends ; Disease Outbreaks/*economics/prevention & control ; Global Health/economics/trends ; *Health Expenditures ; Humans ; Infection/*economics/*epidemiology/mortality ; International Cooperation ; Pandemics/economics/prevention & control ; Public Policy ; Public-Private Sector Partnerships/economics ; Security Measures/*economics/trends ; Zika Virus
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 22
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: The palaeobiological record of 12 million to 7 million years ago (Ma) is crucial to the elucidation of African ape and human origins, but few fossil assemblages of this period have been reported from sub-Saharan Africa. Since the 1970s, the Chorora Formation, Ethiopia, has been widely considered to contain ~10.5 million year (Myr) old mammalian fossils. More recently, Chororapithecus abyssinicus, a probable primitive member of the gorilla clade, was discovered from the formation. Here we report new field observations and geochemical, magnetostratigraphic and radioisotopic results that securely place the Chorora Formation sediments to between ~9 and ~7 Ma. The C. abyssinicus fossils are ~8.0 Myr old, forming a revised age constraint of the human-gorilla split. Other Chorora fossils range in age from ~8.5 to 7 Ma and comprise the first sub-Saharan mammalian assemblage that spans this period. These fossils suggest indigenous African evolution of multiple mammalian lineages/groups between 10 and 7 Ma, including a possible ancestral-descendent relationship between the ~9.8 Myr old Nakalipithecus nakayamai and C. abyssinicus. The new chronology and fossils suggest that faunal provinciality between eastern Africa and Eurasia had intensified by ~9 Ma, with decreased faunal interchange thereafter. The Chorora evidence supports the hypothesis of in situ African evolution of the Gorilla-Pan-human clade, and is concordant with the deeper divergence estimates of humans and great apes based on lower mutation rates of ~0.5 x 10(-9) per site per year (refs 13 - 15).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Katoh, Shigehiro -- Beyene, Yonas -- Itaya, Tetsumaru -- Hyodo, Hironobu -- Hyodo, Masayuki -- Yagi, Koshi -- Gouzu, Chitaro -- WoldeGabriel, Giday -- Hart, William K -- Ambrose, Stanley H -- Nakaya, Hideo -- Bernor, Raymond L -- Boisserie, Jean-Renaud -- Bibi, Faysal -- Saegusa, Haruo -- Sasaki, Tomohiko -- Sano, Katsuhiro -- Asfaw, Berhane -- Suwa, Gen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):215-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16510.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Natural History, Hyogo Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Sanda 669-1546, Japan. ; Association for Conservation of Culture Awassa, PO Box 6686, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ; Centre francais des etudes ethiopiennes (CFEE), USR CNRS 3137, French Ministry for Foreign Affairs, PO Box 5554, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ; Research Institute of Natural Sciences, Okayama University of Science, Okayama 700-0005, Japan. ; Research Center for Inland Seas, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan. ; Hiruzen Institute for Geology and Chronology, Okayama 703-8252, Japan. ; EES-14/MS D462, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA. ; Department of Geology and Environmental Earth Science, Miami University, 133 Culler Hall, Oxford, Ohio 45056, USA. ; Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan. ; Department of Anatomy, Howard University, Washington DC 20059, USA. ; Institut de Paleoprimatologie, Paleontologie Humaine : Evolution et Paleoenvironnements (IPHEP), UMR CNRS 7262, Universite de Poitiers, 86022 Poitiers, France. ; Museum fur Naturkunde - Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany. ; Institute of Natural and Environmental Sciences, University of Hyogo, Sanda 669-1546, Japan. ; The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. ; Rift Valley Research Service, PO Box 5717, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863981" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Ethiopia ; *Fossils ; Geologic Sediments/chemistry ; *Gorilla gorilla/genetics ; Humans ; Mutation Rate ; *Phylogeny ; *Radiometric Dating ; Time Factors
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  • 23
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-25
    Description: African dust emission and transport exhibits variability on diurnal to decadal timescales and is known to influence processes such as Amazon productivity, Atlantic climate modes, regional atmospheric composition and radiative balance and precipitation in the Sahel. To elucidate the role of African dust in the climate system, it is necessary to understand the factors governing its emission and transport. However, African dust is correlated with seemingly disparate atmospheric phenomena, including the El Nino/Southern Oscillation, the North Atlantic Oscillation, the meridional position of the intertropical convergence zone, Sahelian rainfall and surface temperatures over the Sahara Desert, all of which obfuscate the connection between dust and climate. Here we show that the surface wind field responsible for most of the variability in North African dust emission reflects the topography of the Sahara, owing to orographic acceleration of the surface flow. As such, the correlations between dust and various climate phenomena probably arise from the projection of the winds associated with these phenomena onto an orographically controlled pattern of wind variability. A 