WILBERT

Wildauer Bücher+E-Medien Recherche-Tool

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Welt  (2,996)
  • English  (2,995)
  • Portuguese  (1)
  • Romanian
Collection
Keywords
Language
Years
  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut – Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2019-11-28
    Description: Verwendet man die drei zentralen Indikatoren des ifo World Economic Survey (WES), um das Wachstum des preisbereinigten Bruttoinlandsprodukts in 44 Ländern und drei Ländergruppen zu prognostizieren, kristallisieren sich zwei wesentliche Ergebnisse heraus. Erstens generieren Prognosemodelle, die einen WES-Indikator enthalten, für drei Viertel der hier betrachteten Länder und Ländergruppen geringere Prognosefehler als ein Benchmark-Modell. Und zweitens sind entweder das Wirtschaftsklima oder die Konjunkturerwartungen für die nächsten sechs Monate der dafür am besten geeignete WES-Indikator. Die Einschätzung der aktuellen Wirtschaftslage spielt für die Prognose des preisbereinigten Bruttoinlandsprodukts nur eine untergeordnete Rolle.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Weltwirtschaft ; Internationale Konjunktur ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Welt ; WES
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut – Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2019-11-28
    Description: Die deutsche Wirtschaft kühlt sich seit Anfang letzten Jahres spürbar ab. Allerdings ist die konjunkturelle Entwicklung gespalten. Das exportorientierte Verarbeitende Gewerbe, in dem etwa ein Viertel der Wertschöpfung erwirtschaftet wird, steckt in einer Rezession. Wirtschaftspolitiken, die über Abschottung, Sanktionen und Androhungen versuchen, die globalisierte Wirtschaftsordnung zu verändern, haben die Verunsicherung weltweit steigen, die Industriekonjunktur abkühlen und den Welthandel einbrechen lassen. Gleichzeitig verzeichnen die größtenteils binnenorientierten Dienstleistungsbereiche und die Bauwirtschaft robuste und teilweise kräftige Zuwächse. Allerdings mehren sich mittlerweile die Anzeichen, dass sich die industrielle Schwäche allmählich über den Arbeitsmarkt und tiefe Wertschöpfungsketten auch auf die Binnenkonjunktur überträgt. Im laufenden Jahr wird mit einer Zunahme des preisbereinigten Bruttoinlandsprodukts von 0,6% gerechnet. Unter der Annahme, dass die vielfältigen Abwärtsrisiken nicht eintreten, wird sich die Konjunktur im kommenden Jahr wieder etwas beschleunigen. Der Anstieg der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Leistung wird voraussichtlich 1,7% betragen, was aber durch einen Kalendereffekt in Höhe von 0,4 Prozentpunkten überzeichnet wird. Die konjunkturelle Grunddynamik, ausgedrückt als Jahresverlaufsrate, fällt mit 1,4% relativ schwach aus, so dass die deutsche Wirtschaft ohne Schwung in das kommende Jahr gehen dürfte. In Folge der deutlich weniger dynamischen Produktionsentwicklung dürfte sich der Beschäftigungsaufbau abschwächen. Insgesamt wird die Zahl der Erwerbstätigen im Jahresdurchschnitt 2019 mit voraussichtlich 433 000 Personen weniger stark zunehmen als im Vorjahr. Im Jahr 2020 dürfte der Zuwachs noch ca. 247 000 Personen betragen. Die Zahl der Arbeitslosen wird im laufenden und im kommenden Jahr nur noch um 93 000 bzw. 59 000 zurückgehen. Die Arbeitslosenquote (in der Abgrenzung der Bundesagentur für Arbeit) wird im Prognosezeitraum von voraussichtlich 4,9% auf 4,8% sinken. Die Verbraucherpreise dürften im Durchschnitt des laufenden Jahres um 1,5% steigen. Binnenwirtschaftlich dürften die Unternehmen den Lohnkostenschub, der insbesondere durch die Wiedereinführung der paritätischen Finanzierung in der gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung ausgelöst wurde, nach und nach an die Verbraucher weitergeben. Zudem ist der gesetzliche Mindestlohn erhöht worden. Im nächsten Jahr dürfte sich die Inflationsrate, im Einklang mit der besseren Konjunktur, auf 1,8% beschleunigen. Die Finanzpolitik ist im laufenden Jahr expansiv ausgerichtet. Dazu tragen insbesondere die Senkung des Beitragssatzes zur Arbeitslosenversicherung, die Ausweitung der Mütterrente in der ersten Jahreshälfte und das Pflegepersonal-Stärkungsgesetz bei. Es wird erwartet, dass sich der Finanzierungsüberschuss im Jahr 2019 auf rund 49 Mrd. Euro bzw. 1,4% in Relation zum Bruttoinlandsprodukt beläuft und sich damit weiterhin Überschüsse in ähnlich hohem Niveau wie im Vorjahr realisieren. Der Expansionsgrad dürfte im Jahr 2020 zurückgehen und insgesamt schwächer ausfallen. Positive Impulse sind vor allem aus den Entlastungen bei der Einkommensteuer sowie durch die Ausweitung der investiven Ausgaben der Gebietskörperschaften zu erwarten. Der gesamtstaatliche Finanzierungsüberschuss wird im Jahr 2020 voraussichtlich rund 32 Mrd. Euro bzw. 0,9% in Relation zum Bruttoinlandsprodukt betragen. Die Risiken für die weltwirtschaftliche Entwicklung dominieren weiterhin die Chancen. Insbesondere ist eine Eskalation des Handelskonflikts zwischen den USA und China nach dem Scheitern der Handelsgespräche Anfang Mai wahrscheinlicher geworden. Aber auch andere Länder stehen nach wie vor im Visier der amerikanischen Handelspolitik. Auch der nach wie vor geplante Austritt des Vereinigten Königreichs aus der Europäischen Union ist ein Risiko für die Prognose. Nach der Verschiebung des Austrittsdatums sollte der Brexit spätestens bis Ende Oktober dieses Jahres stattfinden. Ein weiteres Risiko stellt die Haushaltslage Italiens dar. Wenn der Streit mit der Europäischen Kommission wieder aufflammen sollte, könnte dies negative Auswirkungen auf die ohnehin schwache konjunkturelle Dynamik in dem südeuropäischen Land haben.
