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  • Theorie  (12,254)
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  • 1
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    transcript Verlag: Bielefeld
    Publication Date: 2019-11-12
    Description: Ein Teil der Soziologie will sich seit jeher von jeglicher Einmischung in die Praxis distanzieren, ein anderer Teil in die Gesellschaft hineinwirken. Im ersten Fall begreift die Soziologie sich als Wissenschaft, die von Außen auf die Gesellschaft schaut. Im zweiten Fall kann sie sich ihrer Zugehörigkeit zur Gesellschaft nicht entziehen. Was jedoch bedeuten diese vermeintlich widersprüchlichen Ziele für Soziolog_innen und was sagt das über das Fach selbst aus? Natalie Mevissen untersucht das Verhältnis der Soziologie zur Gesellschaft mit Hilfe hermeneutischer Interviewanalysen und formuliert zugleich Bedingungen für eine theoretisch wie methodologisch fundierte Wissenschaftssoziologie der Soziologie. Sie plädiert für einen Perspektivwechsel: weg von einem Problemdiskurs hin zu einer Perspektive der Wahlverwandtschaft der Soziologie mit der Gesellschaft.
    Description: Zugl.: Dissertation, Humboldt-Universität Berlin, 2018. Die Open-Access-Publikation wurde gefördert durch den Publikationsfonds für Open-Access-Monografien der Leibniz-Gemeinschaft und durch einen Publikationszuschuss vom Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Theorie ; Praxis ; Systemtheorie ; grounded theory ; dokumentarische Methode ; science and technology studies ; Wertneutralität ; Hermeneutik ; Interview ; Gesellschaft ; Wissenschaft ; Wissenschaftssoziologie ; soziologische Theorie ; Soziologie
    Language: German
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  • 2
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    Frankfurt a. M.: European Central Bank (ECB)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-06
    Description: Interbank money markets have been subject to substantial impairments in the recent decade, such as a decline in unsecured lending and substantial increases in haircuts on posted collateral. This paper seeks to understand the implications of these developments for the broader economy and monetary policy. To that end, we develop a novel general equilibrium model featuring heterogeneous banks, interbank markets for both secured and unsecured credit, and a central bank. The model features a number of occasionally binding constraints. The interactions between these constraints - in particular leverage and liquidity constraints - are key in determining macroeconomic outcomes. We find that both secured and unsecured money market frictions force banks to either divert resources into unproductive but liquid assets or to de-lever, which leads to less lending and output. If the liquidity constraint is very tight, the leverage constraint may turn slack. In this case, there are large declines in lending and output. We show how central bank policies which increase the size of the central bank balance sheet can attenuate this decline.
    Keywords: G10 ; G20 ; E44 ; E52 ; E58 ; ddc:330 ; Money markets ; Liquidity ; Collateral ; Monetary policy ; Interbankenmarkt ; Geldmarkt ; Liquiditätsbeschränkung ; Kreditderivat ; Geldpolitik ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin [u.a.] : Springer
    Part of "Tragwerke"
    Keywords: Engineering ; Ingenieurwissenschaften ; Stabwerk ; Baustatik ; Tragwerk ; Stabwerk ; Stabwerk ; Theorie ; Berechnung ; Stabwerk ; Baustatik ; Tragwerk ; Stabwerk ; Stabwerk ; Theorie ; Berechnung
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XVIII, 391 Seiten)
    Edition: 5., bearbeitete Auflage
    ISBN: 9783642417238
    Series Statement: Springer-Lehrbuch
    Language: German
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Geschichte ; Demokratie ; Theorie ; Political theory ; Democracy ; Comparative politics ; Germany-Politics and government ; European Union ; United States-Politics and gover ; Political Theory ; Democracy ; Comparative Politics ; German Politics ; European Union Politics ; US Politics ; Demokratie ; Theorie ; Geschichte
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XVII, 614 Seiten)
    Edition: 6., erweiterte und aktualisierte Auflage
    ISBN: 9783658258399
    DDC: 320.01
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    Language: German
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer Gabler
    Keywords: Wirtschaftsethik ; Personalabbau ; Führungsstil ; Theorie ; Leadership ; Personnel management ; Social responsibility of busines ; Business Strategy ; Human Resource Management ; Corporate Social Responsibility ; Hochschulschrift ; Wirtschaftsethik ; Personalabbau ; Führungsstil ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XV, 655 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658263829
    Series Statement: Studien zur Ethik der Transaktion
    DDC: 658.4092
    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Dissertation Universität Hohenheim 2018
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Arbeitsmarkttheorie ; Soziologie ; Theorie ; Industrial sociology ; Organizational Studies, Economic Sociology ; Sociology of Work ; Social Structure, Social Inequality ; Sociological Theory ; Arbeitsmarkttheorie ; Soziologie ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (VIII, 246 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658237431
    Series Statement: Wirtschaft + Gesellschaft
    DDC: 306.3
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  • 7
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    Hannover: Verlag der ARL - Akademie für Raumforschung und Landesplanung
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: Das Leben in Grenzregionen innerhalb der Europäischen Union ist gerade für die jüngeren Generationen oftmals normal geworden. Das Überschreiten der Grenzen gehört zum Alltag. In den letzten Jahren, bis vor der Flüchtlingskrise, verloren nationalstaatliche Grenzen grundsätzlich im Hinblick auf ihre Durchlässigkeit an Bedeutung. Dennoch sind Grenzen und Grenzziehungen nie bedeutungslos geworden. Nationalstaatliche Politiken und Rahmungen bestimmen grundlegende Ausrichtungen, die diesseits und jenseits von Grenzen spezifische Implikationen mit sich bringen. Hiermit gehen Ein- und Abgrenzungsprozesse einher, (regionale) Identitäten, "Wir"-Gefühle und Fragen nach Heimat. Der Beitrag gibt vor diesem Hintergrund eine theoriegeleitete Einführung in zentrale Konstrukte und Konzepte, die im grenzüberschreitenden Kontext Bedeutung erlangen: Grenze(n) und Grenzziehungen, (raumbezogene und regionale) Identitäten sowie Heimat. Am Beispiel der Großregion werden Identifikationsprozesse ausgeleuchtet und eingeordnet.