161-year time series of dust from 1851 to 2011, created by projecting this wind field pattern onto surface winds from a historical reanalysis, suggests that the highest concentrations of dust occurred from the 1910s to the 1940s and the 1970s to the 1980s, and that there have been three periods of persistent anomalously low dust concentrations--in the 1860s, 1950s and 2000s. Projections of the wind pattern onto climate models give a statistically significant downward trend in African dust emission and transport as greenhouse gas concentrations increase over the twenty-first century, potentially associated with a slow-down of the tropical circulation. Such a dust feedback, which is not represented in climate models, may be of benefit to human and ecosystem health in West Africa via improved air quality and increased rainfall. This feedback may also enhance warming of the tropical North Atlantic, which would make the basin more suitable for hurricane formation and growth.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Evan, Amato T -- Flamant, Cyrille -- Gaetani, Marco -- Guichard, Francoise -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):493-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17149.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA. ; Laboratoire Atmospheres, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS)/IPSL, UPMC Universite Paris 06, Sorbonne Universite, UVSQ, CNRS, Paris, France. ; CNRM-GAME, UMR 3589 CNRS and Meteo-France, Toulouse, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27008968" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa ; Atmosphere/chemistry ; *Climate ; Cyclonic Storms ; Desert Climate ; Dust/*analysis ; Ecosystem ; Feedback ; Greenhouse Effect ; Humans ; Models, Theoretical ; Rain ; *Wind
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Abbott, Alison -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):158-9. doi: 10.1038/533158a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172027" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Academies and Institutes/*economics/*legislation & jurisprudence/organization & ; administration ; Biomedical Research/economics/*legislation & jurisprudence/*organization & ; administration ; *Dissent and Disputes ; Humans ; Italy ; Research Support as Topic/legislation & jurisprudence/organization & ; administration
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  • 25
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fearon, Kenneth -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):156. doi: 10.1038/529156b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Edinburgh, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762449" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cachexia/*therapy ; *Combined Modality Therapy ; Humans
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  • 26
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shrestha, Prerana -- Klann, Eric -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):450-1. doi: 10.1038/nature17312. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982731" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alzheimer Disease/*pathology/*physiopathology ; Animals ; Dentate Gyrus/*cytology/*physiology ; *Disease Models, Animal ; Humans ; Male ; Memory, Long-Term/*physiology
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  • 27
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Abeliovich, Asa -- Rhinn, Herve -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):40-1. doi: 10.1038/nature17891. Epub 2016 Apr 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology and Neurology, and the Taub Institute for Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27096361" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Humans ; Parkinson Disease/*genetics ; alpha-Synuclein/*genetics
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  • 28
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lim, XiaoZhi -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):26-8. doi: 10.1038/531026a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935679" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Color ; *Fluorescence ; Humans ; Mice ; Nanomedicine/methods/trends ; Nanotechnology/methods/*trends ; Neoplasms/metabolism/pathology/surgery/therapy ; Quantum Dots/*analysis/chemistry ; Staining and Labeling/methods/trends ; Television/instrumentation
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  • 29
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: Circadian clocks are fundamental to the biology of most eukaryotes, coordinating behaviour and physiology to resonate with the environmental cycle of day and night through complex networks of clock-controlled genes. A fundamental knowledge gap exists, however, between circadian gene expression cycles and the biochemical mechanisms that ultimately facilitate circadian regulation of cell biology. Here we report circadian rhythms in the intracellular concentration of magnesium ions, [Mg(2+)]i, which act as a cell-autonomous timekeeping component to determine key clock properties both in a human cell line and in a unicellular alga that diverged from each other more than 1 billion years ago. Given the essential role of Mg(2+) as a cofactor for ATP, a functional consequence of [Mg(2+)]i oscillations is dynamic regulation of cellular energy expenditure over the daily cycle. Mechanistically, we find that these rhythms provide bilateral feedback linking rhythmic metabolism to clock-controlled gene expression. The global regulation of nucleotide