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  • Theorie  (12,398)
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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    London [u.a.] : Cambridge Univ. Press ; 1.1965 -
    Keywords: Linguistik ; Zeitschrift ; Online-Ressource ; Linguistik ; Theorie ; Zeitschrift ; Linguistik ; Zeitschrift ; Online-Ressource ; Linguistik ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    ISSN: 1469-7742
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    Chicago, IL: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
    Publication Date: 2022-03-11
    Description: We study optimal tax design based on the idea that policy-makers face trade-offs between multiple margins of redistribution. Within a Mirrleesian economy with earnings, consumption and retirement savings, we derive a novel formula for optimal income and savings distortions based on redistributional arbitrage. We establish a sufficient statistics representation of the labor income and capital tax rates on top income earners in dynamic environments, which relies on the observed distributions of both income and consumption. Because consumption has a thinner Pareto tail than income, our quantitative results suggest that it is optimal to shift a substantial fraction of the top earners' tax burden from income to savings.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; capital taxation ; income taxation ; consumption inequality ; Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions ; Taxation and Subsidies: Efficiency ; Optimal Taxation ; Optimale Besteuerung ; Einkommensteuer ; Sparen ; Besteuerungsverfahren ; Umverteilung ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Leipzig: Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung (UFZ)
    Publication Date: 2022-04-13
    Description: [Background] The 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development made the first call for the creation of sustainability indicators to measure the changes in the social, economic, political, and physical factors of sustainability. Different concepts of carbon (Rees, 1992) and water footprints (Hoekstra, 2011) have emerged as indicators that provide stakeholders with easily understandable information on the environmental effects of their resource consumption. However, footprint models are usually focused on measuring the extent to which a single resource is used which provides limited information on the interdependencies between intertwined resource systems. Resource systems are frequently integrated and dependent on each other. A particular example of this, which received significant attention in recent years, is the nexus between food, water, and energy (FWE) (Daher & Mohtar, 2012). One example out of many potential interdependencies among FWE resources is the impact of energy cost on irrigated agriculture, which can in turn affect the availability of certain food crops (Komendantova et al., 2020). Such interdependencies within the nexus have not received sufficient attention in research so far, despite their importance for finding pathways towards sustainable resource use. The Nexus Footprint is an emerging indicator (Maiwald, 2021; Shu et al., 2021; Wahl et al., 2021) that aims to quantify the intersections within the highly interconnected FWE web of a given region. The set of values comprising the Nexus footprint are the values for the direct consumption of food, water, and energy, as well as the water footprint of food, the water footprint of energy, the carbon footprint of food, and the carbon footprint of water. The purpose of the Nexus Footprint model is to provide values allowing stakeholders to identify and visualize trends in urban resource consumption as well as to provide a scientific basis for objective comparison (Wahl et al., 2021).
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Umweltbelastung ; Lebensmittelkonsum ; Wasser ; Konsum ; Energiekonsum ; Ballungsraum ; Theorie ; Indien ; Jordanien ; Österreich
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2022-06-17
    Description: We evaluate the dynamics of a small and open economy under simple rules for alternative monetary-policy instruments, in a model with imperfectly anchored expectations. The inflation-targeting consensus indicates that interest-rate rules are preferred, instead of using either a monetary aggregate or the exchange rate as the main instrument; with arguments usually presented under rational expectations and full credibility. In contrast, we assume agents use econometric models to form inflation expectations, capturing limited credibility. In particular, we emphasize the exchange rate's role in shaping medium- and long-term inflation forecasts. We compare the dynamics after a shock to external-borrowing costs (arguably one of the most important sources of fluctuations in emerging countries) under three policy rules: a Taylor-type rule for the interest rate, a constant-growth-rate rule for monetary aggregates, and a fixed exchange rate. The analysis identifies relevant trade-offs in choosing among alternative instruments, showing that the relative merits of each of them is indeed influenced by how agents form inflation-related expectations.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Geldpolitik ; Inflationserwartung ; Glaubwürdigkeit ; Kleine offene Volkswirtschaft ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Karlsruhe: Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung ISI
    Publication Date: 2022-06-23
    Description: Nationale und internationale Transformationsprozesse machen an den Grenzen einzelner Regionen nicht halt, sondern beeinflussen deren weiteren Entwicklungsverlauf maßgeblich. Gerade strukturschwache Regionen sind in besonderer Weise von Transformationsprozessen betroffen, da Strukturschwäche und Transformation eine doppelte Herausforderung darstellt. Vor dem Hintergrund unterschiedlicher theoretischer Sichtweisen zu den Themen Strukturwandel und Transformation ist es Ziel dieses Beitrages, die Faktoren, die Systemtransformationen auf der regionalen Ebene fördern oder behindern, zu identifizieren. Es soll aufgezeigt werden, welche Möglichkeiten für Anpassungen durch einen Wandel der Strukturen und Funktionen, und damit des gesamten Gefüges einer Region, bestehen. Basierend auf den theoretischen Erkenntnissen werden Schlussfolgerungen zu neuen politischen Impulsen gezogen, die einen Beitrag zu regionalem Strukturwandel und regionaler Transformation leisten können.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Strukturschwache Region ; Regionaler Strukturwandel ; Regionalentwicklung ; Theorie
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Zurich: University of Zurich, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-07-20
    Description: In many markets, firms make their products complex through add-ons, thus making them difficult to evaluate and compare. How does this product obfuscation affect competition, sellers' profits, and buyers' welfare? We study these questions in a competitive experimental market in which sellers have the opportunity to obfuscate by add-on features, and buyers endogenously decide how much time to spend on searching for the best product. We show that stable obfuscation levels emerge that reduce buyers' welfare by ensuring that total prices are substantially above marginal cost and by inducing buyers to make mistakes and to waste their time searching. Competition operates through lowering salient headline prices, but sellers are able to appropriate a considerable share of the surplus with expensive add-on features. In contrast, prices quickly converge to marginal cost if we remove obfuscation opportunities. We thus provide direct causal evidence that obfuscation mitigates competition and generates positive profits because buyers typically search only a small share of the product space. Our results also suggest that purely exploitative obfuscation tends to be much less stable than obfuscation by surplus-enhancing add-on features because buyers' aversion to complicated products may have a non-negligible impact on sellers' obfuscation decisions.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Produktgestaltung ; Produktdifferenzierung ; Preismanagement ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Berlin: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, International Research Training Group 1792 "High Dimensional Nonstationary Time Series"
    Publication Date: 2021-07-20
    Description: This paper surveys the capacity of simple macroeconomic models - 'three easy pieces' - to account for persistent and positive valuations of privately issued assets based on the blockchain. Each of these three models - transactions demand for a means of payment, consumption-based capital asset pricing, and search and matching - highlights important aspects of digital payments. The mutual interference of these jointly produced features may impede widespread use of cryptocurrencies until technological innovations have been developed to separate them.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C00 ; Virtuelle Währung ; Makroökonomisches Modell ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Bonn: Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods
    Publication Date: 2021-02-27
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Antidiskriminierungsrecht ; Empirische Methode ; Korrelation ; Theorie
    Language: German
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  • 9