    Keywords: F01 ; O10 ; ddc:330 ; Konjunktur ; Internationale Konjunktur ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Wirtschaftsprognose ; Deutschland ; Eurozone ; Welt ; Konjunkturprognose
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut – Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2019-11-28
    Description: Das ifo Weltwirtschaftsklima hat sich eingetrübt. Der Indikator fiel im dritten Quartal. Der Abwärtstrend wurde in der vorangegangenen Umfrage durch eine zeitweilige Entspannung des Handelskonflikts unterbrochen. Mit dem Wiederaufleben des Handelsstreites fiel der Indikator wieder. Sowohl die Lagebeurteilung als auch die Erwartungen verschlechterten sich deutlich. Die Verschärfung des Handelskonflikts belastet die Weltkonjunktur beträchtlich.
    Keywords: F01 ; O10 ; ddc:330 ; Weltwirtschaft ; Internationale Konjunktur ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Welt ; WES
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut – Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2019-11-28
    Description: Der deutschen Wirtschaft droht eine Rezession. In diesem Jahr dürfte das Wirtschaftswachstum mit 0,5% im Vergleich zum Vorjahr deutlich niedriger ausfallen als in den zurückliegenden Jahren. Im kommenden Jahr wird sich die Konjunktur wohl allmählich wieder normalisieren und der Anstieg der Wirtschaftsleistung auf 1,25 erhöhen.
    Keywords: F01 ; O10 ; ddc:330 ; Konjunktur ; Internationale Konjunktur ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Wirtschaftsprognose ; Deutschland ; Eurozone ; Welt ; Konjunkturprognose
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Leiden: Brill Nijhoff
    Publication Date: 2019-10-25
    Description: On the occasion of the centenary of the International Labour Organization (ILO), this 11th special issue of International Development Policy explores the Organization's capacity for action, its effectiveness and its ability to adapt and innovate. The collection of thirteen articles, written by authors from around the world, covers three broad areas: the ILO's historic context and contemporary challenges; approaches and results in relation to labour and social protection; and the changes shaping the future of work. The articles highlight the progress and gaps to date, as well as the context and constraints faced by the ILO in its efforts to respond to the new dilemmas and challenges of the fourth industrial revolution, with regard to labour and social protection.
    Keywords: ddc:320 ; Arbeitswelt ; Arbeitnehmerschutz ; Sozialstandards ; Digitalisierung ; Strukturwandel ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    New York, NY: Federal Reserve Bank of New York
    Publication Date: 2018-12-13
    Description: This paper presents a new measure of capital flow pressures in the form of a recast exchange market pressure index. The measure captures pressures that materialize in actual international capital flows as well as pressures that result in exchange rate adjustments. The formulation is theory-based, relying on balance of payments equilibrium conditions and international asset portfolio considerations. Based on the modified exchange market pressure index, the paper also proposes a global risk response index, which reflects the country-specific sensitivity of capital flow pressures to measures of global risk aversion. For a large sample of countries over time, we demonstrate time variation in the effects of global risk on exchange market pressures, the evolving importance of the global factor across types of countries, and the changing risk-on or risk-off status of currencies.
    Keywords: F32 ; G11 ; G20 ; ddc:330 ; exchange market pressure ; risk aversion ; safe haven ; capital flows ; exchange rate ; foreign exchange reserves ; Kapitalmobilität ; Wechselkurs ; Risikoaversion ; Wechselkurspolitik ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F22 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; Migrationspolitik ; Reform ; Arbeitsmigranten ; Berufsgruppe ; Beruf ; Welt ; Deutschland
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Providence, RI: Brown University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2019-09-03
    Description: This research explores the geographical origins of the coevolution of cultural and linguistic traits in the course of human history, relating the geographical roots of long-term orientation to the structure of the future tense, the agricultural determinants of gender bias to the presence of sex-based grammatical gender, and the ecological origins of hierarchical orientation to the existence of politeness distinctions. The study advances the hypothesis and establishes empirically that: (i) variations in geographical characteristics that were conducive to higher natural return to agricultural investment contributed to the existing cross-language variations in the structure of the future tense, (ii) the agricultural determinants of gender gap in agricultural productivity fostered the existence of sex-based grammatical gender, and (iii) the ecological origins of hierarchical societies triggered the emergence of politeness distinctions.
    Keywords: D01 ; D03 ; J16 ; Z10 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; Comparative Development ; Cultural Evolution ; Language Structure ; Future Tense ; Politeness Distinctions ; Long-Term Orientation ; Grammatical Gender ; Gender Bias ; Hierarchy ; Emergence of States ; Entwicklung ; Räumliche Verteilung ; Linguistik ; Sozialer Wandel ; Evolutionsökonomik ; Agrargeschichte ; Agrargeographie ; Ernteertrag ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Salzburg: University of Salzburg, Department of Social Sciences and Economics
    Publication Date: 2019-08-16
    Description: This paper develops a global vector autoregressive (GVAR) model with time-varying parameters and stochastic volatility to analyze whether international spillovers of US monetary policy have changed over time. The proposed model allows assessing whether coefficients evolve gradually over time or are better characterized by infrequent, but large breaks. Our findings point towards pronounced changes in the international transmission of US monetary policy throughout the sample period, especially so for the reaction of international output, equity prices, and exchange rates against the US dollar. In general, the strength of spillovers has weakened in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Using simple panel regressions, we link the variation in international responses to measures of trade and financial globalization. We find that a broad trade base and a high degree of financial integration with the world economy tend to cushion risks stemming from a foreign shock such as a US monetary policy tightening, whereas a reduction in trade barriers and/or a liberalization of the capital account increase these risks.
