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  • 1
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-21
    Description: Vollkommene Konkurrenz auf Märkten ist dadurch charakterisiert, dass die Handlungen einzelner Wirtschaftssubjekte für alle anderen Wirtschaftssubjekte irrelevant sind. Jeder Einzelne kann das Gesamtergebnis (z.B. die Preise) auf einem Markt nicht unmittelbar beeinflussen; im Begriff des "atomistischen Marktes" wird dies auch bildlich ausgedrückt. Diese Marktform ist weniger als Beschreibung tatsächlicher Märkte gedacht, sondern als Gedankenexperiment zur möglichst einfachen Beschreibung einer Extremsituation. In der überwiegenden Zahl von Märkten der Agrar- und Ernährungswirtschaft spielen die Handlungen einzelner Anbieter sehr wohl eine wesentliche Rolle für das Gleichgewicht auf dem Gesamtmarkt: Konkurrenz ist typischerweise unvollkommen. Zahlreiche Beispiele aus der Wertschöpfungskette der Land- und Ernährungswirtschaft, von der Erzeugung wichtiger Vorleistungen bis zum Konsum des Endproduktes, können dies verdeutlichen. Der Weltmarkt der Produktion von Mineraldünger beispielsweise wird von etwa zehn international tätigen Unternehmen dominiert. Hohe Entwicklungskosten für neues Saatgut sind ein wesentlicher Grund für die zunehmende Marktkonzentration im Bereich der Pflanzenzüchtung; auch hier sind weltweit nur noch wenige Anbieter tätig. Besonders ausgeprägt ist der Konzentrationsprozess auch im Lebensmitteleinzelhandel. Handelsketten können im Einkauf in Verhandlungen mit den Nahrungsmittelproduzenten möglicherweise ihre Verhandlungsmacht geltend machen. Zudem wirft die hohe Anbieterkonzentration im Lebensmitteleinzelhandel die Frage auf, ob Konsumenten überhöhte Preise für einzelne Lebensmittel zahlen. In diesem Kapitel werden folgende Themen besprochen: - Es wird gezeigt, wie sich Preise in unterschiedlichen Marktformen bilden und welche Folgen unvollkommene Konkurrenz (Marktmacht) für die Güterpreise hat. - Verschiedene Formen strategischer Interaktion werden unterschieden und deren Folgen für das Marktgleichgewicht (kurz- und langfristig) beleuchtet. - Methoden und Probleme der empirischen Messung von Marktmacht werden erläutert und an Hand von Fallbeispielen illustriert. - Wir beschreiben Interaktionen zwischen den Akteuren innerhalb der Wertschöpfungskette bei der Preisbildung. - Die institutionellen Rahmenbedingungen der europäischen Wettbewerbspolitik sowie Beispiele wettbewerbspolitischer Eingriffe werden erläutert. (...)
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Preismanagement ; Unvollkommener Wettbewerb ; Marktmacht ; Wettbewerbspolitik ; Theorie
    Language: German
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  • 2
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    Marburg: Philipps-University Marburg, School of Business and Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-05-01
    Description: Mit der Implementierung des Bestellerprinzips - wer den Makler beauftragt, muss ihn auch bezahlen - hat der Gesetzgeber einen Wechsel der Zahllast fuer die Courtage vom Mieter zum Vermieter vorgenommen. Mit Hilfe eines sequentiellen Verhandlungsspiels wird hier diskutiert, inwieweit der Wechsel der Zahllast mit einer Veraenderung der oekonomischen Traglast einhergeht. Es wird gezeigt, dass fuer plausible Parameterkonstellationen (i) die Makler verlieren in Form einer sinkenden Courtage, (ii) die Mieter gewinnen trotz Ãœberwaelzung der Courtage auf die Miete, und (iii) auch die Vermieter gewinnen trotz Uebernahme der Zahllast der Courtage.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Immobilienmakler ; Extensives Spiel ; Provision ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Linz: Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy (ICAE)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-12
    Description: The paper studies the relevance of product heterogeneity for innovation dynamics using an agent-based model. The vantage point is a short a review on the empirical relevance of capability accumulation for innovation processes and an assessment of how these processes are modelled theoretically in evolutionary micro and macroeconomic models. This shows that the macroeconomic literature so far has focused on process innovations. To facilitate the consideration of empirical and microeconomic insights on product innovation in macroeconomic models, a simple agent-based model, which may later serve as an innovation module in macroeconomic models, is introduced. Following up on recent empirical results, products in the model are heterogeneous in terms of their complexity and differ in their relatedness to each other. The model is used to study theoretical implications of different topological structures underlying product relatedness by conducting simulations with different 'product spaces'. The analysis suggests that the topological structure of the product space, the assumed relationship between product complexity and centrality as well as the relevance of product complexity in price setting dynamics have significant but nontrivial implications and deserve further attention in evolutionary macroeconomics. To this end, the model presented here may serve as a first step towards a module to be integrated in such a more comprehensive model framework.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Innovation ; Produktentwicklung ; Capability-Ansatz ; Prinzipal-Agent-Theorie ; Mikrofundierung ; Produktgestaltung ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Basel: MDPI
    Publication Date: 2020-05-12
    Description: This special issue provides a collection of 15 papers with modern theories and applications for circular economy, engineering projects, entrepreneurship models, and investor decisions. After the commencing review on Occupational Health and Safety Management-Systems Standards, follow papers which can be classified into four categories which cover the overall scope of special issue. The first category includes papers regarding the micro-level of circular economy. This means case studies in firm-level which implement different techniques to achieve sustainable development and circular economy goals. The findings reveal interesting achievements which are associated with cultural characteristics of the countries these case studies have been conducted. The second category of papers refers to the meso-level of circular economy where firms cooperate with each other by exchanging byproducts and organizing common operational procedures and routines to address environmental problems. The findings suggest assessment information technology tools to support industrial symbiosis among European firms. The next body of literature encompasses macro-level where circular economy techniques are implemented at a country level. Findings suggest methodologies for implementing and tracking circular economy in cities. Finally, a number of papers are included that focus on advanced engineering techniques. These techniques are useful tools for achieving circular economy and sustainability.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; Sozialtechnologie ; Kreislaufwirtschaft ; Nachhaltige Kapitalanlage ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