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    Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-09-10
    Description: Our decisions often depend on our subjective perceptions of the surrounding reality and we base our perceptions on the information we have available to us. Consider for instance our assessments of a variety of societal challenges we face, from immigration to inequality. Our perceptions of the severity of these problems depend on the information we extract from the networks around us, consisting of our friends, colleagues, and neighbors, among others. Importantly, our networks might not be representative of the broader population, they might be too small to make valid inferences, or we may not have the ability to process the information efficiently. This results in a gap between subjective perceptions and the objective reality, leading to unintended behavior affecting the individual and the society. To understand the implications of the gap between perception and reality, we need a better understanding of how people form perceptions and the underlying mechanisms creating this gap. We need to investigate the persistence of this gap and consider its long-term consequences. Finally, we may want to test if perceptions are malleable and design interventions to change behavior.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Informationsverhalten ; Informationsverbreitung ; Wahrnehmung ; Soziales Netzwerk ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:doctoralThesis
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  • 10
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    Bonn: Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods
    Publication Date: 2021-11-11
    Description: We propose simple mathematical models for the legal concept ofbalancing of interests, to resolve the conflict between the rights toprivacy and to the protection of personal data in Art. 7 and Art. 8 ofthe EU Charter of Fundamental Rights (EUCh) against the right ofaccess to information derived from Art. 11 EUCh. These competing rights are denoted by (i1) privacy of information and (i2) access to information; mathematically, their indices are respectively assigned by u1=[0,1]and u2=[0,1]subject to the constraint u1+u2=1.This constraint allows us to use one single index u to resolve the conflict through balancing. The outcome will be concluded by comparing the index u with a prior given threshold u0. For simplicity,we assume that the balancing depends on only selected legal criteria such as the social status of affected person, and the sphere from which the information originated, which are represented as inputs of the models, called legal parameters. Additionally, we take "time" into consideration as a legal criterion, building on the European Court of Justice's ruling on the right to be forgotten: by considering time as a legal parameter, we model how the outcome of the balancing changes over the passage of time. To catch the dependence of the outcome u by these criteria as legal parameters, data were created by a fully-qualified lawyer. Two mathematical models for u, a time-independent model and a time-dependent model, are proposed, that are fitted by using the data.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Rechtsprechung ; Rechtsökonomik ; Mathematik ; Modellierung ; Datenschutz ; Informationsfreiheit ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 11
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    Durham, NC: Duke University, Center for the History of Political Economy (CHOPE)
    Publication Date: 2021-11-16
    Description: This article - designed to give readers unfamiliar with public choice a historical overview and flavor for the kinds of problems considered - is divided into three main sections, "historical origins," the "modern founders of MPE," and a brief description of some "current issues" studied by public choice scholars.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Neue politische Ökonomie ; Wirtschaftswissenschaft ; Wirtschaftstheorie ; Ökonomische Ideengeschichte ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    London: Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-30
    Description: The 'curse of dimensionality' is a common problem in the estimation of dynamic models: as models get more complex, the computational cost of solving these models rises exponentially. Keane and Wolpin (1994) proposed a method for addressing this problem in finite-horizon dynamic discrete choice models by evaluating only a subset of state space points by Monte Carlo integration and interpolating the value of the remainder. This method was widely used in the late 1990s and 2000s but has rarely been used since, as it was found to be unreliable in some settings. In this paper, we develop an improved version of their method that relies on three amendments: systematic sampling, data-guided selection of state space points for Monte Carlo integration, and dispensing with polynomial interpolation when a multicollinearity problem is detected. With these improvements, the Keane and Wolpin (1994) method achieves excellent approximation performance even in a model with a large state space and substantial ex ante heterogeneity.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Diskrete Entscheidung ; Dynamische Wirtschaftstheorie ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Bonn and Cologne: University of Bonn and University of Cologne, Reinhard Selten Institute (RSI)
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: The modern Condorcet jury theorem states that under weak conditions, when voters have common interests, elections will aggregate information when the population is large, in any equilibrium. Here, we study the performance of large elections with population uncertainty. We find that the modern Condorcet jury theorem holds if and only if the expected number of voters is independent of the state. If the expected number of voters depends on the state, then additional equilibria exist in which information is not aggregated. The main driving force is that, everything else equal, voters are more likely to be pivotal if the population is small.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wahl ; Abstimmungsregel ; Informationsverhalten ; Aggregation ; Abstimmungsspiel ; Diskrete Verteilung ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    Bonn and Cologne: University of Bonn and University of Cologne, Reinhard Selten Institute (RSI)
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: The ex-ante evaluation of policies using structural econometric models is based on estimated parameters as a stand-in for the truth. This practice ignores uncertainty in the counterfactual policy predictions of the model. We develop a generic approach that deals with parametric uncertainty using uncertainty sets and frames model-informed policymaking as a decision problem under uncertainty. The seminal human capital investment model by Keane and Wolpin (1997) provides us with a well-known, influential, and empirically-grounded test case. We document considerable uncertainty in their policy predictions and highlight the resulting policy recommendations from using different formal rules on decision-making under uncertainty.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Makroökonometrie ; Strukturmodell ; Schätztheorie ; Risiko ; Entscheidung unter Unsicherheit ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-03
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Differentialgleichung ; Theorie
    Language: Spanish
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  • 16
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    Innsbruck: University of Innsbruck, Research Platform Empirical and Experimental Economics (eeecon)
    Publication Date: 2022-03-01
    Description: In statistics, samples are drawn from a population in a datagenerating process (DGP). Standard errors measure the uncertainty in sample estimates of population parameters. In science, evidence is generated to test hypotheses in an evidencegenerating process (EGP). We claim that EGP variation across researchers adds uncertainty: non-standard errors. To study them, we let 164 teams test six hypotheses on the same sample. We find that non-standard errors are sizeable, on par with standard errors. Their size (i) co-varies only weakly with team merits, reproducibility, or peer rating, (ii) declines significantly after peer-feedback, and (iii) is underestimated by participants.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Statistischer Fehler ; Streuungsmaß ; Wissenschaftler ; Wissenschaftliche Methode ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Bielefeld: Bielefeld University, Center for Mathematical Economics (IMW)
    Publication Date: 2022-02-19
    Description: We concern a sender-receiver game of common interests having infinite types, e.g the set [0; 1]², but with finite signals. In our paper, we extend the game by introducing multiple priors over the type space and use incomplete preferences in Bewley's way. We characterize the equilibria under incomplete preferences by E-admissibility. Besides, it has the equivalence between the equilibria and Voronoi languages. Further, we demonstrates the existence of the indeterminacy of the game. At last, we present that vague words, e.g. cheap, big, red, etc., exist in the Knightian worlds but not in the Bayesian worlds, which means that vagueness comes from the way we view the world in Knightian method.