    Keywords: C30 ; E52 ; F41 ; ddc:330 ; Spillovers ; zero lower bound ; globalization ; mixture innovation models ; Geldpolitik ; Niedrigzinspolitik ; Amerikanisch ; Geldpolitische Transmission ; VAR-Modell ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: This paper (i) explains the motivation for articulating the benefits of accessibility; (ii) provides a narrative basis for articulating how accessibility affects economic and social life; and (iii) moves towards a framework for quantifying the benefits of accessibility. In examining laws, regulations and judicial proceedings in different nations, the paper finds that most view cost as a limiting factor on what public and private entities can be compelled to provide in relation to the accessibility of transportation, the built environment, employment, and services. This is so even in the context of constitutionally and legislatively enshrined human rights. The paper also finds that cost-benefit balancing is emerging as a necessary part of the accessibility governance framework. When addressing the specific application of accessibility rights, governments, regulatory bodies and courts around the world deal comprehensively with costs but fail to value important categories of benefit, such as the reduction of stigmatic harms, "option" benefits and "existence" value, and capability value. The paper describes progress towards a comprehensive narrative and analytical framework for describing and measuring such benefits.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Verkehrsinfrastruktur ; Räumliche Erreichbarkeit ; Behindertenpolitik ; Behinderte ; Ältere Menschen ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: SVAR models that include a single world price (such as the terms-of-trade) predict that world shocks explain a small fraction of movements in domestic output (typically less than 10 percent). This paper presents an empirical framework in which multiple commodity prices transmit world disturbances. Estimates on a panel of 138 countries over the period 1960-2015 indicate that world shocks explain on average 33 percent of output fluctuations in individual economies. This figure doubles when the model is estimated on post-2000 data. The findings reported here suggest that one-world-price specifications significantly underestimate the importance of world shocks for domestic business cycles.
    Keywords: F41 ; ddc:330 ; World shocks ; Commodity prices ; Business cycles ; Rohstoffpreis ; Zins ; Schock ; Internationale Konjunktur ; Konjunkturzusammenhang ; Schätzung ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: When President Trump came into office the US administration launched a detailed analysis of American trade relations. It aimed to identify "unfair trade practices" that are supposedly increasingly being used by other countries, and that are economically damaging to America. This study simulates potential protectionist trade policies on the part of the USA using historical data. The results enable a comprehensive analysis of the political debate and, above all, of its meaningfulness. The study illustrates that the USA does actually face economic imbalances, and especially high trade deficits, which are increasingly causing upsets in individual branches within the States. At the same time, however, the study also makes it clear that the solution to such economic challenges does not lie in a protectionist trade policy. On the contrary, such a policy would only exacerbate problems in the long term. The study ends with a policy recommendation for the USA and the functioning, rule-based, multilateral trade system.
    Description: Die neue US-Administration hat mit der Amtsübernahme Präsident Trumps eine detaillierte Analyse der amerikanischen Handelsbeziehungen initiiert. Ziel ist die Identifizierung 'unfairer Handelspraktiken', die vermeintlich durch andere Nationen zunehmend eingesetzt werden und den USA wirtschaftlich schaden. Die vorliegende Studie analysiert die angedrohten protektionistischen Handelspolitiken der USA unter Heranziehung historischer Daten. Auf Basis der vorliegenden Ergebnisse ist eine umfassende Bewertung der politischen Debatte und insbesondere ihrer Sinnhaftigkeit möglich. Die Studie illustriert, dass die USA mit ökonomischen Ungleichgewichten konfrontiert sind, insbesondere mit hohen Handelsdefiziten, die zunehmend zu Verstimmungen in einzelnen Industrien innerhalb der USA führen. Zugleich wird aber aus der Studie auch deutlich, dass die Lösung für solche wirtschaftlichen Herausforderungen nicht in einer protektionistischen Handelspolitik zu finden ist, im Gegenteil. Eine solche Politik würde die Probleme auf lange Sicht nur verschärfen. Die Studie schließt mit einer Politikempfehlung im Sinne der USA und des funktionierenden regelbasierten, multilateralen Handelssystems.
    Keywords: F10 ; F13 ; F53 ; ddc:330 ; Außenhandel ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Protektionismus ; Zoll ; Handelshemmnisse ; Auslandsinvestition ; NAFTA-Staaten ; WTO-Recht ; USA ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: D31 ; D72 ; F00 ; F40 ; F43 ; ddc:330 ; Außenhandel ; Handelsliberalisierung ; Erwerbstätigkeit ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Einkommensverteilung ; Politische Einstellung ; Ideologie ; Radikalismus ; EU-Staaten ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: D78 ; A11 ; ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Meinung ; Ökonomen ; Nationalismus ; Radikalismus ; Ideologie ; Welt ; Populismus
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Istanbul: Koç University-TÜSİAD Economic Research Forum (ERF)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-05
    Description: This paper presents a comprehensive cross-country database of fiscal space, broadly defined as the availability of budgetary resources for a government to service its financial obligations. The database covers up to 200 countries over the period 1990-2016, and includes 28 indicators of fiscal space grouped into four categories: debt sustainability, balance sheet vulnerability, external and private sector debt related risks as potential causes of contingent liabilities, and market access. We illustrate potential applications of the database by analyzing developments in fiscal space across three time frames: over the past quarter century; during financial crises; and during oil price plunges. The main results are as follows. First, fiscal space had improved in many countries before the global financial crisis. In advanced economies, following severe deteriorations during the crisis, many indicators of fiscal space have virtually returned to levels in the mid-2000s. In contrast, fiscal space has shrunk in many emerging market and developing economies since the crisis. Second, financial crises tend to coincide with deterioration in multiple indicators of fiscal space, but they are often followed by reduced reliance on short-term borrowing. Finally, fiscal space narrows in energy-exporting emerging market and developing economies during oil price plunges but later expands, often because of procyclical fiscal tightening and, in some episodes, a recovery in oil prices.
    Keywords: E62 ; H62 ; H63 ; ddc:330 ; Fiscal policy ; sovereign debt ; fiscal deficit ; private debt ; financial crises ; oil prices ; Finanzpolitik ; Öffentliche Schulden ; Private Verschuldung ; Finanzkrise ; Ölpreis ; Risiko ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Manila: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-17
    Description: The pronounced and persistent impact of the global financial crisis of 2008 motivates our empirical analysis of the role of institutions and macroeconomic fundamentals on countries' adjustment to shocks. Our empirical analysis shows that the associations of growth level, growth volatility, shocks, institutions, and macroeconomic fundamentals have changed in important ways after the crisis. Gross domestic product growth across countries has become more dependent on external factors, including global growth, global oil prices, and global financial volatility. After accounting for the effects global shocks, we find that several factors facilitate adjustment to shocks in middle-income countries. Educational attainment, share of manufacturing output in gross domestic product, and exchange rate stability increase the level of economic growth, while exchange rate flexibility, education attainment, and lack of political polarization reduce the volatility of economic growth. Countries cope with shocks better in the short to medium term by using appropriate policy tools and having good long-term fundamentals.