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  • 5
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    Münster: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Centrum für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (CAWM)
    Publication Date: 2020-06-25
    Description: Market concentration has been suggested as an enhancer of bargaining power imbalances for vertical commercial relationships. However, the empirical literature has not yet explored in which way this market concentration, as a result of -for instance- a M&A operations, could affect the negotiations with agents in vertical related markets; in particular, in frictional multiproduct commercial relationships, in which uncertainty may play a role of such negotiations. The present work proposes an explanation to this matter, by analyzing the strategic incentives and uncertainties that arise in this kind of commercial relationships from the announcement of an horizontal M&A operation, and the way these expectations could influence the bargaining power redistribution among players after the operation; opening the discussion on a dynamic analysis of bargaining outcomes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Übernahme ; Entscheidung unter Unsicherheit ; Verhandlungsmacht ; Verhandlungstheorie ; Unternehmenskonzentration ; Theorie ; Einzelhandel ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Berlin: Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre (arqus)
    Publication Date: 2020-06-21
    Description: It is well-known that stock prices fluctuate far more than dividends. Traditional valuation methods are not able to depict this fact. In this paper we incorporate excess volatility into a simple DCF model by considering an autoregressive cash flows process with random coefficients. We show that the model is free of arbitrage and that the transversality condition is met and we prove a valuation equation that differs from the classical Gordon-Shapiro version: Cost of capital (respectively dividend-price ratio) is stochastic and our model represents excess volatility. We discuss whether our assumptions are compatible with an equilibrium.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Börsenkurs ; Ausschüttungspolitik ; Volatilität ; Kapitalwertmethode ; Autokorrelation ; Cash Flow ; Arbitrage ; Kapitalkosten ; Stochastischer Prozess ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Berlin: Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre (arqus)
    Publication Date: 2020-06-21
    Description: This paper investigates the dynamics of group decisions regarding risky tax avoidance strategies using a laboratory experiment. To identify the causes of risk taking by groups, we compare individual to group decisions in three scenarios. The first scenario allocates payoffs from group decisions equally to all members of a group. The second and third scenario introduce intra-group payoff conflict as a new influential factor in group dynamics. Hereby, we separate intra-group payoff conflicts in the distribution of costs and profits. This manipulation allows us to disentangle group discussion effects resulting from the competing theories of polarization and diversification of opinions. Our overall findings support a predominant diversification of opinions effect. When group members share all payoffs equally, this effect overcomes polarization in 100% of the cases where outstanding individuals are risk averse, while group polarization appears to be more likely towards outstanding risk loving subjects. Intra-group payoff conflict shifts these likelihoods, supporting the importance of rational arguments in group polarization. Consequently, our experimental results support a strong increase in the level of average tax avoidance following group decisions in case of all or negative outcomes being shared equally by group members. Intra-group payoff in the distribution of costs, however, removes this difference and shifts, both individual and group preferences, towards safety.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; group ; tax avoidance ; risk ; intra-group payoff conflict ; polarization ; diversification of opinions ; Steuervermeidung ; Entscheidung unter Risiko ; Gruppenentscheidung ; Experiment ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Munich: ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich
    Publication Date: 2020-06-24
    Description: Tech giants such as Google and Facebook generate significant amounts of advertising income, which is mainly reported in low-tax countries. This has created a policy discussion of how to re-align the location of value creation and taxation. The success of the business model of these digital platforms relies on the existence of indirect network effects, which are the prime reason why platforms exist and generate advertising income. To account for these effects, conventional tax policy needs to be adjusted. This includes an adjusted concept of nexus that should rely on the location of users, which generate the relevant indirect network effects. The recent EU proposal of a digital service tax goes in this direction and constitutes a policy option for other countries.
    Keywords: D43 ; H21 ; H22 ; L13 ; ddc:330 ; Digitale Medien ; Internetportal ; Werbung ; Einnahmen ; Steuer ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2020-06-26
    Description: We characterise the entire set of symmetric stationary Markov-perfect Nash equilibria (MPE) in a differential game of public good investment, using the canonical problem of climate change as an example. We provide a sufficient and necessary condition for MPE and show how the entire set of MPE is constructed. The equilibrium in continuous strategies, unique in our context, is Pareto-dominated by any other equilibrium. If a Pareto- undominated steady state exists, it is sustained by trigger-like strategies, with deviations above and below the steady state leading to different re- sponses. We extend the theory of differential games to deal with payoffs under discontinuous strategies. Our methods work under general functional forms.