triphosphate turnover by intracellular Mg(2+) availability has potential to impact upon many of the cell's more than 600 MgATP-dependent enzymes and every cellular system where MgNTP hydrolysis becomes rate limiting. Indeed, we find that circadian control of translation by mTOR is regulated through [Mg(2+)]i oscillations. It will now be important to identify which additional biological processes are subject to this form of regulation in tissues of multicellular organisms such as plants and humans, in the context of health and disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Feeney, Kevin A -- Hansen, Louise L -- Putker, Marrit -- Olivares-Yanez, Consuelo -- Day, Jason -- Eades, Lorna J -- Larrondo, Luis F -- Hoyle, Nathaniel P -- O'Neill, John S -- van Ooijen, Gerben -- 093734/Z/10/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- MC_UP_1201/4/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):375-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17407. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉MRC Laboratory for Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. ; School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Max Born Crescent, Edinburgh EH9 3BF, UK. ; Millennium Nucleus for Fungal Integrative and Synthetic Biology, Departamento de Genetica Molecular y Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 114-D, Santiago, Chile. ; Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ, UK. ; School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, David Brewster Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FJ, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074515" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Chlorophyta/cytology/metabolism ; Circadian Clocks/genetics/*physiology ; Circadian Rhythm/genetics/*physiology ; *Energy Metabolism ; Feedback, Physiological ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Humans ; Intracellular Space/metabolism ; Magnesium/*metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Time Factors
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: The game of Go has long been viewed as the most challenging of classic games for artificial intelligence owing to its enormous search space and the difficulty of evaluating board positions and moves. Here we introduce a new approach to computer Go that uses 'value networks' to evaluate board positions and 'policy networks' to select moves. These deep neural networks are trained by a novel combination of supervised learning from human expert games, and reinforcement learning from games of self-play. Without any lookahead search, the neural networks play Go at the level of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo tree search programs that simulate thousands of random games of self-play. We also introduce a new search algorithm that combines Monte Carlo simulation with value and policy networks. Using this search algorithm, our program AlphaGo achieved a 99.8% winning rate against other Go programs, and defeated the human European Go champion by 5 games to 0. This is the first time that a computer program has defeated a human professional player in the full-sized game of Go, a feat previously thought to be at least a decade away.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Silver, David -- Huang, Aja -- Maddison, Chris J -- Guez, Arthur -- Sifre, Laurent -- van den Driessche, George -- Schrittwieser, Julian -- Antonoglou, Ioannis -- Panneershelvam, Veda -- Lanctot, Marc -- Dieleman, Sander -- Grewe, Dominik -- Nham, John -- Kalchbrenner, Nal -- Sutskever, Ilya -- Lillicrap, Timothy -- Leach, Madeleine -- Kavukcuoglu, Koray -- Graepel, Thore -- Hassabis, Demis -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):484-9. doi: 10.1038/nature16961.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Google DeepMind, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3TW, UK. ; Google, 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, California 94043, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26819042" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Computers ; Europe ; *Games, Recreational ; Humans ; Monte Carlo Method ; *Neural Networks (Computer) ; Reinforcement (Psychology) ; *Software ; *Supervised Machine Learning
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lyman, Edwin -- von Hippel, Frank -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):281. doi: 10.1038/530281e.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Union of Concerned Scientists, Washington DC, USA. ; Princeton University, New Jersey, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887482" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Humans ; *Policy Making ; *Radioactive Waste ; *Safety
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibney, Elizabeth -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):14-5. doi: 10.1038/529014a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738570" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Atmosphere/chemistry ; Carbon Dioxide/economics/isolation & purification ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; Hemophilia A/genetics/therapy ; Humans ; Jupiter ; Mars ; Microbiota ; Neurosciences ; Physical Phenomena ; Politics ; Satellite Communications ; Science/*trends ; Sleep/*genetics ; Spacecraft ; Synchrotrons ; Virus Physiological Phenomena ; beta-Thalassemia/genetics/therapy
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 33
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-31