    Keywords: C38 ; E02 ; F43 ; ddc:330 ; growth ; institutions ; middle income ; shocks ; volatility ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Konjunktur ; Wirtschaftliche Anpassung ; Institutionelle Infrastruktur ; Schwellenländer ; Finanzkrise ; Schock ; Konjunkturzusammenhang ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Uppsala: Uppsala University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2019-06-13
    Description: We estimate trends in global earnings dispersion across occupational groups using a new database covering 66 developed and developing countries between 1970 and 2015. Our main finding is that global earnings inequality has declined, primarily during the 2000s, when the global Gini coefficient dropped nearly 10 points and the earnings share of the world's poorest half doubled. Decomposition analyses emphasize the role of income convergence between poor and rich countries and that earnings have become more similar within occupations in traded industries. Sensitivity checks show that the results are robust to varying real exchange rates, inequality measures and population definitions.
    Keywords: D31 ; F01 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Global inequality ; Development ; Inequality decomposition ; Labor markets ; Einkommensverteilung ; Wirtschaftliche Konvergenz ; Gini-Koeffizient ; Schätzung ; Welt ; Industrieländer ; Entwicklungsländer
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Cham: Springer Open
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: This authoritative book presents the ever progressing state of the art in evaluating climate change strategies and action. It builds upon a selection of relevant and practical papers and presentations given at the 2nd International Conference on Evaluating Climate Change and Development held in Washington DC in 2014 and includes perspectives from independent evaluations of the major international organisations supporting climate action in developing countries, such as the Global Environment Facility. The first section of the book sets the stage and provides an overview of independent evaluations, carried out by multilateral development banks and development organisations. Important topics include how policies and organisations aim to achieve impact and how this is measured, whether climate change is mainstreamed into other development programs, and whether operations are meeting the urgency of climate change challenges. The following sections focus on evaluation of climate change projects and policies as they link to development, from the perspective of international organisations, NGO's, multilateral and bilateral aid agencies, and academia. The authors share methodologies or approaches used to better understand problems and assess interventions, strategies and policies. They also share challenges encountered, what was done to solve these and lessons learned from evaluations. Collectively, the authors illustrate the importance of evaluation in providing evidence to guide policy change to informed decision-making.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Adaption and community resilience ; Forestation ; Mitigation and climate ; Process in agriculture and food security ; Renewable energy systems ; Klimawandel ; Nachhaltige Entwicklung ; Klimapolitik ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F01 ; O10 ; ddc:330 ; Innovation ; Berechnung ; Indexbindung ; Befragung ; Weltwirtschaft ; Weltkonjunktur ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: O31 ; O32 ; O38 ; ddc:330 ; Innovation ; Technologiepolitik ; Wissenschaft ; Wirtschaft ; Umweltökonomik ; Technischer Fortschritt ; Good Governance ; EU-Staaten ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: D70 ; F53 ; Q20 ; Q50 ; ddc:330 ; Umweltabkommen ; Klimaschutz ; Klimapolitik ; Einführung ; Welt ; USA
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    London: Queen Mary University of London, School of Economics and Finance
    Publication Date: 2018-11-21
    Description: We reconsider the relationship between oil and conflict, focusing on the location of oil resources. In a panel of 132 countries over the period 1962-2009, we show that oil windfalls increase the probability of conflict in onshore-rich countries, while they decrease this probability in offshore-rich countries. We use a simple model of conflict to illustrate how these opposite effects can be explained by a fighting capacity mechanism, whereby the government can use offshore oil income to increase its fighting capacity, while onshore oil may be looted by oppositional groups to finance a rebellion. We provide empirical evidence supporting this interpretation: we find that oil windfalls i ncrease both the number and strength of active rebel groups in onshore-rich countries, while they strengthen the government in offshore-rich ones.
    Keywords: O13 ; D74 ; Q34 ; Q35 ; ddc:330 ; Natural resources ; Conflict ; Erdölvorkommen ; Marktlagengewinn ; Politischer Konflikt ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F01 ; O10 ; ddc:330 ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Internationale Konjunktur ; Wirtschaftsindikator ; Weltwirtschaft ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Cham: Springer Open
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Description: Public spending on infrastructure plays an important role in promoting economic growth and poverty alleviation. Empirical studies unequivocally show that under-investment in infrastructure limit economic growth. At the same time, numerous other studies have shown that investment in infrastructure can be a highly effective tool in fighting poverty reduction. In that context, the financing of infrastructure has been a critical element of most economic growth and poverty reduction strategies in developing countries, since the start of this millennium. This book provides a comparative analysis of the aggregate and sectoral implications of higher spending on infrastructure in three very different Asian countries: China, Pakistan, and the Philippines. Particular attention is paid to the role of alternative financing mechanisms for increasing public infrastructure investment, namely distortionary and non-distortionary means of financing. The book will be of interest to scholars and policy-makers concerned with economic growth in developing countries.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Offshore Engineering ; Renewable and Green Energy ; Numerical and Computational Physics, Simulation ; Natural Resource and Energy Economics ; Engineering Fluid Dynamics ; Development Economics ; Economic Growth ; Public Economics ; Wasserkraft ; Wasserkraftwerk ; Meeresnutzung ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Cham: Springer Open
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Description: This book discusses a core question in many fields of the social sciences, namely how to create, share and adopt new knowledge. It creates an original space for conversation between two lines of research that have developed largely in parallel for a long time: social network theory and the geography of knowledge. This book considers that relational thinking has become increasingly important for scholars to capture societal outcomes by studying social relations and networks, whereas the role of place, space and spatial scales has been somewhat neglected outside an emergent geography of knowledge. The individual contributions help integrate network arguments of connectivity, geographical arguments of contiguity and contextuality into a more comprehensive understanding of the ways in which people and organizations are constrained by and make use of space and networks for learning and innovation. Experts in the fields of geography, sociology, economics, political science, psychology, management and organizational studies develop conceptual models and propose empirical research that illustrates the ways in which networks and geography play together in processes of innovation, learning, leadership, and power. This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wissenstransfer ; Soziales Netzwerk ; Soziale Beziehungen ; Interdisziplinäre Forschung ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Cham: Springer International Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Keywords: ddc:620 ; Energieversorgung ; Klimawandel ; Energiekonsum ; Systemtransformation ; Energiepolitik ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Description: This manual describes a new methodology to measure a decent but basic standard of living in different countries and how much workers need to earn to afford this, making it possible for researchers to estimate comparable living wages around the world and determine gaps between living wages and prevailing wages, even in countries with limited secondary data.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Development Economics ; Labour Economics ; Political Economy ; Grundbedürfnisse ; Mindestlohn ; Messung ; Armut ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: L71 ; Q32 ; Q33 ; ddc:330 ; Flüssiggas ; Infrastruktur ; Umwelttechnik ; Energieversorgung ; Energiewirtschaft ; Welt ; LNG