    Keywords: C73 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; Spieltheorie ; Analysis ; Öffentliche Güter ; Nash-Gleichgewicht ; Klimawandel ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Munich: ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich
    Publication Date: 2020-07-01
    Description: It is well-known that group testing is an efficient strategy to screen for the presence of a virus. It consists in pooling n individual samples with a single test using RT-PCR. If at least one individual is infected, the test is positive, and it is negative otherwise. We show how group testing can be optimized in three applications to multiply the efficiency of tests against Covid-19: Estimating virus prevalence to measure the evolution of the pandemic; bringing negative groups back to work to exit the current lockdown; and testing for individual infectious status to treat sick people. For an infection level around 2%, group testing could multiply the power of testing by a factor 20. The implementation of this strategy in the short run requires limited investments and could bypass the current immense shortage of testing capacity.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Coronavirus ; Experiment ; Kohortenanalyse ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 11
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    Gießen: Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften
    Publication Date: 2020-07-26
    Description: [Einführung] Der kommunale Finanzausgleich ist ein vertikaler Ausgleich mit horizontalem Effekt. Die originären Steuerquellen der Gemeinden reichen nicht aus, um ihre Ausgaben zu finanzieren. Der Finanzausgleich dient zunächst einmal dazu, die Finanzkraft der kommunalen Ebene insgesamt so aufzustocken, dass der Finanzbedarf der Gemeinden im Durchschnitt gedeckt werden kann. Diese vertikale Ausgleichsfunktion wird durch die horizontale Ausgleichsfunktion ergänzt und überlagert. Sie besteht darin, Finanzkraftdifferenzen innerhalb der kommunalen Ebene zwischen relativ armen und reichen Gemeinden abzubauen, damit alle Gemeinden ihre Aufgaben wahrnehmen können. Das wesentliche Instrument zum Abbau der Finanzkraftdifferenzen zwischen relativ armen und reichen Gemeinden sind die Schlüsselzuweisungen, die aus der vom Land bereitgestellten Schlüsselmasse finanziert werden. Der Ausgleichseffekt der Schlüsselzuweisungen erstreckt sich (in der Regel) auf Gemeinden, deren Finanzbedarf größer ist als ihre Steuerkraft. In den meisten Bundesländern existieren darüber hinaus Finanzausgleichsumlagen, mit denen Gemeinden in den Finanzausgleich einbezogen werden, deren Finanzbedarf kleiner ist als ihre Steuerkraft. In Kapitel 2 wird zunächst ein Modell präsentiert, das die Funktionsweise des kommunalen Finanzausgleichs erläutert. Im Prinzip sind Finanzausgleichsumlagen nichts anderes als negative Schlüsselzuweisungen. Daher werden Schlüsselzuweisungen und Finanzausgleichsumlagen als Elemente eines einzigen Finanzausgleichstarifs interpretiert, der in seinen verschiedenen Tarifzonen Zuweisungen und Abschöpfungen in Abhängigkeit von Steuerkraft und Finanzbedarf der Gemeinden vorsieht. Das Basismodell erlaubt eine Differenzierung zwischen vertikalen und horizontalen Ausgleichseffekten. Zudem lassen sich damit Variationen zentraler Bestimmungsgrößen (Steuerkraft, Ausgleichsatz, Schlüsselmasse) und Modifikationen (Mindestfinanzkraftgarantie, Abundanzumlage, Einwohnergewichte) systematisch analysieren. In Kapitel 3 wird das Instrumentarium zur Untersuchung der Finanzausgleichstarife der deutschen Bundesländer verwendet. Sie weichen regelmäßig vom Grundmodell eines einheitlichen linearen Tarifs für steuerschwache wie steuerstarke Gemeinden ab. Die Tarife sind häufig sehr komplex und erschließen sich nicht unmittelbar aus dem Wortlaut der Finanzausgleichsgesetze. Sie werden daher formalisiert und in zusammengehörige Teilbereiche bzw. Tarifzonen zerlegt. Diese Vorgehensweise ermöglicht eine Systematisierung und Bewertung der vielfältigen Lösungen und ihrer Besonderheiten. Der Ländervergleich erstreckt sich allerdings nur auf die Tarifaspekte finanzkraftbezogener Zuweisungen und Umlagen. Außer Betracht bleiben die Differenzen bei der Bestimmung der Bemessungsgrundlagen des Finanzkraftausgleichs (Steuerkraft- und Bedarfsmesszahl) und bei der Aufteilung der Finanzausgleichsmasse auf Schlüsselzuweisungen (nach Gebietskörperschaftsgruppen) und andere Verwendungszwecke.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Kommunaler Finanzausgleich ; Finanzwissenschaft ; Teilstaat ; Finanzausgleich ; Steuereinnahmen ; Theorie ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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  • 12
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    London: Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)
    Publication Date: 2020-09-01
    Description: We examine the channels through which a randomized early childhood intervention in Colombia led to significant gains in cognitive and socio-emotional skills among a sample of disavantaged children aged 12 to 24 months at baseline. We estimate the determinants of parents' material and time investments in these children and evaluate the impact of the treatment on such investments. We then estimate the production functions for cognitive and socio-emotional skills. The effects of the program can be explained by increases in parental investments, emphasizing the importance of parenting interventions at an early age.