    Description: Life in the border regions within the European Union has become normal for many people, especially for younger generations. Crossing the borders is part of everyday life. In recent years, until the refugee crisis, nation state borders lost significance due to their increased permeability, although neither borders nor border demarcations have ever become meaningless. National policies and frameworks determine fundamental orientations that have specific implications on both sides of borders. This is associated with processes of inclusion and exclusion, (regional) identities, feelings of belonging and issues concerning a sense of home. Against this background the article provides a theory-driven introduction to central constructs and concepts that gain significance in the cross-border context: border(s) and border demarcations, (spatially related and regional) identities and home. Identification processes are examined and categorised using the example of the Greater Region.
    Keywords: ddc:710 ; Grenzüberschreitender Kontext ; Theorie ; Identitäten ; Heimat ; Großregion ; cross-border context ; theory ; identities ; home ; Greater Region
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:bookPart
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  • 8
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    London: Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice (cemmap)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: We consider identification and estimation of nonseparable sample selection models with censored selection rules. We employ a control function approach and discuss different objects of interest based on (1) local effects conditional on the control function, and (2) global effects obtained from integration over ranges of values of the control function. We provide conditions under which these objects are appropriate for the total population. We also present results regarding the estimation of counterfactual distributions. We derive conditions for identification for these different objects and suggest strategies for estimation. We also provide the associated asymptotic theory. These strategies are illustrated in an empirical investigation of the determinants of female wages and wage growth in the United Kingdom.
    Keywords: C14 ; C21 ; C24 ; ddc:330 ; Sample selection ; nonseparable models ; control function ; quantile and distribution regression ; Nichtparametrisches Verfahren ; Stichprobenerhebung ; Theorie ; Fraueneinkommen ; Bildungsertrag ; Regressionsanalyse ; Großbritannien
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    New York, NY: Federal Reserve Bank of New York
    Publication Date: 2018-12-13
    Description: This paper presents a new measure of capital flow pressures in the form of a recast exchange market pressure index. The measure captures pressures that materialize in actual international capital flows as well as pressures that result in exchange rate adjustments. The formulation is theory-based, relying on balance of payments equilibrium conditions and international asset portfolio considerations. Based on the modified exchange market pressure index, the paper also proposes a global risk response index, which reflects the country-specific sensitivity of capital flow pressures to measures of global risk aversion. For a large sample of countries over time, we demonstrate time variation in the effects of global risk on exchange market pressures, the evolving importance of the global factor across types of countries, and the changing risk-on or risk-off status of currencies.
    Keywords: F32 ; G11 ; G20 ; ddc:330 ; exchange market pressure ; risk aversion ; safe haven ; capital flows ; exchange rate ; foreign exchange reserves ; Kapitalmobilität ; Wechselkurs ; Risikoaversion ; Wechselkurspolitik ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Welt
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    London: Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: This paper examines the equilibrium effects of alternative financial aid policies intended to promote college participation. We build an overlapping generations life cycle model with education, labor supply, and consumption/saving decisions. Cognitive and non-cognitive skills of children depend on the cognitive skills and education of parents, and affect education choice and labor market outcomes. Driven by both altruism and paternalism, parents make transfers to their children which can be used to fund education, supplementing grants, loans and the labor supply of the children themselves during college. The crowding out of parental transfers by government programs is sizable and thus cannot be ignored when designing policy. The current system of federal aid is valuable: removing either grants or loans would each reduce output by 2% and welfare by 3% in the long-run. An expansion of aid towards ability-tested grants would be markedly superior to either an expansion of student loans or a labor tax cut. This result is, in part, due to the complementarity between parental education and ability in the production of skills of future generations.