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    New York, NY: Federal Reserve Bank of New York
    Publication Date: 2018-12-13
    Description: The post-crisis period has seen a considerable shift in the composition and drivers of international bank lending and international bond issuance, the two main components of global liquidity. The sensitivity of both types of flows to U.S. monetary policy rose substantially in the immediate aftermath of the global financial crisis, peaked around the time of the 2013 Federal Reserve "taper tantrum," and then partially reverted toward pre-crisis levels. Conversely, the responsiveness of international bank lending to global risk conditions declined considerably after the crisis and became similar to that of international debt securities. The increased sensitivity of international bank flows to U.S. monetary policy has been driven mainly by post-crisis changes in the behavior of national banking systems, especially those that ex ante had banks that were less well capitalized. By contrast, the post-crisis fall in the sensitivity of international bank lending to global risk was mainly owing to a compositional effect, driven by increases in the lending market shares of national banking systems that were better capitalized. The post-2013 reversal in the sensitivities to U.S. monetary policy partially reflects the expected divergence in the monetary policies of the United States and other advanced economies, highlighting the sensitivity of capital flows to the degree of commonality of cycles and the stance of policy. Moreover, global liquidity fluctuations have largely been driven by policy initiatives in creditor countries. Policies and prudential instruments that reinforced lending banks' capitalization and stable funding levels reduced the volatility of international lending flows.
    Keywords: F34 ; G10 ; G21 ; ddc:330 ; global liquidity ; international bank lending ; international bond flows ; capital flows ; Finanzkrise ; Internationale Liquidität ; Internationale Bank ; Kreditgeschäft ; Anleihe ; Kapitalmobilität ; USA ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    London: Bank of England, External Monetary Policy Committee Unit
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: Have bank regulatory policies and unconventional monetary policies - and any possible interactions - been a factor behind the recent "deglobalisation" in cross-border bank lending? To test this hypothesis, we use bank-level data from the United Kingdom - a country at the heart of the global financial system. Our results suggest that increases in microprudential capital requirements tend to reduce international bank lending and some forms of unconventional monetary policy can amplify this effect. Specifically, the United Kingdom's Funding for Lending Scheme (FLS) significantly amplified the effects of increased capital requirements on external lending. Quantitative easing may also have had an amplification effect, but these estimates are usually insignificant and smaller in magnitude. We find that this interaction between microprudential regulations and the FLS can explain roughly 30% of the contraction in aggregate UK cross-border bank lending between mid-2012 and end-2013, corresponding to around 10% of the contraction globally. This suggests that unconventional monetary policy designed to support domestic lending can have the unintended consequence of reducing foreign lending.
    Keywords: G21 ; G28 ; ddc:330 ; Capital requirements ; Funding for Lending Scheme ; financial deglobalisation ; Bankenregulierung ; Quantitative Lockerung ; Geldpolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Internationaler Kredit ; Großbritannien ; Spillover-Effekt ; Internationaler Finanzmarkt ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Vienna: WWWforEurope
    Publication Date: 2017-10-03
    Description: Europe needs change. The financial crisis has exposed long-neglected deficiencies in the present growth path, most visibly in the areas of unemployment and public debt. At the same time, Europe has to cope with new challenges, ranging from globalisation and demographic shifts to new technologies and ecological challenges. Under the title of Welfare, Wealth and Work for Europe - WWWforEurope - a European research consortium is laying the analytical foundation for a new development strategy that will enable a socio-ecological transition to high levels of employment, social inclusion, gender equity and environmental sustainability. The four-year research project within the 7th Framework Programme funded by the European Commission was launched in April 2012. The consortium brings together researchers from 34 scientific institutions in 12 European countries and is coordinated by the Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO). The project coordinator is Karl Aiginger, director of WIFO.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Nachhaltige Entwicklung ; Strukturwandel ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Zurich: ETH Zurich, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research
    Publication Date: 2017-11-29
    Description: We investigate the effect of higher education on the evolution of inequality. In so doing we propose a novel overlapping generations model with three social classes: the rich, the middle class, and the poor. We show that there is an initial phase in which no social class invests in higher education of their children, such that the evolution of inequality is entirely driven by the level of bequests. Once a certain income threshold is surpassed, the rich start to invest in higher education of their children, which partially crowds out bequests and thereby reduces inequality in the short run. The better educated children of the rich, however, enjoy higher incomes and inequality starts to rise again. As time goes by, the middle class and eventually also the poor start to invest in higher education, but now the increase in inequality is driven by different levels of education. As the economy proceeds toward a balanced growth path, educational differences between social groups and thus inequality decline again. We argue that (1) the proposed mechanism has the potential to explain the Ushaped evolution of inequality in rich countries in the second half of the 20th Century and the first decade of the 21st Century and (2) the currently observed increase in inequality is rather a transitory phenomenon.
    Keywords: I23 ; I24 ; I25 ; O11 ; O41 ; ddc:330 ; Higher education ; inequality ; growth regime switch ; middle income trap ; Piketty curve ; Studium ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Einkommensverteilung ; Soziale Schicht ; Overlapping Generations ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Luxembourg: Luxembourg Income Study (LIS)
    Publication Date: 2017-10-03
    Description: We examine the effects of globalization on the size and composition of tax revenues, worker-specific tax burdens, and effective average labor income tax rates using a unique international database on income tax calculators. We find that due to increasing mobility of firms and high-income workers, globalization led governments in OECD countries to seek tax revenues from alternative sources, specifically from employee-borne taxes paid by relatively less mobile middle-income workers. In 1994-2007, they experienced a globalization-induced rise in their personal income tax rate of around 1.5, whereas the top 1% of workers faced a reduction of approximately 1.5 percentage points.