    Keywords: ddc:519 ; Sprache ; Spieltheorie ; Philosophie ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Acton: ANU Press
    Publication Date: 2022-03-17
    Description: This festschrift celebrates the extensive contribution John Wanna has made to the research and practice of politics, policy and public administration. It includes both personal acknowledgements of his work and substantial essays on the issues that he focused most closely upon during his academic career: budgeting and financial management, politics, and public policy and administration. The essays address contemporary developments in public sector financial management in Australia and overseas, changing political processes in Queensland and the Commonwealth, and public governance and administration reform trajectories in Australia and internationally, including in China. A common theme is the importance of linking research to practice, reflecting John Wanna's own style and contribution. Essays include exploration of the interface between academia and practice, including from the perspective of practitioners. The authors of the essays in this volume include eminent Australian and international scholars of public administration, experienced public service practitioners and younger scholars influenced by John Wanna.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; John Wanna ; public administration ; politics ; public policy ; Öffentliche Finanzen ; Öffentlicher Haushalt ; Haushaltsplanung ; Öffentliche Verwaltung ; Regierung ; Politik ; Theorie ; Australien
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
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  • 19
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    London: Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)
    Publication Date: 2022-02-15
    Description: We show that children who are born at or just before the weekend are less likely to be breastfed, owing to poorer breastfeeding support services in hospitals at weekends. We use this variation to estimate the effect of breastfeeding on children's development in the first five years of life, for a sample of births of low educated mothers. We find large effects of breastfeeding on children's cognitive development but no effects on health or non-cognitive development during the period of childhood we consider. Regarding mechanisms, we study how breastfeeding affects parental investments and the quality of the mother-child relationship.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; I14 ; I18 ; J13 ; Kinder ; Ernährung ; Kognition ; Gesundheit ; Sozialer Indikator ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Rio de Janeiro: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Departamento de Economia
    Publication Date: 2022-02-17
    Description: The number of Covid-19 cases is increasing dramatically worldwide, with several countries experiencing a second and worse wave. Therefore, the availability of reliable forecasts for the number of cases and deaths in the coming days is of fundamental importance. We propose a simple statistical method for short-term real-time forecasting of the number of Covid-19 cases and fatalities in countries that are latecomers – i.e., countries where cases of the disease started to appear some time after others. In particular, we propose a penalized (LASSO) regression with an error correction mechanism to construct a model of a latecomer in terms of the other countries that were at a similar stage of the pandemic some days before. By tracking the number of cases in those countries, we forecast through an adaptive rolling-window scheme the number of cases and deaths in the latecomer. We apply this methodology to four different countries: Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Portugal. We show that the methodology performs very well. These forecasts aim to foster a better short-run management of the health system capacity and can be applied not only to countries but to different regions within a country, as well.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Covid-19 ; LASSO ; Forecasting ; Pandemics ; Coronavirus ; Prognoseverfahren ; Regressionsanalyse ; Kointegration ; Sterblichkeit ; Theorie ; Brasilien
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Lüneburg: Leuphana Universität Lüneburg, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung
    Publication Date: 2022-05-30
    Description: Das Allgemeine Verhaltensmodell von March und Simon verknüpft vier fundamentale Konstrukte der Verhaltenstheorie: das Anspruchsniveau, die Belohnungserwartung, die Zufriedenheit und die Suche nach Verhaltensweisen, die Erfolg und Zufriedenheit versprechen. Die Teilmechanismen, die in dem Modell postuliert werden, verknüpfen sich zu einem Gesamtmechanismus, der dafür sorgt, dass das Verhältnis von Ansprüchen und Möglichkeiten zum Ausgleich kommt. Eine wichtige Rolle spielen die Parameter des Modells, die die Voraussetzungen und Stärke der Zusammenhänge bestimmen. Neben formalen Funktionen kommt diesen Parametern auch jeweils eine wichtige inhaltliche Bedeutung zu. Der vorliegende Beitrag trägt zur Erkundung des Modells und seiner Implikationen bei. Das Modell verdient eine größere Beachtung, als ihm bislang geschenkt wurde. Es beschreibt einen fundamentalen Verhaltensmechanismus, der in praktisch allen Bereichen menschlichen Verhaltens wirksam ist. Das Modell besitzt nicht nur eine große Erklärungskraft, es ist außerdem logisch stimmig, kompakt und elegant. Außerdem erweist es sich als in hohem Grad anschlussfähig für eine Vielzahl von theoretischen Ansätzen und empirischen Erkundungen. Es lässt sich anwenden für die Erklärung von allgemeinen Zusammenhängen, für die Beschreibung konkreter Vorgänge und für die Simulation einer Vielzahl von Handlungskonstellationen.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Verhalten in Organisationen ; Motivationstheorie ; Theorie
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 22
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2022-06-17
    Description: General equilibrium models are typically presented with mathematical methods, such as the Edgeworth Box, that do not easily generalize to more than two goods and more than two agents. This is fine as a conceptual introduction, but it may be insufficient in the "Big Data-Machine-Learning-Era", with gigantic databases filled with data of extremely high dimensionality that are already changing the practice, and perhaps even the conceptual basis, of economics and other social sciences. In this paper present what we call the "Gradient Field Method" to solve these problems. It has the advantage of being, 1) as intuitive as the Edgeworth Box, 2) easily generalizes to far more complex situations, and 3) nicely mesh with the data friendly techniques of the new Era. In addition, it provides a unified framework to present both, partial equilibrium, and general equilibrium problems.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; Mathematik ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 23
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Philosophie ; Medizingeschichtsschreibung ; Psychiatrie ; Selbstmord ; Theorie ; Romantik ; Literatur ; Selbstmord (Motiv) ; Civilization—History ; Medicine—History ; European literature ; Cultural History ; History of Medicine ; European Literature ; Philosophie ; Medizingeschichtsschreibung ; Psychiatrie ; Selbstmord ; Theorie ; Romantik 1790-1830 ; Literatur ; Selbstmord 〈Motiv〉
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XII, 145 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658336790
    Series Statement: Medizin, Kultur, Gesellschaft
    DDC: 306.09
    Language: German
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  • 24
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Psychologie ; Theorie ; Emanzipation ; Selbstbestimmung ; Subjektivität ; Psychoanalyse ; Tiefenpsychologie ; Ethnology ; Personality ; Social psychology ; Social history ; Social Anthropology ; Personality and Social Psychology ; Social History ; Hochschulschrift ; Psychologie ; Theorie ; Emanzipation ; Selbstbestimmung ; Subjektivität ; Psychoanalyse ; Tiefenpsychologie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XLIV, 229 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658331207
    DDC: 306
    Language: German
    Dissertation note: Dissertation Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg 2020
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Cham : palgrave macmillan | Cham : Springer International Publishing
    Keywords: Informationssystem ; Theorie ; Management information systems ; Big data ; Leadership ; Business Information Systems ; Enterprise Architecture ; Big Data ; Business Strategy ; Aufsatzsammlung ; Informationssystem ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (xx, 452 Seiten) , 24 Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783030648848
    Series Statement: Technology, work and globalization
    DDC: 658.4038
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: English
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Terrorismus ; Radikalismus ; Fundamentalismus ; Ausstieg ; Theorie ; Educational sociology ; Emigration and immigration ; Social sciences ; Social work ; Applied ethics ; Professional ethics ; Sociology of Education ; Migration ; Social Sciences, general ; Ethics and Values in Social Work ; Terrorismus ; Radikalismus ; Fundamentalismus ; Ausstieg ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XI, 81 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658339029