    Keywords: E24 ; I22 ; J23 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Ability Transmission ; Altruism ; Credit Constraints ; Education ; Equilibrium ; Financial Aid ; Intergenerational Transfers ; Paternalism ; Studienfinanzierung ; Intergenerationale Übertragung ; Bildungspolitik ; Overlapping Generations ; Agentenbasierte Modellierung ; Theorie ; USA
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    Chicago, IL: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
    Publication Date: 2019-07-23
    Description: We examine the standard New Keynesian economy's Ramsey problem written in terms of instrument settings instead of allocations. Its standard formulation makes two instruments available: the path of current and future interest rates, and an "open mouth operation" which selects one of the many equilibria consistent with the chosen interest rates. Removing the open mouth operation by imposing a finite commitment horizon yields pathological policy advice that relies on the model's forward guidance puzzle.
    Keywords: E12 ; E52 ; ddc:330 ; Equilibrium Multiplicity ; Monetary Policy ; Geldpolitik ; Neoklassische Synthese ; Regelbindung versus Diskretion ; Geldmengensteuerung ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    Buenos Aires: Banco Central de la República Argentina (BCRA), Investigaciones Económicas (ie)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-31
    Description: In this paper I present a real-time estimation of the evolution of the Investment, constructed from a broad set of high frequency economic indicators: known in the literature as Nowcasting. The Nowcast exercise was developed considering three groups of monthly indicators throughout dynamic factor models to forecast Investment growth. Additionally, I conducted a forecast-pooling exercise. Using the Giacomini and White test it was possible to conclude that factor models and the pooling exhibit a better relative predictive capacity than an AR (1) model considered as a benchmark. Furthermore, the inclusion of more indicators does not necessarily improve the predictive capacity.
    Keywords: C22 ; C53 ; E37 ; ddc:330 ; Bruttoinlandsprodukt ; Investition ; Prognoseverfahren ; Theorie ; Argentinien
    Language: Spanish
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  • 13
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Finanzmarkt ; Transparenz ; Corporate Governance ; Selbstverpflichtung ; Theorie ; Argentinien
    Language: Spanish
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  • 14
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Konjunkturforschung ; Inflationsbekämpfung ; Währungsreform ; Theorie ; Geschichte ; Argentinien
    Language: Spanish
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  • 15
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: N2 ; O1 ; G00 ; ddc:330 ; Doppelbesteuerung ; Theorie ; Argentinien
    Language: Spanish
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  • 16
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Keywords: H13 ; H20 ; H42 ; H44 ; ddc:330 ; Verstaatlichung ; Privatwirtschaft ; Entscheidung ; Theorie
    Language: Spanish
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Soziales System ; Mitgliedschaft ; Theorie ; Social sciences ; Political science ; Sociology ; Religion and culture ; Social Sciences ; Sociological Theory ; Sociology of Culture ; Political Science ; Soziales System ; Mitgliedschaft ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XVI, 442 Seiten)
    Edition: 2. Auflage
    ISBN: 9783658132750
    DDC: 300.1
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    Language: German
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Luhmann, Niklas ; Luhmann, Niklas ; Systemtheorie ; Gesellschaft ; Organisation ; Systemtheorie ; Organisationssoziologie ; Systemtheorie ; Gesellschaft ; Differenzierung ; Theorie ; Social sciences ; Economic sociology ; Sociology ; Social Sciences ; Organizational Studies, Economic Sociology ; Sociological Theory ; Luhmann, Niklas ; Systemtheorie ; Gesellschaft ; Organisation ; Luhmann, Niklas ; Systemtheorie ; Organisationssoziologie ; Systemtheorie ; Gesellschaft ; Differenzierung ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (X, 397 Seiten)
    Edition: 2., überarbeitete und aktualisierte Auflage
    ISBN: 9783658217181
    Series Statement: Organisation und Gesellschaft
    DDC: 306.3
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    Language: German
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Flucht ; Flüchtling ; Ding ; Theorie ; Social sciences ; Cultural studies ; Sociology ; Emigration and immigration ; Social Sciences ; Migration ; Research Methodology ; Cultural Studies ; Hochschulschrift ; Flucht ; Flüchtling ; Ding ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (VIII, 116 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658207571
    DDC: 304.8
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    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Masterarbeit Freie Universität Berlin 2016
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Spiel ; Theorie ; Videospiel ; Computerspiel ; Bildwissenschaft ; Medienwissenschaft ; Filmwissenschaft ; Ästhetik ; Filmwissenschaft ; Game Studies ; Medienwissenschaft und Kulturwissenschaft ; Videospiele ; Ästhetik und Bildwissenschaft ; Spiel ; Theorie ; Videospiel ; Computerspiel ; Bildwissenschaft ; Medienwissenschaft ; Filmwissenschaft ; Ästhetik
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    ISBN: 9783658134983