    Description: Homo floresiensis, a primitive hominin species discovered in Late Pleistocene sediments at Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia), has generated wide interest and scientific debate. A major reason this taxon is controversial is because the H. floresiensis-bearing deposits, which include associated stone artefacts and remains of other extinct endemic fauna, were dated to between about 95 and 12 thousand calendar years (kyr) ago. These ages suggested that H. floresiensis survived until long after modern humans reached Australia by ~50 kyr ago. Here we report new stratigraphic and chronological evidence from Liang Bua that does not support the ages inferred previously for the H. floresiensis holotype (LB1), ~18 thousand calibrated radiocarbon years before present (kyr cal. BP), or the time of last appearance of this species (about 17 or 13-11 kyr cal. BP). Instead, the skeletal remains of H. floresiensis and the deposits containing them are dated to between about 100 and 60 kyr ago, whereas stone artefacts attributable to this species range from about 190 to 50 kyr in age. Whether H. floresiensis survived after 50 kyr ago--potentially encountering modern humans on Flores or other hominins dispersing through southeast Asia, such as Denisovans--is an open question.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sutikna, Thomas -- Tocheri, Matthew W -- Morwood, Michael J -- Saptomo, E Wahyu -- Jatmiko -- Awe, Rokus Due -- Wasisto, Sri -- Westaway, Kira E -- Aubert, Maxime -- Li, Bo -- Zhao, Jian-xin -- Storey, Michael -- Alloway, Brent V -- Morley, Mike W -- Meijer, Hanneke J M -- van den Bergh, Gerrit D -- Grun, Rainer -- Dosseto, Anthony -- Brumm, Adam -- Jungers, William L -- Roberts, Richard G -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):366-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17179. Epub 2016 Mar 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Archaeological Science, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia. ; Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional, Jakarta 12510, Indonesia. ; Department of Anthropology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1, Canada. ; Human Origins Program, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20013, USA. ; Traps MQ Luminescence Dating Facility, Department of Environmental Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2109, Australia. ; Research Centre for Human Evolution, Place, Evolution and Rock Art Heritage Unit, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland 4222, Australia. ; School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia. ; School of Earth Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. ; QUADLAB, Section of Earth and Planetary System Science, Natural History Museum of Denmark, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; School of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6012, New Zealand. ; Department of Natural History, University Museum of Bergen, University of Bergen, 5007 Bergen, Norway. ; Research Centre for Human Evolution, Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111, Australia. ; Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia. ; GeoQuEST Research Centre, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia. ; Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA. ; Association Vahatra, BP 3972, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027286" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aluminum Silicates ; Animals ; *Archaeology ; Australia ; Calibration ; Caves ; *Fossils ; Geologic Sediments/analysis ; Glass ; *Hominidae ; Humans ; Indonesia ; Potassium Compounds ; Quartz ; *Radiometric Dating ; Time Factors ; Uncertainty
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Maniscalco, Sabrina -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):184-5. doi: 10.1038/532184a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku 20014, Finland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075093" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Crowdsourcing ; *Games, Experimental ; Humans ; *Intuition ; *Problem Solving ; *Quantum Theory ; Video Games/*psychology
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Haddad, Nick M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1166-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5072.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Applied Ecology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. nick_haddad@ncsu.ed.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785459" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brazil ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; Humans ; *Transportation
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Underwood, Emily -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1188-90. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1188.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785475" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/blood/genetics/*physiology ; Animals ; Biological Clocks/genetics/*physiology ; Biomarkers/blood/metabolism ; DNA/genetics ; DNA Methylation ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Humans ; Mice ; Rats ; Telomere Homeostasis
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Escobar, Herton -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1138-9. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1138. Epub 2015 Dec 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785449" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arsenic/analysis ; Brazil ; Copper/analysis ; *Disasters ; *Environmental Restoration and Remediation ; Food Chain ; Humans ; Mercury/analysis ; Metals, Heavy/*analysis ; Rivers ; Sewage/*analysis ; Structure Collapse ; *Tsunamis