    Series Statement: Radikalisierung – De-Radikalisierung – Prävention
    DDC: 306.43
    Language: German
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  • 27
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    Berlin: Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre (arqus)
    Publication Date: 2020-06-21
    Description: This paper investigates the dynamics of group decisions regarding risky tax avoidance strategies using a laboratory experiment. To identify the causes of risk taking by groups, we compare individual to group decisions in three scenarios. The first scenario allocates payoffs from group decisions equally to all members of a group. The second and third scenario introduce intra-group payoff conflict as a new influential factor in group dynamics. Hereby, we separate intra-group payoff conflicts in the distribution of costs and profits. This manipulation allows us to disentangle group discussion effects resulting from the competing theories of polarization and diversification of opinions. Our overall findings support a predominant diversification of opinions effect. When group members share all payoffs equally, this effect overcomes polarization in 100% of the cases where outstanding individuals are risk averse, while group polarization appears to be more likely towards outstanding risk loving subjects. Intra-group payoff conflict shifts these likelihoods, supporting the importance of rational arguments in group polarization. Consequently, our experimental results support a strong increase in the level of average tax avoidance following group decisions in case of all or negative outcomes being shared equally by group members. Intra-group payoff in the distribution of costs, however, removes this difference and shifts, both individual and group preferences, towards safety.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; group ; tax avoidance ; risk ; intra-group payoff conflict ; polarization ; diversification of opinions ; Steuervermeidung ; Entscheidung unter Risiko ; Gruppenentscheidung ; Experiment ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute
    Publication Date: 2020-06-26
    Description: We characterise the entire set of symmetric stationary Markov-perfect Nash equilibria (MPE) in a differential game of public good investment, using the canonical problem of climate change as an example. We provide a sufficient and necessary condition for MPE and show how the entire set of MPE is constructed. The equilibrium in continuous strategies, unique in our context, is Pareto-dominated by any other equilibrium. If a Pareto- undominated steady state exists, it is sustained by trigger-like strategies, with deviations above and below the steady state leading to different re- sponses. We extend the theory of differential games to deal with payoffs under discontinuous strategies. Our methods work under general functional forms.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; C73 ; Q54 ; Spieltheorie ; Analysis ; Öffentliche Güter ; Nash-Gleichgewicht ; Klimawandel ; Theorie
    Language: English
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    Munich: ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich
    Publication Date: 2020-06-24
    Description: Tech giants such as Google and Facebook generate significant amounts of advertising income, which is mainly reported in low-tax countries. This has created a policy discussion of how to re-align the location of value creation and taxation. The success of the business model of these digital platforms relies on the existence of indirect network effects, which are the prime reason why platforms exist and generate advertising income. To account for these effects, conventional tax policy needs to be adjusted. This includes an adjusted concept of nexus that should rely on the location of users, which generate the relevant indirect network effects. The recent EU proposal of a digital service tax goes in this direction and constitutes a policy option for other countries.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D43 ; H21 ; H22 ; L13 ; Digitale Medien ; Internetportal ; Werbung ; Einnahmen ; Steuer ; Theorie
    Language: English
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    Berlin: Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre (arqus)
    Publication Date: 2020-06-21
    Description: It is well-known that stock prices fluctuate far more than dividends. Traditional valuation methods are not able to depict this fact. In this paper we incorporate excess volatility into a simple DCF model by considering an autoregressive cash flows process with random coefficients. We show that the model is free of arbitrage and that the transversality condition is met and we prove a valuation equation that differs from the classical Gordon-Shapiro version: Cost of capital (respectively dividend-price ratio) is stochastic and our model represents excess volatility. We discuss whether our assumptions are compatible with an equilibrium.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Börsenkurs ; Ausschüttungspolitik ; Volatilität ; Kapitalwertmethode ; Autokorrelation ; Cash Flow ; Arbitrage ; Kapitalkosten ; Stochastischer Prozess ; Theorie
    Language: English
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    Münster: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Centrum für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (CAWM)
    Publication Date: 2020-06-25
    Description: Market concentration has been suggested as an enhancer of bargaining power imbalances for vertical commercial relationships. However, the empirical literature has not yet explored in which way this market concentration, as a result of -for instance- a M&A operations, could affect the negotiations with agents in vertical related markets; in particular, in frictional multiproduct commercial relationships, in which uncertainty may play a role of such negotiations. The present work proposes an explanation to this matter, by analyzing the strategic incentives and uncertainties that arise in this kind of commercial relationships from the announcement of an horizontal M&A operation, and the way these expectations could influence the bargaining power redistribution among players after the operation; opening the discussion on a dynamic analysis of bargaining outcomes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Übernahme ; Entscheidung unter Unsicherheit ; Verhandlungsmacht ; Verhandlungstheorie ; Unternehmenskonzentration ; Theorie ; Einzelhandel ; Deutschland
    Language: English
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    Linz: Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy (ICAE)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-12
    Description: The paper studies the relevance of product heterogeneity for innovation dynamics using an agent-based model. The vantage point is a short a review on the empirical relevance of capability accumulation for innovation processes and an assessment of how these processes are modelled theoretically in evolutionary micro and macroeconomic models. This shows that the macroeconomic literature so far has focused on process innovations. To facilitate the consideration of empirical and microeconomic insights on product innovation in macroeconomic models, a simple agent-based model, which may later serve as an innovation module in macroeconomic models, is introduced. Following up on recent empirical results, products in the model are heterogeneous in terms of their complexity and differ in their relatedness to each other. The model is used to study theoretical implications of different topological structures underlying product relatedness by conducting simulations with different 'product spaces'. The analysis suggests that the topological structure of the product space, the assumed relationship between product complexity and centrality as well as the relevance of product complexity in price setting dynamics have significant but nontrivial implications and deserve further attention in evolutionary macroeconomics. To this end, the model presented here may serve as a first step towards a module to be integrated in such a more comprehensive model framework.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Innovation ; Produktentwicklung ; Capability-Ansatz ; Prinzipal-Agent-Theorie ; Mikrofundierung ; Produktgestaltung ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 33
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    Basel: MDPI
    Publication Date: 2020-05-12
    Description: This special issue provides a collection of 15 papers with modern theories and applications for circular economy, engineering projects, entrepreneurship models, and investor decisions. After the commencing review on Occupational Health and Safety Management-Systems Standards, follow papers which can be classified into four categories which cover the overall scope of special issue. The first category includes papers regarding the micro-level of circular economy. This means case studies in firm-level which implement different techniques to achieve sustainable development and circular economy goals. The findings reveal interesting achievements which are associated with cultural characteristics of the countries these case studies have been conducted. The second category of papers refers to the meso-level of circular economy where firms cooperate with each other by exchanging byproducts and organizing common operational procedures and routines to address environmental problems. The findings suggest assessment information technology tools to support industrial symbiosis among European firms. The next body of literature encompasses macro-level where circular economy techniques are implemented at a country level. Findings suggest methodologies for implementing and tracking circular economy in cities. Finally, a number of papers are included that focus on advanced engineering techniques. These techniques are useful tools for achieving circular economy and sustainability.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; Sozialtechnologie ; Kreislaufwirtschaft ; Nachhaltige Kapitalanlage ; Theorie