    Keywords: F1 ; F6 ; H2 ; H3 ; ddc:330 ; Globalization ; Income taxes ; Tax progressivity ; International trade ; Migration ; Einkommensteuer ; Lohnsteuer ; Steuerbelastung ; Mittelschicht ; Globalisierung ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; Brain Drain ; OECD-Staaten ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: This dissertation was written by Christopher Weber during his time as a research assistant at the Center for Economic Studies (CES) at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) Munich. It was handed in at the department of Economics at the LMU Munich in July 2016. The goal of the thesis is to establish the configuration of collateral policy as a tool of central bank policies in pursuit of different objectives, and to present collateral policies in practice, as well as impact and effects of collateral policy. The thesis consists of three parts and nine chapters. The first part discusses the role of collateral in central bank policy. Possible tasks and objectives of central banks are historically deduced in order to then integrate the configuration of collateral policy into the system of objectives. Collateral policy emerges as of relevance towards all central bank objectives. As a result, a normative framework for the role of collateral policy is developed. In the second part, practical collateral policy measures are presented along the lines of this framework. The focus is on the collateral policy of the Eurosystem, which is presented in detail. It has been intensified with respect to several central bank objectives throughout the financial and the European debt crisis. A comparison is made to historical collateral policy measures, as well as the configuration of the collateral frameworks at the Fed, the Bank of England and the Bank of Japan during the recent crisis years. The third part starts with a theoretical foundation of the impact and transmission process of collateral policy within the system of objectives of a central bank. Collateral policy is therefore differentiated into haircut policy and quantity policy and contrasted to classical interest rate policy. The optimal collateral policy with respect to distinct central bank objectives is derived.
    Keywords: E50 ; E61 ; E63 ; F33 ; F36 ; F45 ; G01 ; H12 ; ddc:330 ; collateral policy ; collateral framework ; central bank policy ; central bank objectives ; Eurosystem ; Federal Reserve System ; Bank of England ; Bank of Japan ; European Monetary Union ; Eligible Asset Database ; reverse transaction ; haircut ; segmental pooling ; rating agency ; collateral quality ; distribution effects. ; Zentralbank ; Quantitative Lockerung ; Kreditsicherung ; Kreditpolitik ; Geldpolitik ; Schuldenkrise ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Eurozone ; Finanzkrise ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: Q31 ; ddc:330 ; Sand ; Erschöpfbare Ressourcen ; Regulierung ; Rohstoff ; Ressourcenökonomik ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
    Publication Date: 2018-05-29
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Handelsabkommen ; Außenwirtschaftstheorie ; Gleichgewichtsmodell ; Gefangenendilemma ; WTO-Verhandlungen ; Austauschtheorie ; Theorie ; WTO-Recht ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: Q20 ; Q23 ; ddc:330 ; Entwaldung ; Wald ; Internationale Umweltpolitik ; Umweltbelastung ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: D31 ; D64 ; I31 ; ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Daten ; Trend ; Gini-Koeffizient ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: H60 ; H72 ; ddc:330 ; Regierung ; Liquidität ; Reform ; Öffentliche Schulden ; Zentralbank ; Vermögen ; Institutioneller Wandel ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: European Central Bank (ECB)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-24
    Description: We analyze the impact of technology on production and trade in services, focusing on the foreign exchange market. We identify exogenous technological changes by the connection of countries to submarine fiber-optic cables used for electronic trading, but which were not laid for purposes related to the foreign exchange market. We estimate the impact of cable connections on the share of offshore foreign exchange transactions. Cable connections between local markets and matching servers in the major financial centers lower the fixed costs of trading currencies and increase the share of currency trades occurring onshore. At the same time, however, they attenuate the effect of standard spatial frictions such as distance, local market liquidity, and restrictive regulations that otherwise prevent transactions from moving to the major financial centers. Our estimates suggest that the second effect dominates. Technology dampens the impact of spatial frictions by up to 80 percent and increases, in net terms, the share of offshore trading by 21 percentage points. Technology also has economically important implications for the distribution of foreign exchange transactions across financial centers, boosting the share in global turnover of London, the world’s largest trading venue, by as much as one-third.
    Keywords: F30 ; ddc:330 ; exogeneity ; foreign exchange market ; geography ; submarine fiber-optic cables ; technology ; Devisenmarkt ; Glasfaserkommunikation ; Betriebliche Standortwahl ; Finanzplatz ; Dienstleistungshandel ; Technischer Fortschritt ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Zurich: ETH Zurich, KOF Swiss Economic Institute
    Publication Date: 2017-01-17
    Description: The purpose of CEMETS' initial research project is to understand why the implementation of labor market-oriented education systems reforms succeed and fail. Findings should be generalizable to theory and to concrete situations so that we can inform both research and practice. We build and compare case studies of reform projects through the CEMETS Economic Policy Development Research Program for Education Reform Leaders. The centerpiece of that program is a ten-day summer institute during which reform teams learn about VET theory, policy, and practice and revise their reform plan. Each of the reform projects is a case study and we follow them over time as they implement their reforms.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Berufsbildung ; Berufsbildungspolitik ; Arbeitsmarktforschung ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Cham: Springer Open
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Lebensmittelpreis ; Volatilität ; Ernährungssicherung ; Rohstoffspekulation ; Finanzmarkt ; Ernährungspolitik ; Entwicklungsländer ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Cham: Springer Open
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Description: This volume deals with land degradation, which is occurring in almost all terrestrial biomes and agro-ecologies, in both low and high income countries and is stretching to about 30% of the total global land area. About three billion people reside in these degraded lands. However, the impact of land degradation is especially severe on livelihoods of the poor who heavily depend on natural resources. The annual global cost of land degradation due to land use and cover change (LUCC) and lower cropland and rangeland productivity is estimated to be about 300 billion USD. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accounts for the largest share (22%) of the total global cost of land degradation. Only about 38% of the cost of land degradation due to LUCC - which accounts for 78% of the US$300 billion loss - is borne by land users and the remaining share (62%) is borne by consumers of ecosystem services off the farm. The results in this volume indicate that reversing land degradation trends makes both economic sense, and has multiple social and environmental benefits. On average, one US dollar investment into restoration of degraded land returns five US dollars. The findings of the country case studies call for increased investments into the rehabilitation and restoration of degraded lands, including through such institutional and policy measures as strengthening community participation for sustainable land management, enhancing government effectiveness and rule of law, improving access to markets and rural services, and securing land tenure. The assessment in this volume has been conducted at a time when there is an elevated interest in private land investments and when global efforts to achieve sustainable development objectives have intensified. In this regard, the results of this volume can contribute significantly to the ongoing policy debate and efforts to design strategies for achieving sustainable development goals and related efforts to address land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bodenbelastung ; Landnutzung ; Nachhaltige Entwicklung ; Schwellenländer ; Entwicklungsländer ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: In Europe and in the United States, one of the legacies of the economic and financial crisis will no doubt be a high and particularly worrying level of economic inequality. Inequality has roots that go well beyond the 2008 collapse, but the stagnation that has followed it has made disparities in income and wealth more serious and more difficult to eradicate. The challenge now is to turn the injustice of current inequality into a theme of public mobilisation and political action.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Vermögensverteilung ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: Q50 ; ddc:330 ; Umwelt ; Umweltökonomik ; Bewertung ; Vergleich ; International ; Demokratie ; Welt ; EPI ; EDI