    Keywords: H31 ; I24 ; I25 ; I28 ; I3 ; J38 ; O1 ; O15 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; Frühkindliche Bildung ; Kognition ; Soziales Verhalten ; Produktionsfunktion ; Bildungsinvestition ; Theorie ; Kolumbien
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    London: Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)
    Publication Date: 2020-09-01
    Description: The extent to which like-with like marry is particularly important for inequality as well as for the outcomes of children that result from the union. In this paper we discuss approaches to the measurement of changes in assortative mating. We derive two key conditions that a well-defined measure should satisfy. We argue that changes in assortativeness should be interpreted through a structural model of the marriage market; in particular, a crucial issue is how they relate to variations in the economic surplus generated by marriage. We propose a very general criterion of increase in assortativeness, and show that almost all indices used in the literature are implied by our criterion - with one notable exception, that moreover violates one of our conditions. Finally, we use our approach to evaluate the evolution of assortative matching in the US over the last decades, and conclude that assortative matching has increased, particularly at the top of the education distribution.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Ehe ; Familienökonomik ; Matching ; Theorie ; USA
    Language: English
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH | Wiesbaden : Springer Gabler
    Person(s): Wolf, Joachim
    Keywords: Organisationstheorie ; Führungstheorie ; Management ; Organisationstheorie ; Management ; Theorie ; Organization ; Planning ; Management ; Organization ; Management ; Organisationstheorie ; Führungstheorie ; Management ; Organisationstheorie ; Management ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XXVIII, 746 Seiten) , Illustrationen, Diagramme
    Edition: 6., überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage
    ISBN: 9783658303075
    DDC: 658.1
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 15
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Industrial Production (IIP)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: In electricity markets around the world, the substantial increase of intermittent renewable electricity generation has intensified concerns about generation adequacy, ultimately driving the implementation of capacity remuneration mechanisms. Although formally technology-neutral, substantial barriers often exist in these mechanisms for non-conventional capacity such as electricity storage. In this article, we provide a rigorous theoretical discussion on design parameters and show that the concrete design of a capacity remuneration mechanism always creates a bias towards one technology or the other. In particular, we can identify the bundling of capacity auctions with call options and the definition of the storage capacity credit as essential drivers affecting the future technology mix as well as generation adequacy. In order to illustrate and confirm our theoretical findings, we apply an agent-based electricity market model and run a number of simulations. Our results show that electricity storage has a capacity value and should therefore be allowed to participate in any capacity remuneration mechanism. Moreover, we find the implementation of a capacity remuneration mechanism with call options and a strike price to increase the competitiveness of storages against conventional power plants. However, determining the amount of firm capacity an electricity storage unit can provide remains a challenging task.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Elektrizitätswirtschaft ; Energieinfrastruktur ; Lager ; Kapazitätsplanung ; Mechanismus-Design-Theorie ; Optionsgeschäft ; Agentenbasierte Modellierung ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Frankfurt a. M.: European Central Bank (ECB)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Description: Interbank money markets have been subject to substantial impairments in the recent decade, such as a decline in unsecured lending and substantial increases in haircuts on posted collateral. This paper seeks to understand the implications of these developments for the broader economy and monetary policy. To that end, we develop a novel general equilibrium model featuring heterogeneous banks, interbank markets for both secured and unsecured credit, and a central bank. The model features a number of occasionally binding constraints. The interactions between these constraints - in particular leverage and liquidity constraints - are key in determining macroeconomic outcomes. We find that both secured and unsecured money market frictions force banks to either divert resources into unproductive but liquid assets or to de-lever, which leads to less lending and output. If the liquidity constraint is very tight, the leverage constraint may turn slack. In this case, there are large declines in lending and output. We show how central bank policies which increase the size of the central bank balance sheet can attenuate this decline.
    Keywords: G10 ; G20 ; E44 ; E52 ; E58 ; ddc:330 ; Money markets ; Liquidity ; Collateral ; Monetary policy ; Interbankenmarkt ; Geldmarkt ; Liquiditätsbeschränkung ; Kreditderivat ; Geldpolitik ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Stockholm: Sveriges Riksbank
    Publication Date: 2020-03-31
    Description: We study the robustness of the Lerner symmetry result in an open economy New Keynesian model with price rigidities. While the Lerner symmetry result, i.e. the absence of allocative and trade-flow effects of an equally-sized change in import tariff and export subsidy, holds up approximately for a number of alternative assumptions, we obtain quantitatively important long-term deviations under complete international asset markets. Direct pass-through of tariffs and subsidies to prices and slow exchange rate adjustment can also generate signi.cant short-term deviations from Lerner. Deviations from symmetry, however, do not necessarily imply an impact on global output and are often limited to a redistribution of production and consumption across countries. Finally, we quantify the macroeconomic costs of a trade war and find that they can be substantial, with permanently lower income and trade volumes. However, a fully symmetric retaliation to an unilaterally imposed border adjustment tax can prevent any sizable adverse real or nominal effects.