    Series Statement: Film, Fernsehen, Neue Medien
    DDC: 300
    Language: German
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Person(s): Jünger, Jakob
    Keywords: Öffentlichkeit ; Theorie ; Kommunikation ; Social sciences ; Communication ; Social Sciences ; Communication Studies ; Digital ; Media and Communication ; Hochschulschrift ; Öffentlichkeit ; Theorie ; Kommunikation
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XXI, 383 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658188887
    DDC: 302.2
    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Dissertation Universität Greifswald 2017
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Armut ; Theorie ; Armut ; Ausgrenzung ; Political science ; Public policy ; Social structure ; Social inequality ; Political Science and International Relations ; Public Policy ; International Political Economy ; Development Aid ; Social Structure, Social Inequality ; Armut ; Theorie ; Armut ; Ausgrenzung
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (X, 869 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    Edition: 3., aktualisierte und erweiterte Auflage
    ISBN: 9783658190774
    DDC: 320.6
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  • 23
    Book
    Book
    New York, NY : McGraw-Hill Education
    Keywords: Investments ; Kapitalanlage ; Portfolio-Management ; Finanzanalyse ; Wertpapierhandel ; Theorie ; Portfolio Selection ; Kapitalanlage ; Portfoliomanagement ; Portfolio Selection ; Kapitalanlage ; Portfoliomanagement
    Type of Medium: Book
    Pages: xxviii, 968, G-14, I-26, F-3 Seiten , Diagramme
    Edition: Eleventh edition, international student edition
    ISBN: 9781260083392
    Series Statement: ˜Theœ McGraw-Hill education series in finance, insurance, and real estate
    DDC: 332.6
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    Language: English
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  • 24
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Soziales System ; Mitgliedschaft ; Theorie ; Weltsystem ; Soziale Integration ; Globalisierung ; Funktionale Differenzierung ; Social sciences ; Political science ; Sociology ; Religion and culture ; Social Sciences ; Sociological Theory ; Sociology of Culture ; Political Science ; Soziales System ; Mitgliedschaft ; Theorie ; Weltsystem ; Soziale Integration ; Globalisierung ; Funktionale Differenzierung
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (X, 426 Seiten)
    Edition: 2. Auflage
    ISBN: 9783658132774
    DDC: 300.1
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Ethnische Gruppe ; Design ; Design ; Theorie ; Design ; Forschung ; Social sciences ; Design ; Ethnography ; Religion and culture ; Social Sciences ; Sociology of Culture ; Ethnography ; Methodology of the Social Sciences ; Design, general ; Ethnische Gruppe ; Design ; Design ; Theorie ; Design ; Forschung
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XI, 332 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658213886
    DDC: 201.7
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Soziales System ; Mitgliedschaft ; Theorie ; Weltsystem ; Soziale Integration ; Globalisierung ; Funktionale Differenzierung ; Social sciences ; Political science ; Sociology ; Religion and culture ; Social Sciences ; Sociological Theory ; Sociology of Culture ; Political Science ; Soziales System ; Mitgliedschaft ; Theorie ; Weltsystem ; Soziale Integration ; Globalisierung ; Funktionale Differenzierung
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XII, 470 Seiten)
    Edition: 2. Auflage
    ISBN: 9783658132736
    DDC: 300.1
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  • 27
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: This paper examines the effects of campaign spending limits on political competition and incumbency advantage. We study a reform in Brazil that imposed limits on campaign spending for mayoral elections. These limits were implemented with a discontinuous kink which we exploit for causal identification. We find that stricter limits increase political competition by creating a larger pool of candidates that is on average less wealthy. Moreover, we find that stricter spending limits reduce the incumbency advantage, causing mayors to be less likely to be reelected. These findings are consistent with a contest model with spending caps and endogenous candidate entry.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Political Entry ; Political Selection ; Campaign Spending ; Campaign Contributions ; Incumbency Advantage ; Politikfinanzierung ; Regulierung ; Wahlkampf ; Wettbewerb ; Kommunalwahl ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Brasilien
    Language: English
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  • 28
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-15
    Description: Social engineering refers to deliberate attempts, often under the form of legislative moves, to promote changes in customs and norms that hurt the interests of marginalized population groups. This paper explores the analytical conditions under which social engineering is more or less likely to succeed than more indirect approaches when it comes to suppress genderbiased customs. This implies discussing the main possible interaction frameworks leading to antiwomen equilibria, and deriving policy implications from the corresponding games. The theoretical arguments are illustrated by examples drawn from available empirical works, thus providing a reasoned survey of the literature.