    Language: English
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    London: Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)
    Publication Date: 2020-09-01
    Description: The extent to which like-with like marry is particularly important for inequality as well as for the outcomes of children that result from the union. In this paper we discuss approaches to the measurement of changes in assortative mating. We derive two key conditions that a well-defined measure should satisfy. We argue that changes in assortativeness should be interpreted through a structural model of the marriage market; in particular, a crucial issue is how they relate to variations in the economic surplus generated by marriage. We propose a very general criterion of increase in assortativeness, and show that almost all indices used in the literature are implied by our criterion - with one notable exception, that moreover violates one of our conditions. Finally, we use our approach to evaluate the evolution of assortative matching in the US over the last decades, and conclude that assortative matching has increased, particularly at the top of the education distribution.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Ehe ; Familienökonomik ; Matching ; Theorie ; USA
    Language: English
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    London: Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)
    Publication Date: 2020-09-01
    Description: We examine the channels through which a randomized early childhood intervention in Colombia led to significant gains in cognitive and socio-emotional skills among a sample of disavantaged children aged 12 to 24 months at baseline. We estimate the determinants of parents' material and time investments in these children and evaluate the impact of the treatment on such investments. We then estimate the production functions for cognitive and socio-emotional skills. The effects of the program can be explained by increases in parental investments, emphasizing the importance of parenting interventions at an early age.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; H31 ; I24 ; I25 ; I28 ; I3 ; J38 ; O1 ; O15 ; O54 ; Frühkindliche Bildung ; Kognition ; Soziales Verhalten ; Produktionsfunktion ; Bildungsinvestition ; Theorie ; Kolumbien
    Language: English
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    München und Berlin: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München und Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Collaborative Research Center Transregio 190 - Rationality and Competition
    Publication Date: 2020-09-11
    Description: We show that a common (identical across investors) irrationality in information processing can be enough to create nontrivial trade, using one of standard partial-equilibrium environments. We can attribute this trade to their common irrationality because we strip the investors and their circumstances of all heterogeneities but purely age (in a sense experience), make investment horizon age-independent, and keep all information complete. The common irrationality in our model takes the form of a somewhat non-Bayesian information processing. The resulting trade between such essentially identical individuals with the very same irrationality in their information processing can also feature different kinds of mispricing.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Aktienmarkt ; Wertpapierhandel ; Anlageverhalten ; Entscheidung unter Unsicherheit ; Information ; Rationalität ; Theorie
    Language: English
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    Munich: ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich
    Publication Date: 2020-07-01
    Description: It is well-known that group testing is an efficient strategy to screen for the presence of a virus. It consists in pooling n individual samples with a single test using RT-PCR. If at least one individual is infected, the test is positive, and it is negative otherwise. We show how group testing can be optimized in three applications to multiply the efficiency of tests against Covid-19: Estimating virus prevalence to measure the evolution of the pandemic; bringing negative groups back to work to exit the current lockdown; and testing for individual infectious status to treat sick people. For an infection level around 2%, group testing could multiply the power of testing by a factor 20. The implementation of this strategy in the short run requires limited investments and could bypass the current immense shortage of testing capacity.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Coronavirus ; Experiment ; Kohortenanalyse ; Theorie
    Language: English
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    Chicago, IL: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
    Publication Date: 2021-02-13
    Description: How costly will rising temperature due to climate change be for the U.S. economy? Recent research has used the well-identified response of output to weather to estimate this cost. But agents may adapt to the new climate. We propose a methodology to infer adaptation technology from the heterogeneous responses of output to weather observed currently across the U.S. Our model estimates how much each region has adapted already, and can predict how much each will adapt further after climate change. The size and distribution of losses from climate change vary substantially once adaptation is taken into account.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitsproduktivität ; Produktivität ; Messung ; Statistische Methode ; Theorie ; Großbritannien
    Language: English
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    Osnabrück: Gesellschaft für Wirtschaftliche Strukturforschung (GWS)
    Publication Date: 2021-02-17
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Prognoseverfahren ; Makroökonometrie ; Input-Output-Analyse ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Chile
    Language: English
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    Bern: University of Bern, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-01-28
    Description: I consider an environment in which the entrepreneur generates information about the quality of the projects prior to contracting with the investor. The investor faces a moral hazard problem, since the entrepreneur may divert the funding for private consumption. When the investor bargains with the entrepreneur, I find that the efficient amount of information is generated if and only if the bargaining power of the entrepreneur is high enough. I interpret this result in terms of investors' concentration, competitiveness, and generosity measures. I show that the investor prefers a non-absolute bargaining power when the project costs are high enough.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Unternehmer ; Investor Relations ; Verhandlungsmacht ; Investitionsentscheidung ; Informationsökonomik ; Moral Hazard ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 41
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    Marburg: Philipps-University Marburg, School of Business and Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-06-09
    Description: Mit der Implementierung des Bestellerprinzips - wer den Makler beauftragt, muss ihn auch bezahlen - hat der Gesetzgeber einen Wechsel der Zahllast fuer die Courtage vom Mieter zum Vermieter vorgenommen. Mit Hilfe eines sequentiellen Verhandlungsspiels wird hier diskutiert, inwieweit der Wechsel der Zahllast mit einer Veraenderung der oekonomischen Traglast einhergeht. Es wird gezeigt, dass fuer plausible Parameterkonstellationen (i) die Makler verlieren in Form einer sinkenden Courtage, (ii) die Mieter gewinnen trotz Ãœberwaelzung der Courtage auf die Miete, und (iii) auch die Vermieter gewinnen trotz Uebernahme der Zahllast der Courtage.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Immobilienmakler ; Extensives Spiel ; Provision ; Wohlfahrtsanalyse ; Theorie
    Language: English
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    Osnabrück: Gesellschaft für Wirtschaftliche Strukturforschung (GWS)
    Publication Date: 2021-02-17
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Makroökonometrie ; Input-Output-Analyse ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Theorie
    Language: German
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    Vienna: EcoAustria - Institute for Economic Research
    Publication Date: 2020-11-27
    Description: This Research Paper contains a detailed documentation of the dynamic computable general equilibrium model PuMA. The model is used for analysing economic, labour market and public finance effects of different policy options, structural changes and other important policy questions. PuMA is similar to the EU Labour Market Model (EU-LMM), which was also developed by the authors and is used by the Directorate General Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion of the European Commission.