    Keywords: E52 ; E58 ; ddc:330 ; Import Tariffs ; Export Subsidies ; Lerner Condition ; Incomplete Markets ; Complete Markets ; Border Adjustment Tax ; Trade War ; New Keynesian open-economy model ; Importbeschränkung ; Exportsubvention ; Handelseffekt ; Konjunktur ; Handelskonflikt ; Soziale Kosten ; Offene Volkswirtschaft ; Neoklassische Synthese ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    transcript Verlag: Bielefeld
    Publication Date: 2020-04-28
    Description: Ein Teil der Soziologie will sich seit jeher von jeglicher Einmischung in die Praxis distanzieren, ein anderer Teil in die Gesellschaft hineinwirken. Im ersten Fall begreift die Soziologie sich als Wissenschaft, die von Außen auf die Gesellschaft schaut. Im zweiten Fall kann sie sich ihrer Zugehörigkeit zur Gesellschaft nicht entziehen. Was jedoch bedeuten diese vermeintlich widersprüchlichen Ziele für Soziolog_innen und was sagt das über das Fach selbst aus? Natalie Mevissen untersucht das Verhältnis der Soziologie zur Gesellschaft mit Hilfe hermeneutischer Interviewanalysen und formuliert zugleich Bedingungen für eine theoretisch wie methodologisch fundierte Wissenschaftssoziologie der Soziologie. Sie plädiert für einen Perspektivwechsel: weg von einem Problemdiskurs hin zu einer Perspektive der Wahlverwandtschaft der Soziologie mit der Gesellschaft.
    Description: Zugl.: Dissertation, Humboldt-Universität Berlin, 2018. Die Open-Access-Publikation wurde gefördert durch den Publikationsfonds für Open-Access-Monografien der Leibniz-Gemeinschaft und durch einen Publikationszuschuss vom Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Theorie ; Praxis ; Systemtheorie ; grounded theory ; dokumentarische Methode ; science and technology studies ; Wertneutralität ; Hermeneutik ; Interview ; Gesellschaft ; Wissenschaft ; Wissenschaftssoziologie ; soziologische Theorie ; Soziologie
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:book
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  • 19
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    Frederiksberg: Copenhagen Business School (CBS)
    Publication Date: 2020-08-13
    Description: This thesis consists of four chapters, all of which are related to credit risk and particularly modeling of default risk. The chapters can be read independently, and the intended audience differs somewhat among them. The first chapter is methodical; the intended audience consists of statisticians and practitioners who are end users of the software described in the chapter. In particular, the first chapter is written for biostatisticians, statisticians, or practitioners with some prior experience with survival analysis. The chapter shows fast approximate methods to estimate a class hazard models implemented in an open source R package. The second chapter focuses on default risk models for a broad group of public and private firms. These models are particularly interesting for regulators and banks that wants to evaluate the risk of a corporate debt portfolio with varying exposure. The intended audience consists of academics, particularly those working within finance with default models, as well as practitioners, either on the regulatory or private side. The main question of the chapter is whether the typically observed excess clustering of defaults is due to a misspecification of the dependence between observable variables and the probability of entering into default. While we do find improvements on the firmlevel after relaxing standard assumptions, the improvements are substantially smaller than stated previously in the literature. Moreover, we find limited evidence that the more general models fit better on an aggregate scale. Thus, we show an easily implemented random effect model that involves similar relaxations, achieves comparable firm-level performance, and performs better on the aggregate scale.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Kreditrisiko ; Risikomodell ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:doctoralThesis
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Baden-Baden : Nomos
    Part of " Politiken der Sicherheit"
    Keywords: Geschichte 1500-2019 ; Internationale Politik ; Macht ; Sicherheit ; Sicherheitspolitik ; Forschung ; Internationale Politik ; Sicherheitspolitik ; Macht ; Globalization ; global security ; democracy ; Sicherheitssysteme ; Machtverteilung ; Internationale Beziehungen ; Macht ; Geschichte ; Theorie ; Sicherheit ; Aufsatzsammlung ; Internationale Politik ; Macht ; Sicherheit ; Sicherheitspolitik ; Forschung ; Internationale Politik ; Sicherheitspolitik ; Macht ; Geschichte 1500-2019
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (400 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    Edition: 1st edition
    ISBN: 9783845293547
    Series Statement: Politiken der Sicherheit volume 5
    URL: Volltext  (kostenfrei)
    URL: Volltext  (kostenfrei)
    RVK:
    Language: English
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer Gabler
    Keywords: Wirtschaftsethik ; Personalabbau ; Führungsstil ; Theorie ; Leadership ; Personnel management ; Social responsibility of busines ; Business Strategy ; Human Resource Management ; Corporate Social Responsibility ; Hochschulschrift ; Wirtschaftsethik ; Personalabbau ; Führungsstil ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XV, 655 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658263829
    Series Statement: Studien zur Ethik der Transaktion
    DDC: 658.4092
    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Dissertation Universität Hohenheim 2018
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Arbeitsmarkttheorie ; Soziologie ; Theorie ; Industrial sociology ; Organizational Studies, Economic Sociology ; Sociology of Work ; Social Structure, Social Inequality ; Sociological Theory ; Arbeitsmarkttheorie ; Soziologie ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (VIII, 246 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658237431
    Series Statement: Wirtschaft + Gesellschaft
    DDC: 306.3
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 23
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin [u.a.] : Springer
    Part of " Tragwerke"
    Keywords: Engineering ; Ingenieurwissenschaften ; Stabwerk ; Baustatik ; Tragwerk ; Stabwerk ; Stabwerk ; Theorie ; Berechnung ; Stabwerk ; Baustatik ; Tragwerk ; Stabwerk ; Stabwerk ; Theorie ; Berechnung
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XVIII, 391 Seiten) , Diagramme (teilweise farbig)
    Edition: 5., bearbeitete Auflage
    ISBN: 9783642417238
    Series Statement: Springer-Lehrbuch
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 24