    Keywords: D10 ; K10 ; K36 ; O15 ; Z10 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; social norms ; harmful customs ; gender ; coordination incentives ; expressive function of law ; deterrence ; Frauenpolitik ; Sozialtechnologie ; Geschlechterdiskriminierung ; Soziale Werte ; Familienrecht ; Rechtsökonomik ; Spieltheorie ; Theorie ; Entwicklungsländer
    Language: English
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  • 29
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    Hoboken, NJ: Wiley
    Publication Date: 2019-04-25
    Description: In many markets insurers are barred from price discrimination based on con- sumer characteristics like age, gender, and medical history. In this paper, I build on a recent literature to show why such policies are inefficient if consumers differ in their willingness-to-pay for insurance conditional on the insured losses they generate. Using administrative claims data, I then show that this type of demand heterogeneity is empirically relevant in a consumer health plan setting. Younger and older consumers and men and women reveal strikingly different demand for health insurance, conditional on their objective medical spending risk. This implies that these groups must face different prices so as to sort themselves efficiently across insurance contracts. The theoretical and empirical analysis highlights a fundamental trade-off between equity and efficiency that is unique to selection markets.
    Keywords: D82 ; I11 ; I13 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; Community rating ; adverse selection ; demand heterogeneity ; Versicherungsbeitrag ; Preisdifferenzierung ; Versicherungsmarkt ; Nachfrage ; Zahlungsbereitschaftsanalyse ; Präferenztheorie ; Adverse Selektion ; Gerechtigkeit ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; Theorie ; Krankenversicherung ; Betriebliche Sozialleistungen ; USA
    Language: English
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  • 30
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: This dissertation was written by Johannes Pfeiffer while he was working with the ifo Institute for Economic Research. It was completed in November 2016 and accepted as a doctoral thesis by the department of economics of the University Regensburg in December 2016. The thesis studies unintended intertemporal reactions of fossil resource supply to climate policies, which often are subsumed under the notion of the green paradox, while taking into account the interrelationship between the resource and the capital market in a general equilibrium framework. Its specific contributions derive from three observations: First, resource markets, in particular of oil and natural gas, are often considered as not being truly competitive. Second, resource-rich countries invest in the international capital market and by now often hold substantial assets, for example in so-called sovereign wealth funds. Third, “green” energy technologies such as renewable energies mostly use physical capital to substitute fossil resources in energy generation, while generally capital and fossil resources are still seen as highly complementary in production. Overall, the thesis illustrates that general equilibrium approaches, particularly when accounting for these observations, can substantially alter the supply-side effects of climate policies.
    Description: Diese Dissertation wurde von Johannes Pfeiffer während seiner Zeit am ifo Institut verfasst. Sie wurde im Dezember 2016 von der Universität Regensburg als Dissertation angenommen. Die Arbeit untersucht unbeabsichtigte intertemporale Reaktionen des fossilen Ressourcenangebots auf klimapolitische Maßnahmen, die oft unter dem Begriff des Grünen Paradoxons gefasst werden. Sie verdeutlicht, dass der Zusammenhang zwischen Ressourcen- und Kapitalmarkt in einem Modell im allgemeinen Gleichgewicht die angebotsseitige Wirkung von klimapolitischen Maßnahmen grundlegend verändern kann. Insbesondere die folgenden Beobachtungen werden in diesem Zusammenhang näher betrachtet: 1. Nach verbreiteter Einschätzung werden fossile Ressourcen, gerade Erdöl und Erdgas, nicht auf vollkommenen Wettbewerbsmärkten gehandelt. 2. Ressourcenreiche Länder investieren am Kapitalmarkt und halten bereits beträchtliche Anlagevermögen, etwa in sogenannten Sovereign Wealth Funds. 3. "Grüne" Technologien wie erneuerbare Energien ersetzten fossile Ressourcen in der Energieerzeugung überwiegend über Einsatz von Kapital, während fossile Ressourcen und Kapital allgemein in der Produktion immer noch als stark komplementär gelten. Die Arbeit stellt dar, dass in Abhängigkeit davon, ob und inwieweit die marktübergreifenden Effekte des Ressourcenangebots im allgemeinen Gleichgewicht internalisiert werden, zusätzliche Motive das Verhalten eines Monopolisten maßgeblich verändern können. Insbesondere ergibt sich aus dem Einfluss des Ressourcenangebots auf die Kapitalrendite im Zusammenspiel mit den Kapitalanlagen des Ressourcenanbieters das sogenannte Asset Motiv, das zugleich einen neuen Wirkungskanal von Klimapolitik eröffnet: Über die Umverteilung von Ressourcenrenten führt Klimapolitik zu einer Anpassung der Anlagetätigkeit, die im Zusammenspiel mit dem Asset Motiv den Monopolisten im Gegensatz zum Grünen Paradoxon zu einer Verlangsamung der Ressourcenextraktion veranlassen kann. Die Kapitalintensität 'grüner' Substitute zu fossilen Ressourcen stellt einen bislang nicht betrachteten Zusammenhang zwischen Ressourcen- und Kapitalmarkt dar und führt damit einen weiteren Wirkungskanal von Klimapolitik in die Literatur ein. Auch ohne zusätzliche Angebotsmotive zeigt sich, dass mit Berücksichtigung dieses Zusammenhangs dem Vorliegen von Marktmacht erneut entscheidende Bedeutung für die Wirkung von Klimapolitik zukommen kann, indem eine Subventionierung des Substituts (nicht jedoch eine CO2-Steuer) in diesem Fall nicht nur die residuale Ressourcennachfrage reduziert, sondern auch die Preiselastizität der Nachfrage verändert.