    Description: Eine der wesentlichen Forschungskompetenzen von EcoAustria ist die ex‐ante Evaluation von wirtschafts‐ und sozialpolitischen Maßnahmen, z.B. in der Steuer‐, Sozial‐ oder Arbeitsmarktpolitik, oder auch die Analyse der wirtschaftlichen Folgewirkungen weiterer Entwicklungen wie Bildung, Migration oder technischer Fortschritt. Die Simulationen werden bei EcoAustria vor allem mit dem dynamischen Gleichgewichtsmodell PuMA ("PUblic Policy Model for Austria and other European Countries") durchgeführt. So zeigen aktuelle Analysen auf Basis von PuMA, dass die im aktuellen Regierungsprogramm vorgesehene Senkung der ersten, zweiten und dritten Stufe des Einkommenssteuertarifs auf 20, 30 bzw. 40 Prozent sowie die Senkung der Körperschaftsteuer von 25 Prozent auf 21 Prozent erhebliche volkswirtschaftliche Effekte auslösen würde: Die Maßnahmen führen dazu, dass das Bruttoinlandsprodukt mittel- bis längerfristig um 1 bis 1,3 Prozent höher ausfällt als ohne die Reformmaßnahmen. Zudem steigen Nettoeinkommen, Konsum und Investitionen und die Beschäftigung fällt mittel- bis langfristig um 35.000 Beschäftigte höher aus. Durch das zusätzlich ausgelöste Wachstum finanzieren sich diese Reformschritte zu 40 bis 50 Prozent selbst. Methodisch gehört das PuMA-Modell zur Modellgruppe der "computable general equilibirum models (CGE)". Dabei sind in PuMA die spezifischen Gegebenheiten eines Landes insbesondere in Hinblick auf das Abgabensystem, die soziale Sicherung und den Arbeitsmarkt berücksichtigt. Dabei werden Beschäftigung und Bevölkerung nach Alters- und Ausbildungsgruppen differenziert. Die Autoren des PuMA-Modells, Johannes Berger, Leiter des Forschungsbereichs Arbeitsmarkt und Soziale Sicherung, und Ludwig Strohner, Leiter des Forschungsbereichs Öffentliche Finanzen bei EcoAustria, haben das Modell derzeit für Österreich und 14 weitere europäische Länder kalibriert und somit für rund 85 Prozent der EU‐Bevölkerung. Damit sind vergleichende Analysen der Wirkung von Reformmaßnahmen oder demographischen Entwicklungen innerhalb Europas möglich. Eine Vorgängerversion von PuMA, das Gleichgewichtsmodell EU-LMM, haben die Autoren für die Generaldirektion Beschäftigung der Europäischen Kommission entwickelt. EcoAustria Research Paper 11 bietet eine Aktualisierung der ausführlichen technischen Dokumentation des Modells.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; DSGE-Modell ; Privater Haushalt ; Substitutionseffekt ; Qualifikation ; Kapital ; Arbeit ; Lebenszyklus ; Theorie
    Language: English
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    Gießen: Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften
    Publication Date: 2020-07-26
    Description: [Einführung] Der kommunale Finanzausgleich ist ein vertikaler Ausgleich mit horizontalem Effekt. Die originären Steuerquellen der Gemeinden reichen nicht aus, um ihre Ausgaben zu finanzieren. Der Finanzausgleich dient zunächst einmal dazu, die Finanzkraft der kommunalen Ebene insgesamt so aufzustocken, dass der Finanzbedarf der Gemeinden im Durchschnitt gedeckt werden kann. Diese vertikale Ausgleichsfunktion wird durch die horizontale Ausgleichsfunktion ergänzt und überlagert. Sie besteht darin, Finanzkraftdifferenzen innerhalb der kommunalen Ebene zwischen relativ armen und reichen Gemeinden abzubauen, damit alle Gemeinden ihre Aufgaben wahrnehmen können. Das wesentliche Instrument zum Abbau der Finanzkraftdifferenzen zwischen relativ armen und reichen Gemeinden sind die Schlüsselzuweisungen, die aus der vom Land bereitgestellten Schlüsselmasse finanziert werden. Der Ausgleichseffekt der Schlüsselzuweisungen erstreckt sich (in der Regel) auf Gemeinden, deren Finanzbedarf größer ist als ihre Steuerkraft. In den meisten Bundesländern existieren darüber hinaus Finanzausgleichsumlagen, mit denen Gemeinden in den Finanzausgleich einbezogen werden, deren Finanzbedarf kleiner ist als ihre Steuerkraft. In Kapitel 2 wird zunächst ein Modell präsentiert, das die Funktionsweise des kommunalen Finanzausgleichs erläutert. Im Prinzip sind Finanzausgleichsumlagen nichts anderes als negative Schlüsselzuweisungen. Daher werden Schlüsselzuweisungen und Finanzausgleichsumlagen als Elemente eines einzigen Finanzausgleichstarifs interpretiert, der in seinen verschiedenen Tarifzonen Zuweisungen und Abschöpfungen in Abhängigkeit von Steuerkraft und Finanzbedarf der Gemeinden vorsieht. Das Basismodell erlaubt eine Differenzierung zwischen vertikalen und horizontalen Ausgleichseffekten. Zudem lassen sich damit Variationen zentraler Bestimmungsgrößen (Steuerkraft, Ausgleichsatz, Schlüsselmasse) und Modifikationen (Mindestfinanzkraftgarantie, Abundanzumlage, Einwohnergewichte) systematisch analysieren. In Kapitel 3 wird das Instrumentarium zur Untersuchung der Finanzausgleichstarife der deutschen Bundesländer verwendet. Sie weichen regelmäßig vom Grundmodell eines einheitlichen linearen Tarifs für steuerschwache wie steuerstarke Gemeinden ab. Die Tarife sind häufig sehr komplex und erschließen sich nicht unmittelbar aus dem Wortlaut der Finanzausgleichsgesetze. Sie werden daher formalisiert und in zusammengehörige Teilbereiche bzw. Tarifzonen zerlegt. Diese Vorgehensweise ermöglicht eine Systematisierung und Bewertung der vielfältigen Lösungen und ihrer Besonderheiten. Der Ländervergleich erstreckt sich allerdings nur auf die Tarifaspekte finanzkraftbezogener Zuweisungen und Umlagen. Außer Betracht bleiben die Differenzen bei der Bestimmung der Bemessungsgrundlagen des Finanzkraftausgleichs (Steuerkraft- und Bedarfsmesszahl) und bei der Aufteilung der Finanzausgleichsmasse auf Schlüsselzuweisungen (nach Gebietskörperschaftsgruppen) und andere Verwendungszwecke.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Kommunaler Finanzausgleich ; Finanzwissenschaft ; Teilstaat ; Finanzausgleich ; Steuereinnahmen ; Theorie ; Deutschland
    Language: German
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-21
    Description: Vollkommene Konkurrenz auf Märkten ist dadurch charakterisiert, dass die Handlungen einzelner Wirtschaftssubjekte für alle anderen Wirtschaftssubjekte irrelevant sind. Jeder Einzelne kann das Gesamtergebnis (z.B. die Preise) auf einem Markt nicht unmittelbar beeinflussen; im Begriff des "atomistischen Marktes" wird dies auch bildlich ausgedrückt. Diese Marktform ist weniger als Beschreibung tatsächlicher Märkte gedacht, sondern als Gedankenexperiment zur möglichst einfachen Beschreibung einer Extremsituation. In der überwiegenden Zahl von Märkten der Agrar- und Ernährungswirtschaft spielen die Handlungen einzelner Anbieter sehr wohl eine wesentliche Rolle für das Gleichgewicht auf dem Gesamtmarkt: Konkurrenz ist typischerweise unvollkommen. Zahlreiche Beispiele aus der Wertschöpfungskette der Land- und Ernährungswirtschaft, von der Erzeugung wichtiger Vorleistungen bis zum Konsum des Endproduktes, können dies verdeutlichen. Der Weltmarkt der Produktion von Mineraldünger beispielsweise wird von etwa zehn international tätigen Unternehmen dominiert. Hohe Entwicklungskosten für neues Saatgut sind ein wesentlicher Grund für die zunehmende Marktkonzentration im Bereich der Pflanzenzüchtung; auch hier sind weltweit nur noch wenige Anbieter tätig. Besonders ausgeprägt ist der Konzentrationsprozess auch im Lebensmitteleinzelhandel. Handelsketten können im Einkauf in Verhandlungen mit den Nahrungsmittelproduzenten möglicherweise ihre Verhandlungsmacht geltend machen. Zudem wirft die hohe Anbieterkonzentration im Lebensmitteleinzelhandel die Frage auf, ob Konsumenten überhöhte Preise für einzelne Lebensmittel zahlen. In diesem Kapitel werden folgende Themen besprochen: - Es wird gezeigt, wie sich Preise in unterschiedlichen Marktformen bilden und welche Folgen unvollkommene Konkurrenz (Marktmacht) für die Güterpreise hat. - Verschiedene Formen strategischer Interaktion werden unterschieden und deren Folgen für das Marktgleichgewicht (kurz- und langfristig) beleuchtet. - Methoden und Probleme der empirischen Messung von Marktmacht werden erläutert und an Hand von Fallbeispielen illustriert. - Wir beschreiben Interaktionen zwischen den Akteuren innerhalb der Wertschöpfungskette bei der Preisbildung. - Die institutionellen Rahmenbedingungen der europäischen Wettbewerbspolitik sowie Beispiele wettbewerbspolitischer Eingriffe werden erläutert. (...)