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: The study of wealth and wealth inequality has received far less attention than income, but the increasing importance of wealth, debt and wealth inequality means closer attention must be paid to their concomitant dynamics. Policy interventions to reduce economic inequality continue to target income more than wealth, but targeting the latter – especially through taxes on financial assets – is arguably more effective.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Vermögensverteilung ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Vienna: SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum
    Publication Date: 2018-02-01
    Description: On November 14th, 2014, SUERF – The European Money and Finance Forum – and CNMV, Comisión Nacional del Mercado de Valores – the Spanish Authority for supervision of securities markets – jointly organized a conference in Madrid: Challenges in Securities Markets Regulation: Investor Protection and Corporate Governance. The conference was part of the activities arranged to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the creation of the CNMV. The present SUERF Study includes a selection of papers based on the authors’ contributions to the Madrid conference.
    Keywords: D14 ; D18 ; D82 ; D83 ; G11 ; G14 ; G18 ; G21 ; G28 ; G32 ; K22 ; ddc:330 ; Wertpapierhandel ; Finanzmarktregulierung ; Anlegerschutz ; Corporate Governance ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Santa Cruz, CA: University of California, Economics Department
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: A substantial amount of money is spent on technology by schools, families and policymakers with the hope of improving educational outcomes. This chapter explores the theoretical and empirical literature on the impacts of technology on educational outcomes. The literature focuses on two primary contexts in which technology may be used for educational purposes: i) classroom use in schools, and ii) home use by students. Theoretically, ICT investment and CAI use by schools and the use of computers at home have ambiguous implications for educational achievement: expenditures devoted to technology necessarily offset inputs that may be more or less efficient, and time allocated to using technology may displace traditional classroom instruction and educational activities at home. However, much of the evidence in the schooling literature is based on interventions that provide supplemental funding for technology or additional class time, and thus favor finding positive effects. Nonetheless, studies of ICT and CAI in schools produce mixed evidence with a pattern of null results. Notable exceptions to this pattern occur in studies of developing countries and CAI interventions that target math rather than language. In the context of home use, early studies based on multivariate and instrumental variables approaches tend to find large positive (and in a few cases negative) effects while recent studies based on randomized control experiments tend to find small or null effects. Early research focused on developed countries while more recently several experiments have been conducted in developing countries.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; E-Learning ; Informationstechnik ; Bildungsertrag ; Empirische Methode ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Oxford: University of Oxford, Global Economic Governance Programme (GEG)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Description: The global trade and investment architecture (GTIA) plays a critical role in shaping the organisation and structure of international commerce - from production and distribution to consumption. Yet, tensions and questions abound - some longstanding, some new - about whose interests it best advances, its distributional impacts, and its responsiveness to changing market forces and political demands. Although there is a regular supply of proposals on rules and policies for global trade and investment, critical thinking on the trade and investment architecture is less prevalent. This paper seeks to update and bolster the analytical foundations for such discussion by reviewing the changing demands on the global architecture for trade and investment, and by mapping its contours. To begin, we review the changing global landscape for trade and investment, the key policy debates, and the myriad pressures on policymakers - arguing that these have implications for what is needed in terms of a global architecture. Alongside key enduring challenges, we identify important shifts and game changers in trade and investment flows, which in turn spur new policy challenges and implications for the governance architecture. Second, we present a systematic mapping of the contemporary global architecture for trade and investment currently, noting its on-going evolution. In so doing, we underscore that the trade and investment architecture is broader in scope and more complex, with a wider array of actors and functions, than commonly recognised or discussed in scholarly work. We also argue for analysing the trade and investment architecture in a unified fashion. Further, the paper highlights the changing ways that governments and stakeholders seek to advance international cooperation on trade and investment. The proliferation of private standards and the emphasis on "behind the border" regulatory matters illustrate the expanding array of relevant actors relevant to international trade and investment diplomacy, and the rising interest in moving beyond treaty negotiations to new modalities for cooperation - ranging from soft law approaches and technical cooperation to public-private partnerships.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationales Abkommen ; Außenwirtschaftspolitik ; Internationales Investitionsrecht ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Volkswirtschaftliche Fakultät
    Publication Date: 2019-05-27
    Description: A sketch of the International Monetary Fund's 70-year history reveals an institution that has reinvented itself over time along multiple dimensions. This history is primarily consistent with a "demand driven" theory of institutional change, as the needs of its clients and the type of crisis changed substantially over time. Some deceptively "new" IMF activities are not entirely new. Before emerging market economies dominated IMF programs, advanced economies were its earliest (and largest) clients through the 1970s. While currency problems were the dominant trigger of IMF involvement in the earlier decades, banking crises and sovereign defaults became they key focus since the 1980s. Around this time, the IMF shifted from providing relatively brief (and comparatively modest) balance-of-payments support in the era of fixed exchange rates to coping with more chronic debt sustainability problems that emerged with force in the developing nations and now migrated to advanced ones. As a consequence, the IMF has engaged in "serial lending", with programs often spanning decades. Moreover, the institution faces a growing risk of lending into insolvency, most widespread among low income countries in chronic arrears to the official sector, but most evident in the case of Greece since 2010. We conclude that these practices impair the IMF's role as an international lender of last resort.