    Keywords: D42 ; D50 ; D90 ; E22 ; F21 ; H23 ; Q31 ; Q38 ; Q42 ; Q43 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; Klimapolitik ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; Marktmacht ; Fossile Energie ; Energiereserven ; Konsum ; Erneuerbare Ressourcen ; Erneuerbare Energie ; Finanzmarkt ; Staatsfonds ; Erschöpfbare Ressourcen ; Fossile Energie ; Angebot ; Klimaschutz ; Ökosteuer ; Steuerwirkung ; Erneuerbare Energie ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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    Ottawa: Bank of Canada
    Publication Date: 2019-06-14
    Description: Using a rich data set on government spending forecasts in Japan, we provide new evidence on the effects of unexpected changes in government spending when the nominal interest rate is near the zero lower bound (ZLB). The on-impact output multiplier is 1.5 in the ZLB period, and 0.6 outside of it. We estimate that government spending shocks increase both private consumption and investment during the ZLB period but crowd them out in the normal period. There is evidence that expected inflation increases by more in the ZLB period than in the normal period.
    Keywords: E32 ; E62 ; E5 ; ddc:330 ; Fiscal policy ; Economic models ; Öffentliche Ausgaben ; Multiplikator ; Niedrigzinspolitik ; Neoklassische Synthese ; Theorie ; Japan
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 32
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    New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: In contrast to his contribution to other areas, Shubhashis Gangopadhyay's contributions to our understanding of poverty are often thought of as indirect consequences of the main themes of his work. Yet in more than 15 published papers Gangopadhyay directly takes on poverty, including its estimate and understanding its sources. Our contribution honours Gangopadhyay's work in this area by outlining an approach useful in deconstructing the changes and differences in the likelihood of poverty incidence. We highlight how far it can take us, and how it still leaves us far short of understanding much of what drives poverty.
    Keywords: C20 ; I30 ; ddc:330 ; poverty incidence ; headcount ratio ; probit decomposition ; capabilities approach ; Armut ; Konzentrationsmaß ; Capability-Ansatz ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Serben ; Albaner ; Kosovo
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 33
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    Chicago, IL: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
    Publication Date: 2019-07-23
    Description: Using a standard production model, we demonstrate theoretically that, even if labor is fully flexible, it generates a form of operating leverage if (a) wages are smoother than productivity and (b) the capital-labor elasticity of substitution is strictly less than one. Our model supports using labor share - the ratio of labor expenses to value added - as a proxy for labor leverage. We show evidence for conditions (a) and (b), and we demonstrate the economic significance of labor leverage: High labor-share firms have operating profits that are more sensitive to shocks, and they have higher expected asset returns.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitskosten ; Produktionstheorie ; Kapitalmarktrendite ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 34
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    Chicago, IL: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
    Publication Date: 2019-07-23
    Description: A standard approach to estimating structural parameters in life-cycle models imposes sufficient assumptions on the data to identify the "age profile" of outcomes, then chooses model parameters so that the model's age profile matches this empirical age profile. I show that this approach is both incorrect and unnecessary: incorrect, because it generally produces inconsistent estimators of the structural parameters, and unnecessary, because consistent estimators can be obtained under weaker assumptions. I derive an estimation method that avoids the problems of the standard approach. I illustrate the method's benefits analytically in a simple model of consumption inequality and numerically by reestimating the classic life-cycle consumption model of Gourinchas and Parker (2002).
    Keywords: C23 ; D91 ; J1 ; ddc:330 ; Age-time-cohort identification problem ; Life-cycle models ; Lebenszyklus ; Panel ; Wirtschaftsmodell ; Modellierung ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 35
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    Chicago, IL: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
    Publication Date: 2019-07-23
    Description: A central equation for the fiscal theory of the price level (FTPL) is the government budget constraint (or "government valuation equation"), which equates the real value of government debt to the present value of fiscal surpluses. In the past decade, the governments of most developed economies have paid very low interest rates, and there are many other periods in the past in which this has been the case. In this paper, we revisit the implications of the FTPL in a world where the rate of return on government debt may be below the growth rate of the economy, considering different sources for the low returns: dynamic inefficiency, the liquidity premium of government debt, or its favorable risk profile.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Finanzpolitik ; Inflationsrate ; Preisniveau ; Öffentliche Schulden ; Zins ; Risikoprämie ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 36
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    Chicago, IL: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
    Publication Date: 2019-07-23
    Description: Credit booms sometimes lead to financial crises which are accompanied with severe and persistent economic slumps. Does this imply that monetary policy should "lean against the wind" and counteract excess credit growth, even at the cost of higher output and inflation volatility? We study this issue quantitatively in a standard small New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model which includes a risk of financial crisis that depends on "excess credit". We compare monetary policy rules that respond to the output gap with rules that respond to excess credit. We find that leaning against the wind may be attractive, depending on several factors, including (1) the severity of financial crises;(2) the sensitivity of crisis probability to excess credit; (3) the volatility of excess credit; (4) the level of risk aversion.