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Geschichte ; Demokratie ; Theorie ; Political theory ; Democracy ; Comparative politics ; Germany-Politics and government ; European Union ; United States-Politics and gover ; Political Theory ; Democracy ; Comparative Politics ; German Politics ; European Union Politics ; US Politics ; Demokratie ; Theorie ; Geschichte
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XVII, 614 Seiten)
    Edition: 6., erweiterte und aktualisierte Auflage
    ISBN: 9783658258399
    DDC: 320.01
    RVK:
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Wahlforschung ; Politische Einstellung ; Psychologie ; Theorie ; Methode ; Elections ; Comparative politics ; Political communication ; Germany-Politics and government ; Electoral Politics ; Comparative Politics ; Political Communication ; German Politics ; Wahlforschung ; Politische Einstellung ; Psychologie ; Theorie ; Methode
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XV, 302 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658212162
    Series Statement: Wahlen und politische Einstellungen
    DDC: 324.6
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 26
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    Unknown
    Hannover: Verlag der ARL - Akademie für Raumforschung und Landesplanung
    Publication Date: 2020-01-08
    Description: Das Leben in Grenzregionen innerhalb der Europäischen Union ist gerade für die jüngeren Generationen oftmals normal geworden. Das Überschreiten der Grenzen gehört zum Alltag. In den letzten Jahren, bis vor der Flüchtlingskrise, verloren nationalstaatliche Grenzen grundsätzlich im Hinblick auf ihre Durchlässigkeit an Bedeutung. Dennoch sind Grenzen und Grenzziehungen nie bedeutungslos geworden. Nationalstaatliche Politiken und Rahmungen bestimmen grundlegende Ausrichtungen, die diesseits und jenseits von Grenzen spezifische Implikationen mit sich bringen. Hiermit gehen Ein- und Abgrenzungsprozesse einher, (regionale) Identitäten, "Wir"-Gefühle und Fragen nach Heimat. Der Beitrag gibt vor diesem Hintergrund eine theoriegeleitete Einführung in zentrale Konstrukte und Konzepte, die im grenzüberschreitenden Kontext Bedeutung erlangen: Grenze(n) und Grenzziehungen, (raumbezogene und regionale) Identitäten sowie Heimat. Am Beispiel der Großregion werden Identifikationsprozesse ausgeleuchtet und eingeordnet.
    Description: Life in the border regions within the European Union has become normal for many people, especially for younger generations. Crossing the borders is part of everyday life. In recent years, until the refugee crisis, nation state borders lost significance due to their increased permeability, although neither borders nor border demarcations have ever become meaningless. National policies and frameworks determine fundamental orientations that have specific implications on both sides of borders. This is associated with processes of inclusion and exclusion, (regional) identities, feelings of belonging and issues concerning a sense of home. Against this background the article provides a theory-driven introduction to central constructs and concepts that gain significance in the cross-border context: border(s) and border demarcations, (spatially related and regional) identities and home. Identification processes are examined and categorised using the example of the Greater Region.
    Keywords: ddc:710 ; Grenzüberschreitender Kontext ; Theorie ; Identitäten ; Heimat ; Großregion ; cross-border context ; theory ; identities ; home ; Greater Region
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:bookPart
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  • 27
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    Buenos Aires: Banco Central de la República Argentina (BCRA), Investigaciones Económicas (ie)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-31
    Description: In this paper I present a real-time estimation of the evolution of the Investment, constructed from a broad set of high frequency economic indicators: known in the literature as Nowcasting. The Nowcast exercise was developed considering three groups of monthly indicators throughout dynamic factor models to forecast Investment growth. Additionally, I conducted a forecast-pooling exercise. Using the Giacomini and White test it was possible to conclude that factor models and the pooling exhibit a better relative predictive capacity than an AR (1) model considered as a benchmark. Furthermore, the inclusion of more indicators does not necessarily improve the predictive capacity.
    Keywords: C22 ; C53 ; E37 ; ddc:330 ; Bruttoinlandsprodukt ; Investition ; Prognoseverfahren ; Theorie ; Argentinien
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 28
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: N2 ; O1 ; G00 ; ddc:330 ; Doppelbesteuerung ; Theorie ; Argentinien
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 29
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    Unknown
    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: H13 ; H20 ; H42 ; H44 ; ddc:330 ; Verstaatlichung ; Privatwirtschaft ; Entscheidung ; Theorie
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 30
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Konjunkturforschung ; Inflationsbekämpfung ; Währungsreform ; Theorie ; Geschichte ; Argentinien
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 31
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    Unknown
    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Finanzmarkt ; Transparenz ; Corporate Governance ; Selbstverpflichtung ; Theorie ; Argentinien
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 32
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    London: Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: This paper examines the equilibrium effects of alternative financial aid policies intended to promote college participation. We build an overlapping generations life cycle model with education, labor supply, and consumption/saving decisions. Cognitive and non-cognitive skills of children depend on the cognitive skills and education of parents, and affect education choice and labor market outcomes. Driven by both altruism and paternalism, parents make transfers to their children which can be used to fund education, supplementing grants, loans and the labor supply of the children themselves during college. The crowding out of parental transfers by government programs is sizable and thus cannot be ignored when designing policy. The current system of federal aid is valuable: removing either grants or loans would each reduce output by 2% and welfare by 3% in the long-run. An expansion of aid towards ability-tested grants would be markedly superior to either an expansion of student loans or a labor tax cut. This result is, in part, due to the complementarity between parental education and ability in the production of skills of future generations.