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 38
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Congenital heart disease (CHD) patients have an increased prevalence of extracardiac congenital anomalies (CAs) and risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDDs). Exome sequencing of 1213 CHD parent-offspring trios identified an excess of protein-damaging de novo mutations, especially in genes highly expressed in the developing heart and brain. These mutations accounted for 20% of patients with CHD, NDD, and CA but only 2% of patients with isolated CHD. Mutations altered genes involved in morphogenesis, chromatin modification, and transcriptional regulation, including multiple mutations in RBFOX2, a regulator of mRNA splicing. Genes mutated in other cohorts examined for NDD were enriched in CHD cases, particularly those with coexisting NDD. These findings reveal shared genetic contributions to CHD, NDD, and CA and provide opportunities for improved prognostic assessment and early therapeutic intervention in CHD patients.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Homsy, Jason -- Zaidi, Samir -- Shen, Yufeng -- Ware, James S -- Samocha, Kaitlin E -- Karczewski, Konrad J -- DePalma, Steven R -- McKean, David -- Wakimoto, Hiroko -- Gorham, Josh -- Jin, Sheng Chih -- Deanfield, John -- Giardini, Alessandro -- Porter, George A Jr -- Kim, Richard -- Bilguvar, Kaya -- Lopez-Giraldez, Francesc -- Tikhonova, Irina -- Mane, Shrikant -- Romano-Adesman, Angela -- Qi, Hongjian -- Vardarajan, Badri -- Ma, Lijiang -- Daly, Mark -- Roberts, Amy E -- Russell, Mark W -- Mital, Seema -- Newburger, Jane W -- Gaynor, J William -- Breitbart, Roger E -- Iossifov, Ivan -- Ronemus, Michael -- Sanders, Stephan J -- Kaltman, Jonathan R -- Seidman, Jonathan G -- Brueckner, Martina -- Gelb, Bruce D -- Goldmuntz, Elizabeth -- Lifton, Richard P -- Seidman, Christine E -- Chung, Wendy K -- T32 HL007208/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Arthritis Research UK/United Kingdom -- British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- Department of Health/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1262-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9396.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. ; Departments of Systems Biology and Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. NIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit at Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation and Trust and Imperial College London, London, UK. National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Analytical and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston MA, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Cardiology, University College London and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK. ; Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, The School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA. ; Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Yale Center for Genome Analysis, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. ; Yale Center for Genome Analysis, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. ; Steven and Alexandra Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, New Hyde Park, NY, USA. ; Departments of Systems Biology and Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, USA. ; Division of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ; Department of Cardiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA. ; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. ; Heart Development and Structural Diseases Branch, Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, NHLBI/NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu. ; Mindich Child Health and Development Institute and Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu. ; Department of Pediatrics, The Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Division of Cardiology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu. ; Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA. Cardiovascular Division, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu. ; Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785492" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brain/abnormalities/metabolism ; Child ; Congenital Abnormalities/genetics ; Exome/genetics ; Heart Defects, Congenital/*diagnosis/*genetics ; Humans ; Mutation ; Nervous System Malformations/*genetics ; Neurogenesis/*genetics ; Prognosis ; RNA Splicing/genetics ; RNA, Messenger/genetics ; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; Repressor Proteins/genetics ; Transcription, Genetic