    Keywords: E52 ; E58 ; G28 ; ddc:330 ; Geldpolitik ; Geldmengensteuerung ; Kreditmarkt ; Finanzkrise ; Stabilisierungspolitik ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 37
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    Boston, MA: Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
    Publication Date: 2019-09-04
    Description: Monetary policy shocks have a large impact on stock prices during narrow time windows centered around press releases by the FOMC. We use spatial autoregressions to decompose the overall effect of monetary policy shocks into a direct effect and a network effect. We attribute 50 to 85 percent of the overall impact to network effects. The decomposition is a robust feature of the data, and we confirm large network effects in realized cash-flow fundamentals. A simple model with intermediate inputs allows a structural interpretation of our empirical strategy. Our findings indicate that production networks might be an important mechanism for transmitting monetary policy to the real economy.
    Keywords: E12 ; E31 ; E44 ; E52 ; G12 ; G14 ; ddc:330 ; input-output linkages ; spillover effects ; asset prices ; high frequency identification ; Geldpolitik ; Schock ; Kapitalmarktrendite ; Börsenkurs ; Geldpolitische Transmission ; Input-Output-Analyse ; Unternehmensnetzwerk ; Theorie ; USA
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 38
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    Wellington: New Zealand Government, The Treasury
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: This paper sets out the alternative approaches to the public sector discount rate and explains the assumptions involved. There are two main ways of thinking about the discount rate. First, the social opportunity cost of capital approach (SOC) defines the discount rate as the rate of return that a decision-maker could earn on a hypothetical ‘next best alternative' to a public investment. Second, the social rate of time preference approach (SRTP) defines the discount rate as the rate of return that a decision-maker requires in order to divert resources from use in the present, to a public investment. In an ‘ideal' market, these two rates are brought into alignment in equilibrium. However, as there are no markets for public investments, there are no market signals to equate preferences for investing in such projects with rates of return. There is no completely objective way of determining public sector discount rates. Essentially the discount rate reflects how the government values the future when making decisions on behalf of society: value judgements and assumptions are necessary. The paper aims to clarify these judgements. Elements of both approaches may be relevant to many policy and operational decisions that require discounting, in which case different approaches may be relevant for different contexts. The paper also briefly considers the use of hyperbolic discounting.
    Keywords: H43 ; H50 ; ddc:330 ; Public sector discount rate ; social opportunity cost ; social time preference rate ; Öffentlicher Sektor ; Opportunitätskosten ; Kapitalkosten ; Diskontierung ; Zeitkonsistenz ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Geschichte ; Massenmedien ; Sozialwissenschaften ; Soziologische Theorie ; Kommunikation ; Theorie ; Social sciences ; Philosophy and social sciences ; Sociology ; Mass media ; Communication ; Social sciences in mass media ; Social Sciences ; Communication Studies ; Media Sociology ; Sociological Theory ; Philosophy of the Social Sciences ; Lehrbuch ; Soziologische Theorie ; Kommunikation ; Theorie ; Geschichte ; Lehrbuch
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online Ressource (XIII, 341 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    Edition: 2., überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage
    ISBN: 9783658147693 , 9783658147686
    DDC: 301.01
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden
    Person(s): Mondello, Enzo
    Keywords: Kapitalmarkttheorie ; Portfoliomanagement ; Finanzanalyse ; Theorie ; Finance ; Investment banking ; Securities ; Finance ; Investments and Securities ; Kapitalmarkttheorie ; Portfoliomanagement ; Finanzanalyse ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XXXVII, 1145 S. 196 Abb)
    ISBN: 9783658131999
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 41
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Sozialwissenschaften ; Stadtplanung ; Stadtgeografie ; Stadtforschung ; Theorie ; Architektursoziologie ; Global City ; Politik und Stadt ; Raumtheorie ; Stadtentwicklug ; Stadtforschung ; Theorie der Stadt ; Regional and Cultural Studies ; Urbanism ; Social Structure, Social Inequality ; Cultural Studies ; Human Geography ; Social Sciences ; Social sciences ; Culture ; Urban planning ; City planning ; Social structure ; Social inequality ; Cultural studies ; Sociology, Urban ; Human geography ; Social Sciences ; Urban Studies ; Cultural Studies ; Social Structure, Social Inequality ; Human Geography ; Regional and Cultural Studies ; Urbanism ; Stadtgeografie ; Stadtforschung ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online Ressource (VII, 468 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658104382 , 9783658104375
    DDC: 300
    RVK:
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 42
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    Bern: University of Bern, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2019-01-23
    Description: A decision-maker relies on information of parties affected by her decision. These parties try to influence her decision by selective disclosure of facts. As is well known from the literature, competition between the informed parties constrains their ability to manipulate information. We depart from this literature by introducing a cost to communicate. Our parties trade off their reporting cost against the effect on the decision. Typically, they never reveal all information. A better outcome may be implemented if the decision-maker adopts an active stance by barring one party from reporting or through cheap talk allowing coordination on a particular equilibrium.