    Keywords: E24 ; I22 ; J23 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Ability Transmission ; Altruism ; Credit Constraints ; Education ; Equilibrium ; Financial Aid ; Intergenerational Transfers ; Paternalism ; Studienfinanzierung ; Intergenerationale Übertragung ; Bildungspolitik ; Overlapping Generations ; Agentenbasierte Modellierung ; Theorie ; USA
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 33
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    Chicago, IL: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
    Publication Date: 2019-07-23
    Description: We examine the standard New Keynesian economy's Ramsey problem written in terms of instrument settings instead of allocations. Its standard formulation makes two instruments available: the path of current and future interest rates, and an "open mouth operation" which selects one of the many equilibria consistent with the chosen interest rates. Removing the open mouth operation by imposing a finite commitment horizon yields pathological policy advice that relies on the model's forward guidance puzzle.
    Keywords: E12 ; E52 ; ddc:330 ; Equilibrium Multiplicity ; Monetary Policy ; Geldpolitik ; Neoklassische Synthese ; Regelbindung versus Diskretion ; Geldmengensteuerung ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 34
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    New York, NY: Federal Reserve Bank of New York
    Publication Date: 2018-12-13
    Description: This paper presents a new measure of capital flow pressures in the form of a recast exchange market pressure index. The measure captures pressures that materialize in actual international capital flows as well as pressures that result in exchange rate adjustments. The formulation is theory-based, relying on balance of payments equilibrium conditions and international asset portfolio considerations. Based on the modified exchange market pressure index, the paper also proposes a global risk response index, which reflects the country-specific sensitivity of capital flow pressures to measures of global risk aversion. For a large sample of countries over time, we demonstrate time variation in the effects of global risk on exchange market pressures, the evolving importance of the global factor across types of countries, and the changing risk-on or risk-off status of currencies.
    Keywords: F32 ; G11 ; G20 ; ddc:330 ; exchange market pressure ; risk aversion ; safe haven ; capital flows ; exchange rate ; foreign exchange reserves ; Kapitalmobilität ; Wechselkurs ; Risikoaversion ; Wechselkurspolitik ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 35
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    London: Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice (cemmap)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: We consider identification and estimation of nonseparable sample selection models with censored selection rules. We employ a control function approach and discuss different objects of interest based on (1) local effects conditional on the control function, and (2) global effects obtained from integration over ranges of values of the control function. We provide conditions under which these objects are appropriate for the total population. We also present results regarding the estimation of counterfactual distributions. We derive conditions for identification for these different objects and suggest strategies for estimation. We also provide the associated asymptotic theory. These strategies are illustrated in an empirical investigation of the determinants of female wages and wage growth in the United Kingdom.
    Keywords: C14 ; C21 ; C24 ; ddc:330 ; Sample selection ; nonseparable models ; control function ; quantile and distribution regression ; Nichtparametrisches Verfahren ; Stichprobenerhebung ; Theorie ; Fraueneinkommen ; Bildungsertrag ; Regressionsanalyse ; Großbritannien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 36
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    New York, NY: Federal Reserve Bank of New York
    Publication Date: 2020-01-14
    Description: We compare sparse and dense representations of predictive models in macroeconomics, microeconomics, and finance. To deal with a large number of possible predictors, we specify a prior that allows for both variable selection and shrinkage. The posterior distribution does not typically concentrate on a single sparse or dense model, but on a wide set of models. A clearer pattern of sparsity can only emerge when models of very low dimension are strongly favored a priori.
    Keywords: C11 ; C53 ; C55 ; ddc:330 ; model selection ; shrinkage ; high dimensional data ; Prognoseverfahren ; Wirtschaftsmodell ; Big Data ; Modellierung ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Soziales System ; Mitgliedschaft ; Theorie ; Weltsystem ; Soziale Integration ; Globalisierung ; Funktionale Differenzierung ; Social sciences ; Political science ; Sociology ; Religion and culture ; Social Sciences ; Sociological Theory ; Sociology of Culture ; Political Science ; Soziales System ; Mitgliedschaft ; Theorie ; Weltsystem ; Soziale Integration ; Globalisierung ; Funktionale Differenzierung
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (X, 426 Seiten)
    Edition: 2. Auflage
    ISBN: 9783658132774
    DDC: 300.1
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Soziales System ; Mitgliedschaft ; Theorie ; Social sciences ; Political science ; Sociology ; Religion and culture ; Social Sciences ; Sociological Theory ; Sociology of Culture ; Political Science ; Soziales System ; Mitgliedschaft ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XVI, 442 Seiten)
    Edition: 2. Auflage
    ISBN: 9783658132750
    DDC: 300.1
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Flucht ; Flüchtling ; Ding ; Theorie ; Social sciences ; Cultural studies ; Sociology ; Emigration and immigration ; Social Sciences ; Migration ; Research Methodology ; Cultural Studies ; Hochschulschrift ; Flucht ; Flüchtling ; Ding ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (VIII, 116 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658207571
    DDC: 304.8
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Masterarbeit Freie Universität Berlin 2016
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Armut ; Theorie ; Armut ; Ausgrenzung ; Political science ; Public policy ; Social structure ; Social inequality ; Political Science and International Relations ; Public Policy ; International Political Economy ; Development Aid ; Social Structure, Social Inequality ; Armut ; Theorie ; Armut ; Ausgrenzung