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Preismanagement ; Unvollkommener Wettbewerb ; Marktmacht ; Wettbewerbspolitik ; Theorie
    Language: German
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    Nottingham: The University of Nottingham, Centre for Decision Research and Experimental Economics (CeDEx)
    Publication Date: 2020-12-24
    Description: Under simple majority voting an absolute majority of voters may choose policies that are harmful to minorities. It is the purpose of sub- and super-majority rules to protect legitimate minority interests. We study how voting rules are chosen under the veil of ignorance. In our experiment, individuals choose voting rules for given distributions of gains and losses that can arise from a policy, but before learning their own valuation of the policy. We find that subjects on average adjust the voting rule in line with the skewness of the distribution. As a result, a higher share of the achievable surplus can be extracted with the suggested rules than with exogenously given simple majority voting. The rule choices, however, imperfectly re ect the distributions of benefits and costs, in expectation leading to only 63% of the surplus being extracted. Both under-protection and over-protection of minorities contribute to the loss. Voting insincerely leads to a further surplus loss of 5-15%. We classify subjects according to their rule choices and show that most subjects' rule choices follow the incentives embedded in the distributions. For a few participants, however, this is not the case, which leads to a large part of the surplus loss.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Minderheitenpolitik ; Abstimmungsregel ; Experiment ; Theorie
    Language: English
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  • 47
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    Freiburg i. Br.: Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Wilfried-Guth-Stiftungsprofessur für Ordnungs- und Wettbewerbspolitik
    Publication Date: 2021-04-22
    Description: This chapter explores the complex interaction between migration and terrorism. It proposes a 'terrorism-migration cycle' to investigate systematically this interaction at every stage of the migration process. Importantly, no stage of the migration process is independent of what happened on the previous stage, affecting how terrorism and migration interact. It is shown that terrorism may be a trigger of migration in the origin country, that only particular selections of migrants choose to leave a country, and that these migrants then sort into different destinations. The role of migration governance as a means to avoid the influx of potential terrorists is explored as well as the responses of destination-country populations and governments to the threat of imported terrorism. As yet other challenges, homegrown terrorism within immigrant communities and political violence directed against immigrants are discussed. Finally, it is argued that there are feedback effects of diasporas on the origin countries of immigrant communities.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Terrorismus ; Internationale Migration ; Migrationspolitik ; Theorie
    Language: English
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    Bern: University of Bern, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-01-28
    Description: The paper compares the welfare properties of two competing organizations of the monetary system: The current fractional reserve banking system versus a narrow banking system where inside money is fully backed by outside money issued by the central bank. Using a New Monetarist model, the analysis shows that fractional reserve banking is beneficial because of the interest payments on inside money. Since inside money funds loans, it pays interest, compensating the agents for the in ation tax and thus reducing the welfare costs of in ation. Since narrow banking provides no such compensation fractional reserve banking typically dominates narrow banking in terms of welfare. This also holds if outside money pays interest. Only if fractional reserve banking is sufficiently constrained, narrow banking can yield higher welfare.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; E42 ; E51 ; G21 ; Bank ; Geldschöpfung ; Zentralbank ; Monetarismus ; Theorie
    Language: English
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    Heidelberg: University of Heidelberg, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-06-23
    Description: In this paper, we study choice under uncertainty with belief functions on a set of outcomes as objects of choice. Belief functions describe what is objectively known about the probabilities of outcomes. We assume that decision makers have preferences over belief functions that reflect both their valuation of outcomes and the information available about the likelihood of outcomes. We provide axioms which characterize a preference representation for belief functions that captures what is (objectively) known about the likelihood of outcomes and combines it with subjective beliefs about unknown probabilities according to the "principle of insufficient reason". The approach is novel in its treatment of partial information and in its axiomatization of the uniform distribution in the case of ignorance. Moreover, our treatment of partial information yields a natural distinction between ambiguity and ambiguity attitude.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Entscheidung unter Unsicherheit ; Unvollkommene Information ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Davis, CA: University of California, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-11-05
    Description: In an earlier paper [Rational choice and AGM belief revision, Artificial Intelligence, 2009] a correspondence was established between the choice structures of revealed-preference theory (developed in economics) and the syntactic belief revision functions of the AGM theory (developed in philosophy and computer science). In this paper we extend the re-interpretation of (a generalized notion of) choice structure in terms of belief revision by adding: (1) the possibility that an item of ''information'' might be discarded as not credible (thus dropping the AGM success axiom) and (2) the possibility that an item of information, while not accepted as fully credible, may still be ''taken seriously'' (we call such items of information ''allowable''). We establish a correspondence between generalized choice structures (GCS) and AGM belief revision; furthermore, we provide a syntactic characterization of the proposed notion of belief revision, which we call filtered belief revision.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D80 ; credible information ; allowable information ; AGM belief revision ; choice structure ; Entscheidungsbaum ; Entscheidungstheorie ; Offenbarte Präferenzen ; Erwartungsbildung ; Information ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Chicago, IL: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