    Keywords: E5 ; F33 ; F4 ; F55 ; G01 ; G2 ; G15 ; N0 ; ddc:330 ; IMF ; currency crashes ; financial crises ; sovereign default ; lender of last resort ; international borrowing ; Internationales Währungssystem ; Geschichte ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Bonn: Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE)
    Publication Date: 2019-06-29
    Description: Development assistance has for many decades been aiming to support developing countries’ strategies to achieve more sustainable development. Yet, evidence shows that the impact of such assistance has been well below expectations. This study examines the efforts of assistance providers and recipients to enhance the effectiveness of development assistance, particularly during the first 15 years of this century. Triggered mainly by two United Nations conferences in 2000 and 2002, which launched the Millennium Development Goals and addressed development financing issues, respectively, a series of High Level Forums were organised by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development to consult periodically on how to improve development assistance effectiveness. The study analyses the evolution of commitments made and actions taken to achieve this goal, identifying progress and challenges, and capturing the broadening of the debate, its participants, and the emerging, more complex global setting of development cooperation. Prominent among recent changes was the negotiation of an accord to launch the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation, in Busan in December 2011. The latter part of the study looks into the structure, modalities and actions of the Partnership and concludes with a critique of its record to date and an assessment of its future prospects.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Aufstrebende Mächte ; Wirksamkeit und Evaluierung ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Internationale Zusammenarbeit ; Entwicklungsorganisation ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Welt ; Entwicklungsländer
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F34 ; G01 ; O10 ; P27 ; ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Systemtransformation ; Finanzpolitik ; Finanzkrise ; International ; Wirtschaftsreform ; Estland ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: The rise of a crisis-prone banking sector and its political power has received significant attention following the most recent financial crisis. The crisis sparked a growing interest in understanding how and why we have created a world of large, unstable banks. Excessive banking activity arose by design. Using theoretical models from a public choice perspective, the thesis rationalizes this trend as the outcome of political decisions. The thesis argues that the asymmetric information on the costs of banking regulation (and on the social value of making credit available to selected borrowers) incentivizes politicians to combat banking panics and equally preserve electoral support through the smart design of banking rules, i.e. the steering of credit flows and most importantly the provision of an underpriced safety net for the banking business. However, this incentive structure has produced a regulatory framework that now favors the emergence of large, systemically important financial institutions and catalyzes moral hazard behavior. Once established, the created rents for banking activity are likely to persist due to political and institutional lock-in effects. This thesis discusses the linkages between banking regulation, rents and financial intermediation in five chapters, which can be broadly structured into two parts.
    Keywords: G18 ; G21 ; G28 ; P16 ; ddc:330 ; Finanzsystem ; Kredit ; Bankenregulierung ; Wirtschaftswissenschaft ; Bankenregulierung ; Finanzkapitalismus ; Finanzsystem ; Rent-Seeking ; Bankenkrise ; Systemrisiko ; Theorie ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: L72 ; Q32 ; ddc:330 ; Klima ; Ölpreis ; Erdölgewinnung ; Spekulation ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: F01 ; O10 ; ddc:330 ; Inflationserwartung ; Innovation ; Weltwirtschaft ; Weltkonjunktur ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Transport Forum
    Publication Date: 2015-11-12
    Description: Cruise shipping has first established as the transportation of pleasure-seeking upper class travellers on seagoing vessels offering one or more ports of call in the United States and the Caribbean. Today this is a highly efficient global business. Modern specialised ships - radically different from cargo vessels - the use of an increasing number of cruise ports of call and turnaround ports so as to provide their customers excellent in-port and destination experiences, and convenient departures from proximal embarkation cities being fundamental tenets of the industry.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Kreuzfahrt ; Hafenwirtschaft ; Stadtentwicklung ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Zurich: ETH Zurich, KOF Swiss Economic Institute
    Publication Date: 2017-01-17
    Description: Despite improved access to all educational levels, many countries around the world struggle with integrating young people into the labor market. The 2007 economic crisis exacerbated the problem, but not all countries were affected in the same way. This led to a vivid debate about how education and employment systems can and should be linked. Countries with well-developed vocational education and training (VET) systems seem to be better off in terms of their youth labor market situations. This raises the question of how countries should organize and design their VET curricula so that their youth make a smooth transition from education to employment. The Center on International Education Benchmarking (CIEB) has set the goal to analyze the world's most successful education systems. The objective is to compare the top-performing countries' instructional systems and identify their different approaches to education. Against this backdrop, the CIEB is supporting a comparative study of VET curricula, which are one fundamental component of any education system. However, such an international comparison of VET curricula faces many challenges, resulting mainly from the large variation in how national education systems train vocational and technical qualifications. In addition, VET curricula are not fully comparable due to different national political, economic, cultural, and institutional frameworks. Consequently, the CIEB mandated the KOF Swiss Economic Institute at the ETH Zurich to conduct a Feasibility Study that first defines a common strategy for tack-ling these challenges. Hence, this Feasibility Study aims to reduce the comparability problem to the furthest possible extent. The feasibility study consists of three phases, of which this intermediary report is the product of the first. This first phase addresses the following question: "Which countries can be identified as top-performing countries that should be included in the VET curricula comparison?" This report presents our findings on four main topics essential for achieving the goal of a feasibility study for the comparison of VET curricula. The first section explains our theoretical and conceptual approaches to the problem. These form the foundation of our strategy for identifying 20 top-performing countries with regard to VET, which is addressed in the second section. The third section presents the selected top-performing countries in brief portraits, which highlight not only their performance but also provide background information on VET governance. Finally, we compare and discuss these top-performing countries with regard to our performance criteria. Finally, this intermediary report concludes with the important findings for the second phase of the project.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Berufsbildung ; Lehrplan ; Jugendarbeitslosigkeit ; Berufsbildungspolitik ; Performance-Messung ; Welt
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
    Location Call Number Limitation Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: European Central Bank (ECB)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-24
    Description: We present a DSGE model where firms optimally choose among alternative instruments of external finance. The model is used to explain the evolving composition of corporate debt during the financial crisis of 2008-09, namely the observed shift from bank finance to bond finance, at a time when the cost of market debt rose above the cost of bank loans. We show that the flexibility offered by banks on the terms of their loans and firms’ ability to substitute among alternative instruments of debt finance are important to shield the economy from adverse real effects of a financial crisis.