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (X, 869 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    Edition: 3., aktualisierte und erweiterte Auflage
    ISBN: 9783658190774
    DDC: 320.6
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    Language: German
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  • 41
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Ethnische Gruppe ; Design ; Design ; Theorie ; Design ; Forschung ; Social sciences ; Design ; Ethnography ; Religion and culture ; Social Sciences ; Sociology of Culture ; Ethnography ; Methodology of the Social Sciences ; Design, general ; Ethnische Gruppe ; Design ; Design ; Theorie ; Design ; Forschung
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XI, 332 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658213886
    DDC: 201.7
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    Language: German
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  • 42
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Spiel ; Theorie ; Videospiel ; Computerspiel ; Bildwissenschaft ; Medienwissenschaft ; Filmwissenschaft ; Ästhetik ; Filmwissenschaft ; Game Studies ; Medienwissenschaft und Kulturwissenschaft ; Videospiele ; Ästhetik und Bildwissenschaft ; Spiel ; Theorie ; Videospiel ; Computerspiel ; Bildwissenschaft ; Medienwissenschaft ; Filmwissenschaft ; Ästhetik
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    ISBN: 9783658134983
    Series Statement: Film, Fernsehen, Neue Medien
    DDC: 300
    Language: German
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Soziales System ; Mitgliedschaft ; Theorie ; Weltsystem ; Soziale Integration ; Globalisierung ; Funktionale Differenzierung ; Social sciences ; Political science ; Sociology ; Religion and culture ; Social Sciences ; Sociological Theory ; Sociology of Culture ; Political Science ; Soziales System ; Mitgliedschaft ; Theorie ; Weltsystem ; Soziale Integration ; Globalisierung ; Funktionale Differenzierung
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XII, 470 Seiten)
    Edition: 2. Auflage
    ISBN: 9783658132736
    DDC: 300.1
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 44
    Book
    Book
    New York, NY : McGraw-Hill Education
    Keywords: Investments ; Kapitalanlage ; Portfolio-Management ; Finanzanalyse ; Wertpapierhandel ; Theorie ; Portfolio Selection ; Kapitalanlage ; Portfoliomanagement ; Portfolio Selection ; Kapitalanlage ; Portfoliomanagement
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: 1 Band (verschiedene Seitenzählungen) , Diagramme
    Edition: Eleventh edition, international student edition
    ISBN: 9781260083392 , 126008339X
    Series Statement: The McGraw-Hill education series in finance, insurance, and real estate
    DDC: 332.6
    RVK:
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    Language: English
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Person(s): Jünger, Jakob
    Keywords: Öffentlichkeit ; Theorie ; Kommunikation ; Social sciences ; Communication ; Social Sciences ; Communication Studies ; Digital ; Media and Communication ; Hochschulschrift ; Öffentlichkeit ; Theorie ; Kommunikation
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XXI, 383 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658188887
    DDC: 302.2
    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Dissertation Universität Greifswald 2017
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Luhmann, Niklas ; Luhmann, Niklas ; Systemtheorie ; Gesellschaft ; Organisation ; Systemtheorie ; Organisationssoziologie ; Systemtheorie ; Gesellschaft ; Differenzierung ; Theorie ; Social sciences ; Economic sociology ; Sociology ; Social Sciences ; Organizational Studies, Economic Sociology ; Sociological Theory ; Luhmann, Niklas ; Systemtheorie ; Gesellschaft ; Organisation ; Luhmann, Niklas ; Systemtheorie ; Organisationssoziologie ; Systemtheorie ; Gesellschaft ; Differenzierung ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (X, 397 Seiten)
    Edition: 2., überarbeitete und aktualisierte Auflage
    ISBN: 9783658217181
    Series Statement: Organisation und Gesellschaft
    DDC: 306.3
    RVK:
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    Language: German
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  • 47
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    Ottawa: Bank of Canada
    Publication Date: 2019-06-14
    Description: Using a rich data set on government spending forecasts in Japan, we provide new evidence on the effects of unexpected changes in government spending when the nominal interest rate is near the zero lower bound (ZLB). The on-impact output multiplier is 1.5 in the ZLB period, and 0.6 outside of it. We estimate that government spending shocks increase both private consumption and investment during the ZLB period but crowd them out in the normal period. There is evidence that expected inflation increases by more in the ZLB period than in the normal period.
    Keywords: E32 ; E62 ; E5 ; ddc:330 ; Fiscal policy ; Economic models ; Öffentliche Ausgaben ; Multiplikator ; Niedrigzinspolitik ; Neoklassische Synthese ; Theorie ; Japan
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 48
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    Boston, MA: Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
    Publication Date: 2019-09-04
    Description: Monetary policy shocks have a large impact on stock prices during narrow time windows centered around press releases by the FOMC. We use spatial autoregressions to decompose the overall effect of monetary policy shocks into a direct effect and a network effect. We attribute 50 to 85 percent of the overall impact to network effects. The decomposition is a robust feature of the data, and we confirm large network effects in realized cash-flow fundamentals. A simple model with intermediate inputs allows a structural interpretation of our empirical strategy. Our findings indicate that production networks might be an important mechanism for transmitting monetary policy to the real economy.
    Keywords: E12 ; E31 ; E44 ; E52 ; G12 ; G14 ; ddc:330 ; input-output linkages ; spillover effects ; asset prices ; high frequency identification ; Geldpolitik ; Schock ; Kapitalmarktrendite ; Börsenkurs ; Geldpolitische Transmission ; Input-Output-Analyse ; Unternehmensnetzwerk ; Theorie ; USA