    Publication Date: 2021-11-02
    Description: We investigate optimal capital structure and debt maturity policies in the presence of fixed issuance costs. We identify the global-optimal policy that generates the highest values of equity across all states of nature consistent with limited liability. The optimal policy without commitment provides almost as much tax benefits to debt as does the global-optimal policy and, in the limit of vanishing issuance costs, allows firms to extract 100% of EBIT. This limiting case does not converge to the equilibrium of DeMarzo and He (2019), who report no tax benefits to debt when issuance costs are set to zero at the outset.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Verbindlichkeiten ; Kapitalstruktur ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    London: Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice (cemmap)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-21
    Description: We develop methods for robust Bayesian inference in structural vector autoregressions (SVARs) where the parameters of interest are set-identified using external instruments, or 'proxy SVARs'. Set-identification in these models typically occurs when there are multiple instruments for multiple structural shocks. Existing Bayesian approaches to inference in proxy SVARs require researchers to specify a single prior over the model's parameters, but, under set-identification, a component of the prior is never revised. We extend the robust Bayesian approach to inference in set-identified models proposed by Giacomini and Kitagawa (2018) - which allows researchers to relax potentially controversial point-identifying restrictions without having to specify an unrevisable prior - to proxy SVARs. We provide new results on the frequentist validity of the approach in proxy SVARs. We also explore the effect of instrument strength on inference about the identified set. We illustrate our approach by revisiting Mertens and Ravn (2013) and relaxing the assumption that they impose to obtain point identification.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; VAR-Modell ; Bayes-Statistik ; Induktive Statistik ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    London: Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice (cemmap)
    Publication Date: 2021-09-21
    Description: This paper builds on Bonhomme (2012) to develop a method to systematically construct moment conditions for dynamic panel data logit models with fixed effects. After introducing the moment conditions obtained in this way, we explore their implications for identification and estimation of the model parameters that are common to all individuals, and we find that those common model parameters are estimable at root-n rate for many more dynamic panel logit models than has been appreciated by the existing literature. In the case where the model contains one lagged variable, the moment conditions in Kitazawa (2013, 2016) are transformations of a subset of ours. A GMM estimator that is based on the moment conditions is shown to perform well in Monte Carlo simulations and in an empirical illustration to labor force participation.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Logit-Modell ; Panel ; Dynamische Wirtschaftstheorie ; Momentenmethode ; Erwerbstätigkeit ; Theorie ; USA
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Hamburg: Universität Hamburg, Fakultät für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, WiSo-Forschungslabor
    Publication Date: 2022-06-16
    Description: Strong sustanbility demands that decisions on climate mitigation be guided by a climate target and that compliance with the target be the primary concern prior to saving mitigation cost. Climate targets have often been formulated as temperature targets and for the case of uncertainty about climate sensitivity as probability targets. However, for the realistic case that we learn about climate sensitivity over the decision-making period, it is not clear how strong sustainability would consistently derive decisions on climate mitigation before and after leraning. We systematically structure the normative debate on adequate decision criteria for strong sustainability under uncertainty and learning along the lines of the von-Neumann-Morgenstern axioms of expected utility theory. We distinguish between a strict and a pragmatic-probabilistic interpretation of strong sustainability. We find that both interpretations break with the continuity axiom, while the pragmatic-proabilistic interpretation violates, in addition, the independence axiom. We discuss different possible decision criteria for strong sustainability under learning about climate sensitivity, among them a new time-recursive cost-effectiveness analysis. This probabilistic target formulation for the case of learning leads to non-trivial results if a "safe" probability level can be reached at zero mitigation cost in at least one learning scenario in which climate sensitivity turns out to be sufficiently low. This may occur if learning happens rather late and major parts of the low-carbon transformation have been achieved already before learning. Overall, our decision-analytic review helps to better understand the position of strong sustainaibility and its potential inconsistencies. We would encourage future work to use the methods of decision theory for structuring normative positions in the sustainability discourse.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Klimapolitik ; Politisches Ziel ; Risiko ; Lernen ; Erwartungsnutzen ; Theorie
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Design ; Theorie ; Gestaltung ; Gesellschaft ; Cultural studies ; Mass media ; Communication ; Design ; Social sciences ; Cultural Studies ; Media Sociology ; Design, general ; Social Sciences, general ; Aufsatzsammlung ; Design ; Theorie ; Gestaltung ; Gesellschaft
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (VIII, 319 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783658302696
    DDC: 306
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 56
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Computerspiel ; Neue Medien ; Kommunikation ; Soziologie ; Spiel ; Theorie ; Gamification ; Mass media ; Communication ; Sociology ; Sports—Sociological aspects ; Media Sociology ; Media Research ; Sociological Theory ; Sociology of Sport and Leisure ; Communication Studies ; Computerspiel ; Neue Medien ; Kommunikation ; Soziologie ; Spiel ; Theorie ; Gamification
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (VIII, 190 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9783658291075
    DDC: 302.23
    RVK:
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Language: German
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  • 57
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Wiesbaden : Springer VS
    Keywords: Demokratie ; Digitalisierung ; Theorie ; Political communication ; Political theory ; Europe—Politics and government ; Political Communication ; Political Theory ; European Politics ; Aufsatzsammlung ; Demokratie ; Digitalisierung ; Theorie
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: 1 Online-Resso