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Alexandrov, Ludmil B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1175. doi: 10.1126/science.aad7363.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Theoretical Biology and Biophysics (T-6), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. lba@lanl.gov.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785464" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Computer Simulation ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Genomics/*methods ; Humans ; *Models, Genetic ; *Mutagenesis ; Mutation ; Neoplasms/classification/*genetics/pathology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Research into stem cells and aging aims to understand how stem cells maintain tissue health, what mechanisms ultimately lead to decline in stem cell function with age, and how the regenerative capacity of somatic stem cells can be enhanced to promote healthy aging. Here, we explore the effects of aging on stem cells in different tissues. Recent research has focused on the ways that genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and the extrinsic environmental milieu influence stem cell functionality over time. We describe each of these three factors, the ways in which they interact, and how these interactions decrease stem cell health over time. We are optimistic that a better understanding of these changes will uncover potential strategies to enhance stem cell function and increase tissue resiliency into old age.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goodell, Margaret A -- Rando, Thomas A -- P01 AG036695/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG047820/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR062185/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 AG023806/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1199-204. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3388.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Center, Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, and Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. goodell@bcm.edu rando@stanford.edu. ; Glenn Center for the Biology of Aging and Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, and Center for Regenerative Rehabilitation, Veterans Administration Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA. goodell@bcm.edu rando@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785478" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult Stem Cells/*physiology ; Aging/*physiology ; Animals ; Cell Aging ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Genetic Drift ; *Health ; Humans ; Mice ; Mutation ; Organ Specificity ; Selection, Genetic
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Greenbaum, Dov -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1176. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1176-a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Zvi Meitar Institute for Legal Implications of Emerging Technologies, Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya Israel and Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 10463, USA. dov.greenbaum@yale.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785467" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Clothing ; Humans ; *Military Personnel ; *Robotics ; Walking/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Young, Ry -- Gill, Jason J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1163-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aad6791.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Phage Technology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. ryland@tamu.edu jason.gill@tamu.edu. ; Center for Phage Technology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. ryland@tamu.edu jason.gill@tamu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785457" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Bacteriocins ; Biological Therapy/*methods ; Burns/microbiology/therapy ; *Caudovirales ; Drug Resistance, Bacterial ; Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/*therapy ; Humans
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kupferschmidt, Kai -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):128-9. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6282.128. Epub 2016 Apr 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124428" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/virology ; Angola/epidemiology ; Animals ; Chick Embryo ; Disease Outbreaks/*prevention & control ; Humans ; Vaccination/statistics & numerical data ; World Health Organization ; Yellow Fever/*epidemiology/*prevention & control ; Yellow Fever Vaccine/*administration & dosage
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 44
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Segal, Rosalind A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1494. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6280.1494.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Rosalind A. Segal is a neurobiology professor at Harvard Medical School and co-chair of cancer biology at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston. Send your story to SciCareerEditor@aaas.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013735" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Career Choice ; Female ; Humans ; Neurobiology/manpower ; *Sexism ; *Women, Working
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shanahan, Jesse -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):418. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6271.418.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Jesse Shanahan is a master's student in astronomy at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. Send your story to SciCareerEditor@aaas.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26798017" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Astronomy/*education ; *Career Mobility ; Disabled Persons/*psychology/statistics & numerical data ; Fear ; *Hostility ; Humans ; Male ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lawler, Andrew -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):501-2. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6285.501.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126014" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: China/epidemiology