    Keywords: D82 ; K41 ; ddc:330 ; disclosure ; persuasion ; active judging ; adversarial ; inquisitorial ; Berichtswesen ; Informationsverbreitung ; Kosten ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 43
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    Brussels: National Bank of Belgium
    Publication Date: 2018-09-21
    Description: How strong are strategic complementarities in price setting across firms? In this paper, we provide a direct empirical estimate of firm price responses to changes in prices of their competitors. We develop a general framework and an empirical identification strategy to estimate the elasticities of a firm’s price response to both its own cost shocks and to the price changes of its competitors. Our approach takes advantage of a new micro-level dataset for the Belgian manufacturing sector, which contains detailed information on firm domestic prices, marginal costs, and competitor prices. The rare features of these data enable us to construct instrumental variables to address the simultaneity of price setting by competing firms. We find strong evidence of strategic complementarities, with a typical firm adjusting its price with an elasticity of 35% in response to the price changes of its competitors and with an elasticity of 65% in response to its own cost shocks. Furthermore, we find substantial heterogeneity in these elasticities across firms, with small firms showing no strategic complementarities and a complete cost pass-through, while large firms responding to their cost shocks and competitor price changes with roughly equal elasticities of around 50%. We show, using a tightly calibrated quantitative model, that these findings have important implications for shaping the response of domestic prices to international shocks.
    Keywords: F1 ; F3 ; F4 ; ddc:330 ; Pass-through ; markups ; strategic complementarities ; firm heterogeneity ; Preismanagement ; Preiselastizität ; Preiswettbewerb ; Wechselkurs ; Grenzkosten ; Schock ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Industrie ; Belgien
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Mathematik ; Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung ; Monte-Carlo-Simulation ; Theorie
    Language: Spanish
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  • 45
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: In this paper we develop a statistical model of language complexity trade-offs using four typological measures (related to phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon). The data come from the 100-language sample that appears in the World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS), and the trade-offs are calculated using different types of correlation coefficients. All those coefficients are statistically insignificant when they are computed using a standard (product-moment) methodology, but they become significant when we use simultaneous-equation regression methods, especially the ones based on seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) and three-stage least squares (3SLS). These results are related to ideas suggested in the theoretical literature, especially in the one about language as a complex adaptive system.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Linguistik ; Mehrgleichungsmodell ; Korrelation ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: As in Roemer (1982, chapter 1), this paper considers a simple international trade model and examines the existence and characterization of free trade equilibria involving the unequal exchange of labor (UE). The paper provides an almost complete characterization of the domain of economies in which free trade equilibria with incomplete specialization exist. Moreover, the necessary and sufficient conditions for free trade equilibrium to involve UE is identified. It suggests that the emergence of free trade equilibria with UE cannot be entailed by the competitive mechanism of markets and unequal distribution of wealth alone, but might be understood as an outcome of equilibrium selection on the basis of Nash bargaining between rich and poor nations.
    Keywords: D63 ; D51 ; ddc:330 ; Unequal exchange of labor ; International division of labor ; Subsistence international economies ; Internationale Arbeitsteilung ; Handelsliberalisierung ; Arbeitsmobilität ; Faktorproportionentheorem ; Marxismus ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 47
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    Witten: Universität Witten/Herdecke, Fakultät für Wirtschaftswissenschaft
    Publication Date: 2018-10-02
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Solidarität ; Clubtheorie ; Soziale Gerechtigkeit ; Sozialstaat ; Theorie
    Language: German
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  • 48
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    London: Bank of England, External Monetary Policy Committee Unit
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: Does the current account improve or deteriorate following a monetary policy expansion? We examine this issue theoretically and empirically. We show that a standard open economy DSGE model predicts that the current account response to a monetary policy shock depends on the degree of economic regulation in different markets. In particular, financial (product market) liberalisation makes it more likely that the current account deteriorates (improves) following a monetary expansion. We test these theoretical predictions with a varying coefficient Bayesian panel VAR model, where the coefficients are allowed to vary as a function of the degree of financial, product and labour market regulation on data from 1976 Q1-2006 Q4 for 19 OECD countries. Our empirical results support the theory. We therefore conclude that following a monetary policy expansion, the current account is more likely to go into deficit (surplus) in countries with more liberalised financial (product) markets.
    Keywords: F32 ; E52 ; C11 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; Balance of payments ; current account ; Bayesian panel VAR